     Are goal oriented Are outcome of the government’s collective actions It is what the government actually decided or chooses to do Is positive in the sense that it depicts the concern of the government and involves its action to a particular problem on which the policy is made Distinction between policy and goals; policy and decisions

Characteristics of public policy making             Is a very complex process Dynamic process Comprises of various componenet Policy structure makes different contributions Decision making Lays down major guidelines Results in action Directed at the future Mainly formulated by governmental organs Aims at achieving what is in the public interest Use of best policy means Involvement of various bodies/agencies

Components of public policy       PP is purposive and deliberately formulated. It must have a purpose or a goal Is well thought out and is not a series of discrete decisions PP is what is actually done and not what is intended or desired PP also delineates a time frame in which its goals have to be achieved Follows a defined course of action: formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation

Types of public policy      Substantive: concerned with the general welfare and development of the society Regulatory: Concerned with regulation of trade, business, safety measures, public utilities etc Distributive: meant for specific segments of the society Redistributive Capitalisation: financial subsidies given by the Union govt to the state and local govt

Stages in public policy process  IGNOU chapter o Policy formulation o Policy interpretation

 o Policy education o Policy implementation o Policy monitoring Howlett and Ramesh o Agenda setting o Policy formulation o Decision making o Implementation o Evaluation  .

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