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Abstract

JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS

ELSEVIER

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279 291

Super-critical free-surface flow over a trapezoidal obstacle
S.N. Hanna, M.N. Abdel-Malek, M.B. Abd-el-Malek*
Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21544, Egypt
Received 9 June 1994; revised 31 May 1995

A numerical method based on series truncation is presented to solve the problem of an irrotational, inviscid, incompressible and steady flow over a two-dimensional trapezoidal obstacle, with obstacle height W, lying on the bottom of the running stream. The suggested numerical method for the solution of the fully nonlinear problem is presented for which the flow is super-critical both upstream and downstream. It is found that solutions exist for symmetric trapezoidal for arbitrary size. The results are plotted for different trapezoidal shapes and different values of Froude number F > 1. The effect of the Froude number, the bottom height and the shape of the bottom are discussed.

Keywords." Inviscid flow; Schwartz Christoffel transformation; Series truncation method AMS classification: 76; 76B

1. Introduction

The effect of the shape of the bottom on surface waves has received considerable attention during the past 40 years. We may mention in particular the work of Kreisl [17], Benjamin [,4], Newman [20], Madsen and Mei [-19], Johnson [13], Hamilton [11], Forbes [8], Forbes and Schwartz [-10], Smith and Lim [23], Boutros et al. [6], Abd-el-Malek and Hanna [-1], King and Bloor [,15], and Abd-el-Malek et al. [2]. For subcritical flow, there have been the papers of Salvensen and Von Kereczek [,21,22], Korving and Hermans [-16], and Dias and Vanden-Broeck [7]. For critical flow, there have been the papers of Forbes [-9] and Hanna [12]. In this paper we consider super-critical flow over a submerged trapezoidal obstacle. A series truncation procedure is employed to calculate the flow past the submerged obstacle. This technique has been used successfully by Birkhoff and Zarantonello [,5], Vanden-Broeck and Keller [,24], Dias and Vanden-Broeck [7] and Hanna [,12] to calculate nonlinear free-surface flow.
* Corresponding author. E-mail: mina@alex.eun.eg. 0377-0427/96/$15.00 © 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved SSDI 0 3 7 7 - 0 4 2 7 ( 9 5 ) 0 0 1 6 0 - 3

Physical plane of the flow and of the coordinates and the general symmetricobstacle. .i v ( x . incompressible. The motion is assumed to be two-dimensional. solutions and results are presented and discussed in Section 4. z-plane. and N. In this paper we solve nonlinear super-critical flow of ideal fluid over a polygonal obstacle numerically by specifying uniform flow upstream and downstream of the obstacle. Z(z) is an analytic function of z within the region of flow. y ) . uniform and of the same depth at infinity in both directions over a bottom composed of symmetric polygon of 2N corners and (2N . Relative to the coordinate axis the flow is steady and is subject to the acceleration of the gravity 9 in the negative y-direction./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 The type of solutions for which the flow is super-critical both upstream and downstream is referred to as "super-critical flow". respectively.1) "%2 \N-I' .280 S. the x-axis coincides with the stream bed before and after the obstacle and the y-axis pointing vertically upwards. In Section 2. [I -N ~N ~ I [ N × Fig. 2.N. For the special case of trapezoidal obstacles.d--~ -- (2. as shown in Fig. A cartesian coordinate system is defined with origin placed horizontally at a point between . irrotational and inviscid. we can define the complex potential Z = ~ + i ~ in terms of the potential function q~ and the stream function 7s. y ) = q e -i°. Fluid flows through the channel in positive x-direction. with speed U and depth H far upstream.N. Formulation of the problem We consider steady flow in a channel of constant width.1) straight-line segments. Since the flow is irrotational and the fluid is incompressible. the depth and velocity at infinity being H and U. we formulate the problem. Hanna et al. 1. ¢ ---. with complex conjugate velocity dz u ( x . Solutions for polygonal obstacle are presented in Section 3. 1. Since q~ and ~ are conjugate solutions of Laplace's equation.

1 and 1. 3. x-plane. so that I1 :) ~=1 I2 I i J i l i I I [ I t>C~ ]1 -N-N.5) (2. after dropping the primes.i0.1) becomes dz _ qe_iO" .3) becomes IVY[ 2 + 2y = constant on ~O= 1.dz Let o9 = In ~ = In q .2) The dynamic b o u n d a r y condition on the free surfaces 7 / = 0 and ~u = Q = UH is 1[ i7ck[2 + gy = constant on the free surface. the free surface is a streamline on which ~u = 1. (2. Hence. 2. respectively.N. and may be expressed as u - Ox - @' v - c~y - Ox" (2. respectively. (2.4) The complex potential g maps the flow domain conformally onto an infinite strip of height unity as shown in Fig. /Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 H996) 279-291 281 where u and v are the horizontal and vertical components. where ~ is called the logarithmic hodograph variable.6) we get z = (2. Hanna et al. The dimensionless discharge is now equal to one. Then. In dimensionless form. we map this infinite strip onto the upper-half of the unit disk with I1 and I2 correspond to the points . of the fluid velocity.1 -m -2-1 0 1 2 m N-I N I2 Fig. (2. as shown in Fig. The normalized complex potential plane. .S. 2. the condition (2.3) We introduce the dimensionless variables by taking (QZ/g)l/3 as the unit length and (Qg) 1/3 as the unit velocity. In terms of the dimensionless variables.5) and (2. from (2. (2.6) re- ~ dz.7) Using the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation.

tan 2 = 0 (3.t2. 1. tu. tN}. i=1 (3. .N. . .l . -. . . . . + ~ is o b t a i n e d by linearizing the e q u a t i o n s a r o u n d a uniform stream.1. . . 1. i = . Itl~<l. . t l . N} are { . . 3. (2. .M a l e k and M a s o u d [3] we get "-~ 4(1) + Ee-Xz as q5 --+ + c~. Solution The first step is to r e m o v e from the c o m p l e x velocity ~ the strong singularities which occur at the angled corners of the polygon. t--* T-ti. -. N satisfy the relation (3. i = . Therefore.( N .N.2.3) . . respectively.1.N.1.. ./Journal o f Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 -1 _tN_tN_l_tm_t2 _tl lJ _ = :.~(t + tg) 1-(~.tN. .2.-. ./~. N .1). Hanna et al. . . . the a s y m p t o t i c form of ( as 4~ ---. .( N . (2.e l . the solid b o u n d a r y goes o n t o the real diameter and the free surface o n t o the u p p e r half-unit circle. . T h e y are of the following forms: . . The images of the points { .1. where E is a real constant and 2 is the smallest positive r o o t of the e q u a t i o n F22 . .8) O u r goal is to find ~ as an analytic function satisfying the b o u n d a r y condition 1412 "1.2) As 4~ --+ + 0% the flow a p p r o a c h e s a uniform super-critical stream. .. z • il t2 2 im iN-liN ~ Fig. --1.282 S. . c~i = Nrt.1) where the angles ~i. The upper half circle-plane. ..2y = c o n s t a n t on It] = 1 and the b o u n d a r y condition on the real d i a m e t e r It[ ~< 1. .t l . . . F o l l o w i n g L a m b [18] and A b d . . N }-'.1).9) 3.1 .1. .N . N . The m a p p i n g is given by 2 l+t Z=-nln--l_t. . t-plane. . .tN. t2 .N . .

7) 2 /) 1 n/.4) We define the function f2(t) by the relation = I] oL 1 -+ (3.5) j=-N. on t e [ .S.9) n b/2(o ") -~-/)2(0-) s i n a U p o n substituting t = e i~ in (3. s o that points on the free surface are given by t = e i~ (0 < O" < g).9) imply that the expansion of f2(t) in powers of t.8) and the identity ~--~ -'[-1C3--~ = ~. has real coefficients. Using (2.9). in (3.. ) + v2(a)] da 4 v(cr) 1 .6) where 2 is determined from (3..1 and the . and the u n k n o w n real coefficients a. 1].1.5) and (3.6) after n terms.6) satisfy the dynamic free-surface condition (2. see [5]. dy da c3x . Therefore.N.t2) 2~/~ + ~ n=O a. is analytic for ]tl < 1 and continuous for It[ ~< 1. We solve for the ak'S numerically by truncating the infinite series in (3.and using (3.- .3).1o) .9) with respect to o.0. Since the flow is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. where (3. Hanna et al./gR s Ft_l_tj]l-(~. we obtain after some algebraic manipulations./2 _~_ /)2 sin (7 (3. ~3y 1 (3. only even powers of t are used in (3. f2(t) can be written in the following expansion: 3(5 (2(t) = A(1 -./~) ttjj era°' (3. The b o u n d a r y condition (2. the resulting equation will be used to determine the coefficients a.j¢ where the + sign is for j ~ .8) Differentiating (2.6).t 2"./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 283 and F is the F r o u d e n u m b e r defined by U F .6) to get ~(a) and substitute that expression in (3. By using the notation t = [t[ e i~.sign is for j / > 1. The function f2(t). (3. (3.8) we obtain d [u2(o.9). and A.

. 4 shows a cross section of a symmetric trapezoidal obstacle consisting of a raising up inclined plane ( .2. t u . By using (3. we fix the geometry of the trapezoidal.. . A. --2 / I \ 2 . .1) at inclination angle ~'. then ~z = cc_2 = rt . Y I1 . (K .6) after (K .l . (3. . horizontal plane ( . By specifying values for t~ and t2..12) 4./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 2 79-291 We fix the geometry of the polygon by specifying {~j}JV=x.11) These points are equally spaced on the upper half of the unit circle. t s . .2 to .. . To do so we truncate the infinite series in (3. (ii) for N odd: tl. tN. The K unknowns tz.~'.T . t4.1) nonlinear algebraic equations for K unknowns.1) terms and we introduce the (K . steeping d o w n plane (1 to 2) at inclination angle - We introduce the cartesian coordinates with x-axis along the b o t t o m and y-axis going through the middle of the horizontal plane ( . This leads to (K .1 to 1) with length L and height W from the b o t t o m of the obstacle. az.2 .t6.1) mesh points on the free surface tM = e ti'M). are determined by collocation..H iz Fig. . 4.tN. . . Case of trapezoidal obstacle Fig.. ao. where O'M = K---'~-1 M .. t N ..N.2 . tN.. . .1).1 to 1). t 3. . In this case N = 2.. (3. a . Physical plane of the flow and of the coordinates and the symmetric trapezoidal obstacle. and (i) for N even: t l . .. M = 1. col = ~-a = n + ~'. Hanna et al. t 3 . .284 S. The last equation is obtained by relating F to the dimensionless velocity downstream 4(1) F 2 = 14(1)13.4.9) we obtain the values of u and v at the points rri in terms of the coefficients a.

Hanna et al.N. a n d f2(t) = A(1 - t2) 2z/~ + ~.1.4) are then F 2 = [~(1)13. M = 1.. where ~ = ~'/rt.2.6) . .$ 3 1 + 2 s-in-00 . j=O $2 = ~ ajsin2ja j=l and substitute ~ in (3.t}) c o s a ( 1 + t~) . aj (j = 0 . ajt 2j.2) we get 4(6) = e iO+AL" + s'. Ll = [2 sin a] a sin 2(0 -. (4.12) a n d (4. .1).0_1 . j=0 (4.01)~ + ALl + $2. A2 i~-na ---L.5) takes the form (t+t2~a(t ~(t)=~. LR = [2 sin a] x cos 2(a -.S. Inverting (2.9) we get Y(a)=[~[3 where S3 = [ (L.l--~2/ + t l " ~ -~ \1--~1/ (. ) . rt sin a (4.2tg' Sl = ~ ajcos2ja.-tl"~ -~ --t2"~ ~ ~-l/ (.5) yields dz/d Z = 1/~ and thus dz 1 d• dt ~ dr" (4. . .3) where 0 = (0_z + 02 .1) a n d (4.4) j=l ~ 2jaj sin 2ja.½r0. Y(aM) = 0. tt2/ e°"" (4. T h e K equations.2) W e set t = e i• in (4. . n) where n is given by n = K . to d e t e r m i n e the K u n k n o w n s A.2. from (3.5) (4. This system of K nonlinear e q u a t i o n s with K u n k n o w n s are solved by N e w t o n ' s m e t h o d .½re). . 0j = t a n l sina(1 -.(K ./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 285 H e n c e (3..

Most of the calculations were performed with K = 25. the series truncation m e t h o d that we used was found to be appropriate to handle cases where the flow is super-critical. Table 1 V a l u e s o f l a .6) along the imaginary axis in t-plane between t = 0 to t = i. rc /2 ~(s)sins 0 < a < re. and the nonlinear equations are solved with relative error of order 10-7. we obtain x + iy = iymax -.7 2.8) N o w by integrating (4.478643 X 10 .675565 × 10 .366771 × 10 . \dt} In order to calculate the profile we first calculate the m a x i m u m elevation Ymaxof the fluid above the obstacle.361663 X 10 . For example for the case W = 0. (4.471283 x 1 0 . To do so we integrate (4.7 F=5 2.602187 × 10 -1 9.s 1.--2f ' _ _ 1 ds.6) along the unit circle.7) . 3 0 2 6 8 0 × 10 . were found to decrease rapidly. 5.4 2. ~' = 60 ° for d i f f e r e n t F r o u d e numbers n 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 F=2 2. Numerical results and discussion The two-dimensional flow of an ideal fluid over trapezoidal obstacle has been investigated.5) we calculate the height W of the obstacle by using numerical integration.4 9.917998 × 10 .6 2.2.157591 × 10 5 2. for la. Therefore.s 1 .845382 x 10 .6 1. (4. We noticed that by increasing the value of F we need less terms from the infinite series due to the rapid convergence.286 S. (4.88 8587 × 10 .827671 X 10 .5 1.219252 x 10 .086489 × 10 .N.0.4 1.101109 × 10 .0 we have the results in Table 1. Ymax = W + fl --~ dz ~ 1 dt.9 . This leads to W = sin ~ dt.3 7. I. ~' = 60 ° and F = 2. A numerical m e t h o d based on series truncation is presented to solve the problem for the super-critical case.2.479152 × 10 . I for t h e c a s e W = 0. along the real axis. The system of K nonlinear algebraic equations with K unknowns is solved by Newton's m e t h o d for given values of F. Hanna et aL /Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 Once we solve the system of Eqs.9) 5. The coefficients a.4 3.1 4. () (4.6). of (4.

5. (a) Effect o f the F r o u d e n u m b e r F for fixed W = 0.4 0.60 287 ' I ' I ' I ' I ' I q 0.0.3 (hi O.N.00 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 I 6 X 0./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 0.20 - (a) 0. Hanna et al.2. . a n d ~' = 60 °. 2 I 2 I 3 I 4 f 5 t~ F Fig.39 0.S.40 F:1.2. (b) ~/m~xversus F for W = 0. a n d ~' = 60°. L = 1. L = 1.

1.0.0.N.0.20 (a) o. It can be represented by the dimensionless parameter ~/max= ( Y m a x / n ) ./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 In our study. a n d ct' = 60 °. Also a quantity of physical interest is the m a x i m u m elevation Ymax= y(½r0 on the free surface at x = 0. (a) Effect o f t h e o b s t a c l e h e i g h t W for fixed F = 2. Hanna et al.0 a n d ct' = 60°. .60 I ° I ' I ' I ' I ' 0.288 S. 6. we focused on the study of the effect of F r o u d e n u m b e r F.5 1. the obstacle upper width L and the inclination angle ~ (=~'/~t) on the shape of the free-surface profile. a n d L = 1.0 13 *-W Fig.oo -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 X "qrnox (b) 0. L = 1. the obstacle height W. (b) ~/max versus W for F = 2. 1] 0.40 0.

Hanna et aL/Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 289 where qmax represents the m a x i m u m deviation of the free surface from its level far up. It is clear that the free-surface profile becomes more fiat by the increase of L. q 0.0 while F = 2.0 and ~' = 60 °. It is clear that the m i n i m u m profile of the free surface. 5(b) which indicates that the qmax decreases monotonically by the increase of F. .423. qmax.39 to 5 and for W = 0. In Fig.473n. The m a x i m u m elevation.2 and ~' = 60 °. 7 when L varies from 0.40 i I i I ~ I ' I i I ' 0. 8(a) we plotted the free-surface elevation when ~' varies from 0. F = 2. and ct' = 60°. Effect of L for fixed W = 0.00 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 X 6 Fig.0.N. corresponding to ~' = 0. and for F = 2. It shows that the relation is almost linear for W > 0. 6(b) we present/~max versus W.and down-stream. 5(a) for different values of F varying from 1.23 which corresponds to F ~> 5. (iii) Effect of the obstacle upper width.20 0.05 to 0. is about 0.2.253 as is shown in Fig.26n. L: The c o m p o u n d free-surface elevation is displayed in Fig. 8(b). (ii) Effect of the obstacle height W: The c o m p u t e d free-surface elevation r/is displayed in Fig.0.S. 7.5 to 3. It is found that the elevation of the free surface increases by the increase of the obstacle height. against F is plotted in Fig. (iv) Effect of inclination angle ct': In Fig. 6(a) for different values of W varying from 0. It is found that the elevation of the free-surface falls d o w n by the increase of the F r o u d e number. The m i n i m u m value of /~max is about 0.5. (i) Effect of the Froude number F: The c o m p u t e d free-surface elevation ~/is displayed in Fig.123n to 0.

Abd-el-Malek.N.5 Fig. Comput. 8. Math.3 .0. ' ~ -4oo I .2.4 .N.2E (b) I I I I •1 .oo X 6. F = 2.0.M a l e k a n d S.0. (a) Effect o f ~ for fixed W = 0.B. for suggesting the free-surface problems over obstacles. H a n n a . a n d L = 1.e l .290 S. Dr.00 -6. Hanna et al. Appl. J. University of Windsor.0 .0. Mina B. while supervising the author's doctoral study.28 0. Ontario.20 ' I ' I ' ~ ' I ' I /// \ \\ ot--0.473 (a) 0./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 q 0. a n d L = 1. I ooo I I 200 . A.C. W = 0. would like to express his gratitude to Prof. .2. Smith.2 .00 Imcix 0. References [1] M. namely Dr. A b d . A p p r o x i m a t e s o l u t i o n o f a flow o v e r a r a m p for large F r o u d e n u m b e r . 28 (1989) 105-117. Professor of Applied Mathematics. (b) ~max versus e for F = 2.3C 0.~--~"~J I -zoo 4. Canada. Acknowledgements One of the authors.

lOth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Comput. [17] G.B.H. O.K. Conf. 23 (1985) 289-306. Vanden-Broeck. Korving and A. On the flow in channels when rigid obstacles are placed in the stream. 39 (1969) 781-791. J.M. Open channel flow with submerged obstruction. [20] J. The transformation of a solitary wave over an uneven bottom. J. . The wave resistance for flow problems with a free-surface. S. J. 22 (1988) 3-13.J.I. [10] L.K. Weir flows.R. J.H. Mei. [21] N. Lim.B. J. Math. Q.K. Schwartz./Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 66 (1996) 279-291 291 [2] M. Free-surface flow over a semi-circular obstruction. Bloor. Lamb. On the wave resistance of a submerged semi-elliptical body.B. Hermans. 206 (1989) 155-170. Masoud. 184 (1987) 193-208. Birkhoff and E. Free-surface flow over a step. Modelling 15 (1991) 25-32. Differential equations for long-period gravity waves on a fluid of rapidly carrying depth. [11] J. New York. Forbes. 73 (1973) 183-203. 2nd Int. MD (1975) 279-293. J.Z. Eng.B. Newman. [13] R. 176 (1987) 283-293.H. Res. Proc. Camb. [8] L. Fluid Mech. Surface waves. Propagation of water waves past long two-dimensional obstacles. Vanden-Broeck and J.M.S. [24] J. [7] F. Jets. [16] C. Benjamin.S. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics (1977) 285-291. Hanna et al. [4] T. Math.T. Math. 15 (1981) 287-298. J.C. 114 (1982) 299-314. Salvesen and C. 20 (1976) 160-170. Symmetric supercritical free-surface flow over a polygonal obstacle. [19] O. [18] H. Fluid Mech. Critical free-surface flow over polygonal obstacle. Wakes and Cavities (Academic Press. Von Kerczek. Fluid Mech.Z. Modelling 12 (1988) 406-410.. Appl.B. M. Phil. Fluid. J.Z. [6] Y. Von Kerczek. Approximate solution of gravity flow from a uniform channel over triangular bottom for large Froude number. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics. Mech. [14] C. Appl. Appl. Hamilton. 6th ed. En 9. [15] A.S. Numerical solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear body-wave problems. Ship.H. Abd-el-Malek. Fluid Mech. Salvesen. Forbes and L. J. 23 (1965) 23-29.N. J.M. Forbes. Sci. Math. Masoud. Fluid Mech. Keller. MA (1974) 649-666. On the development of a solitary wave moving over an uneven bottom.H. 1957). Critical free-surface flow over a semi-circular obstruction. J. Boutros. [9] L. Fluid Mech. 83 (1977) 289-310. Soc. [3] M. J. Abd-el-Malek and S. King and M. Math. Hanna and M. Mech. Salvesen and C. Hanna. Hilbert's method for numerical solution of flow from a uniform channel over irregular bottom topographies. 1 (1956) 227-248. 33 (1994) 27-36. Int. [12] S. 65 (1987) 215-228. Eng. J. Alex. Abd-el-Malek and S. Eng. Dias and J.C. Kamel. Hydrodynamics (Dover. Numerical solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear wave problems.N.G. Math. Gaithersburg. Von Kerczek and N. Kreisl. [5] G. Engrg. Madison and C. Fluid Mech.N. New York. MIT.C. 7 (1949) 21-24. Zarantonello.N. 1945). Smith and T. Appl. Linearized solution of a flow over a ramp. [22] N. Comparison of numerical and perturbation solutions of two dimensional nonlinear water-wave problems. [23] A.N. 1st lnternat Conf. Cambridge. Johnson.

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