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1he Lnversty o Mchgun


CCLLLCL Cl LNClNLLRlNC
A lhotogruphc Hstory
Ceebrutng l50 Yeurs
Anne Duderstudt
The University ol Michigan
COLLEGE OI ENGINEERING
A Fhotographic History Celebrating 10 Years
Anne Duoerstaot
Copyright 2003 by the Millennium Froject,
The University ol Michigan
All rights reserveo.
The Millennium Froject
2001 Meoia Union
The University ol Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan !8109
To all ol those who workeo so haro in years past to builo one ol the worlo`s great engineering colleges,
serving Michigan, the nation, ano the worlo tooay ano lor generations to come.
FREIACE
In 200! the College ol Engineering will celebrate 10 years ol engineering eoucation at the University ol
Michigan. This is a story ol the evolution ol the Engineering campus over the years. Ol course, universities
are prolounoly human enoeavors. Great achievements, such as those characterizing Michigan`s College ol
Engineering, happen because talenteo ano oeoicateo laculty, stuoents, stall, alumni ano lrienos make them
happen.
Although this essay is locuseo on the campus ol the College ol Engineering, it also attempts to introouce the
people ano events that have contributeo so much to the College`s history. It is a patchwork, stitching together
images with the woros ol those members ol the Michigan lamily who participateo oirectly in the builoing ol
the College ano the University. This ellort oraws not only on the historical archives ol the Bentley Historical
Library, University publications such as the Mi./ioo T./oi., the Mi./ioo Jloooo, ano T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo:
Jo Eo.,.lci. Sor.,, but also on the vast writings, personal papers ano photographs ol two Engineering
Deans, Mortimer Cooley ano James Duoerstaot. A more complete oescription ol resource materials ano
acknowleogement ol assistance is provioeo in an appenoix.
The history ol public higher eoucation in America is both rich ano signincant, particularly lor leaoing
universities such as the University ol Michigan ano lor oistinguisheo acaoemic programs such as its College
ol Engineering. Yet all too olten, public universities teno to ignore their history, each generation ol laculty,
stuoents, ano aoministrators paving over or obliterating the artilacts ano achievements ol earlier stuoents ano
laculty with a new layer ol structures, programs, ano practices. Beyono the importance ol preserving such
history lor luture generations, it is also the case that to ignore the past is to conoemn one to repeat its mistakes
in the luture.
This photographic history was createo both to oocument ano honor the remarkable achievements ol the
College ol Engineering ouring its century-ano-a-hall ol leaoership in engineering eoucation ano, perhaps as
well, to provioe a resource to guioe those who will oetermine ano benent lrom its activities in the luture.

Ann Arbor, Michigan
Iall 2003

1
1854 1883 1885
1887 1891 1908
1923 1947
1904
2003
1882
1922 1916
THE EVOLUTION OI THE UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN ENGINEERING BUILDINGS
! 1700
Thomas Jellerson`s original sketch map ol his plan to oivioe the Northwest Territory into states.
The plan was largely lolloweo when the actual oivision ol lano took place.
The oiscipline ol engineering evolveo ouring the
18th ano 19th centuries lrom a military cralt associ-
ateo with the technology ol war to broaoer civilian
applications such as brioge construction, inoustrial
technology, ano transportation.
The nrst American school to oller instruction in en-
gineering was the Uniteo States Military Acaoemy at
West Foint in 1802 ,military engineering,, lolloweo
by the Rensselear Folytechnic Institute in 182! ,civil
engineering,, the Uniteo States Naval Acaoemy at
Annapolis in 18!, Harvaro in 18!7 ,later spun oll
as M.I.T.,, Dartmouth in 180, ano Yale in 182.
Although the origin ol the University ol Michigan`s
engineering program is generally oateo as 18!
when the nrst classes in this subject were taught, the
original plan lor the university in 1817 calleo lor a
prolessorship in military science ,then known as en-
gineering,. Later when the charter lor the University
was aoopteo by the new State ol Michigan in 1837, it
provioeo lor a prolessorship in civil engineering ano
orawing. However the state legislature oio not pro-
vioe aoequate lunoing lor this program, ano instruc-
tion in science ano engineering lay oormant until the
arrival ol Henry Fhilip Tappan in 182.
EARLY ENGINEERING EDUCATION
3
1787 1817
On August 2o, 1817 the Territorial Congress passeo
an act to establish an eoucational institution nameo
the Cathole
pistemiao or University ol Michigania, to be lo-
cateo in Detroit.
This act envisioneo the organization ol a complete
ano comprehensive eoucational system with instruc-
tion lor young people in a continuous program at
the elementary, seconoary, ano university level.
Frior to entering the Union as a state in 1837,
Michigan was a part ol the Northwest Territory.
This vast region, containing what we know tooay as
the Miowestern Uniteo States, was organizeo unoer
the Northwest Oroinance ol 1787. The Territory
ol Michigan was organizeo in 180, with its chiel
settlement being the village ol Detroit.
The Northwest Oroinance also establisheo the
principle ol public support ol eoucation with its
statement: Religion, morality, ano knowleoge being
necessary to gooo government ano the happiness ol
mankino, schools ano the means ol eoucation shall
lorever be encourageo.
The 1817 act establisheo the University ol Michigan
as a legal entity compriseo ol thirteen prolessors
or oioactors, who, along with a presioent, woulo
govern the concerns ol the institution. Iurthermore,
this booy was to lunction as a Territorial Boaro ol
Eoucation with power to establish ano supervise
colleges, acaoemies, schools, libraries, museums,
athenaeums, botanical garoens, laboratories, ano
other uselul literary ano scientinc institutions, ano
to appoint olncers, instructors ano instructrices in,
among, ano throughout the various counties, cities,
towns, townships, ano other geographical oivisions
ol Michigan. ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1928, p. 29,
THE CATHOLEFISTEMIAD or UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGANIA
Establisheo in Detroit, August 2o, 1817
!
Iour men playeo a prominent role in the lounoing ol
the Catholepistemiao:
William Wooobrioge was appointeo secretary ol the
Michigan Territory in 181!. He serveo as Michigan`s
secono Governor lrom 18!0 until 18!1 when he was
electeo to the Uniteo States Senate, where he serveo
until 18!7.
Juoge Augustus B. Wooowaro was appointeo to the
Territorial Government ol Michigan by his lrieno,
Thomas Jellerson. He was put in charge ol oralting
the laws governing eoucation in the Territory.
Gabriel Richaro, a Sulpician missionary priest ano a
relugee ol the Irench Revolution, settleo in Detroit
in 1798. He serveo not only as pastor ol Saint
Anne`s Church but also as schoolmaster lor the little
community ol about 700. By 1808 Iather Richaro
hao eight schools operating in the area. He serveo as
Vice-Fresioent ol the Catholepistemiao.
John Monteith, a Scottish Fresbyterian minister
who graouateo lrom the new Frinceton Seminary in
181o, came to Detroit to set up the nrst Frotestant
Society in Michigan. He serveo as Fresioent ol the
Catholepistemiao.
Juoge Wooowaro was heavily innuenceo by the Irench
system ol eoucation, in which all ol eoucation, lrom
primary school through college, woulo be controlleo
ano lunoeo by the state. At the heao ol this system
woulo be a university, or, as Wooowaro nameo it, a
Catholepistemiao, his term lor universal science.
Wooowaro organizeo the knowleoge to be taught by
the university into thirteen oivisions:
An olncial seal was aoopteo on September 12, 1817.
1817
Thirteen Frolessorships
in Juoge Wooowaro`s hanowriting
Augustus Wooowaro
,A orawing maoe lrom
verbal oescription,
Gabriel Richaro John Monteith
,Later in lile,
Jot/rlfi.o or Literature
Mot/ooti.o or Mathematics
P/,ioti.o or Natural History
P/,iti.o or Natural Fhilosophy
Jtrooio or Astronomy
C/,oio or Chemistry
)otri.o or The Meoical Sciences
E.ooi.o or The Economical Sciences
Et/i.o or The Ethical Sciences
Ploito.ti.o or The Military Sciences
Diti.o or The Historical Sciences
Eooi.o r The Intellectual Sciences
incluoing Fsychology ano Religion
Cot/litoio or Universal Science
William Wooobrioge
5
The University Builoing in Detroit
1837
In 1823 Congress permitteo Michigan to elect a slate
ol eighteen men lrom which the Fresioent woulo
select nine to serve as a Legislative Council ano
relieve the governor ano juoges ol law making.
1823
This Legislative Council steppeo into the eoucation
picture in 182o by authorizing all townships
containing nlty or more lamilies to employ a
schoolmaster lor six months each year. At the same
time the Boaro ol Trustees gave up supervision
ol primary schools, ano the unity ol eoucation
envisioneo by Wooowaro was lost.
1826
In 1827 the University`s presence in Detroit, which
was still little more than an elementary school,
oisappeareo.
1827 1817
View ol the Campus lrom the Northeast
In the early 1830s the Michigan Territory was in
political turmoil in the ellort to lorm a state, oevelop
a constitution, ano seek aomittance to the Union.
On January 2o, 1837, Michigan was aomitteo to
the Union as its twenty-sixth state. That year, the
superintenoent ol public instruction, John Fierce,
presenteo a comprehensive plan lor public eoucation
lor the new state. Frimary schools were placeo
oirectly unoer the state superintenoent`s olnce.
Seconoary eoucation was to be provioeo through
county branches ol the University, each having its
own boaro ol trustees.
On March 18, 1837 the Ann Arbor Lano Company
ollereo !0 acres lor the site lor the University. On
March 20 the oller was accepteo by the legislature.
The town ol Ann Arbor hao existeo lor only 13 years
ano hao a population ol about 2000. The village hao
a courthouse, a jail, lour churches, two newspapers,
two banks, eight mills ano lactories, several stores,
eleven lawyers, ano nine physicians.
The new Boaro ol Regents met lor three oays in June
ano agreeo to establish lour prolessorships. The main
business was the selection ol the site lor the campus.
There were two choices: a nat tract east ol State
Street ano a site in the hills to the north overlooking
the Huron River. They chose the nat area, part ol
the Rumsey-Nolano larm, which hao been cleareo
ol lorest trees. Fart ol the larm was a wheat nelo,
part a peach orcharo ano the rest pasture.
T t/ f o o/ l/ oo./ oo oit/ t/ oc.ooto f /ioc
it`, t/ oito/ f t/ frt oorc or o.io. To tro.t
f looc or .oicrc o iol it fr t/ Uoi.rit,.
T/ ./i. fll o t/ oro o, ooc o oo /o. t/ rot
Cooo, oocitiooi/c o, oo, ootorol oc.ooto, iotoc f
t/ .oooocio l.otio o t/ /ill .rl/io t/ Horo.
T/ .t oo 6 t 5.` Willreo Shaw ,Mi./ioo Jloooo,
January, 1921, p. 223,
Higher eoucation was to be provioeo by the University.
Three oepartments were to be establisheo: literature,
science ano the arts, meoicine, ano law. The plan
was approveo on March 18, 1837 in the Organic Act
ol the University ol Michigan. While less ambitious
than Juoge Wooowaro`s scheme, the Act, in aooition
to the usual classical curriculum, maoe provision lor
prolessorships in Chemistry, Geology, Botany, Iine
Arts, Civil Engineering, ano Architecture as they
might be neeoeo.
Revereno John Fierce
1821
In 1821 the name was changeo to the University ol
Michigan. A Boaro ol Trustees was appointeo to
govern the school, insteao ol the Frolessors as pro-
vioeo in the original act.
Less than a month alter the Territorial Congress
passeo Wooowaro`s act, the cornerstone was laio
lor the nrst builoing ol the new institution. A two-
story builoing was begun in the lall ol 1817. By
August ol 1818 the lower story was nnisheo, ano
Lemuel Shattuck openeo a Frimary School. The
secono story, which was to house the library ano the
Classical Acaoemy, was not completeo until 1819.
,Biolack, p.1o,
6
A mooest builoing plan was approveo that calleo lor the construction ol six
builoings, two to serve as oormitories ano classrooms ano lour as prolessors`
houses.
Iour ioentical Frolessors` Houses were completeo in March ol 18!0. Two
were locateo on North University ano two on South University. The two-story
plan incluoeo a central hall with two rooms opening oll each sioe. The same
arrangement was repeateo on the secono noor. Each room hao a nreplace. The
houses hao low-pitcheo tin rools. Wooo houses, cisterns, ano barns were provioeo
lor each.
The houses were also to be useo lor the storage ol the cabinet ol natural history
specimens, the library, the philosophical apparatus, ano other general purposes ol
the University until the main builoings coulo be nnisheo.
1840
Frolessors` House lacing the center ol Campus
Frolessors` Houses on South University
lrom the Jasper Cropsey Fainting 18
Sketch ol the Campus
lrom a stuoent letter written in 18!7
7 1841
The University Builoing
1848
Mason Hall ano South College
The stuoents paio S7.0 a term lor their room, S2.0
lor incioentals, ano S1.2 to S1.0 lor nrewooo,
which they hao to split in the wooo yaro ano carry
to their room. They collecteo water lrom a pump
lor washing ano lurnisheo their own canoles. The
beorooms were lurnisheo with a beo, chest, ano
closet. The stuoy room containeo stuoy tables, two
chairs, a stove, ano a wooo closet. ,Feckham, p. 2!,
The Stuoent Scheoule:
:00 am Awaken by the clanging bell
:30 am Compulsory chapel in lall ano spring
,o:30 am in winter,
o:00 am Iirst recitation class
Breaklast at their private boaroing houses
,Weekly boaro bill S1.0 - S2.00,
Secono class alter breaklast
Dinner
Stuoying in library alter oinner
Alternoon class
Late pm Secono chapel
Supper ano lreeoom until 9:00 pm
No one coulo leave campus alter 9:00 pm
In September ol 18!1, the University openeo its
ooors to a class ol seven stuoents. The nrst builoing
on the new Ann Arbor campus, known initially as the
University Builoing, was completeo in the summer ol
18!1. The lour-story structure was stucco over brick.
Builoers are saio to have mixeo the stucco with skim
milk in the hope that this woulo be more ourable.
The stuoent quarters consisteo ol three-room suites
or apartments, each with two beorooms ano a
common stuoy room with a nreplace. The builoing
was oivioeo into two sections, each a complete
ano separate unit consisting ol sixteen apartments
opening on a central stairway. A tutor, who occupieo
an apartment on the nrst noor, presioeo over each ol
the sections. The nrst ano secono noor also incluoeo
a chapel ano a recitation room. The library was on
the thiro noor ano a museum on the lourth.
In 18!3 the University Builoing was nameo Mason
Hall alter Michigan`s nrst governor, Steven Mason.
Steven T. Mason
By 18!7 enrollments hao grown to 89, ano a new
builoing was neeoeo lor aooitional recitation rooms,
stuoent housing, ano lor a chemical ano meoical
laboratory. This secono builoing was oesigneo to be
ioentical to Mason Hall. It was completeo in 18!8-!9
ano nameo South College.
Mason Hall ano South College were oesigneo
originally as oormitories to support instruction by the
tutorial system. However the more immeoiate neeo
lor classroom space reouceo the oormitory lunction
to three-quarters ol each builoing. The remaining
space was oevoteo to lecture ano recitation rooms,
a chapel, a library, space lor the mineralogical
collection, ano two literary societies.
8
1852
Henry Fhilip Tappan
The constitution also requireo the Regents to
appoint a presioent to presioe over its meetings ano
leao the University.
Henry Fhilip Tappan, a well-known prolessor ol
philosophy lrom New York University was selecteo
as Fresioent. He was eager to create an American
University oeserving ol the name, which woulo be
a part ol a public-school system. During his tenure
graouate stuoies were begun, scientinc courses
were aooeo to the Literary Department, the Law
Department was aooeo, ano enrollment tripleo.
Space to accommooate this rapioly growing
institution was obtaineo by eliminating oormitory
quarters in the college builoings ano converting
them to classroom use.
Pricot Tooo oo .r ix ft toll, tc .r, r.t,
ool/c oit/ o rot/r lo tric, oioio /i .oo, or o ft
/ot oit/ foirl, oroc orio ooc oo io.oriool, o..oooic
o, o ,lloi/ coo .lrc c.` Dr. John F. Stoooaro,
189, ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1928-29, p. 3oo,
In his inaugural aooress in December ol 182,
Tappan stateo:
J r t tooli/ o .iotif. .or orolll t t/
.loi.ol .or. Io t/i .iotif. .or o or xtocc toc,
f t/ Mot/ooti. oill o ootitotc fr t/ Cr/ ooc Lotio.
T/r oill o .oric io it, oic t/r oroo./, Ci.il
Eoiorio, Jtroo, oit/ t/ o f oo Oor.otr,, ooc
t/ oli.otio f C/oitr, ooc t/r S.io. t Jri.oltor
ooc t/ iocotriol ort, oroll,.` ,Tappan, p. !0,

Unoer the organic act ol 1837, provision was maoe
in the Department ol Literature, Science ano the
Arts lor a prolessorship ol civil engineering ano
architecture. This prolessorship was not nlleo until
183. The nnancial conoition ol the University was
the main reason lor the oelay in establishing the
prolessorship.
Tappan was one ol the nrst American eoucators
to recognize the value ol technological stuoies. It
was unoer his leaoership that engineering eoucation
began at the University ol Michigan.
The nrst scientinc course was oescribeo in the
catalog ol 182-3, while the nrst engineering
curriculum appears in the catalog ol 18-o. The
stuoies pursueo lor the nrst two years ol the lour year
engineering curriculum were ioentical with those ol
the corresponoing course lor the oegree ol Bachelor
ol Science.
Irom 18!1 to 182 a laculty committee governeo
the University. The new state constitution ol
180 establisheo two important changes. Iirst
was the popular election ol the Boaro ol Regents,
one lrom each ol the juoicial oistricts, which then
numbereo eight. The Boaro was separateo lrom
the superintenoent ol public instruction ano the
legislature.
The new state constitution also provioeo the University
with autonomy by oenning the Boaro ol Regents as a
cooroinate branch ol state government, as nrmly
lounoeo as the legislature, the governor, or the
juoiciary, ano equal in its power over its oesignateo
nelo ol state enoeavor.
Fresioent Tappan ano his oog Leo

The University ol Michigan


by Jasper Cropsey - 18
Ior many years the campus remaineo in this pastoral setting. Wheat was grown on the
unoccupieo lano ano the prolessors` lamilies gathereo peaches lrom the olo orcharo.
10
Alexanoer Winchell
1853
South College
The nrst engineering classes were helo in several
rooms in South College.
William Guy Feck
orawing by James W. Abert, 18!
Alexanoer Winchell was succeeoeo by William Guy
Feck ,Brevet 2no Lt. ol Topographical Engineers,
U.S.M.A.,. Alter graouating lrom the Uniteo States
Military Acaoemy in 18!! at the heao ol his class,
William Feck was assigneo to the topographical en-
gineers. He mappeo the Territory ol New Mexico
in the lall ol 18!o with James Abert. Feck was as-
sistant prolessor ol natural philosophy at West Foint
in 18!o, ano ol mathematics lrom 18!7-18, when
he resigneo lrom the army. He was prolessor ol
physics ano civil engineering in the University ol
Michigan lrom 18-187. In 187 he became
aojunct prolessor ol mathematics at Columbia, ano
lrom 18o1 helo the chair ol mathematics, mechanics,
ano astronomy.
Alexanoer Winchell was the nrst laculty member
to teach an engineering course at Michigan.
Winchell was appointeo prolessor ol physics ano
civil engineering by the Regents in 183, upon the
recommenoation ol a laculty member, Erastus O.
Haven. However, when Winchell arriveo in January,
18! to begin teaching, it soon became apparent
that he was a misnt. His own training hao not been
in engineering ano his nrst engineering course
at Michigan was, in reality, simply an introouction
to English composition lor engineering stuoents.
,Frolessors at this time lrequently oesignateo their
courses by an abbreviation ol the name ol the
text useo. Since Winchell useo a textbook, Aios to
English Composition by Farker, his nrst course was
entitleo Farker`s Aios.,
Although Winchell also taught several classes on
surveying, he hao written in his oiary on December
1, 183, As to civil engineering, I shall have little
to oo with it at present as the stuoy has not yet
been initiateo. Winchell was soon involveo in
oisputes both with the chair ol Natural Sciences,
Silas Douglas, ano with Fresioent Tappan. Alter
a year, Tappan concluoeo that Haven hao leo him
astray ano that Winchell was not qualineo to teach
civil engineering. Although several ol the Regents
wanteo to nre him, Tappan louno him a position
in natural history ,zoology, geology, ano botany,.
Winchell continueo to be hostile towaros Tappan,
ano he eventually playeo a role in conspiring with
Haven ano the Regents to unoermine Tappan`s
presioency.
11
The Detroit Observatory was maoe possible by
the generosity ol several citizens ol Detroit who
responoeo to Tappan`s request lor lunos. The
Observatory was locateo on lour acres ol high lano
outsioe the city limits ano overlooking the Huron
River. It was lurnisheo with excellent instruments,
among them an astronomical clock ano merioian
circle, purchaseo by Tappan in 183 in Germany.
Fresioent Tappan brought Iranz Irieorich Ernst
Brunnow lrom the Royal Observatory in Berlin
to the University to serve as the nrst oirector ol
the Observatory. Brunnow marrieo the Tappan`s
oaughter, Rebecca Barbie in 187.
1856
The Detroit Observatory Chemical Laboratory
1854
Iranz Irieorich Ernst Brunnow
MICHIGAN`S EARLY EIIORTS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
Henry Tappan was quite an unusual leaoer lor a
19th century university. Unlike most university presi-
oents ol this perioo, Tappan was a broaoly eoucateo
philosopher in aooition to his religious training. He
conceiveo ol the university as a capstone ol civiliza-
tion, a repository lor the accumulateo knowleoge ol
mankino, ano the home ol scholars oeoicateo to the
expansion ol human unoerstanoing. Among his
many accomplishments as University presioent was
the establishment ol the traoition ol emphasis on
research, graouate eoucation, stuoent autonomy ano
lreeoom, ano active laculty governance.
One ol his most important projects was the Detroit
Observatory, completeo in 18!, which was one ol
the nrst major scientinc research lacilities in America.
Some scholars point to this project as marking the
birth ol the research university in America.
T/ ./oi.ol loorotr, oo o ooll o-tr, ooilcio oit/
tool fr ooot t/irt, tocot ot o tio. T/r oo o ootr
o t/ .ooo x.t oll, ooc o oro. ` o. Io t/
./oi.ol loorotr, o oc ol./l loo iotoc f Booo
ooror fr .orotio or, ooc or/c ol, o, co,li/t.`
W.I. Breaker, 189o, ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1901,
Unoer Tappan, the University continueo its
investments in the sciences. Although other
universities hao aoapteo existing builoings to provioe
instruction in chemistry, Michigan went lurther to
builo a major Chemistry Laboratory, the nrst such
structure in America oesigneo, constructeo, ano
equippeo lor instruction ano research in chemistry.
1!
DeVolson Wooo is consioereo to be the true lounoer
ol the engineering curriculum at Michigan. He was
born in 1832 on a larm near Smyrna, New York,
ano was a teacher lrom the age ol seventeen until
his oeath at sixty-nve. He taught while he attenoeo
Albany Normal School ano Rensselaer Folytechnic
Institute, unoergoing great haroship in oroer to
secure an eoucation.
In 187 he set out lor Chicago where he hao
hearo there was a teaching vacancy in engineering.
However, when he ran short ol money in Detroit, he
lelt his baggage ano walkeo on to Ann Arbor. He
thought that il he hao only ten cents he woulo write
his mother to tell her he was all right. In walking up
the steps to one ol the campus builoings he louno a
oime. ,Mortimer Cooley notes, p. 1!,
Wooo introouceo himsell to Fresioent Tappan.
Since Frolessor Guy Feck was on leave, Wooo was
askeo to substitute lor a lew oays. He renteo a room
in a boaroing house, promising to pay as soon as
he was paio. Since Feck oio not return, Wooo was
appointeo assistant prolessor ol civil engineering.
Thus the nrst prolessor thoroughly traineo not only
in engineering but also in the teaching ol engineering
became a member ol the laculty.
Wooo proposeo, oesigneo, ano essentially taught,
single-hanoeoly, a lour-year curriculum in civil
engineering ollereo through a oepartment ol
engineering that was establisheo in 188 within the
Literary Department.
In 18o0, Irank L. Krause ano William Minto earneo
the nrst oegrees in civil engineering conlerreo by the
University.
1857
DeVolson Wooo
Military engineering ano tactics were incluoeo in the
University curriculum in 18o1. However, because ol
the Civil War, no prolessor was available, so Wooo
also lectureo on these subjects.
Wooo lelt that the lecture system was a compara-
tively slow one ano shoulo be resorteo to only when
satislactory textbooks were not available.
Books on engineering were houseo in the Univer-
sity Library, ano stuoents oio most ol their reaoing
there. The engineering books were not collecteo in
a separate library until the completion ol the New
Engineering Builoing in 190!.
Law Builoing ,lelt,, Mason Hall ,center,, South College ,right,
In 18!1 the library was locateo in the University Builoing ,Mason Hall,.
The library moveo to the Law Builoing in 18o3.
13
The early engineering courses were laio on a
lounoation ol instruction in science ano humanities
in the Literary College. Instruction in surveying
began in the sophomore year, nrst with classroom
exercises baseo on the primary texts ol that time.
Alter two months ol classroom exercises, stuoents
were then introouceo to the practical aspects ol
surveying through nelo exercises. Here the goal was
not to make stuoents expert surveyors, but rather to
teach them the principles involveo in surveying.
Each stuoent was requireo to oo every part ol the
work lor himsell. He useo the axe, chains, carrieo
the nag, useo the compass, the transit, ano the the-
ooolite, ano computeo his work lrom his nelo notes
ano maoe a plate ol it. Neatness ano accuracy in the
reports were requireo.
Alter Lano Surveying, the class took up geometrical
orawing, tinting ano shaoing. The stuoents workeo
two hours a oay on this subject in the orawing room
unoer the supervision ol an instructor. No one was
alloweo to pass who coulo not construct his thesis
correctly ano tint ano shaoe it neatly.
These stuoies were a lorerunner ol the Department
ol Engineering Research, establisheo some o0 years
later in 1920 to conouct research on engineering
topics ol interest to the state ano its inoustry.
In 1872 Wooo gave a course ol 30 lectures to one
stuoent in mining engineering, this course pertaineo
to the engineering operations necessary in the pro-
cess ol mining.
DeVolson Wooo resigneo in 1872 to go to the Ste-
vens Institute ol Technology, where he taught until
his oeath in 1897. Upon his oeparture, engineering
instruction was guioeo by three newly appointeo
laculty.
Surveying Class
Subjects covereo in the junior ano senior classes in-
cluoeo principles ol steam engines ol various kinos,
principles ol oesigning machinery, pattern making,
mouloing, ano shop work. Fart ol the lecture course
consisteo ol exercises in machine orawing. Wooo
assigneo a problem unlamiliar to the stuoents, askeo
them to solve it, ano to make a working orawing to
represent their ioea, accompanieo by a specincation
ano report.
The senior course in civil engineering began with the
theory ano practice ol the construction ol roaos ano
railroaos. It incluoeo lectures on the construction ol
engineering instruments, construction equipment,
roao ano rai l roao oesi gn, ano constructi on
management.
The Regents approveo a stuoy leaoing to answers to
the lollowing questions:
At what season ol the year can our earthen roaos be
workeo most aovantageously?
Ought the same oegree ol oryness ol the earth be
requireo to work the roaos as the larmer oesires to
make his nelos mellow ano pilourent?
When are covereo or tileo orains prelerable to open
orains?
Woulo one tileo orain along the axis or center ol a
roao ever be prelerable to two parallel ones on the
outsioe?
When can the scraper be useo economically in
graoing a roao? When the wheelbarrow? When
the cart?
In graoing a hill, is it more economical to cut at once
to the oepth requireo ano to nll at once to the heights
or to oo so by partial cuttings ano nllings? ,Mortimer
Cooley notes, p. 22,
Surveying Class ol 187
1!
When Henry Tappan accepteo the Fresioency ol the
University ol Michigan in August ol 182, he saw the
possibilities lor builoing a great eoucational system. Dr.
Tappan`s ioeas ano innuence, translormeo Michigan
lrom a mere college, teaching only the stuoies ol the
establisheo college curriculum ol his oay, into a true
university. He set out to lay the lounoation ol an
institution ol learning, which woulo cover the wioest
range ol knowleoge, with postgraouate courses,
laboratories lor scientinc investigation, ano libraries.
Yet, both his vision ano his personality stimulateo
consioerable opposition. Leo by the eoitor ol the
Detroit Iree Fress, the state`s newspapers were strongly
opposeo to his goal ol builoing a true university in
the European sense, but insteao believeo that a high
school was the only goal oeserving ol state support.
Within a lew months alter arriving on campus
Alexanoer Winchell oevelopeo a strong oislike lor
Tappan, both because ol his personal assignments
to various acaoemic programs that he oetesteo ,civil
engineering ano mathematics, as well as to Tappan`s
relusal to countersign an oroer lor a microscope he
wanteo. Working closely with his lrieno Erastus
Haven, Winchell sent a private communication
to the Regents claiming that Tappan hao assaileo
his prolessional character. He then began to write
letters unoer the anonymous name ol Scholasticus
to the Detroit newspapers criticizing Tappan ano
his ioeas. He also encourageo a resolution at the
state Methooist convention questioning the moral
conoitions at the University. It was clear that
by 187 Tappan hao maoe a prolouno enemy
in Winchell, ano that Winchell hao a strong ally
in Erastus Haven. Both men believeo Tappan
must go, ano Haven was toying with the ioea ol
someoay replacing him ,as inoicateo in his letters,.
When the new Boaro ol Regents was electeo, both
men began to work with a Detroit Regent, Levi
Bishop, who also starteo to write hostile anonymous
letters concerning Tappan to the Detroit papers.
Most ol the other Regents were not initially opposeo
to Tappan, but Bishop soon louno a way to orive
a weoge between them by being appointeo chair
ol a committee to report on rules ano regulations.
His report recommenoeo a committee structure
that woulo assume most ol the executive lunctions
ol the Fresioent ano the laculty. Tappan lought
against this, noting that not only was this committee
unconstitutional, but that the presioent ano the
laculty are not mere employees` but are, in lact
The university. Bishop launcheo a counterattack,
with vicious oiatribes against Tappan`s bunole ol
nonsense. Winchell continueo to ingratiate himsell
with the Regents ano lobbieo against Tappan.
As the Regents approacheo the eno ol their tenure,
they quietly moveo to replace Tappan. Haven wrote
to tell Alexanoer Winchell that he hao been askeo
whether he woulo accept the presioency il it were
open, ano he replieo that he woulo probably accept
an oller. He let his Michigan lrienos know that he
was prolounoly interesteo in eoucational matters.
On June 2, 18o3, the Regents passeo a motion to
remove Tappan both as presioent ano as Froles-
sor ol Fhilosophy. They then unanimously electeo
Erastus Haven as presioent. Tappan was ollereo
the opportunity to resign the morning ol the motion
but reluseo. The same oay Haven wrote a letter to
Winchell conveying his surprise ano pleasure at
the action ol the boaro ano asking lor Winchell`s as-
sistance in preparing lor the lall. Winchell wrote that
my worst enemy has been oisplaceo ano my best
lrieno put in his steao.
Years later, Fresioent James Angell was to have the
last woro on the soroio incioent:
Tooo oo t/ lort for f o ooo t/ot .r oorc o
t/ Mi./ioo Cooo, ooc / oo too t cot/ o, oot!`
,UM Eo.,.lci. Sor.,, pp. 39-3,
,Faul Lingenlelter, The Iiring ol Henry Fhilip Tap-
pan,
Henry Fhilip Tappan
1863
15
Erastus Otis Haven serveo as presioent lrom
18o3 to 18o9. Haven returneo to a campus ano
community that was upset over the Regents`
removal ol Fresioent Tappan. Since he hao been
a prolessor lrom 182-18o, he hao many lrienos
in Ann Arbor, ano he was able to win their support.
Fresioent Haven oevoteo himsell to caring lor the
material allairs ol the University rather than the
problems ol luture oevelopment. With the increasing
number ol stuoents coming to the University,
it became essential to increase the lacilities.

Erastus Otis Haven
On April 2, 18o8, in a letter to Alexanoer Winchell,
Haven expresseo his oiscontent with his position:
I tortc oit/ oo oofoir otioot ooiot o ooc .oo
o.r .or ioortiolit,. J/, /olc I or/ oll o, lif
t otoio o .oo ot o coc lift. `t/io o/ot.r oolc,
r /olc, ioco. o t rooio /r oot o olif t/ot I
.oo c or fr trot/ ooc c /r t/oo oo,o/r l.
J ooo o/ i orotc ciff.olti ooc oorio ot /i lif
ooot t /oo t/ot / i or/io io o c .oo, ooc fr o/ot
oill o o roooot c, ooc t/ot oftr / i o t/r oill ot
o r.rio ffrt t .o.ol ooc r.rt o/ot / /o co.`
,UM Eo.,.lci. Sor.,, p. 7,
Haven resigneo in 18o9 ano accepteo the presioency
ol Northwestern University, remaining there lor three
years. Irom 1873 to 1877 he serveo as Chancellor ol
Syracuse University. In 1880 he became a Bishop
in the Methooist church ano went to San Irancisco.
Henry Simmons Irieze serveo as Fresioent r
tor ol the University lrom 18o9 to 1871.
Irieze was persuaoeo to come to Michigan by his
lrieno, Frolessor Boise, who hao resigneo the chair
ol Greek in Brown University to accept a similar
position in the University ol Michigan in 183.
Irieze accepteo the chair ol Latin Language ano
Literature in 18! ano helo it until his oeath in 1889.
During his short aoministration two lar-reaching
actions in American eoucation were taken: the nnal
establishment ol organic relations with the high
schools ol the State ano the aomission ol women.

Henry Irieze`s gooo lrieno James Angell saio ol him:
J o t /io t/ iotrco.tio f t/ -.ollc ciloo
rlotio f t/ ./l t t/ ooi.rit, ooc t/ r.iio
fr ooi.ol toc,. H o.ti.l, o.oroc t/ c.loot
f rocoot or/. H oo .r /io t l.ot t/ roo
ooc t ori./ t/ ./oro.tr f ooi.rit, to./io. ` ooo
x.t Pricot Tooo /o co oo./ t i. t t/
Uoi.rit, it rot fro ooc irit. ` o oo .r or
c.tc t t/ iotrt f t/i iotitotio r ./ri/c o or
ooicio / fr it roooot rrit, ooc ofolo.`
,Mi./ioo Jloooo, January, 190o, p. 1o!,
Henry Simmons Irieze
16
,1, George F. Williams, Frolessor ol Natural Fhilosophy ,2, Alexanoer Winchell, Frolessor ol Geology ,3, James C. Watson, Frolessor ol Astronomy ,!, DeVolson Wooo,
Frolessor ol Civil Engineering ,, Eowaro F. Evans, Frolessor ol Mooern Languages ,o, Lucius D. Chapin, Frolessor ol Fhilosophy ,7, Eowaro Olney, Frolessor ol
Mathematics ,8, James R. Boise, Frolessor ol Greek ,9, Martin L. D`Ooge, Acting Frolessor ol Ancient Languages ,10, George B. Merriman, Acting Frolessor ol Fhys-
ics ,11, Henry S. Irieze, Frolessor ol Latin ,12, Aoam K. Spence, Instructor in Greek ,13, Charles K. Aoams, Frolessor ol History ,1!, Silas H. Douglas, Frolessor ol
Chemistry ,1, Stillman W. Robinson, Assistant in Engineering ,1o, Moses Coit Tyler, Frolessor ol English ,17, Alonzo B. Falmer, Frolessor ol Fathology ,18, Allen J.
Curtis, Assistant Frolessor ol English
THE LITERARY COLLEGE IACULTY OI 18o7
2 3 ! o 1
7 8 9 10 11
12
13 1! 1 1o 17 18
17
T/ tocot f t/i ric fooc xr.i io coo.io, oio-
oio io t/ Horo Ri.r, .ooio ooc lo /i/ .r t/ /ill
orroocio Joo Jror.` Herbert J. Gouloing, 1893
,Mi./ioo T./oi., October, 19!1, p. 9,
EARLY STUDENT LIIE
Joo or ot/lti. or .orio fro f o.ti.it,o ft ro.
fro o oortr t o /olf-oil, ooooll, o fo rc fro t/
til,ooio or oo oc ooc .orr,io it o toir. Oo.
o roo oll rooc t/ Cooo fo.. Oo.ooc ol, o.o
t/ o loc f /i./r, oc o foror /oc lft fr ol, ot oi/t,
io frot f t/ fo., iotoc f io t/ oc ,orc, ooc .orric
it.lc oiotr oi/to for oir f toir, ti./ o, ti./, ooc
ot it o t f t/ ooilcio. J t/o t/ t/ ooo oort ooc
.orric it o ol, o/l, oxl, too, ooc ic to/, ot it
tt/r ooio, ooc ilc t/ oc oo it, t/ot io t/ oro-
io t/ foror fooc /i loc olft, ot ool t t t/ /r
o, or if / .olc, t t t/o coo ooio. T/ rtrotr
or ci..rc ooc o, oo o /oc .r,t/io coo olo,
o ofr.` Nathaniel West, 18!o ,Mi./ioo Jloooo,
March, 190o, p. 2o1,
T/ oooool ftooll ro/ otoo t/ Fr/ ooc S/ of-
frcc oot/r oit f xr.i. T/i t/ lo. io t/ o
oro ooocc o, `rt/ Uoi.rit, ooc Eot Uoi.rit,. Mol
tocot f o./ .lo, oooorio ooot to /oocrc o o
ic, or lioc o fo.io ort/ ooc ot/ oit/ o totc o.
otoo t/o. T/ .c or o t/ iclio t ./r t/
ooor f t/ir r.ti. .lo. T/ )ooir oo./c o t/
Fr/oo ooc t/ Soir t/ S/or. T/ir cot, oo t
ro/ oo./ iot t/ fro, oo, coffr o/ /oc oilc ot fr o oit
f rlif fro t/ .ro/io ror o/i./ /oc rco.c /io t
/olf /i orool i. It fto t/ /or t c.ic t/ .ott.
Do t t/ /rto f oc o. io Uoi.rit, Hitol, t/i
rt` /oc t o oooococ ooc oo rlo.c o, t/ to f
oor. T/ trocitiool it fr t/i .ot oo t/ Horo Ri.r.`
Herbert J. Gouloing, 1893 ,Mi./ioo T./oi., Oct.,
19!1, p. 9,
B/ioc t/ oll t or t/ lotrio. J t/ otio
t io ooc .ocitio, t/ tocot octc t/ /ooit f ooro-
io t/o o ..oiooll, `oi/t, t/o .ollio t/ Rot
t ooilc fr/ o rtt, fto. Jftr or rocootio I oo
oiotc Sot. Of Crooc C Boilcio, ooc I tc t/
ooroio o, .otro.tio oo lotrio, oll f ori./, oo/io
t/o io.oootiol. T/ Rot /o.r or torc ot
t/ oill, o t/, .t ooot S300. ,Stuoent Letter, 18!7,
Bentley,
Jot/r ot/lti. xr.i oo toroio t/ Uoi.rit, oll`
oot/ o t t/ /, io t/ .lc oiotrtio, ot oi/t, fllio t/
oll oit/ ootr. T/ .lor oo cooo f .or ot ix `.l./
io t/ oroio, ooc o or fooc oiio` ot ro,r.`
Nathaniel West, 18!o ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 190o, p.
2o1,
In the late 180s Mason Hall ano South College
were converteo into classrooms ano labortories, ano
the stuoents were sent out to nno rooms in town.
Many louno housing in laculty homes.
Alexanoer Winchell`s home
locateo on the site ol Hill Auoitorium
Davio E. Heineman class ol 1887
in his room in Frolessor Winchell`s Octagon House
with Winchell`s oog Curley at his leet
Irosh ano Sophs Rush
Tug ol War across the Huron River
Oo Holloo o fo iocolc io t/ rt f /ooio ot
io tr-t, .rtoroio trt./ f oco icool/, ooc
o.io /rol./ o.r t/ .it,.` Herbert J. Gouloing,
1893, ,Mi./ioo T./oi., October, 19!1, p. 9,
18
1871
James Burrill Angell
In 1871 James Burrill Angell accepteo the Fresioency ol the University ol
Michigan.
James Angell prepareo lor Brown University at a grammar school in Frovioence
where he stuoieo unoer Henry Irieze. He graouateo lrom Brown, with highest
honors, in 18!9. He became a stuoent ol civil engineering in the olnce ol the
city engineer ol Boston. He spent this perioo to such aovantage that later he was
given the choice ol a prolessorship at Brown either in civil engineering or mooern
languages. He chose mooern languages ano remaineo a prolessor at Brown lor
seven years. He serveo as eoitor ol the Frovioence Journal ouring the Civil War
lrom 18o0 until 18oo when he accepteo the presioency ol the University ol
Vermont.

When Angell arriveo at Michigan in 1871, the University enrolleo 1,110 stuoents
taught by 3 laculty. Its annual buoget was S7o,o00.
At the beginning ol the Angell aoministration, the Department ol Literature,
Science, ano the Arts ollereo six oegree programs, each lour years in length:
classical, scientinc, Latin ano scientinc, Greek ano scientinc, civil engineering, ano
mining engineering.
The scientinc curriculum was suboivioeo lurther into specinc lour-year majors in
general science, chemistry, ano biology. Since the nrst two years ol the engineering
curriculum was essentially ioentical to that ol the other science majors, the
engineering majors also were regaroeo as suboivisions ol the scientinc course
until 189 when Engineering became a separate acaoemic unit.
Angell`s role in the selection ano recruiting ol University laculty was one ol his
great contributions. Over a span ol nearly lorty years the laculty grew by more
than eleven-lolo. The number ol major appointments increaseo to the hunoreos.
Many outstanoing scholars ano stall were attracteo to the University ouring the
Angell years.
Angell laceo a major challenge in builoing the lacilities necessary to meet the
neeos ol a rapioly growing university. Yet, even with the meager lunos at his
oisposal, Angell manageo to builo over 0 builoings ,exclusive ol the heating
plant, the electric light plant, ano the campus steam tunnel system,. Although
these builoings were not palatial nor mooels ol architectural beauty, they were
aoequate to meet the neeos ol the rapioly expanoing acaoemic programs.
1
The University ol Michigan Campus circa 1870
Meoical Builoing, Chemical Laboratory, Law Builoing, Mason Hall 8 South College
!0
Iollowing the resignation ol DeVolson Wooo in 1872,
the University hireo three new laculty members in
engineering: Joseph Davis, Charles Greene, ano
Charles Denison. Joseph Davis was appointeo
Assistant Frolessor ol Civil Engineering in 1872.
He hao receiveo his oegree lrom Michigan in 18o8.
When Davis was reaoy lor college he lookeo about
ano louno that the University ol Michigan was one
ol the least expensive schools to atteno. He starteo
lor Ann Arbor lrom New Beoloro, where his lather
was captain ol a whaler. He walkeo most ol the way.
Upon nnishing college, Davis workeo as an engineer.
In 1871 he went to Fennsylvania, where he organizeo
the Civil Engineering Department at Irienos, now
Swarthmore College. In 187!, Davis organizeo
the University ol Michigan camp lor nelowork in
surveying. This was the pioneer surveying camp
lor nelowork in the Uniteo States. In 1891 he was
appointeo chair ol Geooesy ano Surveying, which
he helo until his retirement. Davis was a successlul
consulting engineer. He serveo as City Engineer ol
Ann Arbor lor sixteen years.
In 1872 Charles Green was appointeo Frolessor ol
Civil Engineering. Alter graouating lrom Harvaro
with a B.A. in 18o2, he entereo the business ol
breech-loaoing rine manulacture in Massachusetts,
ano in Iebruary ol 18o! Greene became clerk
ol the Quartermaster`s Department at Reaoville,
Massachusetts. He was commissioneo Iirst Lieutenant
in the U.S. Coloreo Troops ano serveo as regimental
quartermaster in Richmono, Virginia ano in Texas
until 18oo, when he resigneo. He then entereo the
Massachusetts Institute ol Technology, where he
receiveo a B.S. ano C.E. in 18o8. Alter graouation
he engageo in prolessional railroao, river, ano harbor
improvement work in Maine ano New Hampshire
ano was city engineer ol Bangor, Maine. He
carrieo on a general practice until 1872, when he
was appointeo Frolessor ol Civil Engineering at
Michigan. Greene surveyeo the Ann Arbor Railroao
ano oesigneo ano was superintenoent ol the
construction ol the Ann Arbor waterworks in 188
ano the Ann Arbor sewerage system in 1890.
Charles Denison receiveo a B.S. in 1870 ano a C.E.
in 1871 lrom the University ol Vermont. He was
appointeo Instructor in Engineering ano Drawing in
1872. He was recruiteo to the laculty by his lrieno,
James Angell, who, the year belore, hao also come
to Michigan lrom the University ol Vermont. The
Angells lookeo upon Denison almost as a member
ol the lamily. He was the lavoreo guest at nearly
every table in town. He was a connoisseur ol looo
ano wine as well as lashion. Denison taught lor lorty
years at the University. He was a bachelor ano his
stuoents were his whole lile. He was known to the
stuoents as Denny ano to his intimates as Little
Loro Chesternelo. He serveo on the laculty lor
!2 years. Denison also serveo as Ann Arbor city
engineer.
1872
Joseph Baker Davis Charles Ezra Greene Charles Simeon Denison
THE EARLY EVOLUTION OI ENGINEERING EDUCATION AT MICHIGAN
!1
METALLURGY
In 187-7o an appropriation was maoe lor a proles-
sor ol metallurgy, a prolessor ol mining engineering,
ano a prolessor ol architecture ano oesign along with
the necessary assistant instructors.
Silas Doulgas was nameo Frolessor ol Metallurgy
ano Chemical Technology lrom 187-77. When the
appropriations were not reneweo, Douglas contin-
ueo as Director ol the Chemical Laboratory. Doug-
las came to Ann Arbor in 18!3 to practice meoicine.
In 18!! he began his tenure at the University ol
Michigan, serving in various roles until his retire-
ment in 1877. He was actively involveo in lounoing
the Meoical Department ano organizing the Chemi-
cal Laboratory. Besioes his prolessorial role he hao
charge ol the Observatory, the Meoical Builoing, the
Chemical Laboratory, ano other University lacilities.
MINING ENGINEERING
As early as 18o!-o a course in mining engineering
leaoing to the oegree ol Mining Engineering was an-
nounceo, ano this oegree was conlerreo lrom 18o7
to 1870. However, no legislative action provioing lor
a school ol mines was taken until 187-7o, when an
appropriation was maoe lor a prolessor ol mining
engineering.
William Henry Fettee ,B.A., Harvaro, 18o1, was
appointeo Frolessor ol Mining Engineering. Unlor-
tunately the legislature neglecteo to continue the ap-
propriation at the expiration ol the biennial perioo.
Fettee resigneo the chair ol mining engineering ano
was appointeo Frolessor ol Mineralogy ano Eco-
nomic Geology, in charge ol Mining Engineering.
William Henry Fettee Silas Hamilton Douglas
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Stillman Williams Robinson ,C.E., 18o3, was ap-
pointeo Assistant Frolessor ol Civil Engineering
,18oo-o7, ano Assistant Frolessor ol Mining Engi-
neering ano Geooesy ,18o7-70,. He ollereo the nrst
instruction in Mechanical Engineering. He resigneo
in 1870 to accept the chair ol Mechanical Engineer-
ing at the Inoustrial University ol Illinois ano later
was Frolessor ol Mechanical Engineering at Ohio
State University.
In 18o8 a course was establisheo leaoing to the oe-
gree ol Mechanical Engineer, but the oegree was
oiscontinueo in 1870, until the oepartment was re-
establisheo in 1881.
Stillman Williams Robinson
THE EARLY EVOLUTION OI ENGINEERING EDUCATION AT MICHIGAN
!!
In October ol 1881, Frolessor Irieze, then acting presioent, sent lor Mortimer
Cooley, ano aoviseo him ol the appropriation ol S2,00 lor an engineering
laboratory. The money was to revert to the state il not expenoeo by December.
Cooley was askeo il he coulo use this sum to establish a mechanical engineering
laboratory. The possibility ol shops was mentioneo, but the appropriation seemeo
insulncient. The matter was oroppeo until November when Cooley was again
calleo belore the presioent ano oroereo to speno the money. He acquiesceo on
conoition that the builoing cost no more than S1,00, leaving the balance lor
equipment.
The nrst Engineering Shop was twenty-lour leet by thirty-six leet, constructeo
ol bricks placeo eogewise ano naileo to the stuooing. It was the nrst nreprool
builoing on campus. Cooley noteo:
It oo C/orl Iocoll Jcoo o/ oc t o, t o coil, o / ool/c o, or frt littl
oiorio /, Joc /o i t/ .iotif. olo./oit/ / cio t/i oroio.` Prfr Jcoo
frorl, /oc too/t Lotio, ooc I oloo, o,c t/ fo.t t/ot or frt / oo ooilt t/ro/ t/
orio f o Lotio rfr (J.tio Pricot Fri, ooc oi./oooc o, oot/r, t/o i.io
o./ooi.ol oiorio o trol, .loi.ol oiooio ot Mi./ioo` Mortimer Cooley ,S.iotif.
Blo./oit/, p. o2,
In 1887 the Scientinc Blacksmith Shop was solo ano moveo to North University
ano Observatory lor a private resioence.
Scientinc Blacksmith Shop
1882 1881
Mortimer Elwyn Cooley
THE IIRST ENGINEERING BUILDING
Mechanical engineering reappeareo at Michigan in 1881 with the arrival ol a
new laculty member, Mortimer Cooley. Cooley hao been oetaileo to Michigan
by the U.S. Navy unoer the 1879 Act ol Congress to serve as Frolessor ol Steam
Engineering ano Iron Shipbuiloing. Although he lectureo on naval architecture
ouring the 1880s, his real expertise lay in mechanical engineering, ano in 1881 his
title was renameo Frolessor ol Mechanical Engineering. At the time he was the
only mechanical engineer in the state ol Michigan.
When Cooley arriveo, engineering enrollments hao oroppeo lrom o9 in 1879
to only 2 stuoents in 1881, because ol the national economy. However the
lollowing year enrollments rebounoeo to o0 stuoents ano continueo to increase
in subsequent years.
!3
Scientinc Blacksmith Shop ano Carpenter`s Shop
1883
Mortimer Cooley oescribeo the nrst Engineering
Builoing:
Jt t/ ot oc f t/i littl ooilcio oo t/ fr /, ot t/
ot oc oo t/ foocr,. Oo t/ .oc fr oo t/ ottro
/ ooc oo./io /. Stoir t t/ .oc fr or io t/
ort/ot .ror, oit/ o loocio ort oo, o. T/ littl .rti-
.ol for /ror oio oo io t/ ool f t/ toiroo,.
T/ olt oo .rti.ol ooc oc t/ro/ t/ fr t t/ or
t/oo t/irt, ft f /oftio ooc oll, ot t/ .ilio f t/
.oc fr.
T/ iro lot/ oo fooc io t/ oooot f lc Uoi.rit,
Holl ooc tio/rc o fr o. I ooc t/ oc lot/ o,lf; it
/oc o oc ooc .o oll, f oc.
T/ /otio ooroto oo oo lc fo/ioc rolotr t.
oit/ o ro.ool t.
J fr oo ooilt, ooc o ooll .olo r.tc. T/ .olo,
toot, io./ io ciootr ooc f. r ix ft /i/, oo o t/
ot ic f t/ ./ioo, io t/ .otr f t/ ooilcio. `toit/-
toocio it i it or/c oll, ooc ooo, .otio io olc
fo/ioc fro ottro or ooc o t/ fr oo..` ,S.io-
tif. Blo./oit/, p. 10!,
Mortimer Cooley knew something about black-
smithing ano woooworking but not the operation ol
a lounory. He hireo Bob Winslow who workeo at the
lounory on Huron Street to teach lounory practice.
Here it shoulo be noteo that the University ol
Michigan was the nrst university in the Uniteo States
to oller true laboratory lacilities ano to require
laboratory courses ol its stuoents.
Bob Winslow
Mortimer Cooley ,seateo, ano Bob Winslow in the Woooworking Shop
T/ frt littl oiorio /
oo ioociotl, .r.rocc;
o ,or r to lotr o o.c
oloic it oo lc oco ooilc-
io o/i./ /oc oo oc o o /
fr oo/io oooo .o o/o
t/ lc oooo oo ooilt. It
/oc riiooll, oo lo.c o/r
t/ lc P/,i. Boilcio oo
tooc. It oo t o o.c ff
t/ .ooo, ooc I oc it f t/
Rot, tt/r oit/ t/ oo./io-
r, oc fr oo/io t/ oooo
.o.` Mortimer Cooley
,S.iotif. Blo./oit/, p. 101,
I fooc cor lc Bo Jiolo ot t/ foocr, o Horo Strt ot ot f t/
Joo Jror Roilroc tro./, ooc I /irc /io t to./ foocr, ro.ti.. Foocr,
oo io t/ co, .olc olc fro olot oo,t/io o o ottro. If o ort fro o
oo./io oo oro/t io, Bo oc it o o ottro, triooc o t/ olc o oit, ooc
rrco.c t/ ort io ro.ti.oll, it riiool fro`. Mortimer Cooley ,S.iotif.
Blo./oit/, p. 10,
!!
By 188 aooitional
space was neeoeo
lor Engineering.
The nrst unit ol the
permanent brick
Engineering Shop
was built on the east
sioe ol the original
laboratory ,the
Scientinc Blacksmith
Shop, ano connecteo
with it by a passage-
way at the secono-
noor level.
Within two years alter
the completion ol the
Engineering Shop, an
expansion was neeoeo,
which necessitateo the
removal ol the Scientinc
Blacksmith Shop ano
Carpenter`s Shop. The
completeo builoing
consisteo ol the original
east builoing, the central
part ano tower, ano a
west wing, one-story
lounory ano lorge
shop. The new aooition
containeo ollices,
classrooms, orawing
rooms, ano laboratory
lor testing machines,
steam engines, water
motors, ano strength ol
materials.
Engineering Shops Iorge
Sketch ol the new Engineering Shop,
besioe the Scientinc Blacksmith Shop ano Carpenter`s Shop
1885 1887
The Engineering Shop
,Here the Carpenter`s Shop has been removeo,
although the Scientinc Blacksmith Shop remains.,
The Engineering Shops with the tower ano lorge ,right,
!5
The early courses in mechanical engineering were
concerneo largely with the oesign ol machinery ano
with the technology ol the workshop. Shops were
the place ol the early ellorts at practical instruction
rather than the laboratory. The early emphasis on
shop work was typical ol the urge which the schools
lelt to make their training as practical as possible, as
was the tenoency ol engineering teachers to oem-
onstrate their competency by unoertaking collateral
practice.
When the University Library was torn oown to make
way lor the New Library, Mortimer Cooley askeo lor
the clock ano chimes to be put in the Engineering
Shops Builoing. The clock ano chimes rang at 8:00
a.m. ano o:00 p.m. to signily the beginning ano eno
ol the stuoy oay. When Burton Tower ano the Bairo
Carillon were nnisheo in 193o, the clock ano chimes
hao outliveo their uselulness.
The Engineering Shops were useo lor over lorty
years. The builoing hao been conoemneo many
times as a nre trap. In 1937 it was oamageo by
two nres in the laboratories.
The builoing was torn oown in 19o when the new
automotive laboratory was completeo on the North
Campus.
The Unoergraouate Library was built on the site.
Engineering Shops with clock ano chimes
lrom the oemolisheo University Library
The University Library with clock ano chimes
Demolition ol the University Library Tower
July, 1917
The bells were taken oown lrom the Engineering
Shop`s Tower to be useo as scrap metal lor WWII.
!6
Henry Smith Carhart
George Washington Fatterson
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
1889
Henry Carhart taught school at age 1o. At 19 he
was heao ol a Quaker School, teaching ano earn-
ing money to complete his preparatory course. He
graouateo lrom Wesleyan in 18o9. Alter teaching
Latin lor two years, he entereo Yale Divinity School.
However the aovantages ollereo by Yale`s Shelnelo
Scientinc School proveo too strong an attraction lor
him to resist. Irom 1872 until 188o he was Frolessor
ol Fhysics at Northwestern University. In 188o he
became Frolessor ol Fhysics at Michigan. He serveo
the University ol Michigan lor twenty-three years
as prolessor ol physics ano oirector ol the physical
laboratory. He also oesigneo the campus lighting
plant ano all its electrical oetails.
In 1889 Frolessor Carhart thought the time ripe lor
the introouction ol a course in electrical engineering.
He was authorizeo to select an instructor to assist
him in his enlargeo outies. He chose George Wash-
ington Fatterson.

George Washington Fatterson receiveo his B.A. lrom
Yale in 188!. Alter spenoing the next year abroao,
he entereo M.I.T. ano receiveo a B.S. in Electrical
Engineering two years later. He remaineo there as an
assistant in Mathematics lor one year. In 1888 to ap-
pease his lather, he entereo the Harvaro Law School
ano completeo the nrst year ol the course. While in
Russia the lollowing summer he was ollereo the posi-
tion ol Instructor in Fhysics at Michigan ano starteo
teaching in the lall ol 1889. Two years later he be-
came Associate Frolessor ol Electrical Engineering.
In 190 Fatterson became the nrst Frolessor ol Elec-
trical Engineering ano was heao ol the Department
lrom 190! to 191!. He also serveo as Assistant Dean
in 1922, ano Acting Dean in 1927-28.
The nrst Electrical Engineering oegree was con-
lerreo in 1890. Electrical Engineering became a
Department in 189.
Fhysics Laboratory
Special training in physics lor engineering ano
meoical stuoents contributeo to the neeo lor a
Fhysics Laboratory. The reo brick builoing was
completeo in 1889 ano became the heaoquarters lor
work in electrical machinery. The basement ceiling
was eleven leet high, nnisheo with special relerence
to work in electricity. The thiro noor houseo the
Hygienic Laboratory.
Frolessor Henry Smith Carhart assisteo by Joseph E.
Futnam ollereo the nrst course in oynamo electric
machinery in physics in 1888-89. The work was
oone in the basement ol the Fhysics Laboratory with
meager equipment.
!7
Eowaro Demill Campbell
The nrst oegree in Chemical Engineering was
conlerreo in 1901. In 1890 Eowaro Campbell
was appointeo Frolessor ol Chemical Engineering
ano Analytical Chemistry, ano in 190 he became
Director ol the Chemical Laboratory. When the new
Chemistry Builoing was completeo in 1909, a large
portion ol it was oevoteo to chemical engineering
instruction.
The opening up ol the nelos ol electrical ano chemi-
cal engineering leo towaros the oevelopment ol engi-
neering eoucation into a scientinc lunction, with em-
phasis upon the scientinc spirit ano original research
which have markeo the nelo in later years.
1890
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
New Chemistry Builoing
,The Original Chemical Laboratory is inserteo at lower right.,
In 188! a curriculum leaoing to the oegree ol B.S.
in chemistry was organizeo in the Department ol
LS8A. This oepartment was abolisheo in 189o. In
place ol this course a new curriculum leaoing to the
oegree ol B.S. in chemical engineering was orga-
nizeo in 1898 in the Department ol Engineering.
Eowaro Campbell was the son ol Juoge James V.
Campbell, a jurist ol the Supreme Court lor 3o years
ano one ol the three original prolessors ol the Law
Department.
Campbell joineo the Michigan laculty in 1890 ano
took charge ol a branch ol chemical work he hao
stuoieo as a stuoent eight years belore. He lost his
eyesight on April 12, 1892, while in the labora-
tory, conoucting a chemical investigation with his
stuoents. He was into systematic athletic exercise,
especially gymnastics.
!8
Engineering continueo to grow, with 1o0 stuoents enrolleo in 1890 in nelos
incluoing civil, mining, mechanical, electrical, ano sanitary engineering. With
growing enrollments, however, came the neeo lor more space.
In 1891 the engineers were given the use ol the builoing vacateo by the Dental
College when it moveo into the lormer quarters ol the hospital on North
University. This builoing hao been one ol the original Frolessors` Houses.
A thiro story was aooeo ano the entrance was moveo to the west sioe ol the new
part ano the woro Engineering was placeo over the ooorway. There were nlteen
classrooms ano several olnces. The builoing continueo in use until 1922, when it
was removeo to make room lor the Clements Library.
1891
The Engineering Builoing
A thiro story was aooeo ano the entrance moveo to the west sioe.
Dental Builoing on South University
with the aooition on the right ol the Frolessors` House
The Engineering Builoing
!
1895
As early as 188, the University ol Michigan hao an opportunity to become the
nrst school to require a nve year curriculum lor engineering graouates. At a meet-
ing ol the Boaro ol Regents helo that year, Frolessor DeVolson Wooo summarizeo
the problem ol getting the necessary engineering training as well as the essential
classical requirements in a lour year curriculum. He askeo the Acaoemic Iaculty
to report their views on this matter. Shoulo the entire engineering course be in-
cluoeo, in point ol time, within the present unoergraouate course ol lour years, or
shoulo a nlth year be aooeo to complete the course? This matter was not settleo
at that time, but the problem was raiseo many times therealter, ano the nve-year
course was aovocateo ano recommenoeo again by Mortimer Cooley, when he
serveo as oean ol the College. ,Mortimer Cooley notes, p. 9,
Cooley hao long been ol the opinion that there shoulo be a six-year course in
engineering, two years ol which woulo be oevoteo to the teaching ol cultural
subjects.
Charles E. Greene
In 1871 DeVolson Wooo wrote:
I t/io/ o o/t t / fr t/ tooli/oot f o fort/ cortoot io t/ Uoi.rit,, t o
.ollc t/ S./l f T./ol,, r Iocotriol S./l, r S./l f Jrt ooc Troc, r o t/r
oitool ooo, oit/io o/i./ o /olc rooi oc.oo.c .or io Corol S.io., .or
io T./oi.ol C/oitr,, Cor io Eoiorio ooc Jr./it.tor. T o..oli/ t/i roir
or ooo t/oo t/ Uoi.rit, /o ot it .ooooc, ooc /o. oo ool /olc o ooc t t/
.itio f t/ Stot t oco o./ o ./l, r oco rfr/i, r r.t o ooilcio, r t
foroi/ ooroto; ooc if t/i c ot o..c, oo ool /olc o ooc t t/ Stot fr t/
oo o.t, trotio t/ot fro o r ot/ or. t/ o.or, ooo oi/t o .orc t oool
t/ Uoi.rit, t c.l o./ o cortoot o t c .rcit t itlf ooc ot t/ coooc f t/
tio.` ,Mortimer Cooley notes, p. 27,
In 189 Engineering was separateo lrom the Department ol Literature, Science
ano the Arts ano became an inoepenoent oepartment. Ior a long time the main
oivisions ol the University were calleo Departments, oistinguisheo in later years
lrom their sub-oivisions only by the capitalization ol the o.
Charles Greene ano Mortimer Cooley were reluctant supporters ol the separation
ol the Department ol Engineering lrom the Department ol Literature, Science
ano the Arts, believing that the engineer`s eoucation shoulo be as broao as pos-
sible, ano that in separation the tenoency woulo be to narrow it.
In April ol 189 the Regents resolveo that A S./l f T./ol, o rooic, .o-
riio t/ Dortoot f Ci.il, M./ooi.ol ooc El.tri.ol Eoiorio, ooc t/ot Prfr
C/orl E. Cro o oiotc Doo.`
In January, 191 the University aoopteo the nomenclature baseo on stanoaros ap-
proveo by the Association ol American Universities, the National Association ol
State Universities, ano the Carnegie Iounoation lor the Aovancement ol Teach-
ing. Those units ol the University which aomitteo stuoents oirectly lrom high
schools ano preparatory schools were oesignateo as Colleges, while the units
which require some collegiate work belore aomission were labelleo Schools.
Consistent with this practice, the Department ol Engineering was renameo the
College ol Engineering in 191. ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1931-2, p. 287,

30
Herbert Charles Saoler
1900
In Fresioent Angell`s report ol October 1901 he
noteo:
T/ Eoiorio Dortoot, o/i./ i r.i.io t/i ,or o
t/irc or tocot t/oo it /oc lot ,or, oot /o. or ro
ot o..`
The engineering builoings in 1900 incluoeo the
Engineering Builoing ano the Engineering Shops.
Classes were also helo in the Fhysics Builoing ano
the Chemical Laboratory. Engineers took their
humanities courses with their lellow stuoents in the
Department ol Literature, Science ano the Arts in
University Hall ano Tappan Hall.
MARINE ENGINEERING
8 NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
Herbert Saoler was born in Lonoon in 1872. He
stuoieo at the University ol Glasgow. In the summer
ol 1890 he became an apprentice in the nrm ol
A. 8 J. Inglis, Engineers ano Shipbuiloers. Alter
graouation he completeo his apprenticeship in their
oralting shop. He was employeo in that capacity until
189o, when he was appointeo Assistant Frolessor ol
Naval Architecture at Glasgow University.
In the lall ol 1900, when the University ol Michigan
inaugurateo a regular course in Naval Architecture
ano Engineering, Saoler was chosen to take charge
ol this new oepartment.
Frolessor Saoler superviseo the oesign ano
construction ol the Naval Tank in the New
Engineering Builoing. He also oesigneo many
lamous Great Lakes vessels ano numerous lerry
boats. He hao a great interest in yachting, ano he
oesigneo a number ol pleasure cralt as well as motor
boats.
On October 1o, 1903 Dean Charles Greene oieo.
Charles C. Brown saio in a memorial to Charles
Greene:
T/ rot or/ /oll o ooo,. E.o ocorio ooo-
oot o t/ ,rooic or oio ooo,. ` o, /o.r, .oo
o, t/ot t/ or/ f o./ o ooo o t/i c.tc to./r /o
oo oc. Iot t/ li. f t/ / /o too/t /o. oo ooilt
oti., iofoo., io o orc, ./oro.tr, t/ot oill o. T/
oo t/, /o. /lc t oo/ /oll o cio t/ir ort io t/
oo/io f t/r oo, ooc ro./ t/ro/ t/ ./oool t ci-
toot orotio. S /o t/i ooo ooilt, ot io tl, or to,
oot io /oooo li..` ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, July, 190,
The rapio expansion ol shipping on the Great
Lakes, coupleo with the increasingly sophisticateo
technology characterizing larger ano laster ships,
createo a oemano lor technically traineo oesigners
ano engineers in the marine nelo.
In 1900, the University establisheo a Department ol
Marine Engineering ano Naval Architecture.
Although some instruction in naval architecture hao
been given as early as 1881 ,notably by Mortimer
Cooley, in courses such as Naval Architecture,
Marine Engines, ano Ship Builoing, the new
oepartment oecioeo to aoopt insteao an entirely new
curriculum, patterneo alter that oevelopeo by the
University ol Glasgow, then a leaoing program in
naval architecture. In 1899 the University requesteo
ano obtaineo an appropriation to establish the new
program.
In 1900 Herbert Saoler ,B.S. Glasgow, was
appointeo Junior Frolessor ol Naval Architecture,
ano in 1901 a curriculum was establisheo leaoing to
a oegree in Marine Engineering. The oepartment
traineo stuoents in the oesign ano construction ol
ships, ano ol machinery lor ships. Training was
also ollereo to those who wisheo to enter the nelo ol
water transportation. The nrst oegree was conlerreo
in 1902.
31
Mortimer Cooley
1903
Mortimer Cooley succeeoeo Charles Greene as
Dean ol Engineering in 1903. Cooley was the key
player in the rapio progress ol the College ol Engi-
neering ouring the early oecaoes ol the 20th Cen-
tury. During Cooley`s tenure at Michigan both as a
laculty member ano then oean, enrollments in the
College grew lrom less than 30 to more than 2000,
the laculty lrom three instructors teaching several
courses to more than 1o0 prolessors ano stall teach-
ing hunoreos ol courses, ano a temporary shop ol
1,720 square leet to over 00,000 square leet ol well
equippeo builoings.
In 189 as the neeo lor aooitional lacilities became
apparent in the lace ol expanoing enrollments,
Charles Greene, the Dean ol the Department, was
askeo to oraw up plans lor a new builoing. He sug-
gesteo a small U-shapeo structure, costing about
S0,000. However, belore his plans coulo be acteo
upon, he oieo ano was succeeoeo by Mortimer Cool-
ey. Merely as a matter ol lorm, Cooley was askeo his
stano on the builoing program. He replieo:
Cotloo, if ,o .olc oot t/ t/r oiorio .ll
oit/ o/i./ o or fr.c t .ot, ,o oolc ot /itot fr
o ooot t orriot o oortr f o oillio cllor.`
They oio. The New Engineering Builoing was the
result. ,Mi./ioo T./oi., December, 1929,
Dean Mortimer Cooley`s Olnce in
the New Engineering Builoing
DEAN MORTIMER COOLEY
Dean Mortimer Cooley - Commencement Marshall
Governor Osborne ,lelt,, Fresioent Hutchins ,center,,
ano Mortimer Cooley ,in acaoemic gown,
Cooley was exceptionally active both within ano
external to the University. He was long the Grano
Marshall lor University commencements. He serveo
the city ol Ann Arbor in many ways, nrst as a member
ol the Boaro ol Iire Commissioners ,1890,, then as
Fresioent ol the City Council in 1891 ano 1892 ,an
electeo olnce,, ano as Mayor ol Ann Arbor in 1920.
In 192! he ran as the Democratic canoioate lor the
Uniteo States Senate, opposing the incumbent James
Couzens.
Cl, oo ol o fo.rit f tocot ooc oloooi. Jloooi
oolc rtoro t /i ff. o./ ,or t o rtc o, o oiol
oil, o .ior, ooc o ./ot io o f t/ o, ./oir o/i./,
oit/ i.tor, ort f /i fooo Oriotol ro .ll.tio, ooc t/
o.oir f /i tro.l, ooc t/ Doo` lor oolc ff. o
lo. f ooot,.` ,Mi./ioo T./oi., March, 193,
3!
The New Engineering Builoing
1904
In 1902 construction began on the lour-storieo structure known lor years as the
New Engineering Builoing ano later renameo West Engineering. The builoing
was completeo in 1903 ano openeo lor classes in the lall ol 190!.
The New Engineering Builoing was planneo lor o00 stuoents. By the time the
builoing openeo there were 828 stuoents, ano the new lacility was almost imme-
oiately overcrowoeo.
In 1910 the Builoing was extenoeo one hunoreo leet over the Naval Tank, as was
provioeo in the original plans. The Naval Tank, built in the New Engineering
Builoing in 190!, was the only one in this country, with the exception ol the gov-
ernment`s tank in Washington, D.C. Equipment was available lor stuoies relating
to ship resistance, shallow-water ellect, streamline now, wave pronles, wake, ano
rolling, as well as a mooel room ano workshop lor making mooels ol vessels.
Architectural Drawing ol the New Engineering Builoing
The Naval Towing Tank
THE NEW ENGINEERING BUILDING
33
New Engineering Builoing Courtyaro
The Arch was nameo The Denison Archway
later, known as the Engineering Arch.
Charles Simeon Denison
Mortimer Cooley also commenteo lonoly on Charles
Denison:
C/orl Doio` oi./ooo oo Littl Lrc C/trflc,`
fr / oo t/ Boo Broool f t/ Uoi.rit,. Hi li/tl,
.orl, /oir oot./c t/ /io o /i ot. Hi ti oot./c /i
./. Hi oorcro .otoioc oooooorc oit f .lt/
ooc .r.ot fr oll /ioc f oot/r. T/ .llor f o f
/i t.ot or f xoi. for. H /oc oll /ioc f /oor-
co/r,, io.locio or t/oo frt, /irt. H cic ot /o. t/
looocrc io Joo Jror, oot ot t/o o./ oot/ t C/i.o
fr rr` looocrio.` ,S.iotif. Blo./oit/, p. 9o,
Charles Denison`s Classrooms
1904
Frolessor Denison was loveo ano respecteo by both
stuoents ano laculty. Fresioent Angell saio ol his
gooo lrieno at the time ol his oeath:
H oo o c ooo, ooc / .oo f o lo lio f c oo.
T/ fooil, tro. it lioo fro Jotor, Iio f t/ Cioori,
f t/ Troo ooilit,, oro ooot 1!3 B.C., coo t/ro/
C/orlooo ooc o r,ol lio t Cotoio Cr Doio f
Stoioto, Coo.ti.ot, o/ .oo t Jori.o io 1631, ooc
o/ o./i.c citio.tio fr r.i. rocrc io Crooll`
oro, ooc io or oo Iocioo oor.` ,Mi./ioo T./oi.,
May, 191!,
At the close ol Denison`s nrst year at Michigan he was
engageo with Rollin J. Reeves to survey the bounoary
line between the territories ol Ioaho ano Washington
lrom the Snake River north to the national bounoary.
This proveo to be a very hazaroous unoertaking ano
nearly cost the entire party their lives.
CHARLES DENISON 8
ENGINEERING DRAWING
The lamous Engineering Arch in the New
Engineering Builoing was the contribution ol
another engineering prolessor, Charles Denison.
When he learneo that there was a serious problem
ol how to oesign the builoing without interlering
with the oiagonal walk ol the campus, he prepareo a
sketch showing the oiagonal walk passing through an
archway in the builoing.
Frolessor Denison, Denny to his stuoents, oolc
orooc t/ fr-/ooc crooio ro io.tio t/ crooio.
H oolc t ot o c/, l/ t/ or/ .r, ooc o, io o .i.
t o /orc o, oll, 1r, c, .r, c.` H oolc t/o to/
t/ tocot` o.il ooc oio ./ooio o lio /r ooc t/r,
.ollio ot t/ ./oo o t/, or ooc, ootil t/ crooio
/oc to/o o oo otirl, oo ooc .rr.t fro.` Herbert J.
Gouloing, 1893 ,Mi./ioo T./oi., Nov., 19!1, p. 10,
3!
Surveying constituteo a large part ol the early engi-
neering curriculum at Michigan ano hao been taught
continuously lrom the beginning. The Department
ol Geooesy ano Surveying became a lormal acaoem-
ic unit ollering a oegree in 1921, ano the nrst oegree
was conlerreo in 1923. The oepartment, like that
ol civil engineering, was unoer the supervision ol
Winchell, Feck, Wooo, ano Greene. Upon Greene`s
oeath, Joseph Baker Davis was put in charge.
As early as 187!, as an instructor, Davis hao orga-
nizeo a camp lor nelo work in surveying. This was
the nrst surveying camp lor nelo work in the nation.
It was organizeo at Whitmore Lake when it was a
lour-week course. The camp was later moveo lrom
place to place each year.
In the summer ol 1908, through the ellorts ol Fro-
lessor Davis ano in part by a gilt lrom Colonel ano
Mrs. Charles Bogarous ol Fellston, the University
acquireo 100 acres ol lano on Douglas Lake, thus
giving the camp a permanent home. It was nameo
Camp Davis.
Since 1912 a weekly paper, Coo Do.i Blo./ Fl,`
has been publisheo.
Camp Davis letterheao bears the lollowing legeno:
J .oo fr or.,io. T/ frt f it /ioc. Etooli/c io
187!.`
1879 Surveying Class
SURVEYING
Camp Davis
Douglas Lake, Fellston, Michigan
35
Joseph Davis
Aovice to Engineers
1oo ooo, if .r oo, otio ori o otoo t/
o f t/r, ooc ,or /r o, trot ,or /r o.`
Women at Camp Davis - 191
Camp Davis cooks
A boat on Douglas Lake at Camp Davis
Camp Davis
Jackson Hole, Wyoming
Frolessor ano Mrs. Davis
A visit to one ol the early camps woulo have louno
an enthusiastic group ol stuoents working unoer the
oirection ol Frolessor Davis. He was lather ol the
Camp. Mrs. Davis was generally present. She was
the nurse ano the mother ol the early camps.
In 191 a concrete ano steel kitchen ano complete
sanitary system were provioeo. Electric lighting was
installeo, ano the tents were replaceo by steel builo-
ings. Much ol the labor was oone by the stuoents
ano teaching stall.
In Iebruary, 1929, the University acquireo a new site
locateo at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 7 miles south ol
Yellowstone Fark. The camp hao permanent builo-
ings, incluoing resioences, oining room, kitchen,
keeper`s resioence, instrument room, shop, ano
garage. The course was lor eight weeks ol nve ano
one-hall oays each week ano provioeo eight hours
ol creoit in surveying. The cost to each stuoent was
about S10 lor the summer, incluoing tuition, boaro,
ano transportation.
36
1908
Over the years the Department ol Surveying was houseo in a variety ol locations
on campus. It hao always hao temporary quarters. When the New Engineering
Builoing was completeo, the oepartment was moveo there. The builoing, planneo
lor o00 stuoents, hao become so crowoeo that by 1908 the Department ol Survey-
ing coulo no longer be houseo there.
The oepartment nnally got its own lacility, all be it, a hano-me-oown builoing. In
187 a temporary builoing to be useo as a hospital was constructeo at the back ol
the east Frolessors` House on North University. It was calleo the Favilion Hos-
pital. It was estimateo that the builoing woulo be useo lor a perioo ol nve years
ano then torn oown. The hospital, however, was useo until 1891 when the Dental
School moveo in ano remaineo until 1908 when they moveo into their new builo-
ing across the street on North University.
In 1908 the builoing was removeo to make way lor the new Chemistry Builoing.
It was moveo north ol the New Engineering Builoing ano was occupieo by the
Department ol Surveying until June, 1918.
Surveying Builoing
lormerly the Favilion Hospital
It was rumoreo that the builoing lost some parts ano gaineo others in its journey
across the campus ano that when it was nnally put in place on the new site, its
general appearance hao changeo in some oetails.
The builoing hao always ollereo a haphazaro arrangement ol rooms ano general
oesign. Frolessor Davis was able to have some ol his personal ioeas incorporateo
in the plans lor reconstruction. When he was inlormeo by experts in heating ano
ventilating that steam raoiators shoulo be placeo on the noor not lar lrom the
winoows, he tolo them, When the Loro createo the earth He placeo the heating
plant overheao. Accoroingly the coils ol steam pipe, which were substituteo lor
cast raoiators, were placeo near the ceiling. ,Mi./ioo T./oi., May, 1919, p. 1!9,
The Surveying Department remaineo in the Favilion Hospital lor ten years. Alter
that the Department took up resioency in the new Natural Sciences Builoing.
The Favilion Hospital
North University
Drawing shows the location ol the Surveying Builoing
ano proposeo expansion ol the New Engineering Builoing
37
In 1893 Irench or German replaceo Latin as a
requirement lor aomission lor engineering stuoents
ano it became a requirement in 189.
Mortimer Cooley lelt that a gooo knowleoge ol
Irench ano German was so helplul to the accom-
plisheo engineer ol the time that it was wise to
encourage the stuoents to get a gooo reaoing knowl-
eoge ol these languages early in his course.
The requirement ol a loreign language ano special
training in English leo to the establishment ol
separate oepartments ol Mooern Languages ano
English to serve the neeos ol engineering stuoents.
Mathematics courses were also oevelopeo specincally
lor engineering stuoents, although this was not
lormalizeo by a oepartment.
Michigan requireo its engineering ano architecture
stuoents to take a lour-hour course in theme writing
ano oral expression in their lreshman year. The
Engineering English Department also ollereo 1o
two-hour courses on an elective basis in subjects
such as Report Writing, Fublic Speaking lor
Engineers, Contemporary Drama, The Novel,
ano The Short Story. Although the prolesseo aim
was to expano the cultural eoucation ol engineering
stuoents, in reality the program tenoeo to have a locus
in technical communication rather than broaoer
liberal stuoies ollereo by the Literary College.
OTHER UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS STARTED IN ENGINEERING
The College ol Engineering has playeo a particularly
important role in the history ol the University. Irom
its earliest oays as the thiro oegree program ollereo
by the University ,alter LS8A ano Meoicine,, it has
enrolleo roughly one-quarter ol the University`s
stuoents.
Both the programs in architecture ano art were nrst
oevelopeo within the College ,190o, ano oio not
become inoepenoent schools until 1931 ano 1972,
respectively. Similarly the College ol Engineering
playeo a major role in the oevelopment ol programs
in mathematics, nnally merging its mathematics
curriculum with that ol LS8A in 1928. The Uni-
versity`s mooern languages programs also trace their
beginning to instruction in the College in German
ano Irench, later joineo with the LS8A counterparts
in 1929. Fublic Health can be traceo to early instruc-
tion ollereo by Engineering ano Meoicine in public
health engineering ano later a program leaoing to
the oegree ol ooctor ol public health in 1911. The
College even partnereo with the School ol Iorestry
ano Conservation in oeveloping joint programs in
wooo technology.
ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN
William LeBaron Jenney ,C.E., Ecole Centrale oes
Arts et Manulactures, Faris, 18o,, a lamous archi-
tect lrom Chicago, was appointeo Frolessor ol Archi-
tecture ano Design in 187o. Jenney was the inventor
ol skeleton construction lor large builoings. In 1878,
the Legislature laileo to renew the appropriation ano
the school ol architecture ano oesign came to an
early oeath. Jenney returneo to Chicago.
Architecture Stuoents
In 1903 there was once again a strong interest
in establishing an architecture program at
Michigan, ano the matter was relerreo lor stuoy
to an engineering laculty committee. In 190 a
prolessorship in architecture was createo, ano in 190o
the Engineering laculty oevelopeo a curriculum lor a
oegree in architecture ano architectural engineering,
which was publisheo in the 190o-07 catalog.
In 190o, Emil Lorch was appointeo as Frolessor
ol Architecture alter a request by the state
architects. Since there was only one prolessorship
in the program, all other course work was taught by
engineering laculty. Although the New Engineering
Builoing was alreaoy overcrowoeo, room was maoe
lor the new architecture program.
38
Joo Jror, Fo. 17, 10
T t/ Borc f Rot:
For ,or o I tocrc o, riootio t ,o io t/ olif t/ot t/ iotrt f t/ Uoi.rit,
oolc o oor.c o, t/ oiotoot t t/ rico., f o ,oor ooo. 1o c.lioc io o./
/ioc orc t o..t o, riootio t/ot I /o. .otiooc ot o, t, ooc rocrc t/ ot r.i.
f o/i./ I oo .oool.
Bot o I /o. oo oc o, i/tit/ oirt/co,, it i fttio t/ot I /olc roo t/ tocr f
o, riootio. I t/rfr c oit/ t/ orot rot t/ot ,o o..t it t to/ ff.t ot t/ oc
f t/ o.ocoi. ,or.
Mo, I to/ t/i ..oio t xr t ,o ooio o, io.r t/oo/ fr oll ,or .ort, ooc
/ioco t o.
1or .r, trol,,
)oo B. Joll
FRESIDENT ANGELL RESIGNS
Horr, Hot./io oo olroc, oll /ooo o t/ .ooo o/o / oo l.tc Pricot io
110. H oo o rocoot f t/ Uoi.rit,, /oc r.c o )o, Prfr f Loo ootil /
rioc t rooi t/ loo cortoot ot Croll, ooc /oc oo coo f or Loo Dortoot
fr ffto ,or. H o..tc t/ rico., oit/ o rr.otio io /i oo oioc o/i./ / o.r
frt. H oloo, flt t/ot /i oo t/ cot, f .orr,io froorc o t/ro/l, o / .olc t/
oio ooc icol f Pricot Joll, t o/o / oo c.tc. H oo o ooo f ooc ocoot
ooc rot iotrit,. H ot t/ Uoi.rit, o o oo./ fror fooo.iol ooi, ooc io orol, o.
it oo x.llot ocoioitrotio ot o tio o/o t/i oo rotl, occ.` Mortimer Cooley
,S.iotif. Blo./oit/, p. 71,
Harry Hutchins serveo as acting Fresioent lrom 1909-1910 ano was nameo
Fresioent in 1910. He serveo until 1920.
1910
Harry Burns Hutchins
1909
Fresioent Angell on one ol his oaily walks
3
1904
1916
1911
ENGINEERING MECHANICS
The Department ol Engineering Mechanics was
establisheo in 1911. Frior to that time, instruction
in applieo mechanics hao been given by the Depart-
ment ol Civil Engineering. Courses in this oepart-
ment were requireo ol all engineering stuoents, al-
though a curriculum hao been establisheo leaoing to
a oegree in Engineering Mechanics. The nrst oegree
was conlerreo in 1913.
New technologies receiving attention in the early
1900`s incluoeo the oevelopments in wireless trans-
mission, the electrincation ol railroaos, water tur-
bines, ano aeronautics.
The theory ol wireless telegraphy ano telephony hao
been taught at the University since 1908, in response
to early commercial oemano lor training in wireless
transmission.
A laboratory ano broaocasting room was locateo in
the basement on the south sioe ol the Engineering
Builoing, ano two sixty-loot poles were placeo outsioe
to support the antennae useo lor senoing ano receiv-
ing messages. Wires were run to the top ol the heat-
ing plant stack in oroer to achieve a sulncient height
to communicate by wireless raoio with Detroit.
Two sixty loot poles supporteo antennae
useo lor senoing ano receiving messages.
1913
CIVIL ENGINEERING
SANITARY EXFERIMENT STATION
The Department ol Civil Engineering, unoer the
oirection ol Frolessor W. C. Hoao, establisheo a
Sanitary Experiment Station in 1912.
The plant was locateo near the loot ol the hill, in
a small orcharo, about nve hunoreo leet northeast
lrom the General Hospital. The slope was lavorable
to the layout ol the oillerent parts ol the plant in a
compact ano economical manner, allowing the city
waste to pass lrom the city main on Glen Avenue to
the station by gravity.
Frolessor Hoao:
Jit/ t/ .o.otrotio f t/ olotio io .iti, t/ ro-
io llotio f troo ooc lo/, ooc t/ roicl, io.roio
ciff.olt, f otoioio ocoot ooc oitool oooi.iol ootr
oli, tt/r oit/ t/ oor/c toco., toorc t/ o..-
too. f /i/r toocorc f oooi.iol, o l t/oo f r-
ool .oco.t, t/ ioocio rolo f ooitotio lo lor
ooc iortoot. T/r oot o oo io.roc .loo f ror./
or/, ooc oo./ oioto/io xrioototio, if t/ ooitor,
oior f t/ fotor i t o foll, oic fr /i rot to/.`
,Mi./ioo Jloooo, December, 1912,
1912
Frolessor William Christian Hoao
!0
Barbour 8 Waterman
Gymnasium
Favilion Hospital
Homeopathic Hospital
Law Builoing
New Meoical Builoing
Chemical Laboratory 8
Fharmacology Laboratory
University Hall
University Library
Heating Flant
Original Meoical Builoing New Engineering Builoing
Anatomy Laboratory
Boiler House
Engineering Shops
Engineering Builoing
Fresioent`s House
Alumni Memorial Builoing
Tappan Hall
Museum
Fhysics Builoing
THE BUILDINGS ON THE ORIGINAL IORTY ACRES OI THE UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN CAMFUS IN THE EARLY 1900s
!1
THE UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN CAMFUS - EARLY 1900s
Richaro Rummell Fainting
!!
1916
1913
In 1913 the Engineering Builoings were openeo to
the public lor the nrst exhibit ol the Engineering
Department. This nrst exhibit was helo on May 1
ano 1o to coincioe with the May Iestival. Over ten
thousano people toureo the lacilities ano inspecteo
the work ol the oepartment. The entire enterprise
was conceiveo ano executeo by the stuoents, with the
laculty playing no major role.
Ior the average stuoent as well as lor the casual
visitor, the Engineering corner ol the Campus helo
mysteries almost as prolouno as the oeeper mysteries
ol the Meoical School. But everything was explaineo
ouring these annual exhibitions.
The Mechanical Engineers hao a practical oem-
onstration ol various types ol automobile engines,
oesigneo to show their luel economy ano horse
power. They also surpriseo their visitors by sawing
wooo with a piece ol paper running at 20,000 revo-
lutions per minute, lreezing nowers in liquio air, ano
showing a bottle supporteo only by two narrow wires
lrom which a lull stream ol water noweo - a mystery
solveo by lew.
The Naval Tank was in lull operation, ano the
methoo ol making ano testing the mooels ol all oil-
lerent types ol boats was shown. Many mooels ol
well known types ol nying machines were on exhibit.
The War Department provioeo two lull size torpe-
ooes, which were explaineo by a squao ol marines.
Two large cannons were also mounteo at each sioe
ol the Engineering Arch.
The Electrical Engineers louno an opportunity in
the University`s telephone equipment ano wireless
system to give a oemonstration ol the latest oevelop-
ments in long oistance communication. Messages
were sent over the wireless without charge. A practi-
cal oemonstration was also given ol many lighting
systems, ano the evolution ol the electric lamp was
shown. Outsioe ol the builoing a complete electric
railway with a block signal system gave great pleasure
to hunoreos ol chiloren.
The Surveying stuoents showeo a large mooel ol
Camp Davis, the surveying camp in the northern
part ol the State.
The Chemical Engineers, with heaoquarters in the
Chemistry Builoing, gave a practical oemonstration
ol the manulacture ol gas ano luel analysis. Fottery
was maoe, bakeo ano glazeo, ano a miniature paper
plant, complete in every oetail was in operation,
with souvenirs ol the nnal proouct lor the visitors.
Dyes were maoe ano the actual oyeing ol material
shown. Soap was maoe in the laboratory ano the
manulacture ol paints ano varnishes was practically
oemonstrateo.
The Sanitary Engineering stuoents exhibiteo practi-
cal mooels ol various oevices lor the purincation ol
sewage.
THE ENGINEERING EXHIBIT
Miniature Irrigation Flant Iorestry Exhibit
The Department ol Highway Engineering gave a
practical oemonstration ol the oillerent kinos ol
roao materials ano structure.
The Department ol Civil Engineering oemonstrateo
a complete working mooel ol a mooern power oevel-
opment ano irrigation project.
The Architecture Stuoents covereo the walls ol the
architectural orawing room with orawings ano oe-
signs.
The Department ol Iorestry, Botany, Mineralogy,
Geology ano Zoology also took part in the exhibit.
,Mi./ioo Jloooo, May, 191!,
!3
THE HONOR SYSTEM
The honor system was establisheo in the College
ol Engineering ano Architecture in 191o. It was
instituteo at the request ol the stuoents, who playeo
a major role in its operation. Baseo on the principle
that it is oishonorable lor anyone to receive creoit
which is not the result ol his or her own ellorts,
the honor cooe was aligneo closely with the ethical
requirements ol prolessional engineering practice.
The College`s Honor Cooe was quite unique within
the University, ano it remains in place to this oay. All
engineering stuoents are requireo to write or sign a
statement on their examination papers that:
I /o. oit/r i.o or r.i.c oic o t/i xooiootio or
/o. I .o.olc oo, .ilotio f t/ Hor Cc.`
1913
Emil Lorch
The course in architecture grew unoer the leaoership
ol Frolessor Emil Lorch, ano in 1913 the Depart-
ment ol Engineering became the Department ol
Engineering ano Architecture, later renameo the
College ol Engineering ano Architecture in 191.
In 1928 the Department ol Architecture moveo
into its own builoing, nameo in honor ol Frolessor
Lorch. In 1931 The College ol Architecture became
a separate unit.
DEFARTMENT OI ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
1916
Lorch Hall
Lorch Hall Sculpture Garoen Lorch Hall Stuoio
!!
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
In 1913 Ielix Fawlowski, ol Warsaw, a practicing me-
chanical engineer, traineo in Germany in the 1890`s,
came to the Uniteo States. He hao taken instruction
at the nrst nying school in the worlo, establisheo by
Frolessor Lucien Marchis in Faris in 1909.
Fawlowski wrote to a number ol universities ano
ollereo his services in establishing a course in aero-
nautical engineering. Most ol the schools never
replieo, only two took it seriously. One was M.I.T.,
which inoicateo it might be interesteo in the luture
but not at the present, the other was the University
ol Michigan. Dean Cooley wireo Fawlowski to come
to Ann Arbor ano oiscuss the position. As a result,
Fawlowski came to the University as instructor in
mechanical engineering in Iebruary 191!, he lec-
tureo inlormally on aeronautical subjects until 191o,
when the Department ol Aeronautical Engineering
was establisheo. The nrst oegree was granteo in
1917. ,Mortimer Cooley notes, p. 71,
1916
Ielix W. Fawlowski
Irom a painting by Leon A. Makielski
Airplanes innuential in the early oevelopment ol Fawlowski`s career
1909 Bleriot...The lameo cross-channel mooel on
which Louis Bleriot new the English Channel in 1909
was powereo with a 20-2 h.p. Anzani raoial engine.
1909 Iarman...The Henri Iarman biplane was powereo
with a 0-h.p. rotary Gnome engine. Maximum ano
minimum speeos coincioeo at about 3o m.p.h.
1913 Iarman...The Maurice Iarman ,brother ol Henri
Iarman, Longhorn biplane was a slow but easy to ny
airplane. It was powereo with a 70-h.p. Renault engine.
!5
In 191o the University Heating ano Lighting Flant
was moveo lrom the central campus to the Cat-
Hole, the swampy area to the northeast ol the
campus. The vacateo builoing was assigneo to the
courses in Highway Engineering ano Automobile
Engineering.
The work in Highway Engineering, occupieo the
north sioe ol the Builoing.
A wall was built separating the highway laboratory
lrom the automobile laboratory ano a mezzanine
noor 20 leet wioe was constructeo arouno the sioes
ol the olo boiler room.
The basement noor consisteo ol a large room !! x
o0 leet, in which a large machine lor testing brioge
noors ano large concrete slabs, a concrete mixer,
ano a paving oeterminator ano mixing noor were
installeo. Aojoining this room was an unoergrouno
chamber 1o x 20 leet which was useo lor a rattler
room ano in which were installeo the brick rattler,
the Deval rattler, the rock crusher ano the ball mill,
so that the extremely noisy apparatus was mulneo in
an unoergrouno chamber.
The south hall ol the olo Heating Flant was useo lor
an Automobile Testing ano Exhibit Laboratory. The
main laboratory was 37 x o! leet, exclusive ol the ol-
nces ol the oepartment. A wioe gallery ran arouno
three sioes ol the laboratory on the grouno level.
The main noor, which was the olo boiler room, was
consioerably below the grouno level. Access to it lor
automobiles lor testing ano oemonstration purposes
was maoe possible by means ol an incline at the rear
ol the east sioe. ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 191o,
1916
Prfr Dooo, I rlic, I /c ,o oolc o/ o t/ot.
I xloioc t /io t/ot o/o o /oc olorc t/ /otio
loot o.oo f t/ oo ooilcio o .ooo, occitiool
o/to./ o.oo o.or, io rcr t io.ro t/ .oo.it,
f t/ oilr. T/ or f otol. I o. iotro.tio t o,
c frioc, t/ Ji./ Brt/r f Soiooo, o/ .otro.tc
t/o, t oo/ t/ o/to./ o ol, o iol, ooc io
iotollio t/o t roo o f t/ o, r o.r t/ cioool
ool/ ot /i/ oo/ t /o./ o ooo` /ot ff. T/ roo fr
cio t/i, I tlc Prfr Dooo, oo o.oo fr .rol
,or I /o. oo tr,io t t t/ oilr /o o.c ff t/
.ooo. `oc, l /o oo iotrtc, ooc I .oo`t c it
olo. I t/o/t if I .olc oo/ t/ oilr /o o ol, o
iol, ooc fx t/ o, r o f t/ rfr oolc
t t/ir /oc oooc, I oi/t t o /l. Soff. t o,,
t/ flloio ,or I oo oot/ric t oo/ loo fr t/ r-
ot oilr /o io t/ lc Cot Hl`.` ,S.iotif. Blo./oit/,
p. 82,
Highway ano Automobile Engineering in the lormer Heating ano Lighting Flant
Mortimer Cooley never likeo having the Fower Flant
locateo on the Central Campus. He tells the lollow-
ing story:
Prfr Dooo ooc I or ool/io ot o t/ cioool
ool/ ooc o o .oo it t/ or /o I .rocc Do-
oo li/tl, t t/ ri/t o/r tc o t ooc o ./ioo, o,
r ot /i/ oo/ t /o./ o ooo` /ot ff. Dooo` /ot
oot ff.
H toroc t o iocioootl,. I oocrtooc ,o or roiol
fr t/ot r. J/, io t/ orlc cic ,o ot it lo.`
HIGHWAY AND AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
!6
In 191o voluntary military
training ol stuoents was
starteo on the campus ano
was carrieo on unoer the
oirection ol Major Clyoe
Wilson, ol the College ol
Engineering laculty.
J c ot oli. io oor, oot o
c oli. io o.o. oit/ lio-
rt, ooc oti. fr oll. T/rfr
o or oll or/io fr rooool,
cfoi., Prorco` o/i./
o / oill o.o roooot`.
C.E. Wilson ,Mi./ioo Jloo-
oo, May, 191o,
At the close ol the spring
term there were as many as
nine hunoreo men in train-
ing. Victor Vaughan, Dean
ol Meoi ci ne, Mort i mer
Cooley, Dean ol Engineer-
ing ano Henry Bates, Dean
ol Law were all active in
promoting the work ol the
Security League. Here it
shoulo also be noteo that
several prolessors connecteo
with the Department ol
German useo their class-
rooms lor active German
propaganoa ano were con-
sequently oismisseo.
WORLD WAR I 191! - 1818
Class in visual signaling ,Semaphore,
Class in the New Engineering Builoing
The University ol Michigan
has long contributeo to the
oelense ol the nation ouring
times ol war. Because ol
its heritage ,since civilian
engineering evolveo lrom
military engineering, ano the
importance ol technology to
mooern warlare, the College
ol Engineering playeo a
particularly important role
in responoing to times ol
national neeo.
The University hao been
open less than seven years
when the Mexican War
broke out in 188. Iive ol
the 103 stuoents lought in
the war, three as olncers.
Nearly 2000 Michigan men
serveo in the Civil War
unoer the Union colors,
many as olncers ano non-
commissioneo olncers.
7o Michigan men enlisteo
in the Spanish American
War in 1898. The Hay Bill
ano the Chamberlin Bill
provioeo a mechanism to
oevelop olncers on university
campuses, ano in 1898 an
olncer battalion was lormeo
at the University to serve the
neeos ol the war with Spain.
Almost immeoiately alter the oeclaration
ol war in 191!, two oivisions ol the Naval
Reserves were mobilizeo ano were stationeo
at their heaoquarters, in Waterman Gymna-
sium. Drills were helo on Ierry Iielo. In
aooition to the gymnasium, other University
builoings were brought into use, ano State
Street was occupieo by marching men.
During the war years, the University relo-
cuseo its ellorts on the military neeos ol the
nation, in many cases at the expense ol its
own acaoemic programs.
The College ol Engineering ano the Law School
mooineo their courses so that at least two oays
a week were oevoteo to orill. To supplement
these orills the Engineering laculty starteo an
elementary course in military engineering en-
rolling some 210 stuoents, incluoing 30 lrom the
Literary College. Special courses were given in
signaling, munitions, railroao transportation,
automobile engineering, ano the classincation
ano hanoling ol stores.
Drills on Ierry Iielo
Barracks in Waterman Gymnasium
!7
Builoing a Temporary Mess besioe the Michigan Union
Army Stuoents` Mess
Michigan Union Ballroom
Barracks in the Michigan Union
Communications
Class in the Engineering Shops Iounory
Cooe Training
Surveying
Early in 1918 the University was
requesteo by the government to
oetermine how many men coulo
be traineo on campus to serve as
army mechanics. A reply was
maoe that two hunoreo coulo
be accommooateo. Washington
expecteo a larger commitment,
ano with the use ol aooitional
temporary barracks seven hun-
oreo men were traineo.
Spanish innuenza struck the
Michigan campus in October
ol 1918. This was ouring the
perioo ol the S.A.T.C. ,Stuoents`
Army Training Corps,, which
enrolleo approximately 3,o00
men houseo in hastily prepareo
barracks contriveo out ol lrater-
nity houses ano the hall-nnisheo
Michigan Union. When the nu
came 1,207 members ol the
S.A.T.C. were stricken, with 9
oeaths occuring.
The innrmaries ol the military
units ano the hospital lacilities
ol Ann Arbor were straineo by
this emergency. The women
ol the city, unoer the leaoership
ol the Ann Arbor group ol the
American Association ol Uni-
versity Women, helpeo to leeo
ano nurse the sullerers. Barbour
Gymnasium became an auxiliary
hospital.
Navy Stuoents` Mess
Michigan Union Fool
The Michigan Union Kitchen
!8
1920
ENGINEERING RESEARCH
As the Mi./ioo Jloooo oescribeo it in 1939:
T/ro/ t/ Dortoot f Eoiorio Ror./ t/
Uoi.rit, ot ot t/ r.i. f oooofo.torr ooc iocotriol
.o.ro t/ t./oi.ol /oolc f it toff ooc it oooool
fo.iliti fr l.io rolo foocoootol t olic .io..
1or oo/io oo./io roo or oitl, o.oo f ror./ o
o./ooi.ol oi co io t/ Mi./ioo loorotri, ooc ooo,
oooofo.torc rco.t io coil, o or oo./ioc oit/ rotr
o..oro., o, .irto f ooorio c.i. o/i./ Mi./ioo io.-
tiotr /o. .otri.c.` ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1939-!0,
Albert E. White
In 1920, the Department ol Engineering Research
was establisheo. It ollereo an olncial mechanism
through which the research in engineering ano relat-
eo nelos ol work coulo be maoe available to the civic
ano inoustrial interests ol the State ano elsewhere.
The lunction ol the oepartment was largely aomin-
istrative. The work was oone by the Engineering
laculty in their laboratories. Stuoents workeo as as-
sistants, giving them valuable experience in research,
although no stuoent creoits were given. The oepart-
ment was unoer the oirection ol Albert White.
Albert White joineo the Chemical Engineering
laculty in 1911. During the war years he was in
charge ol the Metallurgical Branch ol the Inspec-
tion Division, Oroinance Department ol the Uniteo
States Army, ano later was placeo in charge ol the
Metallurgical Branch ano Technical Stall. Frolessor
White returneo to the University in 1919 ano was
appointeo Director ol the Department ol Engineer-
ing Research.
The enrollment in Engineering continueo its rapio
growth, lrom !00 in 1900 to 1,300 in 1910 to over
2,000 in 1920. The capacity ol the New Engineering
Builoing was quickly exceeoeo by the rising stuoent
numbers, ano university laboratories hao to be
houseo in temporary builoings arouno the campus.
But even with these short-term measures, there
was still not enough room, ano many engineering
subjects hao to be oroppeo.
There were other space pressures. The Engineering
Shops were inaoequate to meet the neeos ol the
engineering programs. The space occupieo by
Chemical Engineering in the Chemistry Builoing was
urgently neeoeo by the Department ol Chemistry.
The ooubling ol enrollments ouring the 1910-1920
perioo to over 2,000 stuoents brought Engineering to
a crisis point in its neeos lor aooitional space.
!
East Hall
1922
East Hall
Iormer Tappan Elementary School
Neeoless to say, this castoll aooition to the Engineering campus was not highly
regaroeo. An article in the Mi./ioo T./oi. put it this way:
It i t/ ol, co./lio f t/ oiorio fooil,. Jftr ooocrio t/ro/ o oo f oorro
oo ooc iotr-.oo.tc .loro, t/ tocot r/o .o t o cr o o/i./ or io-
.rioc t/ circ ooorol, o/r / i of till it i tio t ot. T/o if / i orti.olorl,
oolo./, / oill foll iot o tro t o, Prfr Bro./tt, o/ /o .r, .oooiol, tooli/c /i
ff. ri/t o t/ t o/r .o o ooocrio Fr/ooo i or t/ cr t t/ Crot Ootcr
ooc Frco i l.otc.
T/r or oll rt f roor ooot t/ lc ./l. Moo, .ooi. ft f t/ oooot or .o-
ltl, ol./c ff fro .oriit, otifr. Io t/ cioc olfr, li. io o/ or oic t o
c.occ fro t/ o/ rfroc /ri. oor r.i. io iotro-.ooo oottl f fror
,or. Dir.tl, oocr t/ ort/ otroo.-oo, t/r i o lor .itro. `oc, o t /oo t/
roo fr it xito., oot it /o oo otc t/ot o tro-cr io t/ fr oolc foroi/ x.l-
lot fo.iliti fr o./ .rooi o ootio r o.rif. t t/ oiorio c.` ,Mi./ioo
T./oi., October, 1939, p. 28,
Olnces ol the Engineering English Department were locateo in East Hall, along
with the classrooms lor the courses in English ano mathematics.
East Hall
In 1922, as a stopgap measure, the University purchaseo the olo Tappan School
builoing on East University, renaming it East Hall, ano gave it to Engineering lor
use in its classes in non-technical subjects such as Engineering English. This olo
builoing hao been constructeo in 1883 as a city school. The name Tappan School
remaineo on its north lace. It was conoemneo lor elementary school purposes by
the state nre inspectors in 1922, ano became available to the University.
Several ol the classrooms were consioereo to be too large, so they were partitioneo
into sizes more suitable lor university work. The builoing was connecteo to the
university light ano heating system.
50
1923
The East Engineering Builoing was completeo in
1923. It houseo the Chemical ano Metallurgical
Department, the Department ol Metal Frocessing
,lormerly in the Engineering Shops,, the Department
ol Engineering Research, the Division ol Transpor-
tation Engineering, the State Highway Laboratories,
the Department ol Aeronautical Engineering incluo-
ing the wino tunnels, the East Engineering Library
lor these oepartments, ano the Transportation Li-
brary containing over 100,000 books oealing with
every aspect ol transportation.
Thirty houses on the property were removeo to ac-
commooate the East Engineering Builoing. They
were moveo to other locations, so that the University
builoing program woulo not contribute to the loss ol
housing in Ann Arbor.
Schematic Drawing lor East Engineering
The nrst section ol the East Engineering Builoing
East Hall ,lelt,, Iirehouse ,center,, East Engineering ,right,
The University nnally responoeo to the neeos ol the
College with plans lor a large new builoing, nameo
East Engineering. Although this was originally
envisioneo as a monumental structure, oesigneo to
meet the neeos ol the College lor oecaoes to come,
the nnal plans were lar less ambitious ano woulo
require lurther expansion in later years.
51
East Engineering
West Engineering, West Engineering Annex ,right,, Olo Heating Flant ,lront,
East Hall
West Engineering

1920`s ENGINEERING FACILITIES


In the 1920`s the builoings ol the College ol Engineering consisteo ol West En-
gineering, The West Engineering Annex ,Engineering Shops,, The Olo Fower
Flant, East Engineering ano East Hall.
Highway 8 Automobile Engineering - Iormer Heating ano Lighting Flant
5!
One can gain an interesting impression ol the College ol Engineering campus
in the 1920s by summarizing one ol the walking tours provioeo to visitors to the
University ouring this perioo:
The University visitor who starts a tour ol the campus lrom the Michigan Union
is lavorably impresseo with the beauty ol the University builoings. Alter looking
up at the square tower ol the Union, nankeo by its scholar ano its athlete,
The Michigan Union Tower
The Michigan Union Statues
Learning, looking towaro the Campus.
Athletics, looking towaro Ierry Iielo.
the visitor turns towaro the Campus ano aomires the granite colonnaoe ol
Angell Hall ano the more weathereo portico ol the Memorial Builoing.
Angell Hall
Alumni Memorial Hall
A VISITOR`S TOUR OI THE UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN CAMFUS IN THE 1920s
53
To the right are the catheoral winoows ol the Lawyer`s Commons ano the long
stretch ol ageo-stone bay winoows ol the oormitory.
As one proceeos along the show street, South University Avenue, one oelights in
the oomestic touch that the Fresioent`s home gives to the Campus.
Across the street Fortia stanos above the ooorway
ol the perlect oormitory, nameo alter Martha
Cook.
Again to the lelt is the jewel ol the Campus,
the Clements Library, which looks across the
lanoscapeo garoen ol the Martha Cook Dor-
mitory towaro the realization ol the University
architect`s artistic oreams, Lorch Hall.
The Lawyer`s Commons
The Fresioent`s House
Clements Library
Fortia
Lorch Hall
Law Dormitory
But then.....
5!
Born in the temporary builoings constructeo lor the Stuoent Army Training
Corps ouring Worlo War I, this youthlul ano most mooern ol projects in the Uni-
versity, the Department ol Automotive Engineering, louno itsell homeless when
construction ol the new Fhysics builoing starteo. Iounoations were hurrieoly laio
in some steel sheos which were then upon the site ol the Clements Library, but be-
lore the engines coulo be moveo to their platlorms these sheos also were wreckeo
to make way lor the library. The basement ol the Engineering Shops was then
allocateo to the automotive engineers, together with the sheo which is supporteo
by its west wall.
Automotive Laboratory Lean-to ,lelt,
next to Clements Library lacing South University
Automotive Laboratory Lean-to lacing the Diag
Engineering Shops - lacing South University
As the visitor turns again to the Campus, the aomiring comments suooenly cease,
lor there behino a muooy parking yaro, with its oirty cars, trucks, ano cannons, is
the lean-to sheo, painteo barn-reo, which houses the Automotive Laboratory.
This woooen shanty rests against the olo brick-reo walls ol the Engineering Shops,
whose rioge-pole is surmounteo by lragments ol an ornamental iron lence. Just to
emphasize the runoown atmosphere, a boxlike brioge, supporteo by heavy poles,
connects the rear ol the shops with a corner ol the neat Engineering Builoing.
55
Ugliness is only skin oeep in this case lor the interior ol the builoing is the neat-
est ano best arrangeo ol automotive laboratories. Ol course, when it snows in
Ann Arbor lor one oay, it rains in the sheo lor two weeks in as much as the melt-
ing snow upon the slightly slanteo rool slowly leaks through the rotteo boaros.
Waterprool canvas coverings are placeo over the engines useo in tests to prevent
moisture lrom interlering with research.
In the lean-to are mounteo the motors ol many ol the leaoing automobiles reaoy
lor tests. Dynamometers are mounteo on tracks ano ball bearings so that they
may be swung about to serve a number ol motors. Fipes connect the exhausts
ol all motors with a ventilating lan to keep the gases lrom the room. Automobile
manulacturers who appreciate the research willingly conoucteo lor them by the
Department have oonateo all ol the equipment.
Within a raoius ol one hunoreo miles ol Ann Arbor are situateo most ol the
automotive plants ol the Uniteo States. Consioering the work oone in this oe-
partment, the nearness ol Ann Arbor to Detroit inoustries, ano the evioent en-
couragement ol these manulacturers, the housing ol equipment lor automotive
engineering is not by any means ol the type to be expecteo. Ano besioes, the olo
sheo spoils the University`s skyline.
,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1928-29, p. !08,
Automotive Laboratory Interior Automotive Laboratory Interior
56
1928
In 1928, at the age ol 73, Mortimer Cooley retireo,
ano became Dean Emeritus ol the College ol
Engineering ano Architecture. He hao serveo the
University lor !7 years, 2 ol those years as Dean ol
Engineering.
Unoer Cooley`s leaoership, both West ano East
Engineering were built, East Hall was acquireo, the
oepartments ol Aeronautical Engineering ano Engi-
neering Research were starteo, the Mentor system
was establisheo, ano the Honor System was insti-
tuteo. The policy ol selecting outstanoing prolessors
lor the oepartmental heaos became a strong traoition
ol the College ol Engineering.
When Cooley arriveo at Michigan in 1881, there
were only 30 stuoents in Engineering, taught by
three laculty members. When he retireo as oean in
1928, the College hao grown to over 2,000 stuoents
ano 1o0 laculty.
Tappan`s woros guioeo Cooley`s laculty choices:
There is no sale guioe in the appointment ol proles-
sors save in the qualincations ol the canoioates.
But Cooley aooeo another key asset:
T/ot I oo fr t oo io ooo, o.ti.iti oo lorl, o-
io t Mr. Cl,. S/ ot ol, t/ loor io ooiotoioio
o /o fr o, tocot ooc frioc o oll o fr /r oo
ooo, frioc, oot / oo o c.tc ot/r t or for ./ilcro.
1oo l .oo t /r frootl, fr oc.i. ooc oocrtooc-
io, ooc / oo o.r t oo, t oc tio oit/ t/o. `
ooo .oo o oo, or f o o.. t/oo /i ot/r ooc /i oif
oo/ f /io; t t/ to olloot otlooo io o, lif I /o.
o.r foilc t ocoit o, iocotco.` Mortimer Cooley
,S.iotif. Blo./oit/, p. 19o,
Caroline Cooley oieo at the Cooley home on Hill
Street the night ol October 19, 1932, alter a year
long illness. Mortimer Cooley oieo at the age ol 89
on August 2, 19!!.
Cooley`s son, Hollis M. Cooley, graouateo lrom the
Naval Acaoemy in 190o, ano the Dean`s granoson,
Hollis W. Cooley, graouateo in 193o. This young
man receiveo his B.S. at the time ol his graouation.
Later the lather, Captain Cooley, was awaroeo his
B.S. ano nnally the granolather, Dean Cooley was
so honoreo. Thus the nrst in that lamily to graou-
ate was the last, ano the last was nrst, to receive his
oegree. ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, 1937-38, p. 183,
Caroline Elizabeth Moseley Cooley
Fhoto taken at the time ol her marriage
Mortimer E. Cooley
Caoet Mortimer E. Cooley
1928
Mortimer Cooley oio not receive his B.S. oegree
lrom the Naval Acaoemy until 193o at the age ol 82.
By an act ol Congress in the 1930s, the Superinten-
oent ol the Naval Acaoemy was authorizeo to conler
upon all living graouates who may be recommeno-
eo lor such awaro the oegree certincate which other
institutions ol higher learning customarily have be-
stoweo. Although many Naval graouates hao gone
on to post-graouate work, the universities recognizeo
their commissions with bachelor`s oegrees.
57
Henry Clay Anoerson, became Dean in 1937. He
receiveo his oegree in Mechanical Engineering lrom
the University ol Kentucky ano he immeoiately went
to work lor the Cincinnati, New Orleans ano Texas
Railroao at Chattanooga, Tennessee Railway Com-
pany as Assistant to the Master Mechanic. In 1900
he came to the University ol Michigan as Instructor
ol Mechanical Engineering, ano in 1917 he became
heao ol the Department. As a member ol a nrm ol
consulting engineers, he oesigneo ano constructeo
many large power ano heating plants, hospitals, ano
all manner ol public works while at Michigan. He
was oean lor only a briel perioo lrom 1937-39. His
health was poor ano he oieo on October 1!, 1939.

Herbert Charles Saoler
1928-1937
Henry Clay Anoerson
1937-39
Ivan Crawloro
19!0-190
DEANS WHO FOLLOWED MORTIMER COOLEY
Herbert Charles Saoler succeeoeo Mortimer Cooley
as Dean ol Engineering in 1928. Saoler was an
internationally known naval architect ano hao
been the nrst chair ol the Department ol Naval
Architecture ano Marine Engineering. When Saoler
became oean, alter serving on the laculty lor 37 years,
the nation was about to enter the Great Depression,
a time when the University woulo be unoer great
nnancial haroship. Although enrollments increaseo
slightly ouring Saoler`s years, the buoget ol the
College oeclineo ouring the oepression, ano lurther
growth ol the Engineering Campus was stagnant.
Ivan Crawloro was the nrst Dean ol Engineering
recruiteo to Michigan lrom another university.
Crawloro earneo a oegree in civil engineering
lrom the University ol Coloraoo, ano alter a briel
perioo on its laculty, became oean ol engineering
at the University ol Ioaho in 1923. He then went
on to become oean at the University ol Kansas in
1937, belore joining Michigan as its new Dean ol
Engineering ano Frolessor ol Civil Engineering in
19!0. Crawloro leo the College ouring the war
years, a time when Engineering relocuseo its ellorts to
respono nrst to the war neeos ol the nation, ano then
to the enormous oemano lor engineering eoucation
lrom the returning veterans on the G. I. Bill.
58
THE ROLE OI THE COLLEGE OI ENGINEERING IN WORLD WAR II
When the Uniteo States entereo the war in Decem-
ber, 19!1, it was obvious at once the University ol
Michigan woulo be oeeply allecteo. In preparation
lor the inevitable changes, early in January the Uni-
versity Committee on National Delense was replaceo
by the University War Boaro. Larger than its preoe-
cessor, ano with broaoer outies, the new boaro was
assigneo the task ol expeoiting the transition ol the
University lrom a peacetime to a wartime basis. It
was establisheo as an arm ol the olnce ol the Fresi-
oent.

Among the nrst actions was that ol revising the 19!1-
!2 calenoar by reoucing the length ol examination
perioos ano eliminating the spring vacation perioo.
Frolessionally ano technically traineo stuoents were
maoe available lor war work almost three weeks ear-
lier than the normal scheoule woulo have permitteo.
The urgent neeo lor traineo technicians oictateo that
the University woulo operate as nearly as possible on
a year-rouno basis. The War Boaro recommenoeo
that the University oller three lull terms ol instruc-
tion ouring each calenoar year.
The Boaro encourageo the College ol Engineering
ano other units to invite the armeo lorces ano civil-
ian governmental agencies to seno selecteo groups to
the University lor specializeo training ano ollereo its
assistance to lacilitate this proceoure.
Belore the eno ol the year arrangements hao been
completeo to provioe training in surveying ano
photogrammetry, ultrahigh-lrequency technology
ano aircralt engine inspection as well as to continue
the large program in engineering ano management
training unoer contract with the Uniteo States Olnce
ol Eoucation.
Recognizing that it was primarily the lunction ol the
armeo lorces to provioe training in the combat appli-
cation ol lunoamental skills, the boaro oio not lollow
the leao ol some colleges in recommenoing spe-
cinc military preparation lor all stuoents. Insteao the
University continueo its emphasis on unoergraouate
eoucation in the humanities, social sciences, natural
sciences, ano the prolessional oisciplines, augment-
ing this instruction with course work aooressing the
specinc neeos ol the wartime military ano stressing
signincant work in physical conoitioning ol stuoents.
A gooo many creoit courses, some ol them new ano
some ol them mooincations ol previously existing
courses, were oesignateo as ollering preparation lor
war service. These were louno mainly in engineering,
loreign languages, political science, history, ano eco-
nomics, in the physical ano biological sciences, ano
in business aoministration. The Michigan League,
unoer the leaoership ol Ethel A. McCormick ano
working with the American Reo Cross, sponsoreo
a number ol noncreoit courses in nursing, nrst aio,
nutrition, motor mechanics, ano typewriting.
The College ol Engineering ollereo a special course
to women in Engineering, Science, ano Manage-
ment preparing them lor war jobs. This program
put many young women in the preoominately male
school ano more than 10 women lrequenteo the
halls ol the West Engineering Builoing. Surveying,
Topographic Mapping ano Fhotogrammetry were
taught in this course. The graouates hao the rat-
ing ol Engineering Aios, with starting salaries ol
S1,800 per year. The young women came lor the
thirteen-week course ano workeo haro, hanoling a
class loao ol 38 hours per week, with classroom ano
nelo work on the scheoule.
Women also came to the College ol Engineering lor
training to be prepareo lor aircralt inspection work.
Military map making was taught to qualineo secono-
term senior women in a special course ollereo at the
request ol the Army Map Service. Women were
given instruction in making bombing target maps lor
use by the Air Iorce.
5
Many ol the workers at the Willow Run Bomber
Flant along with hunoreos ol others who hao come
to Ann Arbor lor work in the local war inoustries,
maoe the housing problem a critical one lor both
University olncials ano the city.
Approximately lour thousano men wearing the uni-
lorms ol the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps ano
the Coast Guaro enrolleo lor the Iall Term ol 19!3.
Ol these, more than 2,300 were soloiers, houseo in
the East Quaorangle, Vaughan House, Iletcher Hall
ano leaseo lraternity houses. Many ol the latter were
available with the lalling oll ol civilian lraternity
men. The others were quartereo in the West Quao-
rangle, with the majority ol the olncer personnel liv-
ing at the Michigan Union.
The wartime atmosphere hao some amusing leatures
such as the oecision to reset campus clocks:
J littl .ofoio /o oo io t/ oir corio t/ ot o/ o t
o/ot tio it it/ roo oio t/ot Joo Jror i o Eotro
Jor Tio ooc t/ Uoi.rit, i o Cotrol Jor Tio, r oo
/or orlir t/oo t/ .it,. T oo/ t/io o,, t/ tio f
.lo /o oo t froorc oo /or, oocr t/ oo ,to
tocot t .lo ot i/t `.l./ Joo Jror tio, ooc orri.
io t/ .loro ot .o `.l./, Uoi.rit, tior t/r-
ooot. T o troor orri.io io Joo Jror, t/io oi/t o
o littl troo ot frt, o/o / t ff f t/ troio ot 1:30, fr
iotoo., ooc frt/oit/ orri. ot t/ Mi./ioo Uoio oo /or
orlir.` ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, January 20, 19!, p. 217,

The Army ano Navy oevelopeo college programs to
assure themselves a steaoy supply ol prolessionally
traineo olncers ano technicians. Welcoming such
a program, Michigan maoe a major commitment
to instructing soloiers, sailors, marines, ano coast
guarosmen with its own laculty. The work proceeoeo
on a year-arouno basis lor three terms.
In the summer ol 19!2, the University War Boaro
supporteo Fresioent Ruthven in his position that the
University take contracts lor training war personnel
only il it involveo using University laculty members.
In many instances, the laculty members hao to take
relresher courses to teach classes they hao never
taught belore.
In the lall term ol 19!3 there were over !,000 mili-
tary personnel on campus. The Army hao stationeo
more than 2,300 soloiers at Michigan. They were
stuoying engineering, meteorology, loreign lan-
guages, military government ol occupieo territories,
meoicine, oentistry, ano military law. The Navy sent
1,00 sailors, marines, ano coast guarosmen lor basic
training in science ano history, meoicine, oentistry,
ano naval architecture. More than 200 nurses in the
School ol Nursing were enrolleo in the U. S. Caoet
Nurses.
There was a signincant oecline in the enrollments ol
traoitional civilian stuoents. However, the presence
ol Army ano Navy personnel brought the enrollment
to numbers which oemanoeo the lull utilization ol all
the University`s lacilities.
The war work aoministereo through the Department
ol Engineering Research alone engageo the services
ol a large stall. In 19!2, when more than three-
quarters ol its projects relateo to the war, about 00
persons were employeo. As I. Clever Balo oescribeo
it in his role as University War Historian:
So co,, o/o t/ .rooot-ioc .il f .r., oo,
o liftc fro t/ o.ti.iti f t/ Uoi.rit,` Dortoot f
Eoiorio Ror./, t/rillio tri f .iotif. o./i.oot
.oo o oritto. `o it i iol ol, t ot t/ i ooc
t/ iortoo. f t/ ror./ rroo o, .ollio ottotio t
ioif.oot totiti.. Fr iotoo., t/ ttol .t f ror./
r.t fr t/ o.ocoi. ,or 1!!-!5, oo orxiootl,
S!,800,000. T/i oo 3.6 tio t/ for fr 1!3-!!,
ooc 8.5 tio t/ot fr 1!!-!3.
T/ oooor f r.t io rr o )ol, 1, 1!!, oo
113. Ei/t,-ix or r.i.c corio t/ ,or ooc i/t,-t/r
or .oltc, lo.io 116 r.t o.ti. o )ol, 1, 1!5.
`iot, r .ot f t/ or/ oo orc o, .rooot oo-
.i, ooc oo./ f t/ rooioio to r .ot, o/i./ oo fr
iocotriol .rrotio, oo cir.tl, rlotc t t/ oor ffrt.`
,Mi./ioo Jloooo, December 1, 19!,
What is all the more remarkable was that in the miost
ol this massive ellort to support the nation`s wartime
neeos, the University manageo to remain intact as an
eoucational institution ano sustain its core acaoemic
programs.
60
61
6!
The Engineering Quaorangle West Engineering ,blue,, East Engineering ,green,
The orange builoings are the aooitions ano new proposeo builoings.
In 19!! the University conoucteo an exhaustive
survey ano stuoy lor meeting the neeos ol the
veterans returning to college lrom wartime service.
The report stateo that The University ol Michigan
commits itsell to the proposition that the eoucational
neeos ol war-service veterans ano, hence, ol the
community must be met to the lullest extent its
lacilities will allow.
A plan was oevelopeo lor a major expansion ol
the Engineering campus to meet the anticipateo
enrollment growth. This plan, shown on the right,
envisioneo the oevelopment ol an Engineering
Quaorangle to the east ol the campus, along with
a major expansion ol West Engineering. ,Mi./ioo
Jloooo, December 18, 19!3, p. 183,
Unlortunately, lunoing was limiteo in the late 19!0s,
ano this ambitious plan was never realizeo. However,
it is interesting to consioer the plan as a possible
alternative to the move ol the College to the North
Campus ouring the 190s through the 1980s. It ooes
suggest that hao the University moveo early, it woulo
have been able to accommooate the growth ol the
College ol Engineering while keeping it intact on the
Central Campus.
FOST WAR FLANNING
63
1947
The new aooition openeo in 19!7 to house the
Departments ol Electrical Engineering ano
Aeronautical Engineering, while Naval Architecture
ano Civil Engineering took over the vacateo space
in West Engineering. More specincally, Aeronautical
Engineering occupieo the entire nrst noor ol the new
wing, while Electrical Engineering occupieo most ol
the remainoer ol the noors, with both oepartments
sharing space in the basement ano lourth noor.
Among the mooern lacilities maoe available to the
Department ol Aeronautical Engineering were in-
strumentation, oynamics, ano propulsion laborato-
ries. On the top noor ol the new aooition was also an
aerooynamics laboratory which houseo a small wino
tunnel, a smoke tunnel, ano an axial now blower.
In the basement ol the builoing the Department
ol Electrical Engineering occupieo three alternat-
ing current ano two oirect current laboratories, in
aooition to one oynamometer ano one photometric
laboratory, an instrument room, oark room ano store
room. On the secono noor was a control room ano
laboratories lor inoustrial heating, rectiner, heat
transler, small motors ano servomechanisms. Thiro
noor lacilities incluoeo olnce space, a computing
room ano laboratories lor insulation, raoio, instru-
mentation, measurements, calibration, magnetons,
ano microwave tubes.
On the top noor was aooitional olnce space, an
instrumentation room, a shieloeo room ano more
laboratories lor electronics, high lrequency, ultra
high lrequency, telephone ano telegraph, raoar, mi-
crowave ano electron tubes.
East Engineering Aooition ,right, East Engineering Aooition Classrooms
In the lall ol 19!1, just prior to Worlo War II, the
College was thought to have reacheo its enrollment
capacity at 2,070. Yet as the war enoeo ano veteran
stuoents returneo, the College`s enrollment hao
grown to over !,00 in 19!7, incluoing 2,9o7
veterans.
The oilemma lacing the College was lamiliar: Either
reouce enrollments or builo new lacilities. Although
the University oio not have the capacity to launch the
massive plan oevelopeo in 19!!, it oio commit the
lunos to expano East Engineering.
6!
1950s
Harlan Hatcher
Wilbur Fierpont
On January 17, 192, the newly appointeo presioent
ol the University, Harlan Hatcher, helo a press
conlerence to announce plans lor a new North
Campus lor the University:
T/ io.roio roioiliti ooc coooc oo t/ Uoi-
.rit, ooc t/ r.tio f o.or, rot/ io t/ fotor
/o. ooc it ioroti. t/ot loo fr xooio o froolotc
oo. Of .or, t/r oot o o fort/r .otro.tio o t/
rot .ooo, oot o /oo oo t/ot t/r i ot ocoot
o. fr oo orlloot f !5,000 tocot r or, o/i./ it i
rooool t ooti.iot io t/ 160`.` ,Mi./ioo Jloooo,
191-2, p. 27,
Key in this massive expansion plan was the Vice
Fresioent lor Business ano Iinance, Wilbur K.
Fierpont. A native Michiganoer, Fierpont graou-
ateo lrom Central State Teachers College in 193!.
Alter teaching high school mathematics ano coach-
ing basketball at Beloing, Michigan, he oecioeo to
come to the University ol Michigan lor graouate
work. In 19!2 he earneo a Master`s oegree in Busi-
ness Aoministration ano then a Fh.D. During WWII
he workeo as a price analyst in the War Department
ano serveo in the Iiscal Department ol the Bureau
ol Oroinance as a Navy Lieutenant.
In 19!o Fierpont returneo to the University to work
nrst with Fresioent Ruthven ano then Fresioent
Hatcher as the University`s chiel nnancial olncer.
The early purchase ano oevelopment ol the North
Campus can be traceo to Fierpont, who saw the
neeos ol the growing University. His contributions
were later honoreo in 199 by the naming ol the
Wilbur ano Maxine Fierpont Commons.
Space was still inaoequate to accommooate the post-
war growth ol Engineering ano even more so lor the
University. In anticipation ol this growing neeo, the
Regents hao begun to acquire larmlano property
on the sloping hills lying just to the northeast ol the
Huron River.
Although there were some early thoughts given
to relocating the School ol Eoucation, Natural
Resources, Music, ano Iine Arts to the North
Campus, the construction ol the Fhoenix Memorial
Froject soon repurposeo the site lor engineering
research. More specincally, the early plans lor the
North Campus incluoeo:
The construction ol the Cooley Memorial
Laboratory to house the electronics research
associateo with the Willow Run Laboratories.
The construction ol the Fhoenix Memorial
Laboratory.
The construction ol the automotive laboratory ano
a storage library.
The oevelopment ol the rest ol the campus woulo
proceeo as neeos arose ano lunos were secureo.
Fossible projects suggesteo lor the long-range luture
incluoeo a nne arts center where teaching lacilities
in music, theater, television, architecture, ano oesign
coulo be concentrateo, resioence halls ano multiple-
housing units lor both single ano marrieo stuoents,
ano stall, ano lacilities lor the stuoy ol natural
resources.
65
A view ol the larmlano across the Huron River lrom the University Hospital
1950s
66
Eero Saarinen
The Saarinen Flan lor the North Campus
The noteo Iinnish architect, Eero Saarinen, then oirector ol the Cranbrook Institute
ano the son ol the lormer University laculty member, Eliel Saarinen, was retaineo
in 191 to oevelop the master plan lor the North Campus site. Saarinen was one ol
the most creative architects ol the 20th Century, noteo lor his bolo oesigns incluoing
Dulles International Airport, the St. Louis Arch, ano the resioential colleges at Yale.
Ironically, at the time Saarinen was commissioneo to oevelop the plan lor the North
Campus, he was just completing the oesign lor the General Motors Technical Center
in Warren, Michigan. There is a striking similarity between the two oesigns, even
incluoing an exhibition oome, typical ol automobile oevelopment centers, to oisplay
new mooels.
1950s
67
George Granger Brown
191 - 197
The nrst builoing to be completeo on the North Campus was the Cooley Memorial Laboratory in 193. Much
ol the classineo research associateo with Willow Run was conoucteo in the Cooley Laboratory.
Mortimer Cooley Memorial Laboratory
The College ol Engineering grew ano nourisheo
ouring the early part ol this perioo, oue in part to the
importance ol engineering eoucation ano research to
national security, as well as to the lorcelul leaoership
ol Dean George Granger Brown, a oistinguisheo
laculty member ano chair ol the Department ol
Chemical ano Metallurgical Engineering.
Brown hao serveo on the Michigan laculty lor over
37 years, as a leaoer in chemical engineering eouca-
tion ano research ,oeveloping the key textbook lor
Unit Operations, ano then as chairman ol the De-
partment ol Chemical ano Metallurgical Engineer-
ing. As oean, he oevelopeo the early plans lor the
engineering laboratories on the North Campus ano
was key in builoing inoustrial support ol the Col-
lege. He was also instrumental in oeveloping new
programs such as science engineering ano nuclear
engineering. Although his tenure as oean was rela-
tively short, he must be regaroeo as one ol the most
signincant leaoers ol the College.
1950s
68
NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
Although many acaoemic programs in the University
were involveo in the Michigan Memorial Fhoenix
Froject, the College ol Engineering hao a particular
responsibility to oevelop both instructional ano
research programs in nuclear energy. The nrst course in
nuclear energy applications was taught in the College
ol Engineering in 19!7, only nve years alter Enrico
Iermi nrst oemonstrateo a controlleo nssion reaction
ouring the Manhattan Froject. In 193 the country`s
nrst graouate program in Nuclear Engineering began
as an interoepartmental program. The success ol
this graouate program leo to the establishment ol the
Department ol Nuclear Engineering in 198. The
Department granteo only graouate oegrees until 19o,
when the unoergraouate program was begun.
In July ol 199 the name was changeo to the Depart-
ment ol Nuclear Engineering ano Raoiological Sci-
ences to more accurately renect the broao research ano
teaching activities in the Department.
Fhoenix Memorial Laboratory
THE FHOENIX FROJECT
One ol the nrst ano most important projects lor the
new North Campus site was the Fhoenix Memorial
Laboratory. Iollowing the war, there was strong
University interest in creating a ntting memorial
to honor the 79 Michigan men ano women who
hao lallen in wartime service. It was the stuoents
themselves, many ol whom were veterans, who
proposeo that rather than builo a mouno ol stone,
the purpose ol which might soon be lorgotten, the
University insteao create a project that woulo aio
mankino in living in a war-lree worlo.
To this eno, in May, 19!8, the Regents aoopteo a
resolution that the University ol Michigan create
a War Memorial Center to explore the ways ano
means by which the potentialities ol atomic energy
may become a benencent innuence in the lile ol man,
to be known as the Fhoenix Froject ol the University
ol Michigan. Fresioent Ruthven calleo the Fhoenix
project the most important unoertaking in the
University`s history. Even Fresioent Eisenhower
highlighteo the importance ol the Fhoenix Froject:
Fo .oo or or orot tco, ooc or otort/, f
,or ort. Io oor r io o., t/ otoi. ror./ oio
co ot t/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo oill trot/o Jori.o.`
,Mi./ioo T./oi., December, 190,
Because the Fhoenix Froject woulo utilize the nrst
nuclear reactor to be constructeo on a University
campus, it was natural to locate its laboratory on the
North Campus.
1950s
6
In 19 the Fhoenix Memorial Laboratory was completeo. It was the result ol
the Fhoenix Memorial Froject. The Ioro Nuclear Reactor was completeo in
197. It was the nrst reactor not in a large lenceo-in area ano the largest on any
campus with a power level ol two million watts.
The Automotive Engineering Laboratory, which hao previously been in a lean-to
next to the Engineering Shops ,West Engineering Annex, was relocateo in a new
North Campus builoing openeo in October ol 197.
,1, Ioro Nuclear Reactor ano Fhoenix Laboratory ,2, Automotive Engineering Laboratory ,3, Cooley Laboratory
,!, Library Annex ,, Frinting Services ,o, Aeronautical Engineering Wino Tunnels ano Fropulsion Laboratory
The Aeronautical Engineering Department also moveo its research activities to
the North Campus in 197. The Aeronautical Engineering Laboratories con-
sisteo ol two builoings, one ol which houseo the supersonic ano low turbulence
wino tunnels, ano the other lor propulsion research. The College also built a large
research laboratory lor nuio oynamics research, nrst known simply as the Iluios
Laboratory ano later renameo the G. G. Brown Laboratory.
The builoings at the lower right ol this photograph were the North Campus Li-
brary Annex, ano Frinting Services.
1950s
6
1
!
3
!
5
70
The College ol Engineering playeo an important
role in other areas ol national security ouring the
post-war oecaoes. Iollowing Worlo War II, the
University oevelopeo laboratories at the site ol the
olo Willow Run Bomber Flant to conouct research
on the technologies ol raoar, inlrareo, acoustics,
seismic, inlormation processing, ano navigation
ano guioance. Many ol the laculty members ol
the College, particularly lrom the Department ol
Electrical Engineering, became actively involveo in
the Willow Run Laboratories` Froject Michigan, the
ellort to oevelop the technologies ol raoar, remote
sensing, ano satellite imaging.
The College ol Engineering also playeo an
important role in the nation`s space program. Its
aeronautical engineering program hao long been
a national leaoer, ano as the space program began
to oevelop in the 190s, the College renameo it the
Department ol Aerospace Engineering ano aooeo
a number ol new nelos such as rocket propulsion,
orbital mechanics, ano space science. A major NASA
laboratory in space physics was establisheo, with
extensive capabilities in upper atmosphere research
ano satellite instrumentation.
The Department ol Atmospheric ano Space
Science associateo with the Space Fhysics Research
Laboratory became one ol the worlo leaoers in space
ano planetary sciences.
The College`s strong reputation in aerospace
engineering ano space science not only attracteo
signincant lunoing lrom NASA but as well the
training responsibilities lor a number ol astronauts.
In lact, the entire three-man crew ol the Apollo 1
moon mission consisteo ol Michigan engineering
graouates, leaoing to the establishment ol the nrst
University ol Michigan Alumni chapter in outer
space
By the eno ol the 190s, one coulo well make the case
that the College ol Engineering was a worlo leaoer
in many ol the most exotic areas ol high technology:
nuclear energy, aerospace engineering, space science,
ano computer engineering. Its graouates spreao out
to provioe leaoership in these nelos across the nation,
arouno the worloano even into outer space
Apollo 1: The Michigan Mission to the Moon
Gemini Astronauts
Al Woroen ano Jim McDivitt
This nag was carrieo
aboaro Apollo 1 ouring
the nrst extenoeo scientinc
exploration ol the moon,
July 2o - August 7, 1971.
1950s
71
,1, Music School ,2, North Campus Commons ,3, Institute ol Science ano Technology ,!, Iluios Laboratory
Although the College ol Engineering was the nrst major University acaoemic unit earmarkeo lor moving to the North Campus, this objective was soon set asioe in
prelerence to other University priorities. Iirst, the School ol Music was given a major new complex on the North Campus ,19o!, ,its builoing oesigneo by Eero Saarinen
himsell,, lolloweo soon alterwaros by the School ol Architecture ano Design ,ano later in 197!, the School ol Art when it separateo lrom Architecture,. The North
Campus Commons ,now renameo the Fierpont Commons, ,19o, ano the Chrysler Center lor Continuing Engineering Eoucation ,1971, soon lolloweo.
The University also locateo other major research lacilities on the North Campus, incluoing the Cyclotron Laboratory ,Fhysics,, the Institute ol Science ano Technology
,19o3, ,another Saarinen builoing,, ano the Highway Salety Research Institute ,19o,.
1
!
3
!
1960s
7!
Steven Attwooo
197-19o!
Goroon Van Wylen
G. G. Brown`s strong leaoership was cut short by his
premature oeath. Stephen Attwooo, a senior laculty
member, lormer chair ol electrical engineering, ano
acting oean ol the College, was nameo oean ol
engineering, although he was alreaoy o2 at the time.
Attwooo serveo in the role lor 8 years. It was not a
time ol signincant progress lor the College as both
national ano University priorities began to shilt away
lrom science ano technology to social programs.
Attwooo playeo another important role in University
ol Michigan history:
Pr/o it oolc o o of oroliotio t ooo t/ot .r,
tocot o t/ .ooo /o ot o tio r oot/r oocrc,
o/o. .oo t/ trocitio t/ot ooo oot ot, ooc /oll ot,
otr t/ frot cr f t/ Uoio. Fro or oo ri.ot or.
t/ oo t/ot it oo or r l co t t/ 118 ricot f
t/ oo cfoo.t Stocot Coo.il, St.o S. Jttoc. Ho-
.r, o/o o/c t .rrorot t/i fo.t, t/ oiol, ,t rti.ot,
Mr. Jttoc rfc t/ot oor, i ot ot oo oo.rtoio
t/io ooc c.lioc t .ooit /iolf. J c ot t/io/ t/ot /
oill oioc oio xc`, fr io fo.t it oliot o oo t t/
xtot f o cot f rotitoc.` ,Mi./ioo T./oi., October,
1931,
Attwooo was lolloweo by Goroon Van Wylen,
another strong laculty member ano chairman
ol the Department ol Mechanical Engineering.
Van Wylen hao earneo recognition lor his work
in thermooynamics ano authoring a wioely
useo textbook on this subject ,co-authoreo with
Richaro Sonntag, also later a chair ol Mechanical
Engineering,. As oean, he leo the College ouring a
transition perioo lrom the high point ol the space
race to the oays ol stuoent protests ano hostility
towaro technology. Despite his concerteo ellorts,
the College was able to make only mooest progress
towaro completing its move to the North Campus,
with only a small builoing lor the Department ol
Aerospace Engineering. Van Wylen also presioeo
over a shilt in College priorities away lrom graouate
eoucation ano research to unoergraouate instruction.
He steppeo oown in 1971 to become presioent ol
Hope College.
The late 19o0s ano 1970s were a oilncult perioo lor
engineering eoucation in general ano the College
ol Engineering in particular. The eno ol the
space race, an unpopular war in Vietnam, ano an
emerging environmental movement all convergeo
to unoermine public connoence in technology. The
College ol Engineering lelt these shilting national
priorities both through the oecline in leoeral research
support ano in stuoent interest in engineering careers
in the early 1970s ,although the corresponoing
enrollment orop was mooest ano briel,.
The University responoeo by emphasizing acaoemic
programs in areas such as Eoucation, Social Work,
Fublic Health, Dentistry ,builoing the largest oental
school in the nation,, ano Meoicine ,launching the
Replacement Hospital Froject as one ol the largest
construction projects in the history ol the state,.
But even more signincant was the continuation ol
the 19o0s treno that saw University support ol the
College oecline still lurther. Although the College
experienceo surging enrollments ouring the latter
years ol the 1970s, growing by almost 20 ouring the
oecaoe, the University actually cut its instructional
buoget by almost one-thiro. Iurthermore, the long-
awaiteo move ol the College out ol its oecaying
lacilities in West ano East Engineering ano into
new lacilities on the North Campus stalleo in the
lace ol other University priorities ,incluoing major
new builoings on the North Campus lor the Schools
ol Music, Art, Architecture ano Urban Flanning,
ano even lor research units such as the Institute ol
Science ano Technology,.
CHALLENGES OF THE 1960s & 1970s
73
When Dean Goroon Van Wylen resigneo to accept
the presioency ol Hope College, the University
ol Michigan, alter a briel search, nameo Davio
Ragone, to be the next oean ol the College. An
M.I.T. graouate, Ragone came to the College as
its oean alter a briel, two-year perioo as oean ol
the Thayer School ol Engineering at Dartmouth.
Ragone hao been a prolessor ol metallurgy at
Michigan lrom 193 to 19o2. Alter spenoing several
years at General Dynamics, he returneo to teaching
at Carnegie Mellon University in 19o7 belore joining
Dartmouth in 1970.
Ragone`s philosophy ol leaoership was stateo in
an interview with the Mi./ioo T./oi.: I oion`t
think orastic changes were in oroer. As one comes
to appreciate more easily lrom alar, the College ol
Engineering enjoys ano oeserves a nne reputation in
its present state. ,Mi./ioo T./oi., October, 1972,
Dean Ragone was given the assignment ol leaoing
a major private luno-raising campaign that woulo
be combineo with a match lrom state lunoing to
complete the move ol the College into a new lour-
builoing complex on the North Campus.
In this lour-builoing plan, the largest builoing,
Engineering Builoing I, woulo house Mechanical
Engineering ano Applieo Mechanics, Civil
Engineering, Inoustrial ano Operations Engineering,
Humanities, ano the College aoministration.
Engineering Builoing II woulo contain Chemical ano
Metallurgical Engineering. Engineering Builoing III
woulo be lor Electrical ano Computer Engineering
ano Nuclear Engineering, ano Engineering Builoing
IV woulo be lor Naval Architecture ,with a possible
new towing tank on the North Campus,.
With great anticipation lor the move to North
Campus, this ao appeareo in the T./oi., in Iebruary,
197!.
Davio Ragone
1972-1980
CHALLENGES OF THE 1960s & 1970s
Unlortunately, the luno-raising campaign was only
a mooest success because ol the weak American
economy ouring the 1970s, ano raiseo only S8
million lor lacilities, an amount inaoequate to
trigger the North Campus move. The University
complicateo the situation by backing away lrom its
earlier commitment to seek state support to push
insteao the Replacement Hospital Froject. With
innation rapioly erooing the lunos raiseo ouring the
campaign, the College oecioeo to oirect the entire
amount ,ano then some, to the construction ol the
Herbert H. Dow Builoing ,Builoing II, ano oeler
inoennitely any lurther ellort to continue with the
rest ol the lour-builoing project.
Hence, the College approacheo the 1980s with
only a very mooest presence on the North Campus:
several research builoings, the Fhoenix Laboratory
ano Institute ol Science ano Technology ,both ol
which reporteo to the Vice Fresioent lor Research,,
a mooest concrete block builoing lor Aerospace
Engineering, another small builoing lor the water
resources program, ano the construction site lor the
Dow Builoing.
Iour-Builoing Flan lor Engineering
7!
James Johnson Duoerstaot
1981-198o
THE TEAM
Daniel Atkins Charles Vest
Duoerstaot receiveo his unoergraouate eoucation
in electrical engineering at Yale ,`o!, ano his Fh.D.
in engineering science ano physics lrom Caltech
,`o7,. Alter a year as an Atomic Energy Commission
Iellow, he accepteo an appointment in the
Department ol Nuclear Engineering at Michigan.
Although he was well-known as a leaoer in nuclear
energy research ano eoucation, he was not well
known to most ol the Engineering laculty, since he
was one ol the lew engineering laculty members on
North Campus. However, he hao serveo as member
or chair ol many ol the key aovisory committees to
the University leaoership, incluoing the Executive
Boaro ol the Graouate School, the aovisory
committee to the provost, ano the powerlul Buoget
Friorities Committee, so he was quite well known to
the University Aoministration.
In 1980 Dean Ragone accepteo the presioency
ol Case-Western Reserve University. Ior a briel
perioo, Hansloro Iarris, a Frolessor ol Electrical
Engineering, serveo as interim oean until the
appointment ol James Duoerstaot as the new Dean
ol Engineering in May ol 1981.
Duoerstaot moveo rapioly to builo a leaoership team compriseo ol several ol the most energetic ol the junior
laculty ol the College incluoing Charles Vest ,later to succeeo him as oean, then provost, ano nnally to become
presioent ol M.I.T.,, Daniel Atkins ,also later serving as interim oean ol engineering ano then lounoing oean ol
the School ol Inlormation,, Scott Iogler ,nationally renown lor his ellorts in chemical engineering eoucation,,
ano Lynn Conway ,recruiteo lrom Xerox Falo Alto Research Center ano a leaoer in computer engineering
ano artincial intelligence,.
1980s
75
Scott Iogler
This leaoership team, working closely with the
oepartment chairs ano the laculty, launcheo an
ambitious program to restore the priority ol the
College ol Engineering within the University,
reversing the lunoing oecline that hao oevelopeo
ouring the 19o0s ano 1970s, ano completing the
move to the North Campus. The Duoerstaot team
was committeo to improving the quality ol the
laculty, stuoents, ano acaoemic programs ol the
College, placing a particular emphasis on graouate
eoucation ano research as key to elevating the
reputational rankings ol the College. Duoerstaot
was remarkably successlul in achieving all ol these
goals within the briel span ol nve years: tripling the
base buoget ol the College, tripling the College`s
research activity ano Fh.D. proouction, hiring
over 120 new laculty members, ano boosting the
rankings ol most ol the acaoemic programs ol the
College into the top nve in the nation ,although the
achievement ol this later goal only became evioent
in the 1990s,.
But most signincant lor this photographic history
is the lact that the Duoerstaot team manageo
to move the entire College ol Engineering to
the North Campus. Here it shoulo be noteo
that Duoerstaot hao long regaroeo the ellort to
move the College lrom the Central Campus as a
lrustrating oistraction lrom what shoulo have been
the highest priorities ol achieving excellence in its
teaching ano research activities. However he also
concluoeo, with his colleagues, that the College hao
no choice but to bring this 30 year saga to an eno
by completing the move as rapioly as possible, since
they saw no possibility ol reversing the University
oecisions ol the 190s to move Engineering to the
North Campus.
Alter a thorough review ol the existing plan to move
the College into lour new builoings, lunoeo lrom
state ano private sources, Duoerstaot concluoeo
that in the current climate, this plan was clearly both
impractical ano unworkable. The College`s luno-
raising ellorts ol the 1970s hao oemonstrateo how
oilncult it was to raise gilts lor builoings, with only
a relatively mooest builoing lor the Departments
ol Chemical Engineering ano Materials ano
Metallurgical Engineering as the result ,the Herbert
H. Dow Builoing, then unoer construction ano
scheouleo lor completion in late 1982,. Iurthermore,
the impact ol the Replacement Hospital Froject
on the state`s capacity to luno new construction in
higher eoucation woulo be long lasting ano likely
prevent major new construction until the state`s
economy improveo.
A lar more mooest plan was proposeo to the
University aoministration, baseo upon the
reassignment ano renovation ol several existing
North Campus structures ano a single new, state-
lunoeo builoing. This pragmatic, yet workable plan
was to result in the move ol the entire College ol
Engineering to the North Campus by 198o ano
woulo become the lounoation ol what woulo
eventually become one ol the nnest campuses lor
engineering eoucation in the nation.
Lynn Conway
1980s
76
A small North Campus builoing
housing the University`s research
aoministration was reassigneo
ano renovateo to accommooate
the Department ol Inoustrial
ano Operations Engineering
,while research aoministration
woulo be moveo to the West En-
gineering Builoing,.
The G.G. Brown Laboratory
was extensively renovateo, aoo-
ing a thiro noor lor olnces ano
renovating its high bay research
wing area so that it coulo accom-
mooate the Department ol Me-
chanical Engineering ano Civil
Engineering.
A secono noor was aooeo to the
high bay area ol the G.G. Brown
Laboratory to accommooate
Civil Engineering.
A library ano instructional cen-
ter ,with aooitional classrooms,
was built in the excavateo, but
uncompleteo basement ol the
Dow Builoing.
The Department ol Naval Archi-
tecture ano Marine Engineering
was moveo into a small builoing
aojacent to the olo cyclotron
laboratory. The towing tank was
lelt in West Engineering on the
Central Campus.
Dow Library ano Instructional Center
Naval Architecture 8 Marine Engineering
G.G. Brown - Mechanical Engineering
G.G. Brown - Civil Engineering
Inoustrial ano Operations Engineering Herbert H. Dow Builoing
The Dow Builoing completeo
in 1982 houseo Chemical Engi-
neering ano Materials ano Met-
allurgical Engineering.
THE MOVE BEGINS.....AT LAST
77
An unuseo lraternity builoing ao-
jacent to the North Campus, was
renovateo to be useo to house the
Engineering placement olnces.
The College aoministration
moveo temporarily into the
Chrysler Center lor Continu-
ing Eoucation ,compressing
the oeans` olnces ano stall into
about one-thiro the space ol
the West Engineering olnces.
Executing these actions resulteo in the relocation ol all ol the College by 1983
with the exception ol Electrical ano Computer Engineering. The move also
releaseo to the University all ol the College`s Central Campus space, with the
exception ol the naval tank in the basement ol West Engineering.
The nnal element ol the plan was to persuaoe the University ano then the state
to honor their earlier commitments to match the College`s private luno-raising
ellort ol the 1970s with a S30 million appropriation lor a single new builoing
lor the Department ol Electrical ano Computer Science ano Engineering.
Duoerstaot ano Vest were alloweo to go to Lansing to lobby the Governor ano
State Legislature lor these lunos, which they manageo to oo successlully.
Grounobreaking lor the Electrical Engineering ano Computer Science Builoing
Harolo Shapiro, James Blancharo ano James Duoerstaot Dean`s Olnce in the Chrysler Center
Chrysler Center lor Continuing Eoucation
Stearns Builoing
78
Electrical Engineering ano Computer Science Builoing
7
80
Slioerule
Fress Conlerence announcing CAEN,
the Computer Aioeo Engineering Network
Bill Fooeska, Jim Duoerstaot, ano Steve Jobs
The Apple Lisa Laboratory
The nrst CAEN computer cluster on the North Campus Computer Center in the 190s
COMPUTING
Irom slioe rule to mainlrames,
to wireless FDA`s, computing has
taken many lorms in the College
ol Engineering.
81
Charles Vest
198o-1988
Feter Banks
1989-199!
Stephen W. Director
199o-
Charles Vest was a long-
stanoing laculty member in
Mechanical Engineering.
He serveo nrst as associate
oean ano then as oean ol
the College. During his
briel tenure belore being
appointeo as the Universi-
ty`s provost, he completeo
the North Campus move
ano recruiteo some ol the
College`s leaoing laculty
members. In 1990 he was
nameo presioent ol the
Massachusetts Institute ol
Technology.
Feter Banks came to
Michigan lrom Stanloro,
where he hao been a lac-
ulty member in electrical
engineering ano a national
leaoer in remote sensing.
He was instrumental in
several major ellorts ol
the College, incluoing the
completion ol the Lurie
Engineering Center ano
Lurie Tower. He lelt the
College to become presi-
oent ol the Environmen-
tal Research Institute ol
Michigan.
Stephen Director came to
the College lrom a position
as oean ol engineering at
Carnegie Mellon Univer-
sity. Unoer his leaoership,
the rankings ol the college
have continueo to climb,
with the launch ol new
programs in biomeoical
engineering, nanotechnol-
ogy, ano environments
systems.
The Frovost carries his computer oownstairs to the
Fresioent`s Olnce
Ano hooks it up
Duoerstaot`s tenure as Dean ol Engineering was
relatively short, since he was tappeo by Fresioent
Harolo Shapiro to become Frovost ano Vice-Fresioent
lor Acaoemic Allairs ol the University in 198o, just as
the new EECS Builoing was to be oeoicateo. Charles
Vest succeeoeo him as Dean ol Engineering, but also
only lor a briel perioo.
Iollowing Harolo Shapiro`s oeparture to become
presioent ol Frinceton, Duoerstaot was electeo the
11th Fresioent ol the University, ano he quickly
selecteo Vest as his Frovost.
DEANS
8!
The North Campus site ol the College ol
Engineering continueo to evolve ouring the late
1980s ano 1990s. A new master plan was oevelopeo
lollowing the completion ol the College`s move in
198o that ioentineo the neeo lor aooitional lacilities
to accommooate the growth in Engineering research
ano graouate enrollments.
Iurthermore, the Countess provioeo aooitional
lunoing to commission a major sculpture, The
Wave Iielo, by Maya Lin.
Chuck Vest was instrumental in builoing a major
aooition to the Fierpont Commons that houseo an
array ol stuoent services activities.
There were several other North Campus builoing
projects ouring this perioo, incluoing the Inoustrial
Technology Institute ano an expansion ol the Space
Fhysics Research Laboratory.
The Department ol Aerospace Engineering hao
been houseo in an inaoequate, concrete block
builoing constructeo ouring the 1970s. Through the
ellorts ol Tom Aoamson, chair ol the Department
ol Aerospace Engineering, the College was lortunate
to receive a major gilt lrom the Countess Albina
DuBuousvouvray to builo a new builoing in memory
ol her son, Iranois-Xavier Bagnouo, a lormer
stuoent in aerospace who was killeo in a helicopter
accioent on a nying mission in Mali, West Alrica
ouring the Faris to Dakar roao race. The IXB
Builoing provioeo superb lacilities lor this important
oepartment.
198o Master Flan - College ol Engineering
Fierpont Commons Aooition
Iranois-Xavier Bagnouo ,IXB, Builoing
Maya Lin`s Wave Iielo
Space Fhysics Research Laboratory Aooition
Inoustrial Technology Institute
83
The blenoing ol major works ol art with the
evolution ol the North Campus was oue in part to
the particular interests ol Brao Canale, who oirecteo
the College`s oevelopment ellorts.
Ferhaps the most oramatic new builoings constructeo
on the North Campus ouring this perioo resulteo
lrom a unique combination ol public ano private
support: the Meoia Union, the Lurie Engineering
Center, ano the Robert ano Ann Lurie Tower. As a
memorial to her husbano, Ann Lurie provioeo the
lunos to builo both a builoing lor the Engineering
aoministration ano a striking bell tower. Charles
Moore, one ol the loremost American architects ol
the 20th century, was commissioneo to oesign these
structures.
Moore hao not only been a graouate ol the
University, but his great-great granolather hao
been mayor ol Battle Creek ano a Regent ol the
University in the 19th century. When receiving
an honorary oegree lrom the University in 199,
Moore noteo that it was his ancestor that introouceo
the resolution to aomit the nrst women stuoents.
Tragically, Moore oieo while completing the oesign
lor the Lurie Bell Tower. Recognizing that this was to
be his last commission, Fresioent Duoerstaot oecioeo
to invest an aooitional S2 million ol University lunos
to make certain the tower was built exactly as Moore
oesigneo it ,incluoing the two structures in lront ol
the tower,.
The Lurie Engineering Center also provioeo a
signincant expansion ol the lacilities occupieo
by the Department ol Inoustrial ano Operations
Engineering.
Robert ano Ann Lurie Bell Tower
Inoustrial ano Operations Engineering
Lurie Engineering Center
8!
Ferhaps the most striking project ol the 1990s, however, was the Meoia Union, a visionary library ol the luture. Since the earliest oays ol North Campus oevelopment,
there was a recognizeo neeo lor a library to house the collections ol Engineering, Architecture, Art, ano Music. In 1992, Fresioent Duoerstaot manageo to persuaoe a
new governor, John Engler, to provioe S0 million to luno the project in a highly nexible lashion that enableo the University to assemble an unusually creative team ol
North Campus laculty ano oeans with the charge: Here is S0 million. Design us a builoing lor a 21st Century university
Ano so they oio The new lacility was nameo the Meoia Union, both to symbolize a place lor stuoents ano laculty to gather similar to the Michigan Union on the
Central Campus ano to renect the ellort to unite the various North Campus oisciplines ,Art, Architecture, Music, Engineering, in a multi-meoia environment. The
Meoia Union was oesigneo to be a testbeo lor oeveloping, stuoying, ano implementing the new paraoigms ol the university enableo by inlormation technology. When
the Meoia Union nnally openeo its ooors in 199o, there were probably lewer than a oozen people on the campus that unoerstooo what it was. But the stuoents rapioly
learneo, ano within a month it became the most popular lacility in the University, operating arouno the clock, seven oays a week, ano populateo by thousanos ol
stuoents. It was a library, a stuoio, a souno stage, a virtual reality laboratory.ano perhaps the largest concentration ol stuoent computing resources in the worlo.
THE MEDIA UNION
THE MEDIA UNION
85
THE MEDIA UNION
86
THE MEDIA UNION
87
THE MEDIA UNION
88
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN FALL
8
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN FALL
0
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN WINTER
1
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN WINTER
!
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN SPRING
3
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN SPRING
!
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN SUMMER
5
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN SUMMER
6
THE ENGINEERING CAMPUS IN 2003
7
With the completion ol the Meoia Union, the Lurie Engineering Builoing, ano the Lurie Tower in the mio-1990s, the North Campus hao taken on a oecioeoly oillerent
look. It was now home to lour major schools ano over 1!,000 stuoents. It maoe important architectural statements. Its rare bleno ol creative oisciplines began to suggest
a new name aoopteo by several ol the oeans: The Renaissance Campus. In many ways, the North Campus hao become the laboratory lor the University ol the 21
st

Century.
But universities never stano still, ano planning lor the luture ol the North Campus continues. One ol the most interesting ellorts was conoucteo ouring the mio-1990s
by the lour North Campus oeans, who conoucteo a jurieo competition ol oesigns lrom the top lanoscape architects in the nation to arriveo at a master plan with the
cooe name ol North Wooos.
This plan createo a new North-South axis running through the campus, lrom the lorests to the north oown to the Huron River to the south. It maoe extensive use ol
the evergreen planting that hao long provioeo a oistinctive character to the North Campus. The oeans lorming the juoging committee were ecstatic about the oesign,
uniteo in their beliel that it woulo enable the North Campus to make an important architectural statement.
THE FUTURE
8
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Mi./ioo Jloooo
The Mi./ioo Jloooo renects the interests ol the University, chronicling its prog-
ress ano at the same time serving as a meoium lor news ol alumni activities. The
magazine was launcheo as a private enterprise by Alvick Fearson in 189!. He solo
it to the Alumni Association in 1898.
The Mi./ioo Jloooo was publisheo as a monthly until 1921 when it appeareo as a
weekly. In 193! the Qoortrl, was inaugurateo, so longer, more solio articles coulo
be publisheo. Eoitors ol the early years incluoeo, Shirley Smith, Willreo Shaw,
ano T. Hawley Tapping.
Willreo Shaw`s orawings ano etchings ol Michigan campus scenes ano personali-
ties were useo in many Mi./ioo Jloooo Qoortrl, R.io ano other publications.
The Mi./ioo T./oi.
The Mi./ioo T./oi. was nrst publisheo in 1882, although it was nrst known as the
Sl.tc Por Roc Bfr t/ Eoiorio S.it, f t/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo`. It was
the oloest engineering college magazine in America.
In 1887 the publication was lormally given the name ol the T./oi.. During the
T./oi.` early years, the stall hao no laculty supervision, ano they hao to person-
ally pay lor any losses incurreo. Later, the College ol Engineering gave assistance
by paying lor a lull page aovertisement in each issue. In this way each oepartment
receiveo publicity once a year. The T./oi. also was supporteo with pronts lrom
publishing the Michigan Engineer`s Song Book ano lrom the Slioe Rule Ball.
T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo:
Jo Eo.,.lci. Sor.,
In 1937, to celebrate the centennial ol the University ol Michigan in Ann Arbor,
the Committee on University Archives suggesteo than an Encyclopeoia ol the
University shoulo be compileo to oocument the history ol the institution. Willreo
Shaw was chosen Eoitor-in-chiel. Over two hunoreo laculty ano stall wrote the
history ano activities ol the various oivisions ol the University, accoroing to a
carelully consioereo lormat. The resulting lour volumes contain the most com-
plete account ol the University ano its history.
With gratituoe ano appreciation to all ol those inoiviouals who recoroeo the history, events, ano activities ol the University ol Michigan.
Russell E. Biolack, T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo Corol Lioror,: J /itr, f it oio-
oio, 1837-185!,` oissertation, University ol Michigan, 19!.
Ruth Boroin, T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo: J Pi.triol Hitr, ,Ann Arbor: University
ol Michigan Fress, 19o7,.
Mortimer E. Cooley, S.iotif. Blo./oit/ ,Ann Arbor: University ol Michigan
Fress, 19!7,.
Mortimer Cooley notes on the History ol the College ol Engineering lrom its
inception to the 19!0s ,Cooley Iiles, Bentley Historical Library,.
James J. Duoerstaot, Oo T/ M.: J Prool Hitr, f t/ Cll f Eoiorio
io Mcro Tio ,Ann Arbor: Millennium Froject, The University ol Michigan,
2003,.
Faul E. Lingenlelter, T/ Firio Of Hor, P/ili Tooo, Uoi.rit, Boilcr, M.S.
Dissertation, University ol Michigan, 1970.
Burke A. Hinsoale, ano Isaac Newton Demmon, Hitr, f t/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo
,Ann Arbor: University ol Michigan Fress, 190o,.
Mi./ioo Jloooo, ,Ann Arbor: 189!-present,.
Mi./ioo T./oi. ,Ann Arbor: 1882-1980s,.
Howaro H. Feckham, T/ Mo/io f t/ Uoi.it, f Mi./ioo, 1817-1!, eoiteo
ano upoateo by Margaret L. ano Nicholas H. Steneck ,Ann Arbor: Bentley Li-
brary, 19o7, 199!,.
Willreo B. Shaw, T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo ,New York: Harcourt Brace ano Howe,
1920, 2o eo., Ann Arbor: George Wahr, 193!,.
Willreo B. Shaw, eoitor, T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo: Jo Eo.,.lci. Sor., ,Ann Ar-
bor: University ol Michigan Fress, 19!7,.
Tappan, Henry F., A Discourse oelivereo by Henry F. Tappan, D. D. at Ann Arbor,
Michigan, on the Occassion ol His Inauguration as Chancellor ol the University
ol Michigan, December 21st, 182. ,Detroit: Aovertiser Foser Fresses, 182,.

Shirley W. Smith
Shirley Smith receiveo his Michigan oegree in 1897.
In 1898 he was an instructor ol English in the De-
partment ol Engineering. He continueo his stuoies
ano receiveo an M.S. in 1900. A year later he be-
came Secretary ol the Alumni Association, serving
until 190!. He was away lrom campus lor lour years
belore returning to became Secretary ol the Univer-
sity in 1908. He serveo as Secretary lor twenty-two
years unoer lour presioents, Harry Hutchins, Mar-
ion Burton, Clarence Cook Little, ano Alexanoer
Ruthven. He wrote two biographies: )oo Borrill
Joll: Jo Jori.oo Iofoo. ano Horr, Boro Hot./io
ooc t/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo.
Willreo Shaw serveo as Director ol Alumni Relations
ano Eoitor ol the Qoortrl, R.io, lrom 1907-1929.
He wrote T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo, a history ol the
University lrom its inception through the aoministra-
tion ol Fresioent Burton. He also serveo as eoitor lor
T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo: Jo Eo.,.lcio Sor.,.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Willreo B. Shaw
Burke A. Hinsoale
Howaro Feckham
Ruth Boroin
Burke Hinsoale was the nrst prolessor ol peoagogy at
the University ol Michigan. His book, Hitr, f t/
Uoi.rit,, was a scholarly treatise on the rise ol state
universities, with numerous pictures ano biographies
ol members ol the Michigan laculty. The manu-
script was not complete at the time ol his oeath ano
was nnisheo by Frolessor Isaac Newton Demmon.
Ruth Boroin receiveo a B.A. in 1938 ano an M.A. in
19!0 in history lrom the University ol Minnesota.
She was oiscourageo lrom pursuing a Fh.D. because
at the time it was lelt by many that a wile ano mother
coulo not also be a scholar. Throughout her lile,
however, Boroin was actively involveo in research,
teaching ano writing.
Irom 197 to 19o7, Boroin was a curator at the
Michigan Historical Collections, which proceeoeo
the Bentley Historical Library. Irom 19o7-71 ano
197-78 she lectureo at Eastern Michigan Univer-
sity.
In 19o7 Boroin publisheo T/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo:
J Pi.triol Hitr, lor the University`s Sesquicenten-
nial. Her other major publications incluoeo: Joo
ooc Toroo.: T/ Qot fr Por ooc Liort,; Froo.i
Jillorc: J Biro/,; Jo/tooo Coot,: Jo Illotrotc
Hitr,; Jli. Frooo Polor: T/ E.lotio f o `o
Jooo, ooc Joo ot Mi./ioo.
Isaac Newton Demmon
Howaro Feckham receiveo his B.S. in 1931 ano
his M.S. in 1933 lrom the University ol Michigan.
Irom 193o until 19! he serveo the Clements Li-
brary as Curator ol Manuscripts ano also as Lecturer
in Library Science. Irom 19! to 193 Feckham was
Director ol the Inoiana Historical Bureau ano Secre-
tary ol the Inoiana Historical Society. He returneo
to the University ol Michigan in 193 as Director
ol the William L. Clements Library ano Frolessor
ol History. His book, T/ Mo/io f t/ Uoi.rit, f
Mi./ioo, was publisheo in 19o7.
100
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
MORT`S MAF
CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOFMENT
UNIVERSITY OI MICHIGAN CAMFUS
ANN ARBOR
by the
FLANT DEFARTMENT
by MORT
HIS LABOR OI LOVE
Mortimer Cooley
James J. Duoerstaot
While researching the history ol the College ol Engi-
neering lor this publication in the Bentley Library, we
oiscovereo that the Dean`s recoros lrom the Duoer-
staot years were missing. These nles incluoeo among
other important oocuments, the move ol the College
to the North Campus. So, in a typical Duoerstaot re-
sponse, he wrote a book. However, while looking lor
the oocuments in the basements, closets, ano attics
ol University Builoings, we came across Mortimer
Cooley`s notes in an olo box in the basement ol the
IXB Builoing. The type-written notes covereo the
aoministration ano curriculum ol the College lrom
its inception to the 19!0s. On the cover ol the notes
was a hano written note: Froperty ol Dean`s olnce
,D ot to/ ooo,,.
In 1938 Mortimer Cooley returneo to Ann Arbor
to write the history ol the College ol Engineering.
Having known all but one ol the heaos ol the en-
gineering oepartment since its lounoing in 183-!,
ano having himsell been on its laculty !7 years, lrom
1881 to 1928, Dean Cooley lelt that he shoulo write
the story. We are gratelul that he oio
Jim Duoerstaot`s book, Oo t/ M.: J Prool Hitr,
f t/ Cll f Eoiorio io Mcro Tio, covers the
history ol the College ol Engineering lrom WWII to
the present.
Myron Mortenson
Myron Mortenson graouateo lrom the University ol
Michigan with a B.S. in Civil Engineering in 1931.
He workeo as an engineer in the Flant Depart-
ment until 19! when he became Chiel Draltsman.
Mort`s great contribution to the University ol Michi-
gan History is his map with lootprints ol all ol the
builoings ol the University lrom the beginning to the
1970s.
101
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - Photographs
With gratituoe ano appreciation to all ol those in-
oiviouals who createo ano preserveo the images ol
the campus, events, ano activities ol the University
ol Michigan.
The images that illustrate this story are lrom the
Bentley Historical Collections. Many originally
appeareo in the Mi./ioo Jloooo ano the Mi./ioo
T./oi..
The Bentley Library was establisheo in 193 to serve
as the olncial archives ol the University ol Michigan
ano to oocument the history ol the State ol Michi-
gan. Our thanks to the Bentley stall lor their as-
sistance.
George Swain receiveo his B.A. in 1897 ano his M.A.
in 1900 lrom the University ol Michigan. Swain was
an eoucator ano a photographer. He taught school
ano serveo as principal to several schools. In 1913
Swain returneo to the University ol Michigan, serv-
ing as university photographer until 18!9. He ac-
companieo Frolessor Irancis Kelsey ol the Latin De-
partment on lour trips to Europe as a photographic
technician, photographing valuable manuscripts lor
the university collection.
In 192! ano 192 Swain was part ol a university
expeoition which conoucteo excavations at Antioch
in Fisioia. He ano Frolessor Kelsey orove university
cars lrom Brussels to Naples ano three hunoreo miles
across Asia Minor.
Swain`s olnce was locateo in the campus library,
where he proouceo negatives lor latern slioes that
were useo in conjunction with lectures in nne arts
ano engineering. Negatives were oevelopeo in his
home oarkroom at 1103 Fackaro Avenue, since the
use ol chemicals was lorbiooen in the library builo-
ing.
George Robert Swain
The Fapyrus Hunter`s Caravan
Dooge ano Graham Brothers Cars Fresenteo to the
University lor the Iar East Expeoition
The map ol Thomas Jellerson`s original sketch ol
his plan lor the Northwest Territory ano the map ol
the Michigan Territory, publisheo by I. Lucas, Balti-
more, 1808, are lrom the Clements Library.
The aerial photo ol the 2003 Engineering Campus is
coutesy ol Laramie Fhotographic ano the College ol
Engineering Meoia ano Marketing group.
Fhotos ol the Meoia Union on pages 8o-87 were
taken by Gary Quesaoe ol Korab Henorick Blessing
lor the Deoication ol the Meoia Union.
All other North Campus Fhotos were taken by the
Meoia Union ano the Millennium Froject Stall.
Melvin Allison Ivory, another prominent photog-
rapher, came to Ann Arbor in the mio-1920`s lrom
Lansing, where he hao oone amateur photo nnishing
lor his lather`s two orugstores. While an unoergrao-
uate at the University ol Michigan, Ivory became
the olncial photographer lor the Mi./ioo Jloooo,
Mi./ioooioo, ano the Bureau ol Alumni Relations.
Ivory`s wile Janet joineo him in his work. The Ivory
collection in the Bentley oates lrom the 1920`s to the
early 1970s. The collection oocuments Ann Arbor
ano the University ol Michigan. Ivory proouceo
cover art lor the Michigan Alumnus. This gave him
the opportunity to experiment aesthetically with un-
usual angles, lighting ano subject matter.
Other photographers who contributeo to the his-
torical oocumentation ol the University ol Michigan
incluoe: J. Jellerson Gibson, who photographeo the
Meoical School ano compositions ol classes, J. Ireo
Rentschller, who serveo as apprentice to Gibson un-
til 1890 when he openeo his own stuoio, ano Sam
Sturgis.
10!
Stall ol Fhoto ano Campus Services, circa 19o0
,1, Auorey Auoie Hernoon, Customer Representative ano Ozalio Operator ,2, Robert Bob Kalmbach, Darkroom Frinter ,son ol Karl Kalmbach, ,3, Lajos Louis
Martonyi ,lather ol Csaba Martonyi, Ophtalmic Fhotography ,!, Ruth Schroeoer, Fhotographer ,, Carmen Krastell, Ozalio Operator ,o, Ireo Anoeiegg Supervisor
Fhotographer ,7, Karloyi Karl Kutasi, Fhotographer ,8, Lorene Iitzgeralo, Secretary ,9, Willie Dobos, Fhotographer ,10, Wilhelmine Hoesl, Laboratory Assistant
Customer Representative ,11, Ilse Wienert, Fhotostat Operator ,12, Karl Kalmbach, Darkroom Frinter.
1
3
2
!
o
7
8
9

12
11 10
103
MICHIGAN COLORS
T/ .lo f 186 .o.i.c t/ ico f Clo Clr.` T/
otir .lo ot io t/ lc ./ol ooc oftr o .ol f otio
ooc oo./ ci.oio, l.tc fr or Clo .lr Moi ooc
Blo,` ooc ooootl, t/ .lr or octc o, flloio
.lo ooc fooll, o, t/ Uoi.rit,.` Iranklin S. Dewey,
class ol 18o9 ,Mi./ioo Jloooo, January !, 1923,
In 199 Liene Karels researcheo the true Michi-
gan Colors. Liene wrote: It i iol t/ rott .rt
f t/ Uoi.rit, f Mi./ioo i t/ot f it .lr. Io tio
or ti. oot l xo.t, t/ r.i /oc f t/ Uoi.rit,`
.lr or ciootc o, ..oti. /ro: oor olo` ooc
rioio ooi`. Iotrrtotio /o. .oric fro t/ fo
olo .lr f t/ /,` t loi`, oltrooorio`, ooc t/ olo
f t/ c o`. ,Letter to the History ano Traoitions
Committee, May 2o, 199,
Renectance oata was captureo lrom an 1912 ribbon.
The results gave the lollowing pronles:
Michigan Maize, 1912
R G B C M Y K
20 132 3! 9 28 9 0
Michigan Blue, 1912
R G B C M Y K
1 1 o0 93 7o 2! 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Millennium Froject Stall
Dan Iessahazion
Liene Karels
Mary Miles
With thanks ano gratituoe to the Millennium Fro-
ject Stall, Mary Miles, Dan Iessahazion, ano Liene
Karels lor their assistance in the proouction ol this
publication.
To the stuoents that have workeo on various projects
in the Millennium Froject: Jim Carey, Whitney Con-
rao, Zack Evans, Anoy Klesh, Katie Farsons, Feter
Wilson, ano Greg Wu.
To the stall ol Frinting Services lor their attention,
aovice ano care that they gave to this work.
Ano to Jim Duoerstaot lor his encouragement ano
constant push to complete the project.
Jim Duoerstaot with his personal trainer Eo Atkins