Study Guide for Exam 1
Classification of Living Things Define the word taxonomy. Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerning identifying naming and classifying organisms. What is the Binomial System of naming organisms? What are some of the rules that we follow under the binomial system? A system derived from Linnaeus to name organisms , the first work is genus name (Homo) second is more specific (sapiens) Define the following terms; systematics (Study of diversity of organisms using info from cellular to population levels) Phylogeny (is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms) phylogenetic tree (representation of lines of decent with branching points from a common ancestor) , primitive character (things common to all members of group, such as mammals having 4 legs) derived character (specific to one species , such as loss of a tail) homology (the same organ in different animals with a variety of function, such as eyes in people bats bugs etc) What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures? Homologous structures are found in many animals of same ancestor , analogous are found in many but have different evolutionary ancestors , for examplele wings in bats an bugs. What is convergent evolution? The acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages , for example bats and birds have wings but are unrelated species What are the different sources we use in systematics to construct a phylogenetic tree? Fossil record, rRna sequences, homology What can you say about the evolutionary relationships between baboons, chimpanzees and humans? They are from a common ancestor
How many kingdoms are included under Whittaker’s system of classification? 5 kingdoms . monera protista plante fungi animalia What kingdom includes prokaryotes under Whittaker’s system of classification? MONERA In the three domain system. LIFE – DOMAIN-KINGDOM-PHYLUM-CLASS-ORDER-FAMILY-GENUS-SPECIES Anagram to remember : King phillip came over for good sex
Viruses. What are some of the properties of viruses that argue for viruses to be living?
. bacteria and archea Why was it necessary to split the kingdom that included prokaryotes under Whittaker’s system into two different domains in 3 domain system of classification? Because of differences in rRna genes from those two types of organisms How are bacteria and archeae different? How are they similar? Theyre both microorganisms. theyare different cause arch live in harsher enviorments How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes? What are the eukaryotic kingdoms in the most recent system of classification? chromista plantae fungi animalia protozoa
Under kingdoms. List some of the properties of viruses that support the argument that viruses are non-living. they are autotrophs. Plants and animals are made of eukaryotic cells. Bacteria and Archeae Biologists have been arguing about whether viruses are living or non-living. The main difference to remember is that everything in a eukaryotic cell is much larger and more complex than what would be found in a prokaryotic cell. Bacteria is made of prokaryotic cells. what are the additional classification categories for eukaryotic organisms?
Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do. what domains include prokaryotic organisms? Archaea .
List all classification categories starting from the most inclusive to the least inclusive. bacteria How are the prokaryotic domains different in three domain classification system? Theyre split in two groups .
What does it mean? What is a bacteriophage? Virus that infect bacteria
.Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a virus that infects plants and was the first virus to be identified. true or false? TRUE
What is the structure of a virus? What kind of genetic material does virus contain? What is a naked virus? What are the criteria used to classify viruses? Viruses are defined as obligate intracellular parasites. Is this statement true or false? TRUE Viruses can be crystallized.
obligate anaerobes. How is lysogenic cycle different from lytic life cycle of a virus? What is the phage called in its latent stage? OR What is a prophage? Lysogenic life cycle can revert back to lytic cycle under certain conditions. true or false? What is a retrovirus? What retrovirus causes AIDS in humans? What is the function of reverse transcriptase enzyme? What immune cells are the targets of HIV in humans? What are viroids? Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few
hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary. transformation and transduction? What are plasmids? What are endospores? Define the following terms. single-stranded RNA
What are prions? Mismolded protein that is infectious Name the disease caused by prions in humans and in cattle. FLAGELLA How do bacterial cells attach to various surfaces? What is a nucleoid? What is binary fission? Is binary fission sexual or asexual means of reproduction? What do you understand by the following terms. What is symbiosis? What the three different types of
. circular. penetration. conjugation. photoautotrophs. chemoautotrophs.List
Explain the following terms in the context of lytic life cycle of a virus. chemoheterotrophs. and lysis. facultative anaerobes. maturation. Mad cow disease What is the difference between a capsule and a slime layer in bacterial cells? Name the structure used by bacterial cells for movement. attachment. biosynthesis.
Trichomonas vaginalis. Plasmodium vivax. After gram staining.
. what is the color of gram positive and gram negative cells respectively and why? What are three basic shapes of bacterial cells? What are cyanobacteria? What are the main differences between bacteria and archeae? What are methanogens. Entamoeba histolytica. unicellular green algae. and thermoacidophiles? Protista: Algae and Protozoans Why are plants considered to be closer to algae in evolution? Are all algae photosynthetic? Are all algae unicellular? List one example of the following. multicellular green algae. Trypanosoma brucie. halophiles. What are diatoms? What protozoans have pseudopods? How does amoeba obtain their food? List the name of disease caused by the following protozoans. and filamentous green algae.symbiotic relationships that bacteria have with other organisms? What are the two ways in which antibacterial compounds or antibiotics target bacterial cells? What is gram staining? List the main differences between gram negative and gram positive bacteria. What are seaweeds? List some commercial uses of red algae. colonial form of green algae.