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CONTEMPORARY WORLD HISTORY EXAM REVIEW GUIDE SECTION A - Multiple Choice (80 points) Terms to know: imperialism The

e take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of all the people of that nation A conference of European countries to set boundaries for the division of Africa No representatives from any countries in Africa were present Boers were Dutch settlers in Africa The Boer war occurred between the British and the Boers An interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products Played an important role in the fate of the Ottoman Empire The war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over control of the Black Sea The purpose was to give Russia a warm weather port Britain and France fought on the side of the Ottomans to try and prevent Russia from gaining additional control of Ottoman lands The Ottomans won A human made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of the Suez Many countries fought for control of it Sepoys are Indian soldiers The Sepoy Mutiny was when the Sepoys rebelled across much of Northern India What the British considered India India was the most valuable colony for Britain because of its vast supply of goods and its potential for a new large market of buyers British rule over India from 1757 to 1947

Berlin Conference

Boers/Boer War

geopolitics

Crimean War

Suez Canal

sepoys/Sepoy Mutiny

jewel in the crown

British Raj

British Raj cont. Pacific Rim Queen Liliuokalani

Opium War

extraterritorially

Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion

Treaty of Kanagawa

Meiji Era

Russo-Japanese War

Direct British rule rather than control from private owned trading companies Countries that border the Pacific Ocean Hawaiian ruler who, in 1893, called for a new constitution that would increase her power. It would also restore the political power of Hawaiians at the expense of wealthy planters The Chinese wouldnt allow the British to trade opium but they did anyway because of the profit Chinese warships clashed with British merchants in 1839 The Chinese were easily defeated due to their outdated weapons and fighting methods The right of foreigners to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts while living in other countries Chinese peasant revolt over the poverty and misery endured by the peasants A rebellion in which Chinese attacked foreigners across China after Anti-Foreign feelings arose all over China Treaty between the U.S. and Japan in which Japan agreed to open two ports where U.S. ships could take on supplies Mutsuhitos reign of enlightened rule in Japan which lasted 45 years starting in 1867 when the Tokugawa shogun stepped down Japan launched a surprise attack on Russian ships anchored off the coast of Manchuria in February 1904 Japan drove Russian troops out of Korea and captured most of Russias Pacific fleet

Militarism Militarism cont.

Triple Alliance Kaiser Wilhelm I Triple Entente Franz-Ferdinand

Central Powers Allies Western Front Schlieffen Plan

Trench warfare

Eastern Front

Unrestricted submarine warfare Total War Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points Self-determination

The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war Countries had plans to be able to quickly mobilize their armies Alliance between Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy Ruler of Germany in 1980 who wanted to show the world how great Germany was The alliance between Britain, France, and Russia Austro-Hungarian Archduke Assassinated in the Serbian capital of Sarajevo in June 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia soon after in July Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire Great Britain, France, and Russia The deadlocked region in northern France The German plan for attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing to the east to fight Russia Soldiers fought each other from trenches Occurred on the Western Front The stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border The Russians and Serbs battle the Germans and Austro-Hungarians The German policy in which German submarines would sink any ship in the waters around Britain Countries devoted all their resources to the war effort President of the United States representing them at the Paris Peace Conference Woodrow Wilsons plan to achieve lasting peace after WWI Allowing people to decide for themselves under what government

Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles cont. League of Nations Bolsheviks Lenin

Rasputin

Provisional Government

Soviets

New Economic Policy (NEP)

they wished to live The treaty that ended WWI (see page two of A Flawed Peace for specific negotiations) An international association created after WWI to try and keep peace among nations The political party Lenin belonged to (would later become the Communists) Helped Russia get out of WWI Took the provisional government out of power A holy man that claimed to have healing powers Claimed to help Czar Nicholas son Alexis with his hemophilia To show her gratitude, Czarina Alexandra allowed Rasputin to make government decisions and hire his friends as government officials A temporary government in Russia after the Czar was overthrown Led by Alexander Kerensky Made the mistake of continuing in WWI and lost the support of the people Local councils (in Russia) consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers In many cities the Soviets had more control than the provisional government The Soviets did not agree with the provisional government Lenins solution for Russias broken economy Stalin resorted to small scale capitalism The NEP allowed peasant to sell their crops instead of turning them over to the government The government still had control of major industries, banks and means of communication

Joseph Stalin Coalition Government Coalition Government cont.

Weimar Republic

Great Depression

Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler fascism

Naziism Mein Kampf

Lebensraum

Successor to Lenin and new leader of the Communist party in Russia after Lenin Temporary alliance of several political parties Was put into place where pre WWI governments had collapsed and there were large numbers of political parties Germanys democratic government set up in 1919 Failed because Germany lacked democratic tradition, there were many major and minor political parties though out Germany, and most Germans blamed the Weimar republic for Germanys defeat and humiliation from the Versailles treaty rather than blaming the wartime leaders. A long international business slump following WWI The stock market crashed Unemployment rates began to rise as industrial production, prices, and wages declined Came about as a result of an almost false economy after WWI All production and work was put towards the war and when the war was over there wasnt as much revenue Leader of fascist Italy Leader of Nazi Germany A militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader Fascists were nationalists The German brand of fascism my struggle Hitlers book that set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany Living space Hitler believed that Germany was over crowded and needed more

Appeasement Axis Powers Third Reich Munich Conference

Nonaggression pact

Blitzkrieg

Battle of Britain

Holocaust

room The British urged this policy of giving in to an aggressor to keep peace Germany, Italy, and Japan The German Empire A conference between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy proposed by Mussolini Britains Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain believed that he could preserve peace by giving in to Hitlers demands Hitler promised to respect Czechoslovakias new borders in return The Germans and the Soviets signed a pact so that Stalin didnt have to join with the west. The soviets were promised territory. They also agreed to split Poland and that the Soviets could have Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia lightning war Involved using fast-moving airplanes and tanks followed by massive infantry forces to take enemy defenders by surprise and quickly overwhelm them The air raid of England by the Germans from Summer 1940 to May 1941 The British used new technologies such as radar to track German planes The British were able to smuggle an enigma machine (the German codmaking machine) into England to be able to decode German code The British refused to surrender despite continued bombing Initially the Germans bombed during the day but they soon began bombing at night The systematic mass slaughter of

Kristallnacht Kristallnacht cont.

Ghettos

Jews and other groups judged inferior by the Nazis Others occupied by the Nazis participated including the French and the Baltics night of broken glass Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany and murders close to 100 Jews Segregated Jewish areas sealed off by barbed wire and stone walls by the Nazis The Nazis hope was that the Jews would starve to death or die inside the ghetto

Final Solution Battle of Stalingrad Nuremberg Trials

United Nations iron curtain

containment

Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan

Millions of Russians were killed because Stalin wouldnt allow them to retreat 22 Nazi leaders were charged with waging a war of aggression They were also charged with crimes against humanity An international organization intended to protect members against aggression The countries Stalin occupied after the war as a buffer or wall of protection, ignoring the Yalta agreement, installing communist governments in these countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia) A policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism Policies included forming alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances Trumans support for countries who rejected communism Provides food, machinery, and assistance to help rebuild western

Cold War NATO NATO cont. Warsaw Pact

brinkmanship Mao Zedong Jaing Kai-Shek

communes Great Leap Forward

European nations (non communist) A struggle of political differences carried on by means short of military action or war North Atlantic Treaty Organization Ten western European nations with the U.S. and Canada who form a military alliance The Soviet response to NATO Included USSR, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania The willingness to go to the brink of war Chinese communist leader Chinese nationalist leader Was defeated by the communists and sent to Taiwan with the rest of the nationalists Large collective farms. Peasants work the land together, ate together, and lived together Maos way of trying to expand economic success Created communes of peasants Unsuccessful due to the lack of incentive to work hard because only the state profited from their work

Red Guards

Cultural Revolution

38th parallel

Chinese militia units Maos way of trying to revive revolution The revolution in China where the goal was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal The intellectual mind was considered dangerous Red guards shit down colleges and schools and targeted anyone who resisted The dividing line between North Korea and South Korea North of the line was occupied by

Ho Chi Minh Domino theory Ngo Dinh Diem Vietcong Vietnamization Third World nonaligned nations Fidel Castro Avatollah Khomeini

Khmer Rouge

Soviets South of the line was occupied by the Americans Young Vietnamese nationalist who turned to the communists for his struggle Led to strikes against the French who occupied Vietnam at the time The theory that if one third world country turns communist the rest will Anti communist government setup in Vietnam by France and the U.S. Southern Vietnamese Communist guerrillas Allowed U.S. troops to gradually pull out of Vietnam while the south increased their combat role Put into use by Nixon Communist rebels in Cambodia Set up a brutal communist government and slaughtered 2 million people in the process Vietnamese invaded and over threw the Khmer Rouge UN peace keepers set up a democratic government in Cambodia Independent nations that arent affiliated with either the Communists or the Americans Leader of revolution in Cuba Harsh dictator Suspended elections, jailed or executed opponents, and controlled the press Took over U.S. sugar mills in Cuba U.S. opposed him because he took the leader that had U.S. support out of power Leader of religious opposition in Iran Established an Islamic state and created a militant form of Islam Heart of his foreign policy was centered around hatred for the U.S.

SECTION C - Essay (40 points) Considering the following will help you prepare for the exam essay topics: four paragraph essay 1)What is nationalism? Was nationalism an important force in Europe prior to WWI? Was it important prior to WWII? What form did nationalism take in 1914/1939? European nations were competing for colonial possessions over seas. Possessing colonies meant you were a great success. The more colonies the greater you were. This rivalry led to competition. Tensions and rivalry triggered by colonial possessions was a factor towards war. Militarism was a factor in nationalism. Arms race as nations tried to build their militaries in order to compete and out do each other. (Balkans dont matter too much). Focus more of competition of nationalism in Europe. National Pride post wwi: Germany and Italy have a wounded sense of nationalism. (try to regain) Fascists and Nazis aim was to restore nationalism. Nationalism is expressed as fascist political ideology.

2)Why did the Chinese Nationalists struggle to find success in China? Why did the Communists achieve victory? Possible question: contrast the nationalists from the communists Why did the communists win and the nationalists didnt? Chinese nationalists had a small audiencedid not have popular support. The message of the nationalists was preserving private property ownership. Most people in china didnt own anything and were exploited laborers on farms. Most supporters were middleclass factory owners who mostly lived in the cities. The U.S. offered support to the nationalist party to fight the Japanese. Nationalists and communists fought the Japanese together. The nationalists didnt use the money to fight the Japanese but saved it to fight a civil war with the communists. The communists tried to fight to stop the Japanese. Prestige of the nationalists was damaged after the Japanese invasion causing them to lose more supporters. The nationalist party is seen as corrupt and ineffective. They are seen to only want to help the wealthier minority. The Japanese invasion also cause the nationalists to leave the cities where they had support The communists wanted to take private property and distribute wealth, and they did. The communists promised to improve the conditions in the factories and promised

not to allow the factory owners to exploit the workers. The communists sent the right messages to the peasant majority. The communists also did a better job at fighting the Japanese and protecting china unlike the nationalists.

3) Did colonialism ever benefit the populations that experienced it? If so, how? If not, why? Colonialism was a highly exploitative system. Taking over one place to export the resources and send it to another place. Yes: Most of the places that experienced colonialism benefited because the places that were doing the colonizing were more advanced than the places being colonized (India after EIC and the British govt. came in). In India the British improved infrastructure (put in roads and railway). These benefited the British but also benefited India. British also migrated to India and brought their education system with them. The British also exported their health care. They brought improvements in sanitation and improvements in the quality of life (the British wanted to keep their working class healthy). The British ended violence in India (improved between Muslim and Hindu).