LTC1144 Switched-Capacitor Wide Input Range Voltage Converter with Shutdown

FEATURES
s s s s s s

DESCRIPTIO

s s

Wide Operating Supply Voltage Range: 2V to 18V Boost Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency Simple Conversion of 15V to –15V Supply Low Output Resistance: 120Ω Maximum Power Shutdown to 8µA with SHDN Pin Open Circuit Voltage Conversion Efficiency: 99.9% Typical Power Conversion Efficiency: 93% Typical Easy to Use

The LTC1144 is a monolithic CMOS switched-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range of 2V to 18V, resulting in complementary output voltages of –2V to –18V. Only two noncritical external capacitors are needed for the charge pump and charge reservoir functions. The converter has an internal oscillator that can be overdriven by an external clock or slowed down when connected to a capacitor. The oscillator runs at a 10kHz frequency when unloaded. A higher frequency outside the audio band can also be obtained if the Boost Pin is tied to V +. The SHDN pin reduces supply current to 8µA and can be used to save power when the converter is not in use. The LTC1144 contains an internal oscillator, divide-bytwo, voltage level shifter, and four power MOSFETs. A special logic circuit will prevent the power N-channel switch substrate from turning on.

APPLICATI
s s s s s s s

S

Conversion of 15V to ±15V Supplies Inexpensive Negative Supplies Data Acquisition Systems High Voltage Upgrade to LTC1044 or 7660 Voltage Division and Multiplications Automotive Applications Battery Systems with Wall Adapter/Charger

TYPICAL APPLICATI
LTC1144 1

Generating –15V from 15V
8 BOOST V+ 2 7 CAP+ OSC 3 6 GND SHDN 4 5 CAP– VOUT

Output Voltage vs Load Current, V + = 15V
–15 ROUT = 56Ω TA = 25°C –14
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)

15V INPUT

10µF

+

–15V OUTPUT 10µF
1144 TA01

–13

–12

–11

–10 0 10 30 40 20 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 50
1144 TA02

U

+

UO

UO

1

. – 40°C to 85°C Storage Temperature Range ... unless otherwise noted...5 4 ROUT Output Resistance q fOSC V + = 5V........................9 0..........15 0.... Note 1: Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which the life of a device may be impaired.... 6 No Connection. Pins 1..008 0.......... 18V Input Voltage on Pins 1.5 4 90 97.018 100 140 300 UNITS V mA mA mA mA mA mA Ω Ω Ω kHz kHz % % µA µA q q q q q 0............... Indefinite V + ≤ 15V .1 1.............3V < VIN < (V +) + 0.......10 0........0 The q denotes specifications which apply over the full operating temperature range. 20V Supply Voltage (V +) (Operating) ..........1 1... – 65°C to 150°C Lead Temperature (Soldering......... SHDN = 0V............. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS V + = 15V............... TA = 25°C..............13 0.... θJA = 100°C/W TOP VIEW BOOST 1 CAP+ 2 GND 3 CAP– 4 8 7 6 5 V+ OSC SHDN VOUT LTC1144CS8 LTC1144IS8 S8 PART MARKING 1144 1144I S8 PACKAGE 8-LEAD PLASTIC SOIC T JMAX = 110°C.... Note 2: Connecting any input terminal to voltages greater than V + or less than ground may cause destructive latch-up.......... SYMBOL PARAMETER Supply Voltage Range IS Supply Current CONDITIONS RL = 10k RL = ∞.3V Output Short-Circuit Duration V + ≤ 10V .......... IL = 20mA at 10kHz MIN 2 LTC1144C TYP MAX 18 1... and is intended to simulate the capacitance at pin 7 when the device is plugged into a test socket and no external capacitor is used......... 7 (Note 2) ... Not Protected Power Dissipation ...002 56 0..........10 0..... 300°C ORDER PART NUMBER LTC1144CN8 LTC1144IN8 N8 PACKAGE 8-LEAD PLASTIC DIP T JMAX = 110°C....... 6........ The 0pF frequency is correlated to this 100pF test point.....LTC1144 ABSOLUTE (Note 1) AXI U RATI GS PACKAGE/ORDER I FOR ATIO TOP VIEW BOOST 1 CAP+ 2 GND 3 CAP– 4 8 7 6 5 V+ OSC SHDN VOUT Supply Voltage (V +) (Transient) ....015 100 120 250 MIN 2 LTC1144I TYP MAX 18 1.........6 0.. fOSC = 4kHz V + = 5V.................... fOSC = 10kHz SHDN = 0V.........008 0. all other limits and typicals at TA = 25°C............3 0........ COSC = 0pF. Note 3: fOSC is tested with COSC = 100pF to minimize the effects of test fixture capacitance loading.... RL = ∞..9 0.......... 6 No Connection.......... Pins 1...... Pins 1........ 0°C to 70°C LTC1144I ........ 30 sec V + ≤ 20V .............. It is recommended that no inputs from sources operating from external supplies be applied prior to power-up of the LTC1144.... 7 No Connection V + = 15V........ IL = 3mA at 4kHz Oscillator Frequency V + = 15V (Note 3) V + = 5V Power Efficiency RL = 2k at 10kHz Voltage Conversion Efficiency RL = ∞ Oscillator Sink or Source Current V + = 5V (VOSC = 0V to 5V) V + = 15V (VOSC = 0V to 15V) q q q 90 97.............. 500mW Operating Temperature Range LTC1144C.... Pins 1..03 0....035 0..... 2 U W U U W W W ........ θJA = 130°C/W Consult factory for Military grade parts....... RL = ∞...... 7 No Connection V + = 5V.... – 0.. Test Circuit Figure 1..0 90 10 4 93 99. 10 sec).........002 56 90 10 4 93 99..... RL = ∞....

1 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 0 LTC1144 • TPC07 LTC1144 • TPC08 3 .01 100 10 1000 1 10000 EXTERNAL CAPACITANCE (PIN 7 TO GND).01 0 1 10 0.1 0.LTC1144 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Output Resistance vs Supply Voltage 300 250 TA = 25°C OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) 200 150 100 50 0 2 4 6 10 12 14 8 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 16 18 Oscillator Frequency as a Function of COSC 1000 TA = 25°C V + = 15V OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 BOOST = V + 10 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) 1 BOOST = OPEN OR GROUND 0. COSC (pF) LTC1144 • TPC04 Output Voltage vs Load Current 0 TA = 25°C V+ = 5V C1 = C2 = 10µF BOOST = OPEN 10000 POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%) –1 SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) –2 –3 ROUT = 90Ω –4 –5 0 5 10 15 20 LOAD CURRENT (mA) U W LTC1144 • TPC01 Output Resistance vs Temperature 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 –55 –25 V + = 5V IL = 3mA 1000 Oscillator Frequency vs Supply Voltage TA = 25°C COSC = 0 BOOST = V + 100 V = 15V IL = 20mA + 10 BOOST = OPEN OR GROUND 1 50 25 75 0 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 16 18 LTC1144 • TPC02 LTC1144 • TPC03 Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature 1000 TA = 25°C V + = 15V BOOST = V + Output Voltage vs Load Current 0 TA = 25°C V+ = 15V C1 = C2 = 10µF BOOST = OPEN –5 BOOST = OPEN OR GROUND 10 –10 ROUT = 56Ω 1 –55 –25 –15 0 25 50 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125 0 10 20 30 40 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 50 60 LTC1144 • TPC05 LTC1144 • TPC06 Supply Current as a Function of Oscillator Frequency 100 TA = 25°C C1 = C2 = 10µF 1000 V + = 15V 100 V + = 5V 10 Power Conversion Efficiency and Supply Current vs Load Current 100 PEFF 80 IS 80 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 60 60 40 40 TA = 25°C V+ = 15V 20 C1 = C2 = 10µF BOOST = OPEN (SEE TEST CIRCUIT) 0 10 30 40 50 20 LOAD CURRENT (mA) LTC1144 • TPC09 20 25 30 1 0.

Tie to V + pin or leave floating for normal operation.1 1 LOAD CURRENT (mA) PI FU CTIO S Boost (Pin 1): This pin will raise the oscillator frequency by a factor of 10 if tied high. GND (Pin 3): Ground Reference. SHDN (Pin 6): Shutdown Pin. CAP – (Pin 4): Negative Terminal for Pump Capacitor.1µF 10µF 500 0 0. VOUT (Pin 5): Output of the Converter.1 IL = 20mA 1 10 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 IL = 3mA 60 30 OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) 80 PEFF POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%) 40 IS 20 0 0 4 TA = 25°C V + = 5V 10 C1 = C2 = 10µF BOOST = OPEN (SEE TEST CIRCUIT) 0 12 16 20 8 LOAD CURRENT (mA) LTC1144 • TPC10 Ripple Voltage vs Load Current 1500 V + = 5V TA = 25°C C1 = C2 BOOST = 5V BOOST = OPEN 0 RIPPLE VOLTAGE (mV) 1000 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) 1µF 0. V + = 15V BOOST = OPEN Output Resistance vs Oscillator Frequency 3000 TA = 25°C V + = 15V 40 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 2000 10µF 1µF 20 1000 100µF 0 0.001 0. V + (Pin 8): Input Voltage.1µF Output Voltage vs Load Current 0 V + = 15V TA = 25°C C1 = C2 BOOST = 15V BOOST = OPEN –1 –2 0. CAP+ (Pin 2): Positive Terminal for Pump Capacitor. OSC (Pin 7): Oscillator Input Pin.LTC1144 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Power Conversion Efficiency and Supply Current vs Load Current 100 POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%) 10µF 90 10µF 85 1µF 80 1µF 75 70 0.01 10 0. Tie to ground when in shutdown mode.01 10 0.1µF 1µF 1µF 10µF 10µF 0.1µF 0.1 1 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 100 –4 100 –5 0.001 LTC1144 • G14 LTC1144 • TPC15 U U U .1 1 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 100 –15 0.1 1 10 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 100 LTC1144 • TPC11 LTC1144 • TPC12 Output Voltage vs Load Current V + = 5V TA = 25°C C1 = C2 BOOST = 5V BOOST = OPEN 0.1µF –10 0.1µF 10µF 1µF –5 –3 1µF 10µF 0. 4 U W 1µF 10µF LTC1144 • TPC13 Power Conversion Efficiency vs Oscillator Frequency 50 100 100µF 95 100µF TA = 25°C.01 10 0. This pin can be overdriven with an external clock or can be slowed down by connecting an external capacitor between this pin and ground.

the charge on C1 is q2 = C1V2. current) is: I = f × ∆q = f × C1(V1 – V2) Rewriting in terms of voltage and impedance equivalence. In Figure 2. The amount of charge transferred is: ∆q = q1 – q2 = C1(V1 – V2) V1 f RL C1 C2 1144 F02 V1 C2 REQUIV = 1 f × C1 RL Figure 3. APPLICATI S I FOR ATIO Theory of Operation To understand the theory of operation of the LTC1144. BOOST 10X (1) OSC OSC (7) ÷2 I= V1 − V2 V1 − V2 =  1  REQUIV  f × C1   SHDN (6) A new variable REQUIV has been defined such that REQUIV = 1/(f × C1). Switched-Capacitor Equivalent Circuit V2 Examination of Figure 4 shows that the LTC1144 has the same switching action as the basic switched-capacitor building block. the charge transfer per unit time (i. The total charge on C1 will be q1 = C1V1. capacitor C1 will charge to voltage V1. Note that charge has been transferred from the source V1 to the output V2. although not exact. Figure 4. Thus. a review of a basic switched-capacitor building block is helpful.. when the switch is in the left position. Switched-Capacitor Building Block If the switch is cycled f times per second. V+ (8) SW1 SW2 Figure 2.e. if you examine power conversion efficiency as a function of frequency (see Figure 5). the simple theory. With the addition of finite switch onresistance and output voltage ripple.LTC1144 TEST CIRCUITS 1 2 C1 10µF 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR R L V+ 15V IS + 3 4 IL VOUT Figure 1. After this discharge time. The switch then moves to the right. The loss. discharging C1 to voltage V2. this simple theory will explain how the LTC1144 behaves. LTC1144 Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converter Block Diagram + COSC C2 10µF 1144 F01 U REQUIV V2 1144 F03 W U UO CAP + (2) φ φ + C1 CAP – (4) VOUT (5) C2 + GND (3) 1144 F04 5 . provides an intuitive feel for how the device works. For example. the equivalent circuit for the switchedcapacitor network is as shown in Figure 3.

Matching is not required. Aluminum or tantalum electrolytics are excellent choices. Figure 6 shows a functional diagram of the oscillator circuit. This charge loss per unit cycle. nor do they have to be high quality or tight tolerance. typically 4µA. The supply current will also drop to 8µA. The choice of using a CMOS logic gate is best because it can operate over a wide supply voltage range (3V to 15V) and has enough voltage swing to drive the internal Schmitt trigger shown in Figure 6. so a logic gate is capable of driving this current. By connecting the boost pin (pin 1) to V +. when multiplied by the switching frequency. Oscillator REQUIRED FOR TTL LOGIC NC 1 2 LTC1144 8 7 6 5 –(V +) C2 1144 F07 V+ 100k OSC INPUT + C1 3 4 . becomes a current loss. OSC (Pin 7) and Boost (Pin 1) The switching frequency can be raised. the output impedance will eventually be dominated by the 1/(f × C1) term and power efficiency will drop. Loading pin 7 with more capacitance will lower the frequency. 100 POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%) 95 90 85 80 75 70 V + = 15V. Power Conversion Efficiency and Output Resistance vs Oscillator Frequency SHDN (Pin 6) The LTC1144 has a SHDN pin that will disable the internal oscillator when it is pulled low. Note also that power efficiency decreases as frequency goes up. At high frequency this loss becomes significant and the power efficiency starts to decrease. Driving the LTC1144 from an external frequency source can be easily achieved by driving pin 7 and leaving the boost pin open as shown in Figure 7. the charge and discharge current is increased. This is caused by internal switching losses which occur due to some finite charge being lost on each switching cycle. C1 = C2 = 10µF IL = 20mA.1 1 10 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) 1144 F05 Figure 7. and hence the frequency is increased by approximately 10 times. For 5V applications.LTC1144 APPLICATI S I FOR ATIO and hence the efficiency. is set by the output impedance. Increasing the frequency will decrease output impedance and ripple for higher load currents. with cost and size being the only consideration. TA = 25°C POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 600 500 OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) 400 300 200 OUTPUT RESISTANCE 100 0 100 0. External Clocking Figure 5. Using the boost (pin 1) in conjunction with exter- nal capacitance on pin 7 allows user selection of the frequency over a wide range. As frequency is decreased. 6 + U V+ 9I BOOST (1) I OSC (7) ≈ 20pF SCHMITT TRIGGER 9I GND (3) I 1144 F06 W U UO Figure 6. Capacitor Selection External capacitors C1 and C2 are not critical. The output current from pin 7 is small. lowered or driven from an external source. a TTL logic gate can be used by simply adding an external pull-up resistor (see Figure 7).

45V with no load and 28. Negative Voltage Converter At an oscillator frequency of 10kHz and C1 = 10µF. the load current should be kept below 100nA. Voltage Doubler Ultra-Precision Voltage Divider An ultra-precision voltage divider is shown in Figure 10. As the 1/(f × C) term becomes large compared to the switch on-resistance term. the circuit shown in Figure 11 is a simple solution. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights. Ultra-Precision Voltage Divider 1 = 20Ω Battery Splitter A common need in many systems is to obtain (+) and (–) supplies from a single battery or single power supply system. but the dominant effect of the capacitor is clearly shown in Figure 5. For C1 = C2 = 10µF.LTC1144 TYPICAL APPLICATI Negative Voltage Converter Figure 8 shows a typical connection which will provide a negative supply from an available positive supply. Where current requirements are small. To achieve the 0. It provides symmetrical ± output voltages. However. both equal to one half the input voltage. Battery Splitter Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable. Figure 11. Voltage Doubling Figure 9 shows a two-diode capacitive voltage doubler. no responsibility is assumed for its use. and 2) a term related to the onresistance of the MOS switches. the output impedance goes from 56Ω at fOSC = 10kHz to 250Ω at fOSC = 1kHz.0002% accuracy indicated.002% 2 TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX IL ≤ 100nA 2 + 3 4 + C2 10µF 1144 F10 Figure 10. V+ 2V TO 18V 1 2 10µF 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 10µF 1144 F08 + 3 4 TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX Figure 8.18V with a 10mA load. the load current can be increased. the first term is: REQUIV = (f 1 OSC / 2 ) × C1 = 5 × 103 × 10 × 10−6 Notice that the above equation for REQUIV is not a capacitive reactance equation (X C = 1/ωC) and does not contain a 2π term. This circuit operates over full temperature and power supply ranges without the need of any external diodes. The 56Ω output impedance is composed of two terms: 1) the equivalent switched capacitor resistance (see Theory of Operation). the output is 29. However. + UO + S V IN 2V TO 18V 1 2 3 4 LTC1144 8 7 6 5 Vd + 1N4148 Vd 1N4148 + + 10µF + VOUT = 2(VIN – 1) 10µF 1144 F09 Figure 9. The output voltages are both referenced to pin 3 (output common). V+ 4V TO 36V 1 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 VOUT = –V + C1 10µF V+ ±0. 1 VB 18V 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 C2 10µF –VB /2 –9V VB /2 9V + C1 10µF 2 + 3 4 OUTPUT COMMON 1144 F11 7 . with a slight loss in accuracy. the output resistance is determined by 1/(f × C) only. The exact expression for output impedance is extremely complex. The output voltage (pin 5) characteristics of the circuit are those of a nearly ideal voltage source in series with a 56Ω resistor. With a 15V input.

157 (3.350 ± 0.381 ) 0.130 ± 0. However.010 (0.508) MIN ( +0. Two LTC1144s are connected in parallel to provide a lower effective output resistance.254) 4 6 5 0.100 ± 0.015 (0. Milpitas.008 – 0.005 (3.069 (1.203 – 0.015 +0.020 (0.019 (0.325 –0.189 – 0.651) 0.810 – 3. increasing the capacitor size (C1) or increasing the frequency will be of more benefit than the paralleling circuit shown.508) S8 Package 8-Lead Plastic SOIC 0.228 – 0.270) BSC 0.175) MIN 0.483) 0.320 (7.125 (3.254 – 0.065 (1.050 0.406 – 1.300 – 0.004) 0.045 ± 0.254) 8 7 0.270 0. the ROUT is below 20Ω.254) 0. Paralleling for Lower Output Resistance Additional flexibility of the LTC1144 is shown in Figure 13. CA 95035-7487 (408) 432-1900 q FAX: (408) 434-0507 q TELEX: 499-3977 LT/GP 0494 10K • PRINTED IN USA © LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 1994 + U UO S 9V 1 2 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 36k 2N2369 + 3 4 300k – 5V 100µF 1144 F12 0.229 – 0. 1 2 8 Linear Technology Corporation 1630 McCarthy Blvd.457 ± 0.014 – 0.381) 0.197 (4.003 (0.010 – 0.791 – 6.620 – 8.255 –0.635 8.010 (0.045 – 0.244 (5.381) 0.127) N8 Package 8-Lead Plastic DIP 0.355 – 0.050 (1.143 ± 0.160) MAX 8 7 6 5 0. if the output resistance is dominated by 1/(f × C1).250 ± 0.101 – 0. 1 2 C1 10µF 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 C1 10µF 1 2 1µF Figure 12.801 – 5.302 ± 0.076) 0.540 ± 0.010 (6.143 – 1.006 INCH (0.752) 0°– 8° TYP 0.LTC1144 TYPICAL APPLICATI Regulated –5V Output Voltage Figure 12 shows a regulated –5V output with a 9V input.. A Regulated – 5V Supply V+ 8 7 LTC1144 6 5 VOUT = –(V +) + 3 4 + 3 4 + 1/4 CD4077* C2 20µF * THE EXCLUSIVE NOR GATE SYNCHRONIZES BOTH LTC1144s TO MINIMIZE RIPPLE 1144 F13 Figure 13.004 – 0.197) *THESE DIMENSIONS DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS.065 (1.015 (1. With a 0mA to 5mA load current.010 (2. 0.988) 3 4 .018 ± 0.020 × 45° (0.150 – 0.053 – 0.128) Dimemsions in inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted.651) TYP 0.400 (10. MOLD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.009 – 0.346 – 1.025 0.254) 1 2 3 0. Paralleling for Lower Output Resistance PACKAGE DESCRIPTION 0.15mm).016 – 0.