# According to the IEC 61660

Contents [hide] 1 Introduction 2 Calculating the Total Short-Circuit Current 3 Partial Fault Currents 3.1 Fault Current from Batteries 3.2 Fault Current from Capacitors 3.3 Fault Current from Rectifiers 3.4 Fault Current from DC Machines 3.5 Correction Factors

Introduction
The scope of IEC 61660 is to describe a method for calculating short-circuit currents in DC auxiliary systems in power plants and substations. Such systems can be equipped with the following equipment, acting as short-circuit current sources: rectifiers in three-phase AC bridge connection for 50 Hz; stationary lead-acid batteries; smoothing capacitors; DC motors with independent excitation. NOTE – Rectifiers in three-phase AC bridge connection for 60 Hz are under consideration. The data of other equipment may be given by the manufacturer. This standard is only concerned with rectifiers in three-phase AC bridge connection. It is not concerned with other types of rectifiers. The purpose of the standard is to provide a generally applicable method of calculation which produces results of sufficient accuracy on the conservative side. Special methods, adjusted to particular circumstances, may be used if they give at least the same precision. Short-circuit currents, resistances and inductances may also be ascertained from system tests or measurements on model systems. In existing DC systems the necessary values can be ascertained from measurements taken at the assumed short-circuit location. The load current is not taken into consideration when calculating the short-circuit current. It is necessary to distinguish between two different values of short-circuit current: the maximum short-circuit current which determines the rating of the electrical equipment; the minimum short-circuit current which can be taken as the basis for fuse and protection ratings and settings. For more information please refer to the standard itself IEC 61660-1 .

Calculating the Total Short-Circuit Current
Each DC source during the fault shall contribute to the total short-circuit current. The superposition principle is being applied. When one source is observed then the other ones are being disconnected and ignored. The potential DC sources are battery, rectifier, capacitor and machine. The partial short-circuit currents are calculated for each of those sources as follows: for 0 t t p:
Figure 1. Equivalent circuit diagram for calculating the partial short-circuit currents

Where t p is the time to peak of the partial current and τ 1 is the rise time constant for the partial current source. for t p t T k:

Where T k is the fault duration time and τ 2 the decay time constant for the partial current source. And the total short-circuit current is the sum as follows:

for 0

t

T k . And nDC is the number of the DC sources contributing the fault current, j is the observed DC source.

Partial Fault Currents
Fault Current from Batteries
The peak short-circuit current is calculated as:

The quasi steady-state short-circuit current is calculated as follows:

for 0 ≤ t ≤ t pC : . LBBr is the sum of the battery internal inductance and the line (path) inductance up to the fault location. RBBr is the sum of the battery internal resistance and the line (path) resistance up to the fault location (RBBr=0. for t pB ≤ t ≤ T k : And the total current from the battery is: Fault Current from Capacitors The peak short-circuit current is calculated using: Where EC is the voltage of the capacitor terminal before the fault. Rise-time current . IEC 61660). as follows: LC Br is the inductance of the capacitor and common branch up to the fault location. Factor k 1 C to determine rise-time constant (Figure 14. The decay-time constant (τ 2B ) is assumed to 100 ms. And the rise-time constant is: Figure 4. IEC 61660:1997) Decay-time current. up to the fault location. IEC 61660:1997) And the decay-time constant is: And coefficients k1C and k2C are taken from the diagrams/tables (defined in Figure 14. The quasi steady-state current of the capacitor is considered to be 0. Factor k 2 C to determine decay-time constant (Figure 15. IEC 61660:1997) b) If δ < ω 0: c) If δ = ω 0: Where the time-to-peak is t pC . in IEC 61660:1997). The factor κC depends on the eigen-frequency ω 0 and the decay coefficient δ. Rise-time current . The time constant of the battery T B is assumed to be 30 ms.The decay component is calculated as: The rise-time constant (τ 1B ) and time-to-peak of short-circuit currents of batteries is taken from the diagram (Figure 10.9RB +RBr). a) If δ > ω 0: Figure 3. Time to peak and rise time constant (Figure 10. for 0 ≤ t ≤ t pB : Figure 2. and RC Br is the sum of capacitor and branch resistance.

05 : For κD < 1. Otherwise IkM = 0. UnTLV and UnTHV are transformer rated voltages of low and high voltage side. The factor λD is calculated using: The peak short-circuit current is calculated using: And the factor κD and is calculated using: The time-to-peak is calculated for all values κD ≥1. ZN is the network impedance AC side. respectively. .05 : The suitable approximation is given as: The decay-time constant is calculated using: Fault Current from DC Machines The quasi steady-state short-circuit current is calculated using: Where LF is the field inductance and LOF is the unsaturated field inductance at no-load. This equation is valid only if the motor speed remains constant during the duration of the short-circuit fault.Decay-time current. for t pC ≤ t ≤ T k : And the total current from the battery is: Fault Current from Rectifiers The quasi steady-state short-circuit current IkD of a rectifier in three-phase AC bridge connection is: Where Un is the nominal system voltage on AC side of rectifier.05 as follows: for it is (ms) for it is (ms) The rise-time constant for rectifiers is: For κD >= 1.

21 in IEC 61660). t The armature time constant is calculated as: The time constant of the field circuit is calculated as: And the mechanical time constant is calculated as: The eigen frequency is calculated as: The decay coefficient is calculated from: The peak short-circuit current: The factors k1M. Factor κ M for determining the peak short-circuit current ipM (Figure 17. IEC 61660:1997) Figure 6. IEC 61660:1997) The time-to-peak in case when τ Mec≥10τ F: And the rise-time constant: . Factor k 4 M for determining the decay-time constant t2 M for decreasing speed (Figure 21.Figure 5. Factors for determining tpM . IEC 61660:1997) Figure 9. k2M. τ1 M for nominal and decreasing speed (Figure 18. The factor κM is taken from the diagram (Figure 17 in IEC 61660). IEC 61660:1997) Figure 7. Factor k 3 M for determining the rise-time constant t1 M for decreasing speed (Figure 20. k3M and k4M are taken from the diagrams (Figure 18. Figure 8. 20.

Each calculated correction factor is multiplied with the partial fault current of the each source. Y refers to the branch (Br). as follows: Where Ij is the initial partial fault current and σj is the correction factor. for 0 ≤ t ≤ t pM: Where t p is the time to peak of the partial current and τ 1 is the rise time constant for the observed voltage source. IEC 61660). both for the source "j". The rise-time constant and the decay-time constant τ 1M and τ 2M are calculated using: Rise-time current .The decay-time constant: τ 2M = τ F when n=nn=const. which are supposed to improve total results. for t pM ≤ t ≤ T k : And the total current from the DC machine is: Correction Factors Due to the fact that all non-observed sources at the time are neglected along with their branches it is suggested to use correction factors. τ 2M = (k4M)(τ Mec)(LOF/LF) when n→0 In case when τ Mec<10τ F then the time-to-peak is taken from the diagram/table (Figure 19. Decay-time current. C orrected resistance for the each source .

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