M.S.

Rogers
Copyright ©2003 TWI Ltd
SWI 3.2
Senior Welding Inspection
Fracture Assessments
Course Reference WIS 10
M.S.Rogers
Copyright ©2003 TWI Ltd
SWI 3.2
Fracture Surfaces
Introduction:
•Fatigue and brittle fractures are the two most
important forms of service failure in welded
structures
•Fatigue fractures account for more than 90% of all
service failures
•Brittle fractures although rare in occurrence are usually
catastrophic in economic terms and may cause loss in
life
M.S.Rogers
Copyright ©2003 TWI Ltd
SWI 3.2
Features of Fatigue fractures:
•Service failure
•Occurs under cyclic/fluctuating stress
•Smooth appearance
•Initiates at some form of stress concentration. These
stress points may be weld defects, poor profiles,
notches etc
•In certain cases evidence of beach markings
•Fracture occurs perpendicular to the applied stress
Fatigue Fracture Surfaces
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Fatigue Fractures
Fatigue cracking at the
weld toe
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Fatigue Fracture Surfaces
Smooth fracture surface
Points of initiation
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Beach Marks
Fatigue Fracture Surfaces
Ductile fracture
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Ductile Fracture
Features of ductile fractures:
•Rough fibrous appearance
•Dull grey in colour
•In certain cases evidence of shear lips
•In most cases a reduction in area
•Occurs as a secondary mode of failure
M.S.Rogers
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Brittle Fracture
Features of brittle fractures:
•Usually occurs without visible or audible warning
•In certain cases bright crystalline appearance
•In certain cases a chevron pattern appearance, the
chevron pattern points back to the point of
initiation
•Little if no reduction in area
•Little if no evidence off shear lips
•May be a straight brittle fracture or secondary
mode of failure
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SWI 3.2
Brittle Fracture
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SWI 3.2
Brittle Fracture
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Brittle Fracture
M.S.Rogers
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Fracture Assessments
Remember in the CSWIP 3.2 Senior Welding Inspectors
examination your are required to conduct a practical
examination of two fracture samples and complete a
sketch and a final report on your findings
 Time allowed 1 hour for both fracture samples
 30 minutes for each fracture sample
M.S.Rogers
Copyright ©2003 TWI Ltd
SWI 3.2
Fracture Assessments
You are required
•Sketch the fracture surface.
•Indicate the fracture initiation points (if known)
•Show any defects present
•Identify the primary mode of failure
•Identify the secondary mode of failure
•State whether failure occurred in the weld, parent
material or both (if known)
•Write a conclusion to summarize your findings,
providing reasons and evidence
•Sign and date your report
M.S.Rogers
Copyright ©2003 TWI Ltd
SWI 3.2
A. Initiation point
B. Initiation point
C. Initiation point
D. Initiation point
E. Initiation point
F. Initiation point
G. Initiation point
H. Weld crater/crater pipe
I. Cap undercut
J. Ductile fracture
K. Ductile fracture
L. Fatigue fracture
M. Shear lips
Ductile
Fracture
Fracture Sample 1
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Fracture Assessment Report specimen 1.
Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: Fatigue failure occurred at the weld toes of a fillet weld on both sides of the
joint. The fatigue failure has initiated at a number of points along the weld toes (B), theses
separately initiated into fatigue cracks and joined up by a series of steps on each side of
the of the joint (D) this is evident by the smooth appearance of the fracture surface. The
fatigue crack stopped at he possible beach marks (H).
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (E) this is evident by the
rough fibrous appearance and areas of shear lips (A). Other points of interest are the poor
weld craters (G) and the weld undercut (F).
D
D
B
A
A
E
B
H
B F C B
E
G
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
A. Shear lips
B. Initiation points/weld
toe undercut
C. Weld spatter
D. Fatigue fracture surface
E. Ductile fracture surface
F. Weld undercut
G. Poor weld craters
H. Possible beach marks
H
G
B
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A-A. Initiation point
B. Stepping
C. Stepping
D. Ductile fracture
E. Inclusions
F. Inclusions
G. Fatigue fracture
Ductile Fracture
Fracture Sample 2
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Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: Fracture occurred at the weld toe (H-H) of a butt weld along its entire
length.
A fatigue crack has initiated at the weld toe (H-H) along the welds entire length, this is
evident by the smooth fracture surface (C). The fatigue crack stopped at point (F).
The secondary mode of failure is a ductile fracture this is evident by the rough fibrous
fracture surface (D), the evidence of shear lips (A) and a reduction in area (B). Other
points to notice are the opening up of the plate inclusions (G) in the rolled direction.
A
D
C
A
B
D
F G F
H
H
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 2.
A. Shear lips B. Reduction in area C. Fatigue fracture D. Ductile fracture
E. Stepping F. Beach markings G. Inclusions H-H. Initiation point
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
E
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A. Slag inclusion
B. Slag inclusion
C. Slag inclusion
D. Shear lip
E. Slag inclusion
F. Shear lip
G. Fatigue fracture
H. Ductile fracture
Note: Reduction in area
Ductile
Fracture
Fracture Sample 3
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A. Fatigue fracture
surface
B. Shear lips
C. Reduced area
D. Ductile fracture surface
E. Weld defects (slag
inclusions)
F. Beach markings
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 3.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
A A
A E
B
F
D
E E
D
C
Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The butt weld failed due to fatigue cracks which initiated from weld metal
defects (E). The cracks have a smooth appearance this is evidence of fatigue fracture (A).
The secondary mode of failure which is the final mode is a ductile fracture this is evident
by the dull fibrous appearance of the fracture surface (D), shear lips (B) and a slight
reduction in area (C).
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A. Gas pore/initiation
point
B. Beach mark
C. Ductile fracture
D. Fatigue fracture
E. Shear lip
F. Shear lip
G. Shear lip
Ductile
Fracture
Fracture Sample 4
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B
D
E
D
A
C
A. Gas pore
B. Beach mark
C. Fatigue fracture surface
D. Shear lips/slight reduction in area
E. Ductile fracture surface
Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The metal shaft failed due to a fatigue crack, which initiated from a small
gas pore (A)
The primary mode of failure is from a fatigue crack (C) this is evident by the smooth
appearance of the fracture surface.
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (E) this is evident by the dull
gray fibrous appearance of the fracture surface, evident of shear lips (D) and a reduction
in area (D).
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 4.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
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A. Weld defect possible toe crack initiation point point
B. Small shear lip
C. Shear lip
D. Shear lip
Note: Patterned fracture surface - Brittle fracture.
Brittle
Fracture
Fracture Sample 5
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A
C
A. Weld defect, possible toe
crack
B. Shear lips
C. Patterned brittle fracture
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 5.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
C
Primary and final mode of failure: Brittle fracture
Conclusion: The brittle fracture initiated from a welding defect, possible toe crack.
A straight brittle fracture occurred in a butt weld, initiated from a welding defect, possible
toe crack (A).
The brittle fracture surface (C) has a distinctive pattern of markings which radiate from
the surface of the weld toe defect, possible toe crack (A). It should be noted that the
pattern points back towards the initiation point (A). Other features of interest are the
slight shear lips (B).
B
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Note: Patterned/chevron fracture surface - Brittle
fracture.

Note: Small shear lips along both plate surfaces.
Fracture Sample 6
Brittle Fracture
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A. Slight shear lips
B. Brittle fracture
surface/chevron pattern
C. Initiation point
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
Primary and final mode of failure: Brittle fracture
Conclusion: This service failure has no visible initiation point, the fracture is a brittle
fracture this is evident by the uniform chevron pattern (B), which points back towards the
origin of the fracture initiation point.
Other interesting points are the slight shear lips (A) and no reduction in area evident.
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 6.
DIRECTION OF PROPERGATION
C
A
A
B
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A. Machined notch initiation point
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. Brittle fracture
Note: Very little reduction in area
and no evidence of shear lips
C
A
B
CTOD Brittle Fracture
Fracture Sample 7
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Fracture Assessment Report specimen 7.
A. Machined notch,
initiation point
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. brittle fracture surface
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
Conclusion: The CTOD sample failed from a purposely initiated fatigue crack
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from a machined notch (A). The secondary mode of failure is a
brittle fracture (C) this is evident by the crystalline fracture surface with very little
evidence of plastic deformation (very little reduction in area) and no evidence of shear lips
Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue
fracture
Secondary mode of failure: Brittle fracture.
A
B
C
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A
B
C
A. Machined notch initiation point
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. Ductile fracture surface
Note: The reduction in area and the
large shear lips
CTOD Ductile Fracture
Fracture Sample 8
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SWI 3.2
Fracture Assessment Report specimen 8.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
Conclusion: The CTOD sample failed from a purposely initiated fatigue crack
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from a machined notch (A). The secondary mode of failure is a
ductile fracture (D) this is evident by the fibrous appearance of the fracture surface with
evidence of plastic deformation, a large reduction in area and shear lips (C).
C D
A
B
A. Machined notch,
initiation point
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. Shear lips
D. Ductile fracture surface
Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue
fracture
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture.
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A. Cracks / forging bursts.
B. Cracks / forging bursts.
C. Cracks / forging bursts
D. Initiation point / threat tip
E. Fatigue fracture
F. Ductile fracture
G. Brittle fracture
A
E
D
B
F
G
C
Ductile / Brittle
Fracture
Fracture Sample 9
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Fracture Assessment Report specimen 9.
Conclusion: The threaded bar failed from a fatigue crack, which initiated at the base
of the thread (E).
The primary mode of failure is a fatigue fracture (B) this is evident by the smooth fracture
surface, which initiated from the base of the thread (E). The secondary mode of failure is a
ductile fracture (C) this is evident by the fibrous appearance of the fracture surface with
evidence of plastic deformation. The final mode of failure is brittle (D) this is evident by
the bright crystalline fracture surface.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
A. Cracks/forging bursts
B. Fatigue fracture surface
C. Ductile fracture surface
D. Brittle fracture surface
E. Initiation point
Primary and final mode of failure: Fatigue fracture
Secondary mode of failure: Brittle fracture. Third mode of failure: Brittle fracture
A
A
A
B
C D
E
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Ductile Fracture
B
E
A
B
C D
E
A. Fatigue fracture surface.
B. Ductile fracture surface.
C. Initiation point / weld toe
undercut
D. Initiation point / weld toe
undercut
E. Beach marks
F. Weld spatter
F
Fracture Sample 10
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Fracture Assessment Report specimen 10.
A
B
C
F
E E
B A
D
A. Fatigue fracture surface
B. Ductile fracture surface
C. Initiation point, weld toe
undercut
D. Initiation point, weld toe
undercut
E. Beach markings
F. Weld spatter
Primary mode of failure: Fatigue perpendicular to the applied stress
Secondary mode of failure: Ductile fracture
Conclusion: The fabricated cruciform joint failed as a result of a fatigue fracture this is
evident by the smooth fracture surface (A), its point of initiation (C,D), possible undercut
at the weld toe. The fatigue cracks tip is evident by the beach markings (E), where the
crack stop and starts with each stress cycle.
The secondary and final mode of failure is a ductile fracture (B) this is evident by the
fibrous appearance of the fracture.
Name: Mark Rogers Date: 13/06/03 Signature: M.S Rogers
M.S.Rogers
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SWI 3.2
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