AA Jh d‘".

kk; ue% AA
AA Jh lqjH;S ue% AA

vkvks
xk; ls izse d jsa
¼vkt dh vko’;drk xksikyu&xkslaj{k.k½

izLrqr izdk’ku

% jk/ks';ke jkoksfj;k eks- 9042322241
ehBqnkl oS".ko eks- 9444937501
% izFke laLdj.k

izdk’kudky

% oS'kk[k lqnh 15] fo- la- 2070

izdk’ku lsok

% iBu] euu ,oa xkS ikyu

izkfIr LFkku

% lar Hkwfj;k ckck xkS'kkyk gjlksyko
ftyk&ukxkSj ¼jkt-½ Hkkjr

izdk’kd

www.gokranti.com

izdk'kd
jk/ks';ke jkoksfj;k
ehBqnkl oS".ko
gjlksyko ¼ukxkSj½

eqnzd

¬ g©
c·H s o[ÊQ

xksVu&342 902 ftyk&ukxkSj ¼jkt-½

F 01591&231243] eks- 9461373443

v
uq
Ø
e
f.k
dk

xk; dh egrk vkSj vko';drk
xks efgek
xkS'kkyk ;k fiatjkiksy
xkS'kkykvksa dh LFkkiuk dk mís';
xkS'kkykvksa ls lEcfU/kr gksus okyh xfrfof/k;ka@xks j{kk
iapxO; @ xk; ls fpfdRlk
xks nq/k dk tknw
xks nq/k ds xq.k @ xksew=
jksxksa dk fuokj.k
xksew= dk vke jksxksa ij ?kjsyw iz;ksx
xks nf/k ls jksx fuokj.k@xk; ds ngh ds xq.k
xk; ds oSKkfud ykHk rFkk ns'kh xk; ds nw/k ls ykHk
ns'kh xk; ds ?kh ds oSKkfud ykHk
xk; ds xkscj vkSj xksew= dh efgek
xksew= vdZ esa ekStwn rRo] jlk;u o ykHk
xkslsok ,oa xksj{kk ds ykHk
xksj{kk ds fy, D;k djuk pkfg,
xksj{kk ds mik; ,oa lk/ku
xksj{kk ds fy, viuk drZO; fuHkk,a
iapxO; dh efgek
i`Foh ij dqN ve`r gS rks xks?k`r
xksew= /kuoUrjh
nf/k foKku
dkuwu tkfu, vkSj xksoa'k cpkbZ;s
fuHkZ; ea=@xks xzkl nsus dk Qy
bZ'oj izkfIr ekxZ @izk.k&nkuh dh ln~xfr
Jk) dk Qy@xks lsok ls fir` izlUurk
nw/k c<+kus ds <ax
vFkZ 'kkL= dh n`f"V ls xkscj dk egRo
xk; ds xkscj dk vkfFkZd ykHk ,oa mi;ksx
ve`r opu
gekjk ladYi
Hkkjrh; xksekrk o fons'kh uLy esa varj
xks&o/k can gksuk gh pkfg,
ouLifr ?kh
xksoa'k ij funZ;rk,as o vR;kpkj
lnk ;kn j[ksa
Hkxoku ls izkFkZuk @milagkj

1
3
4
10
11
17
19
20
21
25
26
29
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
43
44
46
48
49
51
52
53
55
57
58
59

fuosnu
ikBdksa ls fouez fuosnu gS fd bl iqLrd esa vkbZ Js"B ckrsa xks&xksfoUn dk d`ik
izlkn ekudj thou esa /kkj.k djsaA _qfV;ksa dks esjh O;fDrxr Hkwy le> dj
{kek djsaA
/keZ] vFkZ dke vkSj eks{k ,oa buls Hkh vkxs bZ'ojh; izse dks izkIr djus gsrq xks
lsok loZ lqyHk lk/ku gSA xks ekrk dh efgek vikj gSA bl lalkj esa xkS ,d
vn~Hkwr izk.kh gSA tks okLro esa lcds fy;s dY;k.kdkjh gSA vius 'kkL=ks ds
vuqlkj xk; esa rsrhl dksfV nsorkvksa dk fuokl gSA dsoy xksekrk dh lsok ls
vius lEiw.kZ nsoh&nsorkvksa dh lsok lEiUu gks tkrh gSA blhfy;s xksekrk dks
loZ nsoe;h dgk tkrk gSA xks ds n'kZu ls leLr nsorkvksa ds n'kZu ,oa leLr
rhFkksZ dh ;k=k dk iq.; izkIr gksrk gS rFkk xks&n'kZu] xkSLi'kZ] xks&iwtu]
xks&Lej.k ,oa xksnku djus ls euq"; loZfo/k ikiksa ls eqDr gks tkrk gSA bl
izdkj xkS Hkkjrokfl;ksa fd ije vkjk?;k gSA izkphudky esa vkt dh vis{kk lHkh
xks&lsokijk;.k Fks] vkSj xk;s Hkh cgqr vf/kd Fkh] ftlls gekjs ns'k esa
xks&tkfr]xO; inkFkZ] vUu] lq[k&'kkfUr ,oa le`f) FkhA cMs+ cqtqxZ dgrs gS ns'k
esa nw/k&ngh dh ufn;ka cgrh FkhA
orZeku le; esa nqHkkZX;o'k vk/kqfud lH;rk fd pdkpksUn esa Hkkjrh;
xksoa'k dh Hkkjh mis{kk gks jgh gS ,oa xks&gR;k;sa gks jgh gS vkSj xk;ksa dh la[;k
cgqr de gks x;hA
ifj.kker% ns'k esa nq[k% nkfjnz; dk foLrkj gks jgk gS] vkSj yksxksa esa
fgalk]dzks/k yksHk ,oa foykflrk c<+rh tk jgh gSA
vkt ds ifjos'k esa xksoa'k ds izfr&/kkfeZd ,oa vk/;kfRed fpUru ds
lkFk&lkFk vkfFkZd] lkekftd rFkk oSKkfud ,oa LokLF; laca/kh fparu dh
vko';drk gSA
xkSekrk }kjk iznr iapXkO; ekuoh; LokLF; ds fy;s ve`r rqY;
vkS"k/kh gS dbZ izdkj dh vlk/; O;kf/k;ksa ds leu gsrq iapxO; vk;qosZfnd
vkS"kf/k;ksa ds iz;ksx Hkkjrh; fpfdRlk 'kkL=ks esa gSA
xhrk izsl ds dY;k.k esa le;&le; ij xks&lsok ,oa xks&efgek
izdkf'kr gksrh gS ,oa lar] egkRek] vkpk;ksZ ds Hkh Jheq[k ls cgqr dqN lquus dks
feyrk gS mUgh es ls dqN mi;ksxh lkexzh dk ladyu dj yksdksidkj dh n`"Vh
ls izdkf'kr dh tk jgh gSaA blds v/;;u ls yksxksa dh dqN n`"Vh cny ldrh
gSA ,slh vk'kk gSA
Hkxoku ls izkFkZuk gS fd izR;sd Hkkjrh; xksoa'k ds izfr viuk nkf;Ro le>s vkSj
thou esa mu lkfRod xq.kks dk lekos'k djsA vk'kk gS vki bls i<+dj xks&lsok
ds izfr izsj.kk izkIr djsxsaA vkSj vki lsok esa yxdj nqljksa dks Hkh izsfjr djsaxs A
ladyu drkZ
jk/ks';ke jkoksfj;k

xk; dh egrk vkSj vko';drk
xk; fo'o dh ekrk gS&^ xkoks fo'oL; ekRkj%A
lw;Z] o:.k] ok;q vkfn nsorkvksa dks ;K] gkse es nh gqbZ vkgqfr ls
tks [kqjkd] iqf"V feyrh gSA og xk; ds ?kh ls gh feyrh gSA gkse esa xk;
ds ?kh dh gh vkgqfr nh tkrh gS] ftlls lw;Z dh fdj.ksa iq"V gksrh gSa fdj.ksa
iq"V gksus ls o"kkZ gksrh gS vkSj o"kkZ ls lHkh izdkj ds vUUk] ikS/ks] ?kkl vkfn
iSnk gksrs gS] ftuls lEiw.kZ LFkkoj& taxe] pj&vpj izkf.k;ksa dk
Hkj.k&iks"k.k gksrk gSA
fgUnqvksa ds xHkkZ/kku ] tUe] ukedj.k vkfn ftrus laLdkj gksrs
gS] mu lc esa xk; ds nw/k] ?kh] xkscj vkfn dh eq[;rk gksrh gSA f}tkfr;ksa
dks tks ;Kksiohr fn;k tkrk gS] mlesa xk;dk iaPkxO; ¼nw/k]ngh] ?kh]
xkscj] vkSj xksew=½ dk lsou djk;k tkrk gSA ;Kksiohr &laLdkj gksus ij
os osn i<+us ds vf/kdkjh gksrs gSA vPNs czkã.k dk yM+dk Hkh ;Kksiohr
laLdkj ds fcuk osn i<us dk vf/kdkjh ugha gksrk A tgkW fookg&laLdkj
gksrk gSA ogkW Hkh xk; ds xkscj dk ysi djds 'kqf) djrs gSA fookg ds
le; xksnku dk Hkh cgqr ekgkRE; gSA tuuk&'kkSp vkSj ej.k'kkSp feVkus
ds fy, xk;dk xkscj vkSj xkSew= gh dke esa fy;k tkrk gS] D;ksfd xk; ds
xkscj esa y{eh dk vkSj xksew= esa xaxkth dk fuokl gSA tc euq"; chekj
gks tkrk gS] rc mldks xk; dk nw/k ihus ds fy;s nsrs gS]
D;ksafd xk; dk nw/k rqjar cy 'kfDr nsrk gS vxj chekj euq";
dks vUUk Hkh u ips rks mlds ikl xk; ds ?kh vkSj [kk| inkFkksZ dh vfxzesa
vkgqfr nsus ij mlds /kq,W ls mldks [kqjkd feyrh gSA tc euq"; ejus
yxrk gS] rc mlds eq[k esa rqylhfefJr xaxkty ;k xk;dk ngh nsrs gSa
dkj.k fd dksbZ euq"; ;k=k ds fy;s jokuk gksrk gSa rks ml le; xk; dk
ngh ysuk ekaxfyd gksrk gSa tks lnk ds fy;s ;gk¡ ls jokuk gks jgk gS]
mldks xk; dk ngh vo'; nsuk pkfg;s] ftlls ijyksd esa mldk eaxy
gksa vUrdky esa euq"; dks tSls xaxkty nsus dk ekgkRE; gS] oslk gh
ekgkRE; xk; dk ngh nsus dk gSA
oSrj.kh ls cpus ds fy;s xksnku fd;k tkrk gS] Jk)&deZ esa
xk; ds nw/k dh [khj cuk;h tkrh gS] D;ksafd ifo= gksus ls bl [khj ls
firjksa dh cgqr T;knk r`fIr gksrh gSA euq";] nsork] firj vkfn lHkh dks
xk; ds nw/k]?kh vkfn ls iqf"V feyrh gSA vr% xk; fo'o dh ekrk gSA
1

xk; ds vaxksa esa lEiw.kZ nsorkvksa dk fuokl crk;k x;k gSA xk;
dh Nk;k Hkh cM+h 'kqHk ekuh x;h gSa ;k=k ds le; xk; ;k lkaM nkfgus vk
tk; rks 'kqHk ekuk tkuk gSa vkSj mlds n'kZu ls ;k=k lQy gks tkrh gSA
nw/k fiykrh xk; dk n'kZu cgqr 'kqHk ekuk tkrk gS&lqjHkh lueq[k fllqfg
fiykok ¼ ekul cky-½ xk; egku~ ifo= gksrh gSA mlds 'kjhj dk Li'kZ
djus okyh gok Hkh ifo= gksrh gSa mlds xkscj &xksew= Hkh ifo= gksrs gSA
tgkW xk; cSBrh gS ogkW dh Hkwfe ifo= gksrh gSA xk; ds pj.kksa dh jat
¼/kwy½ Hkh ifo= gksrh gSaA
xk; ls vFkZ] /keZ] dke vkSj eks{k &bu pkjksa dh flf) gksrh gSA
xksikyu ls] xk; ds nw/k ?kh xkscj vkfn ls /ku dh o`f) gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh
/kkfeZd d`R; xk; ds fcuk ugh gksrkA lEiq.kZ /kkfeZd dk;ksZ esa xk; dk
nw/k]ngh]?kh xkscj vkSj xksew= dke esa vkrs gSa] dkeukiwfrZ ds fy;s fd;s
tkus okys ;Kksa esa Hkh xk; dk ?kh vkfn dke esa vkrk gSaA fu"dke Hkko ls
xk; dh lsok djus ls eks{k gksrk gSa xk; dh lsok djus ek= ls vUr%dj.k
fueZy gksrk gSA Hkxoku Jhd`".k us Hkh fcuk twrh ds xk;ksa dks pjk;k Fkk
ftlls mudk uke ^xksiky* iM+kA izkphu dky esa +_f"k yksx ou esa jgrs
gq, vius ikl xk;sa j[kk djrs FksA xk; ds nw/k&?kh dk lsou djus ls
mudh cqf)cM+h foy{k.k gksrh Fkh] ftlls os cM+s&cM+s xzUFkksa dh jpuk
fd;k djrs Fks vktdy rks mu xzUFkksa dks Bhd&Bhd ls le>us o
le>kus okys Hkh de gSa xk; ds nw/k&?kh ls os nh?kkZ;q gksrs FksaA xk; ds ?kh
dk ,d uke ^vk;q* Hkh gSA cM+s&cM+s jktkyksx Hkh mu _f"k;ksa ds ikl vkrs
Fks vkSj mudh lykg ls jkT; pykrs FksA
xk; bruh ifo= gS fd nsorkvksa us Hkh mlesa viuk fuokl
LFkku cuk;k gSA ftldk xkscj vkSj xksew= Hkh bruk ifo= gSa fQj Lo;a
fdruh ifo= gksxhA ,d xk; dk iwtu djus ls lc nsorkvksa dk iwtu gks
tkrk gS] ftlls lc nsorkvksa dks iqf"V feyrh gSA iq"V gq, nsorkvksa ds
}kjk lEiw.kZ l`f"V dk lapkyu] ikyu] j{k.k gksrk gSA

2

xks &efgek
xk;sa izkf.k;ksa dh vk/kkjrk dh dY;k.k dh fuf/k gSA Hkwr vkSj
Hkfo"; xkSvks ds gkFk esa gSA os gh lnk jgus okyh iqf"V dk dkj.k rFkk
y{eh dh tM+ gSA xkSvks dh lsok esa tks dqN fn;k tkrk gSa mldk Qy
v{k; gksrk gSA vUUk xkSvks ls mRiu gksrk gSA nsorkvksa dks Hkh mre Hkfo";
xksekrk nsrh gS xk;sa gh ;K dk Qy nsus okyh gSA _f"k;ks dks izkr% dky
vkSj lk;adky esa gkse ds le; xkS, gh gou ds ;ksX; ?k`r vkfn inkFZk nsrh
gSA tks yksx nw/k nsusokyh xkS dk nku djrs os vius leLr ladVksa vkSj
ikiksa ls ikj gks tkrs gSA
izkr%dky vkSj lk;adky esa izfrfnu xkSvks dks iz.kke djuk
pkfg;sA blls euq"; ds 'kjhj vkSj cydh iqf"V gksrh gSA xksew= vkSj xkscj
ns[kdj dHkh ?k`.kk u djsA xkSvks ds xq.kks dk dhrZu djsA dHkh mudk
vieku u djsA ;fn cqjs LoIu fn[kkbZ ns rks xksekrk dk uke ysA izfrfnu
'kjhj es xkscj yxkdj Luku djsa lw[ks gq, xkscj ij cSBS ml ij Fkwd u
QsadsA ey& ew= u R;kxsA xkSvks ds frjLdkj ls cprs jgsaA vfXu esa xk;
ds ?k`r dk gou djsa mlh ls LofLrokpu djkosaA xks ?k`rdk nku vkSj Lo;a
Hkh mldk lsou djsa rks xkSvks dh o`f) gksrh gSA
xkSvks dks ;K dk vax vkSj lk{kkr ;K:Ik cryk;k x;k gSA
buds fcuk ;K fdlh rjg ugh gks ldrk A ;s vius nw/k vkSj ?kh ls iztk
dk ikyu iks"k.k djrh gSa rFkk buds iq= [ksrh ds dke vkrs vkSj rjg
rjg ds vUu ,oa cht iSnk djrs gS ftuls ;K lEiu gksrs gSA vkSj gO;
dO; dk Hkh dke pyrk gSA bUgh ls nw/k ngh vkSj ?kh izkIr gksrs gSa ;s xkS,
cM+h ifo= gksrh gSA vkSj cSy Hkw[k I;kl dk d"V lgdj Hkh vusdksa izdkj
ds cks> <kssrs jgrs gSA bl izdkj xks tkfr vius dke ls _f"k;ksa rFkk
iztktuksa dk ikyu djrh jgrh gSA mlds O;ogkj esa 'kBrk ;k ek;k ugh
gksrh og lnk ifo= deZ esa yxh jgrh gSA blh ls ;s xkS, ge lc yksxks
ds mij LFkku esa fuokl djrh gSA blds flok xkS, ojnku Hkh izkIr dj
pqdh gS rFkk izlUu gksus ij os nwljks dks Hkh ojnku nsrh gSa
xkS,sa lEiw.kZ rifLo;ksa ls c<+dj gSA blfy;s Hkxoku 'kadj us
xkSvksa ds lkFk jgdj ri fd;k Fkk A bl xksyksd esa fl) egf"kZ Hkh tkus
dh bPNk djrs gSA
3

ogh ;s xkS, pUnzek ds lkFk fuokl djrh gSa ;s vius nw/k ngh ?kh xkscj
peM+k gM~Mh lhax vkSj ckyksa ls txr~ dk midkj djrh jgrh gSA bUgs
lnhZ xjeh vkSj o"kkZ dk d"V fopfyr ugh djrk A blfy;s ;s czkã.kks ds
lkFk czãyksd es tkdj fuokl djrh gSa blh ls xkS vkSj czkã.k dks fo}ku
iq:"k ,d crkrs gSA
xkS, ije ikou vkSj iq.;Lo:ik gSA bUgs czkã.kks dks nku djus
ls euq"; LoxZ dk lq[k Hkksxrk gSa ifo= ty ls vkpeu djds ifo= xkSvks
ds chp esa xkserh eU= xksek vxzs foekW vJh dk tki djus ls euq";
vR;Ur 'kq) ,oa fueZy gks tkrk gSa fo|k vkSj osnozr esa fuiq.kZ iq.;kRek
czkã.kks dks pkfg;s fd os vfxz xkS vkSj czkã.kks ds chp vius f'k";ksa dks
;KrqY; xkserh eU= dh f'k{kk nsA tks rhu jkr rd miokl djds xkserh
eU= dk ti djrk gSA mls xkSvks dk ojnku izkIr gksrk gSA iq= dh
b+PNkokys dks iq= /ku pkgus okys dks /ku vkSj ifr dh bPNk j[kus okyh
L=h dks ifr feyrk gSA bl izdkj xkS,sa euq"; dh lEiw.kZ dkeuk,sa iw.kZ
djrh gSA os ;K dk iz/kku vax gSA muls c<+dj nwljk dqN ugh gSAa

xks'kkyk ;k fiatjkiksy
ftl xksekrk us viuh vPNh gkyr esa gekjh vikj lsok dh]
ftldk tUe gh gekjh HkykbZ ds fy; gqvk gSA ftldh mnkjrk ij gh
gekjk thou fuHkZj jgrk gSA ftlus gesa ve`r&lk nw/k fn;k] [ksrh ds fy,
cSy fn;s] [ksr ds fy, [kkn nh vkSj vc Hkh ns jgh gS] mldk nw/k lw[k
tkus ij ;k mlds ywyh&yaxM+h chekj vkSj vlgk; gks tkus ij mldk
ikyu&iks"k.k djus ls eq¡g eksM+ ysuk rks ,d izdkj dh ?kksj d`rKrk vkSj
dRkZO; ls foP;qfr gSA
vktdy mi;ksfxrkokn dh ygj cg jgh gS] bl dkj.k ge
egRoiw.kZ n;ko`fr vksj mUufr ds uke ij fnuksa&fnu iru ds xgjs x<~<s
esa fxjrs tk jgs gSA euq"; thou dk /;s; tc ,dek= /ku gh cu tkrk gS]
rc mlesa ,d ,slk eksg iSnk gksrk gS tks mls vius lq[k&'kkfUr ds lk/kuksa
ls Hkh foeq[k dj nsrk gS ;gkW rd fd mlls og ,sls deZ djokrk gS ftuls
mlds vius gh bg&ykSfdd vkSj ijykSfdd thou dh lq[k 'kkfUr dk
L=ksr Hkh fpjdky ds fy;s lw[k tkrk gS] vkSj tc euq"; viuh
lq[k&'kkfUr dks gh ugha ns[krk] rc nwljs dh lq[k&'kkfUr dh fpUrk rks
mls D;ksa gksus yxhA
4

vlgk; Ik'kqvksa dk Hkj.k iks"k.k djus okyh mi;ksxh laLFkkvksa
dh vksj ls mnklhu gksrs pys tk jgs gS vksj mudk fojks/k djuk gh viuk
drZO; ikyu le>rs nq%[k rks bl ckr dk gS fd dsoy vkfFkZd n`f"Vdks.k
xks&ikyu djus okys ik'pkR; ns'kksa dh i)fr ij eqX/k gksdj gekjs
lEEkkufu; vFkZ'kkL=h fo}ku Hkh vkt o`) vkSj vaix Ik'kqvksa dks i`Foh dk
Hkkj crkdj mUgs u ikyu dh lykg nsus vksj izdkjkUrj ls mudks dRy
dj Mkyus ds fy;s izksRlkfgr djus yxs gSa] ,slh gkyr esa bl izdkj ds
fopkj okys yksxks ds }kjk fiatjkiksy vkSj xkS'kkykvksa dh vuqi;ksfxrk
fn[kyk;k tkuk dqN vk'p;Z dh ckr ugh gSA vo'; gh ,slh laLFkkvksa dk
fojks/k euq"; dh ,d ifo= dksey vksj e/kqj o`rh dks ekjuk gh gSa!
ftuds ân; esa cM+h lqdksey &lqe/kqj n;k dh o`fr Fkh vkSj tks
o`) eka&cki dh lsok djus dh Hkk¡fr gh cw<+h xks&ekrk dh lsok dks Hkh
viuk ije drZO; ekurs gSa vius O;kikj ij ykx yxkdj bl dk;Z es
lgk;rk djrs gSA viax izk.kh dh lsok esa ,d ije iq.; dh vkSj ifo=
drZO; ikyu dh J)k Fkh] vkSj og lPph FkhA blh ls yksx vius&vius
?kjksa esa Hkh v'kDr izkf.k;ksa dh lsok vius gkFkksa ls djrs FksA tc dksbZ
x`gLFk ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa iM+ tkrk fd [kqn ru vkSj /ku ls lsok ugh dj
ldrk Fkk] rc mlds Ik'kqvksa dks lEHkkyus dk fiatjkiksy dk dke FkkA
blesa dksbZ lansg ugha dh fofHkUu dkj.kksa ls vkt lHkh
fiatjk&iksyksa dh n'kk larks"ktud ugha gSa vkSj ;g Hkh lR; gS] fd ;qx
ifjorZu ds lkFk&lkFk fiatjkiksy dh dk;Z&i)fr esa Hkh mfpr ifjorZu
dh vko';drk gks x;h gSA ij ;g dguk loZFkk vlaxr gS fd fiatjkiksy
vkSj xks'kkyk,sa loZFkk O;FkZ vkSj gkfudkjd laLFkk,sa gSA gk¡] ewy mís'; j{kk
djrs gq, mudks vkfFkZd n`f"V ls Hkh ftruk mi;ksxh vkSj ftruk
LokoyEch cuk;k tk lds] mruk cukuk pkfg;sa lq/kkj ds fy;s lnk gh
rS;kj jguk pkfg;s ] ijUrq lq/kkj ds uke ij lagkj ugh gks tk;] bldh
lok/kkuh j[kuh pkfg;saA vo'; gh uohurk ds eksg&ek;k esa va/ks gksdj
izkphuek= dh tM+ m[kkM+us tkuk tSls cM+h Hkwy gSa oSls gh izkphurk ds
uke ij /keZ ls vfo:) uohu mi;ksxh i)fr dks Lohdkj u djuk Hkh
de Hkwy ugh gSa A
budks eq[;r% rhu Jsf.k;ksa esa foHkDr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
ftuds ikl i;kZIr lax`ghr /ku vkSj dkQh vkenuh gS] ftudk lapkyu
fu;fer :Ik ls lTtuksa dh desVh }kjk gksrk gS] vkSj ftuesa dqN dk
jftLVªs'ku Hkh gks pqdk gSA
5

tks vkjEHk esa dqN yksxksa ds mRlkg ls LFkkfir gks pqdh gS] ij
ftuds ikl u rks /ku gS u dkQh vk; gS vkSj u mrjnk;h dk;ZdrkZ gh gS
vkSj ftudh is'ksoj yksxks }kjk iSlk dekus ds lk/ku ds :Ik esa LFkkiuk
gqbZ gS] vkSj blh mns'; ls ftldk ;su dsu izdkjs.k lapkyu Hkh gks jgk
gSA
blesa rhljh Js.kh laLFkk, rks lHkh n`f"V;ksa ls loZFkk vuqi;ksxh
vkSj gkfudkjd gSa nwljh Js.kh dh laLFkkvksa ds fy;s dgk tk ldrk gSA
fd lq;ksX; dk;ZdrkZ feys vkSj vkenuh gks rks mudk lq/kkj gks ldrk gSaA
orZeku fLFkfr eas rks os cgqr mi;ksxh ugh gSa ,slh laLFkkvksa esa bl izdkj
dh gkyr ns[kh tkrh gS fd ftl fdlh vPNs dk;ZdrkZ ds gkFk esa dke gks
vkSj O;kikjh oxZ dh fLFkfr vPNh gks ml le; rks Bhd&Bhd pyrk gSa
ij ftu fnuks vPNs dk;ZdrkZ ugh gksrs ;k O;kikj eank gksrk gS vkSj
vko';d pank ugh gks ikrk mu fnuksa buds Ik'kq ;k rks Hkw[ksa ejrs gS ;k
vk/ks isV jgrs gSaA fiNys vdky ds le; fdruh gh xks'kkykvksa dh ,slh
n'kk ns[kus esa vk;h Fkha] ijUrq igyh Js.kh dh laLFkkvksa ds fy;s Hkh ;g
ugh dgk tk ldrk fd muesa lHkh dk dke lqpk: :Ik ls alapkfyr gksrk
gSA yksx iSlk rks ns nsrs gS] ij le; ugh ns ikrsA tks lHkkifr eU=h vkSj
dk;Zdkfj.kh ds lnL; gksrs gS] os izk;% dsoy uke ds gksrs gSA le; ds
vHkko fnypLih ugh gksus rFkk xksikyu dh i)fr ds vKku ls dqN Hkh
ugh dj ikrs A cgqr ls rks tkrs gh ughA ftuds ftEEks izcU/k dk Hkkj
jgrk gS] os Hkh u rks vuqHkoh gksrs gS u fØ;k'khy blls izcU/k esa =qfV;kW
cuh gh jgrh gSA u;h mUUkfr dh ckr rks lksps gh dkSuA Ik;kZIr osru nsdj
lq;ksX; vuqHkoh iq:"kks dks izk;% fu;qDr fd;k ugh tkrkA dgh dksbZ
vuqHkoh iq:"k j[ks Hkh tkrs gS rks ,d laLFkk esa chlks ekfyd gksus ls mUgs
dk;Z djus dk mfpr volj ;k Ik;kZIr volj ugh feyrk A fu;e rFkk
iz.kkyh Hkh le; rFkk Ik'kqikyu foKku dh tkudkjh ds vHkko ls dksbZ
[kkl lq/kkj ugh fd;k tkrkA ,slh vkSj Hkh dbZ ckrs gksrh gSA

6

ftuds dkj.k O;oLFkk Bhd ugh gks ikrh vkSj ftruk ykHk gksuk pkfg;s]
mruk ugha gksrkA
dlkb;ksa ds gkFkksa ls xk; cpkuk viax vkSj vlgk; xk;ks ds
thou&fuokZg dh lqUnj O;oLFkk djuk vkSj nw/kokyh xk;ks dh gR;k
jksdus ds fy;s lc izdkj ds mfpr iz;kl djuk vkfn lHkh vko';d
dk;Z gS vkSj /keZ gS ijarq lkoZtfud :Ik ls lPPkh xksj{kk rks rHkh lEHko gS]
tc xkSdk nw/k Ik;kZIr ek=k esa c<+ tk;sxk vkSj xkS esa cgqr etcwr vkSj
cyoku cNM+k iSnk djus dh 'kfDr vk tk;sxhA fiatjkiksy vkSj xkS'kkyk,
bl fn'kk esa Hkh cgqr dqN dk;Z dj ldrh gSA esjh le> ls fiatjkiksyksa
vkSj xkS'kkykvksa dks viuh&viuh ifjfLFkfr vuqlkj uhps fy[ks dk;Z
djus dk iz;Ru djuk pkfg;s&
¼1½ o`)] viax] chekj] nqcZy xk; vkSj vlgk; cSy vkSj ,sls gh cNM+s&
cNM+h vkfn ds ikyu iks"k.k dh iwjh O;oLFkk gks] ftlesa os thou ds
vfUre lk¡l rd lq[kiwoZd [kk ihdj jg ldsA xks&tkfrdk _.k
rks mrj gh ugh ldrk] ijUrq lPph d`rKrk izdV djus vkSj
ekuo&gn; dh cM+h dksey n;ko`fr dh j{kk djus ds fy;s bldh
cM+h vko';drk gSA
¼2½ vPNh tkfr dh ,slh xk;ks dks tks pkjs nkus dh deh vkSj ns[kjs[k ds
vHkko ls detksj gksdj fclqd x;h gks pqudj vkSj mUgs vyx
j[kdj vPNh rjg f[kyk;k&fiyk;k tk; vkSj mudh iwjh&iwjh
ns[kHkky dh tk;] ftlls os cgqr mi;ksxh vkSj cMs ifjek.k esa nw/k
nsus okyh cu ldsA
¼3½ ,d vyx nqX/kky; foHkkx gks] ftles tkfr dh nq/kkj xk;ksa dk
viuh xk;ksa esa pqudj [kjhndj cNfM;ksa dks mre xk; cukdj
laxzg fd;k tk;A ?kkl&pkjs vkSj gok ikuh ds mfpr mi;ksx rFkk
vPNs cyoku lk¡Mksa ds la;ksx ls muesa vkSj mudh larfr esa nw/k
c<kus dk iz;Ru fd;k tk;A oSKkfud jhfr ls nw/k ds nqgu ls ysdj
:ikUrj djus rd lko/kkuh j[kh tk;A bu xk;ksa dk nw/k turk dks
[kkl rkSj ij chekjksa vkSj cPPkksa ds fy;s mfpr ewY; ij cspk tk;A
tc xkSvks dh la[;k vf/kd gks tk;] rc mUgs fo'oklh ln~x`gLFkksa
dks ikyu djus ds fy;s mfpr ewY; ij cspk tk; ij 'krZ ;g jgs fd
tc xk; nw/k nsuk can dj nsxhA rc os mldk ikyu djasxas vkSj
vleFkZrk dh gkyr esa gj fdlh ds gkFk u cspdj fiatjkiksy okil
ns nsaxsaA
7

¼4½ fo'oklh ln~x`gLFkksa dks cSy cukus ds fy;s cNM+s nsdj cnys esa
cNfM+;k¡ ys yh tk; vkSj mUgs nq/kk# xk;sa cuk;k tk;A
¼5½ fiatjkiksyksa vkSj xkS'kkykvksa esa vPNh cqjh lHkh tkfr;ks ds etcwr
vkSj detksj xk;sa] cNM+s vkSj lk¡M vkfn lkFk&lkFk jgk djrs gSA
blls fcydqy detksj vkSj vuqi;ksxh xk;sa Hkh c/kjkbZ tkrh gS vkSj
cgqr detksj fudEes lkaM cj/kkus dk dke djrs gSa bldk Qy ;g
gksrk gS fd mUkdss cNM+s vkSj cNMh+ cgqr gh detksj iSnk gksrs gSA tks
vPNk pkjk nkuk feyus ij Hkh jt&fo;Z ds nks"k ds dkj.k viuh
gkyr ugh lq/kkj ldrs ,slh cNfM+;k¡ cgqr nsj ls xkfHkUk gksrh gS]
vkSj C;kus ij FkksMs+ ls fnuksa rd cgqr FkksMk nw/k nsrh gS vkSj cNM+s
brus nqcZy gksrs gS fd os lk¡M cuus ;ksX; rks jgrs gh ugh vPNs cSy
Hkh ugh cu ldrsA bl izdkj nksuks x`gLFk ds fy; Hkkj:Ik gksdj
thrs gS vksj nq[k Hkksxrs gSA ,sls detksj xk; cSyks ls nw/k ds mRiknu
dh 'kfDr ?kVrh gS vkSj reke larfr [kjkc gks tkrh gSA blfy;s
,slh xk;ks dk vkSj lk¡Mks dk la;ksx dHkh gks gh ugh bl ckr dk iwjk
[;ky j[kuk pkfg,A
¼6½ ns'k esa vPNs lk¡Mks dh cgqr deh gks x;h gSa ljdkjh vuqeku gS fd
tgka vPNs <kbZ lks lkaM pkfg;s ogk ,d lkaM gSA blfy, vPNs ls
vPNs lk¡M cuk;s tk;sa vkSj ikys tk;saA muesa ls dqN dks vius bykds
dh vPNh xk;ks ds cj/kku ds fy;s lqjf{kr j[kk tk; ftlls mudh
uLy esa lq/kkj gks A ;fn izR;sd fiatjkiksy nl& chl vPNs ls vPNs
lkaM cukdj turk ds mi;ksx ds fy;s mUgs lEkfiZr dj ns rks xks
&tkfr dh cgqr cMh lsok gks ldrh gSA
¼7½ ,sls vleFkZ ln~x`gLFkksa dh vPNh tkfr dh xkfHku xk;ksa dks ftUgksus
nw/k nsuk can dj fn;k gS] ikyu djus ds fy;s de [kpZ ij
fitjkiksyksa esa ys fy;k tk; vkSj C;kus ds ckn mUgs okil ns fn;k
tk;A blh izdkj vleFkZ x`gLFkksa ds NksVs cNM+s &cNfM+;ksa dk Hkh
ikyu fd;k tk;A ,sls xk; cNM+ksa dks dksbZ ekfyd cspuk pkgs rks
mUgs fiatjkiksy vPNh nq/kk: xk; vkSj etcwr cSy cukus ds fy;s
[kjhn ysA
¼8½ fiatjkiksyksa ds ikl izk; tehu gksrh gh gSA ugh rks tehu dk izcU/k
fd;k tk; vkSj mlesa mi;ksxh ?kkl pkjs dh [ksrh dh tk; vkSj
izpqjek=k esa ?kkl&pkjk mitk;k tk;sA
¼9½ izfro"kZ gjs ?kkl pkjs dk Bhd i)fr ds vuqlkj xM~Mks esa nckdj ;k
dqIiks esa Hkjdj j[kk tk; flyst cuk;s tk;s ftlls lw[ks ekSle
8

esa Ik'kqvksa dks iqf"Vdj pht [kkus dks fey ldsA
¼10½ lw[ks vkSj gjs pkjs dk LVkWd fd;k tk; vkSj dkQh LVkWd gksus ij
de ls de nks o"kZ ds fy;s viuh vko';drk dk leku j[kdj 'ks"k
mfpr ewY; ij x`gLFkks dks cspk tk;A
¼11½ Ik;kZIr xkspjHkwfe gks ftlesa laLFkku dh xk;sa rks pjk;sa gh mfpr
dher ij nwljs yksxksa dh Hkh fclqdh gqbZ xk;sa vkSj cNM+h &cNM+s ogka
pj ldsA
¼12½ xkscj dks tykus ds dke esa u ysdj oSKkfud jhfr ls mldh [kkn
cuk;h tk;sA blh izdkj xksew= dk Hkh [kkn ds dke esa mi;ksx fd;k
tk;A fiatjkiksy dh ijrh tehu esa bl [kkn ls cgqewY; ?kkl pkjk
iSnk gks ldrk gSA
¼13½ d`f"k lq/kkj ds vko';d vkSj lqfo/kk ls dke esa ysus yk;d rjhdksa ls
Qy&Qwy vkSj lkx Hkh mitk;k tk; vksj mls cspk tk;A xkscj
&xksew= dh [kkn ls bl [ksrh esa Hkh cgqr ykHk gks ldrk gSA
¼14½ Ik'kqvksa dh lQkbZ rFkk LokLF; dk muds 'kjhj ij fpapM+h taw vkfn
dhM+s ?kj u dj ldsa] bldk iwjk /;ku j[kk tk;A vaxghu chekj]
fucZy cyoku~ Ik'kqvksa ds fy;s jgus vkSj pjus ds vyx&vyx LFkku
gksa rkfd u rks ijLij jksx laØe.k dj ldsa] u cyoku~ Ik'kqdh ekj
ds Mj ls fucZy Ik'kq Hkw[kk jgdj e`R;q dh vkSj vxzlj gksA mUgs /kksus
ugykus iksaNus muesa dhM+s u iSnk gksus nsus bR;kfn dh iwjh O;OkLFkk
jguh pkfg;sA bekjrsa edku bl <ax ds cukus pkfg;s] ftuesa gok
vkSj izdk'k vkrk gks rFkk ftudh vPNh rjg lQkbZ dh tk ldrh
gksA dq,sa rFkk flapkbZ vkfn dh O;OkLFkk ykHkizn oSKkfud <ax ls gksA
¼15½ vPNs xks&fpfdRld dks j[kk tk; vkSj lkFk gh ,d vLirky ;k
nok[kkuk jgsA chekj Ik'kqvksa dk lko/kkuh ls bykt gks] ftl le;
Ik'kqvksa esa ladzked jksx QSyus yxs] ml le; ;fn mUgs nok ds ty
ls ugykus izfrjks/kd nok ;k batsD'ku nsus dh iwjh O;oLFkk gks rks
jksx dk foLrkj lgt gh :d tk; vkSj cgqr ls Ik'kqvksa ds izk.k
vuk;kl gh cp tk;sA dksbZ [kkl ladzked jksx ls ihfMr xk;
fiatjkiksy esa vkos rks mls vyx j[kdj bykt djkuk pkfg;s
ftlls nwljh xk;ks ij mldk vlj ugh gksA xk;ks dh HkrhZ djrs
le; ;fn xkS'kkyk ds MkWDVj xk; dh ijh{kk dj fy;k djs rks
loksZre gSA
¼16½ izR;sd LkaLFkk esa ,d Ik'kq&ikyu foKku esa ikjaxr ftEEksokj oSrfud
iq:"k jgus pkfg;sa Ik'kqvksa dh igpku] muds j[kus vkSj f[kykus
9

fiykus dh O;oLFkk] lQy ][ksrh dk izca/k ?kkl pkjs dk laxzg gjs
pkjs ds flyst cukus dh O;oLFkk LoPNrk vksj lQkbZ dk izca/k lc
phtksa dk vyx&vyx fglkc vkSj jftLVj j[kus vkfn lkjs dke
mUgh ds fu;U=.k vkSj ns[kjs[k esa gksus pkfg;sA os Ik'kq fpfdRlk esa Hkh
n{k gks rks lcls vPNh ckr gSA oSlh gkyr es i'kq fpfdRlk ds fy;s
vyx MkWDVj u j[kdj ,d lq;ksX; lgdkjh j[kus ls Hkh dke py
ldrk gSA
¼17½ Ik'kq] ?kkl&pkjk nqX/kky; i'kqvksa dh tfkr vksj muds ekrk&firk
Ik'qkvksa ds tUei= vksj laLFkk ds vk;&O;; vkfn dk C;ksjs okj
fooj.k j[kuk pkfg;sA
¼18½ u;s fiatjkiksy] xks'kkyk,¡ cuk;s tk;s rks mudks 'kgjksa esa u cukdj
,sls LFkkuksa es cukuk pkfg;s tgka [kqyh txg gksA pkjksa vkSj foLr`r
[skr gksA unh rV gks rks cgqr vPNk gS ugh rks ty dk iwjk izcU/k rks
vo'; gksA

xkS'kkykvksa dh LFkkiuk dk mís';
1- xkSgR;k ij jksd dk dkjxj rFkk O;kogkfjd gy iznku djuk A
2- xkSikyu xksoa'k o`f) ds izfr tu psruk tkxj.k ds orZeku xksikyu
n`f"Vdks.k esa ifjorZu A
3- xzkeks esa xzke m|ksx o fVdkÅ d`f"k fodkl dk vk/kkj [kM+k dj
csjkstxkjh o xjhch mUewyu A
4- dkjxj i;kZoj.k&izcU/ku dk <k¡pk [kM+k djuk A
5- xzke dh gjsd xfHkZ.khukjh rFkk gj f'k'kq dks fu%'kqYd nw/k nsuk rFkk
lqjf{kr ekr`Ro ds ek/;e ls tula[;k foLQksV ij jksd A
6- jkT;kfJr] fldqM+rh ne rksM+rh fodkl izfØ;k dk fodYi [kM+kdj jk"Vª
ds vFkZrU= dks lqn`<+ djuk A
7- xkS'kkykvksa ds }kjk lexz&xzkeh.k fodkl rFkk xzkeksRFkku ls lEiw.kZ
ØkfUr dk lw=ikr A
8- fodsUnzh;d`r vFkZ O;oLFkk ds <k¡ps ds uewus rFkk lkaLd`frd vkSj
lkekftd xfrfof/k;ksa ds lkeqnkf;d ¼dE;qfuVh½ dsUnz ds :i esa
fodflr djukA
10

xkS'kkykvksa ls lapkfyr gks ldus okyh xfrfof/k;k¡
1- izFke pj.k dh xfrfof/k;k¡ %&
1- dEiksLV [kkn cukuk rFkk mldh lLrh fcØh A
2- xksew= ,d= djuk ,oa mlds fofHkUu mi;ksx lEcU/kh xfrfof/k;ka A
3- xkscj xSl IykaV lapkyu] xSl forj.k@fcØh A
4- xkscj xSl IykaV dh lySjh dh [kkn cukuk] mldh fcØh A
5- xkao dh xHkZorh efgykvksa rFkk f'k'kqvksa dks fu%'kqYd nw/k forj.k A
6- xks uLy lq/kkj dk;ZØe ¼ns'kh tkfr;ksa dh lokZaxh.k uLy rS;kj djuk½
2-f}rh; pj.k dh xfrfof/k;ka %&
1- fefJr ikS/k'kkyk ¼ulZjh½ dh LFkkiuk ,oa lapkyu A
2- pkjk mxkuk] lkbyst cukuk ,oa mudh fcØh
3- LFkkuh; tM+h cqafV;ksa dk mRiknu] laj{k.k ,oa forj.k A
4- pjkaV fodkl pjku] pqxku] lEcU/kh dk;Z A
5- vfgald peZ m|ksx lEcU/kh xfrfof/k;ka A
6- O;k;ke'kkyk] laLdkj 'kkyk dh LFkkiuk ,oa lapkyu A
7- dqVhj m|ksx mRiknu lgdkjh fcØh dsUnz A
8- izkS<+ ikB'kkyk] efgyk m|ksx ikB'kkyk dh LFkkiuk ,oa lapkyu A
9- iqLrdky; dh LFkkiuk ,oa lapkyu A
10- lkeqnkf;d dsUnz ¼dE;wfuVh lsaVj½ dU;k xq#dqy LFkkiuk

Xkksj{kk
[ksrh djus okys lTtuksa dks pkfg;s fd os xk;] cNM+k] cSy
vkfn dks cspsa ughaA [ksrh vkSj xk;dk ijLij cM+k ?kfu"B laca/k gSa [ksrh ls
xk; iq"V gksrh gS vkSj xk; ls [ksrh iq"V gksrh gSA xkscj vkSj xksew= ls
tehu cM+h iq"V gksrh gSA vc fons'kh [kkn ykdj [ksrksa esa Mkyrs gS rks
mlls vkjEHk esa dqN o"kZ [ksrh vPNh gskxh] ij dqN o"kZ ds ckn esa tehu
mitkm ugh jgsxh] fudEeh gks tk;xhA fons'kksa esa [kkn ls tehu [kjkc
gks x;h gS vkSj os yksx cEcbZ ls tgktksa es xkscj ykndj ys tk jgs gS]
ftl xkscj ls tehu Bhd gks tk; cqf)ekuh rks blh esa gS fd xk;ksa dh
o`f) dh tk;A xk;ksa dh o`f) gkssus ls nw/k] ?kh vkfn dh o`f) gksxh] ftuls
euq";ksa dk thou pysxk] mudh cqf) c<+sxhA
11

cqf) c<+us ls foosd dks cy feysxk] ftlls lr~&rRo dh izkfIr gksxhA
lr~ &rRo dh izkfIr gksus ij iw.kZrk gks tk;sxhA vFkkZr~ euq"; d`rd`R;]
Kkr&KkRkO; vkSj izkIr&izkIrO; gks tk;sxkA
xk;ksa ds xkscj vkSj xks ew= ls gksus okyh [kkn cgqr cf<+;k gksrh
gSA xk; dk xkscj vkSj xksew= rks cM+k ifo= gksrk gSA xkscj esa y{eh dk
vkSj xksew= esa xaxk dk fuokl gSA ?kj esa fdlh dh e`R;q gks tk; vFkok
ckyd iSnk gks tk; rks ?kj dh 'kqf) ds fy;s xksew= ykdj fNM+drs gS]
xkscj dk pkSdk yxkrs gSa dksbZ ejusokyk gks rks xkscj dk pkSdk yxkdj
ml ij lqykrs gSA tc ckyd dk ukedj.k djrs gS] rc xkscj dk pkSdk
yxkdj ml ij ckyd dks cSBkrs gSA bruh ifo= phtsa iSnk djrh gS
k?
xk;sa! mu xk;ksa dks gh vkt [kRe dj jgs gSa] fQj xkscj dgk¡ ls feysxk?
iz'u blfy, [skrh djus okyksa ls dguk gS fd xk;ksa dks] cNM+ks dks cspks
erA cw<s+ cSy vkSj cw<+h xk;ksa dh fcØh er djksA mudks dlkb;ksa ds gkFk
er cspksA xk; cw<+h gks x;h] cNM+k ugh nsrh] nw/k ugh nsrh] mldks csp
nsrs gks] fQj ?kj esa tks cw<+h ekrk,¡ gSa] cw<+s firk gSa mudk D;k djksxs?
dlkbZ[kkusa esa vPNs&vPNs] toku&toku cSy Vªdksa esa Hkjdj
yk;s tkrs gS vkSj [kM+s dj fn;s tkrs gS A nwj&nwj rd lhax gh lhax
fn[krs FksA ,sls cSyksa dks e'khuksa ds }kjk cM+h cqjh rjg ls ekjrs gSA
thrs&th mudk peM+k mrkjk tkrk gS] D;ksafd thrs gq, dk peM+k mrkjk
tk; rks og cgqr uje gksrk gSa] tks xk;ksa vkSj cSyksa dks csprs gS] mudks ;g
gR;k yxrh gSA muds NksVs&cNM+s&cNM+h csp nsrs gSA dkj.k fd
xk;&cSyks dh vis{kk cNMs+&cNfM+;ks dk ekal fons'kks esa cgqr eg¡xk
fcdrk gSA
xk; vkSj ek; cspus dh ugh gksrhA tc rd xk; nw/k vkSj
cNM+k nsrh gS] cSy dke djrk gS] rc rd mudks j[krs gSA tc os cw<+s gks
tkrs gS] rc csp nsrs gSA ;g fdruh d`rKrk dh ckr gSA fdrus iki dh
ckr gS xk¡/khth us ^uothou* v[kckj esa fy[kk Fkk] fd cw<+k cSy ftruk
xkscj vkSj xkSew= djrk gS] mlls de [kpkZ djrk gSA ftruk ?kkl [kkrk
gS] mruk xkscj vkSj xksew= dj nsrk gSA oSKkfudksa us dgk gS fd ,d le;
,slk vkusokyk gS] tc u fctyh feysxh] u isVªksy&Mhty fQj D;k n'kk
gksxh yksxksa dh ? blfy, vki yksxksa ls dgrk gq¡ fd xk;&cSy dks
cNM+k&cNM+h dks cspks erA vHkh Hkh rsy eg¡xk gks jgk gS vkSj vki VSªDVjksa
ls rsy [kpZ dj jgs gksA tc rsy ugha feysxk] rc fcuk VSªDVjks ds [ksrh
?cSyksa dks rks [kRe dj jgs gks! [ksrksa dh iqf"V xk;&cSyksa ls
dSls djksxs ?cS
gksrh gS] VªsDVjksa ls ughA blfy, xk; cSyksa dh j{kk djksA
12

;fn ,slk u gks lds& ge lc dqN Hkxoku~ dk u le> ldsa rks fQj
de&ls&de viuh vk; dk&viuh lEifr dk "k"Bka'k rks vo'; gh
Hkxoku~ dh lsok esa&/keZ dk;ksaZ esa yxk;saA ;g gekjs }kjk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gSA /keZ dks 'kkL=ksa us iaxq crk;k gS& og gekjs pyk;s gh py
ldrk gSA jktk dh rjg og gles cyiwoZd dj olwy ugha djrkA gesa
pkfg;s fd tks ge Hkksxksa ds fufer /ku dks ikuh dh rjg cgkrs gS] C;kg
&'kkfn;ksa esa rFkk vU; lkekftd dk;ksZ esa vuki&'kuki [kpZ djrs gS]
dhfrZ ds fy;s vFkok mikf/k vkfn ds :Ik esa ljdkj dh izlUurk izkIr
djus ds fy, cM+h&cM+h /kujk'kh pans ds :Ik esa nsrs gSa rFkk ljdkjh
vQljksa dks cM+h&cM+h ikfVZ;k¡ nsrs gS] ,slk u djds viuh vk; dk vFkok
lEifr dk de&ls&de "k"Bka'k yksdksidkj ds dk;ksZ esa yxk;sa] vius
dkjksckj ds dbZ foHkkxksa esa ls ,d foHkkx dks vFkok ,d gh foHkkx gks rks
mlds ,d fgLls dks yksdlsod VªLV ds :Ik esa ifjofrZr dj nsa]
rkfd mldh lkjh&dh&lkjh vk; yksdksidkj ds dk;ksZ esa [kpZ dh tk
lds vkSj ml ij gekjk futh LokehRo fcydqy u jgsA dguk u gh gksxk
fd mi;qZDr dk;ksZ ds fufer /ku O;; djus esa ljdkj Hkh gesa izksRlkgu
nsrh gSA bldk izR;{k izek.k ;g gS fd /kkfeZd ,oa yksdksidkj ds dks"kksa
ij ljdkj dh vksj ls ^bUde&VSDl* vkfn fdlh izdkj dk dj ugha
fy;k tkrk A vktdy ^bUde &VSDl* vkfn dj ls cpus ds fy, gekjs
cgqr ls O;kikjh HkkbZ >wB&diV dk vkJ; ysrs ns[ks tkrs gSaA bl izdkj
vU;k; ls yk[kksa :Ik;ksa dh tks cpr dh tkrh gS] bl izdkj yksdksidkj
ds dk;ksZ esa tks dqN O;; fd;k tk;sxk] og v{k; gks tk;sxkA ge
Hkksx&cqf} ls tks dqN cVksjrs gSa] og rks gekjs ejus ds ckn ;gha iM+k jg
tk;sxk mlesa ls ,d ikbZ Hkh gekjs lkFk ugha tk ldsxh] ,d lwbZ ij Hkh
gekjk vf/kdkj ugha jg tk;sxkA fdUrq /keZ ds fy;s ge tks dqN Hkh [kpZ
djsaxs] og ijyksd esa Hkh gesa izkIr gksxkA pkjk vkfn ds }kjk xkSvksa dh j{kk
djus dh gSA vkt ns'k ds dbZ Hkkxksa esa vUu dk cM+k Hkkjh d"V fn[kk;h ns
jgk gSA
xks&tkfr ij Hkh bl le; gekjs ns'k esa cMk ladV gSA izfrfnu
gtkjksa dh la[;k esa gekjs ns'k dh nw/k nsus okyh toku xk;sa] cfN;k rFkk
cSy gekjs gh lkeus dVrsa gSa vkSj ge viuh vkW[kks ls ;g lc ns[kdj Hkh
bldk dqN Hkh izfrdkj ugha dj jgs gSaA cgqr&lh xk;sa rks pkjs vkfn ds
vHkko ls ej jgh gSaA gekjk drZO; gS fd ge muds fy;s pkjs vkfn dh
leqfpr O;oLFkk djsa vkSj bl izdkj muds c<+rs gq, âkl dks jksdus dh
ps"Vk djsaA xks&/ku gekjk lcls cM+k /ku gS&mlls gekjk /keZ&deZ lc
13

dqN pyrk gS rFkk gekjs 'kjhj dk iks"k.k gksrk gSA xk; vkSj cSyksa ds fcuk
gekjk thou gh dfBu gks tk;sxkA ,slh n'kk esa izR;sd Hkkjroklh dk ;g
dRkZO; gks tkrk gS fd og xkSvksa dh j{kk ds fy;s ru&eu vksj /ku ls Hkh
dfVc) gks tk;A izR;sd Hkkjrh; x`gLFk dks pkfg;s fd og d"V lgdj
Hkh de&ls&de ,d xkS vius ?kj esa vo'; j[ksA ftl le; Hkkjr esa
xkSvksa dh vf/kdrk Fkh] ml le; gekjk ;g Hkkjro"kZ lq[k&le`f) ls iw.kZ
FkkA ;gk¡ nw/k&ngh dh ufn;k¡ lh cgrh FkhaA ftl eD[ku vksj ?kh ds
vkt ge yksxksa dks n'kZu nqyZHk gks jgs gSa] mls Hkxoku~ Jh d`".k rks
ckY;koLFkk esa canjksa dks Hkh yqVkrs FksA vdsys uUnckck ds ;gk¡ uks yk[k
xk;sa Fkha vksj ,d&,d jktk yk[k&yk[k xk;ksa dknku dj nsrs FksA vkt
gekjs xks&/kudk tks Hk;adj âkl n`f"Vxkspj gks jgk gS] og gekjs gh izekn
dk nq"ifj.kke gSA gesa pkfg;sa fd vc Hkh psrs vkSj bl yqVrs gq, /ku dks
cpkus dh ps"Vk djsaA
izkphu le; esa yksx xkS&j{kk ds fy, cM+s&cM+s d"V lgus ds
fy;s rS;kj jgrs Fks] xkS ds izk.k cpkus ds fy;s vius izk.kksa dh Hkh vkgqfr
nsus esa ugha fgpdrs FksaA egkjkt fnyhi dh xkS&HkfDr vkSj vtqZu xks&j{kk
ozr blds ToyUr mnkgj.k gSA jktk fnyhi pØorhZ lezkV FksA xq:
of'k"B dh vkKk ls mUgksus mudh xkS ufUnuh dh lsok dk Hkkj vius Åij
ys fy;kA brus cM+s lezkV gksus ij Hkh mUgs xks&lsok djus esa yTtk ugha
vk;h A os Lo;a mls pjkus ds fy;s taxy esa ys tkrs vkSj b"Vnsoh dh Hkkafr
mldh lsok esa fpfUrr jgrsA os mlds cSBus ij cSBrs] [kMs+ gksus ij Lo;a
[kMs+ gks tkrs] mlds HkjisV pj ysus ij gh Lo;a viuh Hkw[k 'kkUr djrs
vkSj mldks ty fiykdj gh Lo;a ty xzg.k djrsA ,d fnu ufUnuh gjh
Hkjh ?kklks ls lq'kksfHkr fgeky; dh dUnk esa izos'k dj x;hA ml le;
mlds ân; esa rfud Hkh Hk; ugha FkkA jktk fnyhi fgeky; ds lqUnj
f'k[kj dh 'kksHkk fugkj jgs FksA brus esa gh ,d flag us vkdj ufUnuh dks
cyiwoZd /kj nck;kA jktk dks flag ds vkus dh vkgV rd ugha ekywe
gqbZA flag ds paxqy esa Q¡ldj ufUnuh us n;uh; Loj esa cM+s tksj ls
phRdkj fd;kA jktk us lglk ioZr dh vksj ls n`f"V gVkdj xkS ds
fpYykus dk dkj.k tkuuk pkgk mUgksus ns[kk] ,d Hka;dj flag xkS ij
>iV jgk gS vkSj og mlls Hka;Hkhr gksdj fpYyk jgh gSa jktk us rqjar
viuk /kuq"k mBk;k vkSj ml ij ck.k dk la/kku djds mls flag ij NksM+
fn;kA
ijUrq flag ij jktk ds ck.k dk dqN Hkh vlj ugha gqvk A
mUgksaus ftrus ck.k flag ij NksMs] os lc&ds&lc [kkyh x;sA tc jktk us
ns[kk fd vkSj fdlh mik; ls xkS dh j{kk gksuh dfBu gS ]rc os Lo;a
tkdj flag ds lkeus iM+ x;s vkSj mlls dgus yxs dh ^rw bl xk;
14

dks NksM+ ns vkSj blds cnys esa esjs ekal ls viuh Hkw[k 'kkUr dj ysA
og flag vkSj dksbZ ugh Fkk] ufUnuh dh ek;k FkhA jktk dh ijh{kk ds fy;s
gh mlus ;g ek;k jph FkhA jktk ds bl vuqie R;kx dks ns[kdj ufUnuh
izlUu gks x;hA FkksM+h nsj ds ckn jktk us ns[kk dh dgha dqN ugha gS]
vdsyh UkfUnuh ekSt ls ?kkl pj jgh gSA
ftu fnuksa ge Hkkjroklh xkS&ekrk ds fy;s bl izdkj izk.k
nsus vkSj ?kksj&ls&?kksj d"B mBkus ds fy;s rS;kj jgrs Fksa] mUgh fnuksa ge
vius dks lPPkk xksj{kd dg ldrs FksA vktdy rks ge yksx xks&j{kk dk
[kkyh ne Hkjrs gSA
xks&j{kk ds fy;s ;g vko';d gS fd ge yksx xkSvksa ds izfr
vius drZO; dks le>sa muds fy;s pkjk lqxerk ls fey lds&blds fy;s
vf/kd&ls&vf/kd xkspjHkwfe NqM+okus dk Ikz;Ru djsa xkS,sa cNM+s dlkbZ;ksa
ds gkFkksa esa rFkk cwpM[kkuksa esa u tkus ik;sa&blds fy;s izk.ki.k ls ps"Vk
djsa xkSvksa ds ikyu&iks"k.k rFkk vkjke dk vf/kd&ls&vf/kd /;ku j[ks]
cw<+h RkFkk BkB+ xk;ksa dh RkFkk cNM+ksa dh j{kk dk Hkh leqfpr izcU/k djsa ,oa
xkSvksa dh uLy lq/kkj ds fy, vPNs&vPNs lkaMksa dh O;oLFkk djsaA
bu lc dkeksa ds fy;s iq"dy nzO; ds lkFk&lkFk mRlkg ,oa
yxu dh vko';drk gSA /ku dh lgk;rk gekjs /kuh Hkkb;ksa dks fo'ks"k
:Ik ls djuh pkfg;sA oS';ksa ds fy, rks xks&j{kk ,d eq[; O;olk; vkSj
/keZ ekuk x;k gSA Hkxoku~ us Hkh xhrk esa dgk gS%&
d`f"kxkSj{;okf.kT;a oS'odeZ LoHkkote~A
^[ksrh] xks&ikyu rFkk O;kikj & ;s oS'; ds LokHkkfod /keZ gSA*
dky ds ifjorZu ls [ksrh vkSj xks&ikyu &bu nks deksZ dks OkS';&tkfr us
,d izdkj ls NksM+ gh j[kk gS] O;kikj gh mudh thfodk dk iz/kku lk/ku
jg x;k gSA /kkfeZd n`f"V ls gekjs oS'; Hkkb;ksa dks pkfg;s fd O;kikj dh
Hkkafr os bu nks O;olk;ksa dks Hkh viuk;s] ftlls budh Hkh mUufr gksA
gekjs uxjksa esa yksxkssa dks 'kq} nw/k vkfn XkO; inkFkZ lqxerk ls fey ldsa]
blds fy;s Msjh QkeksZ dk c`gn~:Ik esa vk;kstu djsaA /kkfeZd n`f"V ds
lkFk&lkFk O;olk; dh n`f"V ls Hkh tc ge xks&ikyu ds dk;sZ dks gkFk esa
ysaxsa] rHkh xkSvksa dh j{kk vkSj o`f} lEHko gSA xks/ku rks gekjh iz/kku lEifr
jgh gSA iwoZdky esa /kuokuksa dh gSfl;r xkSvks dh la[;k ls gh vkadh tkrh
FkhA ftlds ikl ftruh vf/kd xkS,W gksrh Fkha] og mruk gh lEiUu ekuk
tkrk FkkA gekjs ;gka Hkwfe vkSj xkS&;s nks gh mRiknu ds iz/kku lk/ku ekus
x;s gSA Hkwfe vkSj xkSdk ijLij cM+k /kfUk"B lac/k Hkh gSA xkSvksa dk
ikyu&iks"k.k fcuk Hkwfe ds ugha gks ldrk A xkspj&Hkwfe;ksa dh
15

deh bl le; xks&tkfr ds ºklz dk ,d iz/kku dkj.k cu jgh gSA blh
izdkj xkSvksa dh lgk;rk ds fcuk Hkwfe mitkÅ ugh gks ldrhA vk/kqfud
foKku ds ;qx esa Hkh xkscj ds leku vkSj fdlh [kkn dk vkfo"dkj vc
rd ugh gks ldk gSA Hkwfe dks tksrus rFkk cjkcj djus ds fy;s Hkh cSy gh
vf/kd mi;ksx esa vkrs gSaA laLd`r esa Hkwfedk ,d uke ^xkS* Hkh gS% D;ksafd
i`Foh tc&tc vR;kpkjksa ds Hkkj ls ihfM+r gksrh gS] rc&rc og xkSdk
:Ik /kkj.k dj czákth ds lkeus viuk nq[kM+k jksrh gSa bl izdkj [ksrh
vkSj xks&ikyu dk ijLij vfoPNsn laca/k gS vkSj ,d dks nwljs dh
lgk;rk dh cgqr vf/kd vko';drk gSA oS'; Hkkb;ksa ls izkFkZuk gS fd os
bu nksuksa O;olk;ksa dks Hkh vius gkFk esa ysdj pysaA
lkjka'k ;g gS fd orZeku le; yksd&lsok ds fy, vR;Ur mi;ksxh gSA
gekjs /kfud&lekt dks pkfg;s fd bl lqugjs volj ls ykHk mBkdj
viuh lEifr dk lsok ds dk;ksZ esa vf/kd ls vf/kd mi;ksx djsA /ku dh
lkFkZdrk blh esa gS fd mldk turk &tuknZu dh lsok esa mi;ksx fd;k
tk;sa ;g ekSdk ;fn gkFk ls pyk x;k rks fQj flok iN+rkus ds vkSj dqN
Hkh gkFk ugha yxsxkA /ku ds lkFk&lkFk thou dk Hkh dksbZ Hkjkslk ugha gS
A vkt gS vkSj dy ughaA vkt ;fn ge py cls rks fQj ;g /ku gekjs
fdl dke vk;sxkA blfy;s thou jgrs bls lRdk;ksZ esa yxk nsuk
pkfg;sA dgrs gSa&^rqjar nku egkdY;k.kA* ;gh ckr lHkh mre dk;ksZ ds
laca/k esa ykxw le>uh pkfg;sA fdlh Hkh vPNs dke dks dy ds fy;s ugha
NksM+uk pkfg;s] rqjar dj gh Mkyuk pkfg;sA

16

iapxO;
ns'kh xk; dk nw/k %&ns'kh xk; dk nw/k Lokfn"V] :fpdj] fLuX/k]
cydkjd] vfriF;] dkafrizn] cqf)] izKk] es/kk dQ] rqf"V] iqf"V oh;Z vkSj
vkst dks c<+kus okyk] vk;q dks n`<+ djus okyk] ân;] jlk;u] xq#] iq#"kRo
iznku djus okyk] ns'kh xk; dk nw/k larqfyr :i ls 'kjhj dk fodkl djrk
gS A
ns'kh xk; dk ?kh %& vk;qo)Zd] 'kqØo/kZd] jl vkSj ikd esa Lokfn"V]
tBjkfXu dks iznhIr djus okyk] fLuX/k] lqxfU/kr] :fpdj] us=ksa dh
T;ksfr c<+kus okyk] dkafrdkjd] o`"; vkSj es?kk] yko.;] Lojdkjd] ân;]
rst vkSj cy nsus okyk gksrk gSA ckydksa] o`)ksa rFkk detksjksa ds fy;s Bksl]
'kL={kr] okr] fir] dQ] ne] fo"k vkfn nks"kksa dk uk'k djrk gSA
ns'kh xk; dk ngh %& Lokfn"V] cyo/kZd] :fpdj] rstLoh] nhiu]
ikSf"Vd] ehBk] xzkã v'kZ dk uk'k djus okyk gSA Mk;fcVht ¼e/kqesg½ ds
jksxh }kjk fu;fer :i ls ns'kh xk; ds nw/k dk cuk rktk ngh 100 xzke
lsou djus ls 'kjhj esa LQwfrZ jgsxh A blls ;g jksx iw.kZr;k feV tkrk gSA
ns'kh xk; dh NkN %& tBjkfXu dks iznhIr djus okyh vkSj f=nks"k rFkk
v'kadk uk'k djus okyh gksrh gSA lk/kkj.k NkN Lokfn"V] xzkgh] [kV~Vh] rq'kZ]
y?kq] xje] ikd ds le; e/kqj] rh[kh] :[kh] cyizn] r`fIrdj] ân; dks cy
iznku djus okyh] :fpdj vkSj 'kjhj dks d`'k cukus okyh gksrh gSA

xk; ls fpfdRlk (Cow Therapy)
1- nw/k fpfdRlk % fo'oHkj esa xks nw/k ds leku ikSf"Vd vU; dksbZ vkgkj
ugha gS( fo'ks"kr% xHkZorh efgykvksa] f'k'kqvksa rFkk cq<+ksa ds fy;s( blhfy;s
bls ve`r dgk x;k gSA ;g iw.kZ vkgkj gSA ekuo ds 'kjhj] eu&cqf) rFkk
vk/;kRe dh 'kfDr c<+kus okyk eka ds nw/k ds i'pkr xks nw/k dk gh LFkku gS A
1- ftxj ds jksx % dqN er [kkbZ;s dsoy xks nw/k ihrs jgsa] 'kgn dk th Hkj
ds iz;ksx djsaA ftxj frYyh xqnsZ vkfn lE;d dke djus yxsaxsA
2- ilyh pyuk % blesa cPps dk ne ?kqVrk gS] vk¡[ksa ckgj fudy vkrh gS(
tkuysok Hkh gks ldrk gS A nks pEep xquxqus nw/k esa vk/kk pEep ?kh vkSj ,d
pEep 'kgn feykdj cPps dks pVkuk 'kq: dj nsaA xys vkSj Nkrh dh lQkbZ
gksrs gh cPpk lq[k dh lk¡l ysus yxsxk A xk; dk xquxquk ?kh cPps dh Nkrh
vkSj xys ij Hkh eysaA blls dQ fi?kydj gV tk;sxh 'okl uyh lgt gks
tk;sxh A
17

3- risfnd % fo[;kr if'peh MkWDVjksa us iz;ksxksa ds mijkUr izekf.kr dj
fn;k fd xks nw/k ls Vh-ch- dk Hkh lE;d bykt fd;k tk ldrk gSA ipkl
xzke feJh nl xzke ihiyh ihldj 250 xzke xks nw/k esa vkSVkdj dk<+k cuk;sa
iqu% 10&15 xzke xks ?k`r esa 20 xzke e/kq ysdj bruk QsVsa fd >kx vk tk;sA
bls pwlrs jgsa A QsaQM+ksa esa Nsn Hkh gksaxs rks 'kuS% 'kuS% Hkjus yxsaxs A
4- /krwjs dk fo"k % xks nw/k esa xks ?k`r feykdj fiykrs jgsa A xks ?k`r tSlk
fo"kuk'kd ve`r 'kk;n gh dksbZ nwljk gks A
5- udlhj % ,d di mcys nw/k esa iqjkus ls iqjkuk xks ?k`r Mkysa vkSj dqN iy
ulokj dh rjg lw¡?ksaA ;gh nw/k feJh ?kksydj fi;sa A udlhj ugha cgsxh A ;fn
,d ewyh [kkyh isV [kkrs jgs vkSj nw/k esa xktj dk jl ihrs jgs rks udlhj
pyus dh fLFkfr gh ugha vk;sxh A
6- isV ds dhM+s % dM+oh dlSyh nok,¡ [kkus ds ctk; xks nw/k esa e/kq feykdj
ihuk 'kq# dj nsaA blls /khjs&/khjs iqjkus dhM+s ej tk;saxs] u;s mRiUu ugha
gksaxs A
7- eq¡g ds Nkys % Nkys pkgs xehZ ls gks ;k xje [kkus ls] xeZ ihus ls( xks nw/k
dh eykbZ ;k ?kh ysi nsus ls Nkys cSB tk;saxs vkSj tyu 'kkUr gks tk;sxh A
8- psgjs dh >kbZ;ka % ,d di ikuh esa 2 pEep nw/k Mkydj fuR; psgjs ij
ey fy;k djsa A eq¡g ls >kbZ;ka] Nk;k gV tk;sxh vkSj psgjk lkQ gks tk;sxk A
9- uklwj % ;g gM~Mh rd igqap tkus okyk QksM+k gS( ftlls nqxZfU/kr eokn
cgrk gS A iqjkus xks ?k`r ls ;g 'kh?kz Hkjdj lw[k tkrk gS A igys uhe i=ksa ds
dk<+s ls QksM+k lkQ djsa A i'pkr diM+s dh cÙkh cuk] xks ?k`r esa rj djds uklwj
esa Mky nsaA fnu esa 2&2 ckj cÙkh cny nsaA Ms<+&nks ekg esa oz.k dh tM+sa lq[k
tk;sxh vkSj ?kko Hkjus yxsxk A nw/k esa ?kh Mkydj fiykrs Hkh jgsa rkfd 'kjhj
fufoZ"k jgs A
10-tqdke %& nwf"kr ikuh ukd ls cgus nsa vkSj nw/k esa 'kgn feykdj ihrs
jgsaA Hkkstu lknk djsaA
11-fMIFkhfj;k %& vke cksyh esa bls gCck&MCck Hkh dgk tkrk gSA cPpksa
dk ;g jksx tkuysok gksrk gSA 2 pEep nw/k esa vk/kk pEep ?kh vkSj ,d pEep
'kgn feykdj cPps dks pVkuk 'kq# dj nsaA xk; dk ?kh vkSj 'kgn feykdj
xys ij Hkh eysa A
12- FkdkoV %& xk<s nw/k esa eykbZ Mkydj ihus ls fdruh Hkh FkdkoV gks nwj
gks tk;sxh A
18

xks&nw/k (Cow Milk) dk tknw

nw/k ds xq.k

xks&nw/k ve`rrqY; gSA blesa 87-1 izfr'kr ty rFkk 12-9 izfr'kr ?kuinkFkZ
gSA ,-Mh-bZ-ch vkSj lh thoulR; gSA blds vykok izksfVvkst] ySDvksE;qflu
vkSj e|nzkod izksVhu Hkh va'kr% ik;s tkrs gSaA nw/k esa izksVhujfgr ukbVªkstu
okys inkFkZ ¼ySDVksØkse] fØ,Vhu] ;wfj;k] fFk;kslofud ,flM] vksjksfVd
,flM] gkbiksDlsUFkhu] tSUFkhu] vkSj ;wfjd ,flM] dksfyu VªkbesfFkysfeu]
VªkbesfFkysfeu vkWDlkbZM] esfFky XosfufMu vkSj veksfu;k {kkj½ ik;s tkrs
gSaA vkSj QkWLQksjlokys inkFkZ ¼Ýh QkLQsV] QkLQsV dslhu ds lkFk feyk
gqvk] ysflfFku vkSj flQsfyu] Mkbfeuks eksuksQkLQksVkbM rFkk rhu vEy
nzkod lsfUn; QkLQjl ;ksfxd½ ik;s tkrs gSaA
nw/k rRoksa dh [kkl fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd os gekjs Hkkstu ds vU; inkFkZ&vkVk]
pkoy] vkyw] Qy&Qwy] 'kkd vkfn ds nks"k dks u"V djus esa] bu inkFkksZa dks
mPprj :i esa iyVusl esa] bUgsa lqikP; cukus esa lgk;rk djrk gSA
nw/k esa de ls de 50 inkFkZ lok lkS&Ms<+ lkS #iksa esa jgrs gSaA bruk
loZxq.klEiUu vkSj lc izdkj ls ifjiw.kZ ikSf"Vd vkSj lkFk gh cqf) esa
lkfRodrk mRiUu djus okyk cgqr lLrk vkgkj gSA
xkS dk /kkjks".k nqX/k cydkjd] y?kq] 'khr] ve`r ds leku] vfXunhid]
f=nks"k'kked gksrk gSA izkr%dky fi;k gqvk nw/k o`/;] c`g.k rFkk
vfXunhid gksrk gSa] nksigj esa fi;k gqvk nw/k cyo/kZd] dQuk'kd]
firuk'kd gksrk gS vkSj jkf= esa fi;k gqvk nw/k ckyd ds 'kjhj dks c<+krk gSA
blfy, nw/k izfrfnu ihuk pkfg,A

vk;qosZn esa nw/k dks ^loksZ"k/khlkj* dgk x;k gS
vFkkZr~ lHkh vkS"k/kh;ksa dk lkj ¼lr~½ gS nw/kA
xk; dk nw/k laiw.kZ [kk| inkFkZ gS] blesa 85 izfr'kr izksVhu
gksrk gS] nw/k esa ekStwn olk ¼QsV½ loZJs"B inkFkZ gSA
xk; ds nw/k ds d.k lw{e vkSj lqikP; gksrs gSaA vr% og efLr"d dks 'kfDr
iznku djrs gSaA xk; ds nw/k esa dsjksVhu ¼foVkfeu&,½ uke dk ihyk inkFkZ
jgrk gS tks vk¡[kksa dh T;ksfr c<+krk gSA pjd lw= LFkku 1@18 ds vuqlkj xk;
dk nw/k thou 'kfDr iznku djus okys nzO;ksa esa loZJs"B gSA xk; ds nw/k esa
vkB izfr'kr izksVhu] 8 izfr'kr dkcksZgkbMsªV vkSj 0-7 izfr'kr feujYl
¼100 vkbZ-;w-½] foVkfeu , vkSj
foVkfeu ch] lh- Mh ,oa bZ gksrk gSA fu?k.Vq ds vuqlkj xk; dk nw/k jlk;u]
iF;] cyo/kZd] ân; ds fy, fgrdkjh] cqf)o/kZd] vk;qizn] iqalRodkdj
rFkk f=nks"k ¼okr] fiÙk] dQ½ uk'kd gSA
xk; dk nw/k Je ls mRiUu Fkdku dk uk'k djus okyk ve`re; jl gSA
xk; dk nw/k ^vk;qo)Zd* vFkkZr~ vk;q c<+kus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^vf{k&T;ksfr* vka[kksa dh jks'kuh c<+kus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^e/;* efLr"d dh es?kk 'kfDr c<+kus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^â|* ân; dks cy iznku djus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^oh;Zoku* vFkkZr~ oh;Z esa o`f) djus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^cY;* vFkkZr~ cy iznku djus okyk
xk; dk nw/k ^jlksÙke* vFkkZr~ leLr jlksa esa Js"B gSA

xksew=

19

xksew= ekuo tkfr rFkk ouLifr txr dks izkIr gksus okyk nqyZHk vuqnku
gSA ;g /keZ }kjk vuqeksfnr izkd`frd lgt miyC/k] gkfu jfgr]
dY;k.kdkjh ,oa LokLF; j{kd jlk;u gSA fujksx O;fDr ds LokLF; j{k.k
rFkk jksxh ds jksx 'keu gsrq vk;qosZn esa xksew= dks nsoh; vkS"k/kh ekuk x;k gSA
vk/kqfud n`f"V ls xksew= esa iksVkf'k;e] dSfY'k;e DyksjkbZM] ;wfj;k]
QkLQsV] veksfu;k] fØ,Vhuhu vkfn fHkUu&fHkUu iks"kd {kkj fo|eku
jgrs gSaA ftlds dkj.k blesa vkS"k/kh; xq.kksa dh Hkjekj gSA ijUrq bruk lqyHk
vkSj lLrk gksrs gq, Hkh tkudkjh ds vHkko esa ge mls vkS"k/kh ekurs gh ugha gSaA
mnj ds jksxksa ds fy;s rks xks ew= jkeck.k gS A
20

xksew= lsou fof/k % jksx fuokj.k gsrq fofHkUu fof/k;ksa }kjk xksew= dk lsou
fd;k tkrk gSA buesa iku djuk] ekfy'k gsrq 2&7 fnu iqjkuk xks ew= Js"B gSA
cPpksa dks 5 xzke vkSj cM+ksa dks 10&30 xzke ek=k esa fnu esa nks ckj ysuk pkfg;s A
blds lsou dky esa fepZ&elkys] Hkkjh Hkkstu] rEckdq vkfn lHkh eknd
inkFkksZa dk R;kx vko';d gS A /kwyk gqvk lQsn lwrh diM+k ysdj 4&8 rgs
cukdj mlls xks ew= Nkudj fQj iz;ksx djsa A xks ew= lsou esa lko/kkfu;ka %
xksew= lsou esa fuEu ckrksa dk fo'ks"k /;ku j[kuk pkfg, %&
1- xk; ns'kh gh gks A 2- xk; ;fn izfrfnu taxy esa pjus tkrh gks rks loksZÙke
gS A
3- xk; fcuk C;kbZ gks rks vf/kd vPNk gS A 4- xk; xHkZorh u gks] jksxh u gksA
5- ;fn 1 o"kZ ls de vk;q dh cfN;k gks rks lcls vPNh gSA
ns'kh xk; ls vFkZ Hkkjrh; uLy dh xk;ksa ls gS A tks xq.k nslh xk;ksa ds ew=
rFkk xkscj esa gksrs gSaA os xq.k fons'kh xk;ksa o 'kadj ¼vesfjdu½ uLy dh
xk;ksa esa ugha gksrs gSa A blds ihNs rF; ;g gS fd fons'kh ;k ladj xk;sa cgqr
vf/kd nw/k nsrh gS] mUgsa nkuk vf/kd fn;k tkrk gS] vf/kd nkuk nsus ds
dkj.k muds ew= rFkk xkscj esa ,sls vkS"k/kh; xq.k ugha gksrs tSls nslh uLyksa esa
gksrs gSa A taxy esa pjus okyh xk; vusd izdkj ds ?kkl rFkk cwafV;ka [kkrh gS A
vr% mlds ew=&xkscj esa vusd vkS"k/kh; xq.k vk tkrs gSa A
xHkZorh xk; ds ew= esa vusd gkeksZuksa dk L=ko gksrk gSA tks vf/kd xq.kdkjh
ugha gksrk] jksxh xk; ds ew= esa jksxk.kqvksa dh la[;k rFkk v/kZips inkFkksZa dh
ek=k c<+ tkrh gS ftlls og xksew= vf/kd xq.kdkjh ugha jg tkrk gSA blfy;s
fcuk C;kbZ cNM+h dk ew= loksZÙke ekuk tkrk gS A

jksxksa dk fuokj.k
O;kf/k;ksa ds fouk'k ds fy;s xksew= dk iz;ksx fuEu jksxksa esa fo'ks"k
ykHkdkjh gS %&
1- isV dh xSl] isV Qwyuk] dCt] [kV~Vh Mdkj vkfn ij
%&Hkkjh Hkkstu] cklh Hkkstu] vf/kd elkys nkj] ryk gqvk Hkkstu rFkk
vfrHkkstu djus ij dCt] isV Qwyuk] [kV~Vh Mdkj vkuk vkfn dh leL;k
mRiUu gks tk;k djrh gS A rhu rksyk LoPN rktk Nkuk gqvk xksew= esa vk/kk
eklk lknk ued feykdj fi;sa A FkksM+s le; mijkUr gh isV lkQ gks tk;sxk A
;fn fdlh cPps dk isV Qwy tk;s rks ,d pEep LoPN xks ew= fiyk nsaA rqjUr
vkjke feysxk A ftudks mnj esa xSl vf/kd cuus dh f'kdk;r gS &
izkr%dky 50 xzke xksew= esa dkyk ued rFkk fuEcq jl feykdj ihus ls xSl
jksx ls dqN fnuksa esa gh NqVdkjk fey tkrk gSA
21

bl jksx esa xks ew= dks idkdj izkIr fd;k x;k {kkj Hkh xq.kdkjh gS A Hkkstu
ds izFke xzkl esa vk/kk pEep xksew= {kkj rFkk ,d pEep xks ?k`r feykdj
[kkus ls ok;q ugha curh gS A
2- iqjkuk tqdke] utyk] 'okl jksx] nek] mPp CyM izs'kj ij %
fotkfr; rRoksa ds izfr vlfg".kqrk ¼,ythZ½ ls ckj&ckj tqdke gksrk gS A
ukd cguk ckj&ckj Nhad vkuk] uklk cUn gks tkuk] ckn esa cky fxjuk ;k
'kh?kz lQsn gks tkuk vkfn y{k.k Hkh mRiUu gks tkrs gSa A bl voLFkk esa xks
ew= dk lsou rFkk uL; ysus ls peRdkfjd ykHk feyrk gS A jksxh dks 50 xzke
rktk LoPN xks ew= ysdj mlesa 1@4 pEep QqykbZ gqbZ fQVdjh feykdj lsou
djuh pkfg, A nek jksxh dks NksVh cfN;k dk ,d rksyk ew= fu;fer :i ls
ihus ij ykHk gksrk gS A mPp jDrpki jksxh dks xks ew= cgqr ykHkdkjh fl)
gksrk gS A
3- vEyfir ¼,lhfMVh½ % bl jksx esa jksxh ds eqag esa [kV~Vk ikuh Hkjuk]
[kV~Vh Mdkj] isV esa tyu] isV nnZ] Nkrh vkSj xys esa tyu] dHkh dHkh mYVh
gksuk] Hkw[k u yxuk dbZ ckj Hkw[k lgu u gksuk vkfn y{k.k gksrs gSa A jksxh dks
izkr% mBrs gh xk; dk izFke ew= ,d nks ?kw¡V ls vkjEHk dj 10&15 fnu esa 5&6
?kw¡V rd c<+krs gq, ysuk pkfg;s A vkjEHk ds fnuksa esa 2&3 ckj 'kkSp tkuk iM+
ldrk gSA nl iUnzg fnu esa 'kkSp Lor% gh Bhd gks tk;sxk A nks ekg rd lsou
djus ls jksx tM+ ls dV tk;sxk A
4- ;d`r o Iyhgk c<+uk % ;d`r ¼ftxj½ dk c<+uk ;k lwtuk rFkk
Iyhgk ¼frYyh½ ds jksxksa esa xksew= jkeck.k vkS"k/kh gS A ;d`r] Iyhgk c<+us ij
isV c<+ tkrk gS] Hkw[k de yxrh gS] vipu] ,flfMVh] v'kfDr vkfn y{k.k
iznf'kZr gksrs gSaA blesa jksxh dks xksew= fuEu <ax ls ysuk pkfg, %& 1- ikap
rksyk xks ew= esa ,d pqVdh ued feykdj A 2- iquuZok ds dk<+s esa leku ek=k
esa xksew= feykdj A 3- xeZ baV ij xksew= esa diM+k fHkxkdj yisVsa rFkk gYdh
gYdh fldkbZ izHkkfor LFkku ij djsa A
5- e/kqesg] 'kqxj] Mk;fcfVt % vkt dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ;g jksx
lkekU; gks x;k gSA blesa jDr rFkk ew= esa 'kqxj dh ek=k vf/kd gks tkrh gSA
'kwxj jksxh dk jDrpki ¼izs'kj½ vlarqfyr gks tk;k djrk gS rFkk lHkh jksxksa
ds fy;s lEHkkouk c<+ tkrh gSA fofHkUu vkS"k/kksa ds iz;ksx ls dHkh&dHkh
'kwxj dh ek=k bruh de gks tkrh gS fd pDdj vkuk rFkk vpsrrk vkfn gksus
yxrs gSaA bl jksx okys dks ;fn fcuk C;kbZ xk; dk ew= ,d Ms<+ rksyk nsa rks
vR;Ur ykHk gksrk gSA
6- xys dk dSalj % xys dk dSalj gksus ij jksxh dks [kkus esa dfBukbZ gksrh gSA
22

xys esa xkaB iM+ tkrh gS A [kkuk u [kk ikus ds dkj.k jksxh v'kDr gks tkrk gS
rFkk pyus fQjus esa v{ke jgrk gS A blds rFkk vU; dbZ izdkj ds dSaljksa dh
izFke rFkk f}rh; voLFkkvksa ds mipkj ds fy;s nslh xk; dk 100 xzke ew=
rFkk lqikjh ds cjkcj xk; dk rktk xkscj nksuksa dks feykdj Nku ysa A izkr%
dky fujkgkj lsou djsa A pkj ekg esa iw.kZ vkjke fey tkrk gSA
7- fify;k] ik.Mq jksx % jksxh dh Ropk rFkk vk¡[ks ihyh iM+ tkrh gS]
is'kkc dk jax Hkh ihyk gks tkrk gSA Hkw[k u yxuk] dCt jguk] vipu rFkk
v'kfDr vkfn y{k.k gks tkrs gSa] blds fy;s xks ew= nks ls <+kbZ lkS xzke 15 fnu
rd ihuk pkfg;s A
8- tyksnj % bl jksx esa isV esa ikuh Hkj tkus ls 'kjhj Qwy tkrk gSA
dHkh&dHkh fgyus Mwyus esa Hkh dfBukbZ gksrh gSA lkal cM+h dfBurk ls vkrk
gS A [kkuk fuxyuk dfBu gks tkrk gSA bl jksx esa xks ew= dk lsou ije
fgrdkjh gS A ipkl xzke xks ew= esa 2 xzke ;olkj ¼tkS[kkj½ feykdj ihrs
jgus ls dqN gh lIrkg esa isV dk ikuh de gks tkrk gSA tyksnj jksxh dks xks
nw/k ij gh jguk pkfg;s A
9- eksVkik % eksVkik 'kjhj ds fy;s vfrd"Vnk;d rFkk cgqr ls jksxksa dks
vkeaf=r djus okyk fodkj gSA LFkwyrk ls eqfDr ikus gsrq vk/kk Xykl rktk
ikuh esa 4 pEep xksew=] 2 pEep e/kq rFkk ,d pEep uhacw dk jl feykdj
fuR; ihuk pkfg;s A blls 'kjhj dh vfrfjDr pchZ lekIr gksrh gS rFkk nsg
lkSan;Z cuk jgrk gSA
10- isV esa d`fe % bl jksx ds gksus ij vk/kk pEep vtok;u ds pw.kZ ds
lkFk pkj pEep xksew= dk ,d lIrkg rd lsou djus ls varfM+;ksa ds lc
d`fe ej dj fudy tkrs gSaA cPpksa dks vk;q ds vuqlkj nsa A
11- peZ jksx ¼nkn] [kkt] [kqtyh vkfn½ ij % fofHkUu peZ jksxksa ds
fuokj.k gsrq xks ew= jkeck.k vkS"kf/k gS A uhe vkSj fxyks; ds DokFk ds lkFk
nksuksa le; xks ew= dk lsou djus ls jDrnks"k tfur peZ jksx u"V gksrs gSa A
thjs dks lw{e ihldj xksew= ls la;qDr dj ysi djus ls ;k xksew= dh ekfy'k
djus ls peM+h dapu rFkk jksx jfgr gks tkrh gS A
12- tksM+ksa dh ihM+k ¼lfU/kokr½ % tksM+ksa dk u;k rFkk iqjkuk nnZ cM+k
d"Vnk;d gksrk gSA egkjkLukfn DokFk ds lkFk xksew= feykdj ihus ls ;g
jksx u"V gksrk gSA lfnZ;ksa esa lksaB ds pw.kZ ls Hkh bldk lsou fd;k tk ldrk
gSA osnuk LFkku ij xeZ xksew= dk lsd Hkh djsaA
13- nk¡r dh ihM+k ;k ik;fj;k % nk¡r&nnZ esa xksew= cgqr vPNk dk;Z
djrk gSA tc nk¡r nnZ vlguh; gks tk;s rks xks ew= ls dqYyk djsaA blls
23

vusd'k cM+k peRdkfjd izHkko gksrk gSA xksew= ls izfrfnu dqYyk djus ij
ik;fj;k jksx iw.kZr;k lekIr gks tkrk gSA
14- vk¡[k dk /kqa/kykiu] v¡/kjkrk rFkk n`f"V&nqcZyrk % us= jksxksa
esa xksew= jkeck.k gSA blds fy;s dkyh cfN;k dk ew= ,d= djds rkacs ds
crZu esa xje djsaA pkSFkkbZ Hkkx cpus ij mls fuFkkj dj ikuh vyx dj ysaA
uhps tks yo.k cps mUgsa Qsad nsaA mij dk LoPN ikuh fdlh LoPN dk¡p dh
'kh'kh esa Hkj ysaA fu;fer :i ls izkr% lk;a vk¡[k esa MkysaA cgqr FkksM+h lh
yxrh gSA ijUrq vk¡[k dh [kqtyh] /kaq/kykiu] jrkSa/kh rFkk nqcZy n`f"V okyksa
ds fy;s cgqr vPNh vkS"kf/k fl) gksrh gS A ,d nks ekg esa gh ;k rks p'ek gV
tk;sxk ;k mldk uEcj de gks tk;sxk A
15-izlo ihM+k % izlo dh ihM+k ds le; 50 xzke xksew= dks xk;=h ea= ls
vfHkefU=r djds fiykus ls izlo ihM+k de gksrh gSA rFkk izlo vklkuh ls
gks tkrk gSA
16-vU; mi;ksx % xksew= dk mi;ksx iapke`r] iapxO; rFkk "kVHkhao.k esa
fd;k tkrk gS A bu lHkh dk vkS"k/kh; egRo gSA
izlo ds mijkUr ?kjksa dh 'kqf)dj.k gsrq xksew= dk fNM+dko fd;k tkrk gSA
'e'kku ls vkus ds i'pkr lHkh O;fDr;ksa dk 'kqf)dj.k xaxkty vFkok
xksew= fNM+ddj rFkk fiykdj fd;k tkrk gSA blds thok.kquk'kd xq.kksa ds
dkj.k ,slh ijEijk,sa gSaA
bl izdkj xksew= dk lsou cgqr lh O;kf/k;ksa dk 'keu djrk gSA LoLFk
O;fDr dk LokLF; j{k.k djus rFkk jksxksa ls cpus ds fy, bldk lsou
fd;k tkrk gSA dgk tkrk gS fd jke ouokl ds le; rFkk Hkjr 14 o"kZ rd
blh dkj.k LoLFk jgdj vk/;kfRed mUufr djrs jgs] D;ksafd os vUu ds
lkFk xksew= dk lsou djrs Fks A &
^^xksew= ;koda HkqRokHkzkrjaoYyddykEcje~ A**
¼Jhen~ Hkkxor 9@20@34½

24

xksew= dk vke jksxksa ij ?kjsyw iz;ksx
1- dCt ds jksxh dks xksew= dbZ ckj Nkudj ysus ls isV lkQ gksus yxrk gSA
2- xksew= esa gjM+s Mkydj vkxij j[ksa vkSj tyHkkx dks mM+k gjM+s fudkydj
pw.kZ djsaA bl pw.kZ dks fu;fer ysrs jgus ls isV lkQ jgus yxrk gSA
3- [kkalh] nek] tqdke vkfn jksxksa ls xksew= lh/kk gh ysus ls rqjUr di
fudydj jksx 'kkUr gksrk gSA
4- isV ds gj jksx esa xksew= ihus ls ykHk gksrk gSA
5- 'kjhj dh lwtu esa dsoy nw/k ihdj lkFk esa xksew= dk lsou djus ls lwtu
feV tkrh gSA
6- vka[kksa dh tyu] dCt lqLrh vkSj v:fpr vFkkZr ,sflMhVh esa xksew=
'kDdj feykdj ysus ls jksxksa dk fuokj.k gksrk gSA
7- [kkt] Qaqfl;ka] ,fXtek esa xksew=&vkek gYnh feykdj ihuk&vfr
ykHkdkjh gSA
8- peM+h jksxksa esa gjrky] ckdqph] ekydaxuh dks xksew= esa jxM+dj nwf"kr
Hkkx ij yxkuk mÙke gSA Qqycgjh ¼lQsn fpUgksa½ ij xksew= esa ckdqph
ihl dj ysi djuk vfrykHknk;d gSA
9- dku dh ihM+k esa xksew= dks lqgkrk xje dj 1&2 cwansa Mkyus ls osnuk nwj
gksrh gSA
10-gkFkh ikao ¼QkbZysfj;k½ esa izkr%dky [kkyhisV xksew= ysuk cgqr
mi;ksxh gSA
11-fjaxoeZ ij ¼nnZ½] /krwjs ds iRrs xksew= esa ihldj mlh esa mckydj xk<+k
gksus ij yxkosaA ykHkdkjh gksxkA
12-xksew= flj esa eydj FkksM+h nsj yxkdj j[ksa] lq[kus ij /kks nsa cky lqUnj
gksaxs A
13-VkbZQkbZM ls ;k fdlh nokbZ ds [kkus ls fdlh LFkku ds cky mM+ tk;sa rks
xksew= esa rEckdw [kwc ihldj Mky nsoasA 10 fnu ckn isLV tSlk cu tkus
ij vPNk jxM+dj cky >M+s LFkku ij yxkus ls cky fQj vk tkrs gSaA flj
ij Hkh yxk ldrs gSaA
14-'kjhj esa [kkt [kqtyh gks rks xksew= esa uhe ds iRrs ihldj yxkuk pkfg;s A
15-xksew= esa iqjkuk xqM+ vkSj gYnh pw.kZ feykdj ihus ls nkn] dq"B vkSj gkFkh
ikao nwj gksrs gSa A
16-isV esa d`fe esa Mhdkekyh dk pw.kZ xksew= ds lkFk ysus ls d`fe fudyus
yxrk gSA
25

17- laf/kokr vkfn tksM+ksa ds jksxksa esa xksew= ds lkFk ,j.M dk rsy ,d ekl
rd ihus ls lfU/k;ksa ds jksx rFkk vU; lc okr jksx nwj gksrs gSaA
18-cPpksa ds isV nnZ rFkk isV Qwyuk ij ,d pEep xksew= esa FkksM+k ued
feykdj fiykus ls ;s nwj gksrs gSaA
19-cPpksa ds lw[kk jksx ij ,d ekl rd izkr% lk;a xksew= esa dslj feykdj
fiyk;saA

xks&nf/k ¼ngh½ ls jksx fuokj.k
xks&nf/k ¼ngh½ m".k] vfXu dks iznhIr djus okyk] fLuX/k] dqN d"kk;]
xq# rFkk foikd esa vEy gksrk gSA ew=d`PN] izfr';k;] fo"keToj]
vfrlkj] v#fp rFkk d`'krk esa bldk mi;ksx iz'kLr gSA ;g cy ,oa
'kqØ dks c<+krk gSA
1- y?kq xaxk/kj pw.kZ %& ukxjeksFkk] bUnztkS] csy dk eTtk ¼xwnk½] yks/kz]
ekspjl ,oa /kk; dk Qwy&bu N% nzO;ksa dk pw.kZ cukdj ngh ds lkFk xqM+
feykdj ihus ij lHkh izdkj ds vfrlkj ,oa izokfgdk esa ykHknk;d gSA
2- vteksnkfn pw.kZ %&vteksnk] ekspjl] 'kq.Bh] /kk;dk iq"i&bu pkj
nzO;ksa dks ihldj pw.kZ cukdj xkS ds ngh esa pw.kZ dks vPNh rjg QsaVdj
lsou djus ls og xaxk dh /kkjk ds leku izokfgr vfrlkj dks Hkh jksdus
esa leFkZ gSA
3- rØkfj"V %& vtokbu] vkeyk] dkyh fepZ izR;sd 12&12 rksyk]
ik¡pksa ued&izR;sd 4 rksyk budk pw.kZ cukdj feV~Vh ds ,d I;kys esa
Mkydj mlesa rØ ¼NkN½ 6 lsj 6 NV¡kad 2 rksyk Mky nsa vkSj ik= dk
eq[k can dj la/kku ds fufeÙk ,d ekg ds fy, j[k nsaA ckn esa Nkudj
izfrfnu Ms<+ rksyk ls <+kbZ rksyk izkr%&lk;a ty feykdj lsou djsaA ;g
mÙke nhiu rFkk ikpu djus okyk gS rFkk 'kks/k] xqYe] v'kZ] d`fe] izseg]
vfrlkj vkSj mnj&jksx dks u"V djrk gSA

xk; ds ngh ds xq.k
tks Hkksjfga eBk fi;r gS] thjk ued feyk; A
cy cqf) rhls c<+r gS] lcS jksx tfj tk; AA
vkaoys ds pw.kZ ds lkFk ngh dk lsou djus ls 'kjhj ds lHkh nks"k feV
tkrs gSa A
?kh ds lkFk ngh ds lsou ls dQ c<+rk gSA
ysfdu okr o fir 'kkar gksrk gSA
26

ngh dk lsou o"kkZ] gseUr vkSj f'kf'kj _rqvksa esa ugha djuk pkfg,A
fu;fer :i ls ngh dk lsou djus ls 'khr ,oa laØked jksx ugha
gksrs gSaA
ngh esa ik;k tkus okyk ,flMksfQye dkWyu&dSalj dks jksdus esa
enn djrk gSA
rØ ¼NkN½ dk iku djus okyk O;fDr lksrs ls tkx mBrk gS] nqcys
'kjhj esa fctyh lh mtkZ vk tkrh gS] ikao esa ifg, tSlh pyus dh
'kfDr vk tkrh gSA
ngh esa ik;s tkus okys vufxur cSDVksfj;k 'kjhj esa xSLVªh&
baVsLVkbuy&fMLvkWMlZ] Mk;fj;k] dCt] bfjVscy ckmy flaMªkse
rFkk QwM ikW;tfuax dks ugha gksus nsrs gSaA
ngh ls gekjs 'kjhj dks Hkjiwj dSfY'k;e] izksVhu] ftax] jkbZcks¶ysfcu
rFkk foVkfeu ch&12 feyrk gSA fu;fer :i ls ngh dk lsou djrs
jgus ls gekjs 'kjhj dh jksxksa ls yM+us dh {kerk ¼bE;qfufV½ c<+rh gSA
eB~Bk cukus dh fof/k % ngh esa fcuk ikuh feyk, vPNh rjg ls eFk
dj FkksM+k eD[ku fudkyus ds ckn tks va'k cprk gS mls eB~Bk dgrs
gSaA eB~Bk okr ,oa fir nksuksa dk ije 'k=q gSA
rØ ¼xk<+h NkN½ cukus dh fof/k % ngh esa ,d pkSFkkbZ ikuh feykdj
vPNh rjg ls eFk dj eD[ku fudkyus ds ckn tks cprk gS mls rØ
dgrs gSaA rØ 'kjhj esa tes eSy dks ckgj fudkydj oh;Z cukus dk
dke djrk gSA rØ dQ uk'kd gSA
NkN cukus dh fof/k % ngh ls eykbZ fudkydj ikap xquk ikuh
feykdj vPNh rjg eFkus ds ckn tks nzO; curk gS mls NkN dgrs
gSaA NkN esa lsa/kk ;k dkyk ued feykdj lsou djus ls okr ,oa fir
nksuksa nks"k Bhd gksrs gSaA NkN ok;q uk'kd gS vkSj isV dh vfXu dks
izfnIr djrk gSA rktk eB~Bk] rØ ;k NkN fny dh /kM+du okys
jksfx;ksa ds fy, ve`r gSA NkN dk LoHkko 'khry gksrk gSA

27

xkS dk ?k`r fo'ks"k :i ls us= ds fy;s mi;ksxh gSA ;g o`";] vfXunhid]
jl ,oa foikd esa e/kqj 'khr rFkk rhuksa nks"kksa dk 'keu djus okyk gSA es/kk]
yko.;] dkfUr] vkst rFkk rst dh o`f) djus okyk] vkyL;] iki rFkk
Hkwrok/kkuk'kd gSA xq#] cyo/kZd] ifo=] vk;q c<+kus okyk dY;k.kdkjd]
jlk;u] mÙke xa/kokyk] ns[kus esa euksgj rFkk lc ?k`rksa esa vf/kd cyoku
gSA
fgaXokfn ?k`r %& ghax] ljlksa] ckyop] lksaB] ejhp ,oa ihiy 2&2 d"kZ]
xks?k`r 1 izLFk rFkk xksew= 4 izLFk feykdj ?k`r fl) djsaA bldk iku]
uL; ,oa vH;nz djus ls xzgck/kk ls eqfDr izkIr gksrh gSA
iapxO; ?k`r %& xkscj dk Lojl] xksnqX/k] xkS dk ngh] xksew= rFkk xks?k`r
dks feykdj fl) djsaA ;g ?k`r viLekj] Toj] mUekn rFkk dkeuk dks
'kkUr djrk gSA iapdksykfn ?k`r&ihiy] fiiykewy] nzO;] fplk] rFkk
lksaB vkSj tks[kkj 1&1 iy] xks?k`r 1 izLFk ¼lsj½ rFkk xksnqX/k ,d lsj eUn
vfXu ij idkdj Nku ysaA ;g ?k`r jlokgh L=ksrksa dks 'kq) djrk gS vkSj
xqYe&Toj&mnj&jksx] xzg.kh jksx] ihul] 'okl dkl] eUnkfXu] 'kks/k
rFkk mn~xkj dks u"V djrk gSA
vFkkZr xkscj esa y{eh dk fuokl gSA vkbZ, oSKkfud vk/kkj ij tkusa fd
dSls xkscj esa y{eh fuokl djrh gSA
xk; ds xkscj dk jl 'kjhj ds lq{e fNnzksa dks [kksydj ilhus ds ek/;e ls
peZ jksx ds dkj.kksa dks ckgj fudkyrk gSA
xk; ds xkscj dk jl izlwfr (Delivery) ds fy, ve`r rqY; gS] blds
iz;ksx ls izlqfr lkekU; (Normal) gks tkrh gSA vkSj izlqfr ds fy,
vkWijs'ku (Sigerian) dh vko';drk ugha iM+rh gSA
xk; ds rkts xkscj ls LFkku fo'ks"k ij ysiu ls Vh-ch- rFkk eysfj;k ds
dhVk.kq rRdky ej tkrs gSaA
xk; dk xkscj gekjh Ropk ds nkn] ,fDtek vkSj ?kko dks lcls tYnh
Bhd djrk gSA

28

xk; ds oSKkfud ykHk
ns'kh xk; ds nw/k ds oSKkfud ykHk

xk; ds xkscj vkSj xksew= dh efgek

1- ns'kh xk; ds nw/k esa dSfY'k;e izpqj ek=k esa gksrk gS] ;g gfM~M;ksa dk
fodkl djrk gS vkSj lkFk gh dSalj dks jksdus esa Hkh ykHknk;d gSA
2- ns'kh xk; ds nw/k esa 8 izfr'kr izksVhu] 8 izfr'kr dkcksZgkbZMªsV] 0-7
izfr'kr [kfut o foVkfeu ,] ch-lh-Mh o bZ izpqj ek=k esa gksrs gSa] tks
cPpksa o xHkZorh efgykvksa ds fy, vfr vko';d gSA
3- ns'kh xk; ds nw/k esa dSjkslhV uked rRo gksrk gS] tks us= T;ksfr dks c<+krk
gSA
4- ns'kh xk; dk nw/k vklkuh ls ip tkrk gS vkSj VkWfud ds :i esa efLr"d
dh izR;sd ul] ukM+h rd igq¡pdj Lej.k 'kfDr c<+krk gSA
5- ns'kh xk; ds nw/k esa cgqr ls ,sls xq.k gSa] tks euq"; dks LQwfrZoku]
cqf)eku ,oa fujksxh cukrs gSaA
6- ns'kh xk; dk nw/k gh B2 Js.kh dk gksrk gS tks ekuo ds fy, Js"B gSA
7- ns'kh xk; ds nw/k ds dSyksjh 65 izfr'kr izksfVu 3-3 izfr'kr] olk 4-1
izfr'kr gksrh gS] tks fd eka ds nw/k ls yxHkx led{k gS A

ns'kh xk; ds ?kh ds oSKkfud ykHk
1- ns'kh xk; ds ?kh ân; jksfx;ksa ds fy, Hkh ykHknk;d gS o eksVkik de
djrk gSA
2- ns'kh xk; dk 10 xzke ?kh dk nhid tykus ls okrkoj.k 'kq) gksrk gSA
3- ns'kh xk; dk ?kh vklkuh ls ip tkrk gS rFkk ekuo 'kjhj esa
(Lubrication) dk dk;Z djrk gSA
4- ns'kh xk; dk ?kh cPpksa] xHkZorh efgykvksa o ;qokvksa ds fy, vko';d o
ykHknk;d gSaA
5- ns'kh xk; ds ?kh esa (Butyric) ,flM gksrk gS] tks dSalj vkSj ok;jy tSls
jksxksa dh jksdFkke djrk gSA
6- ns'kh xk; dk ?kh lw{e d.k dk gksrk gS] tks efLr"d dh izR;sd ul ukM+h
rd igqapdj Lej.k 'kfDr c<+krk gSA
7- ns'kh xk; dk ?kh f=nks"k ¼dQ] okr] fiÙk½ uk'kd gSA

29

xk; ds xkscj esa y{ehth dk vkSj xksew= esa xaXkkth dk fuokl ekuk
x;k gSA blfy;s xk;ds xkscj&xksew= Hkh cM+s ifo= gSA xkscj ls fyis gq,
?kjksa esa Iysx] gStk vkfn Hk;adj chekfj;k¡ ugh gksrhA blds flok; ;q}ds
le; xkscj ls fyis gq, edkuksa ij ce dk mruk vlj ugha gksrk] ftruk
lhesaV vkfn ls cus gq, edkuksa ij gksrk gSA
xkscj esa tgj [khapus dh fo'ks"k 'kfDr gksrh gSA dk'kh esa dksbZ vkneh
lkai ds dkVus ls ej x;kA yksx mldh nkg&fdz;k djus ds fy;s mldks
xaXkkth ds fdukjs ys x;sA ogka ,d lk/kq jgrk FkkA mlus iwNk fd bl
vkneh dks D;k gqvk yksxksa us dgk fd ;g lkai dkVus ls ejk gSa lk/kq us
dgk fd ;g ejk ugha gS] rqe yksx xk; dk xkscj ys vkvks xkscj yk;k x;k
A lk/kq us tehu ij xkscj Mkydj ml ijml vkneh dks fyVk fn;k vkSj
mldh ukfldk dks NksM+dj iqjs 'kjhj ij xkscj Fkksi fn;kA vka[ks ehpdj]
mu ij diM+k j[kdj mlds mij Hkh xkscj j[k fn;kA vk/ks ?kaVs ds ckn
nwljh ckj ml ij xkscj Fkksi fn;kA dqN ?kaVks esa ml vkneh ds 'okl
pyus yxs vkSj og th mBkA
vxj fdlh vax esa fcPNw dkV tk; rks tgka rd fo"k Pk<+k gqvk gS] ogka
rd xkscj yxk fn;k tk; rks fo"k mrj tkrk gSA geus lquk gS fd 'kjhj esa
dksbZ Hkh jksx gks] tehu esa xgjk xM~Mk [kksndj mlesa jksxh dks [kM+k dj
n]s vkSj mlds xys rd og xM~Mk xkscj ls Hkj nsA yxHkx vk/ks ?kVs rd
vFkok mruh nsj rd og xM~Ms esa [kM+k jgsA tc rd jksx 'kkUr u gks
tk;] rc rd izfrfnu ;g iz;ksx djrk jgsA
vktdy xkscj ls xSl iSnk dh tkrh gSa] ml xSl ls fctyh Hkh
iSnk dh tkrh gS] ftldks dbZ txg dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA xSl fudyus
ds ckn xkscj dh rsth de gks tkrh gSA vkSj og [ksrksa es nsus fy;s cf<+;k
[kkn gks tkrh gSa laf[k;k] fHkykok vkfn cMs+&cM+s tgjksa dh 'kqf)Hkh xksew=
ls gh gksrh gSaA lksuk]pkanh vkfn /kkrq,sa Hkh xksew= ls 'kq)dh tkrh gSA HkLe
cukrs le; mu /kkrqvks dks rikdj rsy esa] xk; dh NkN esa vkSj xksew= esa
cq>kdj 'kq) fd;k tkrk gSA
NksVh cNM+h dk xksew= izfrfnu rksyk nks rksyk ihus ls isV ds
jksx nwj gksrs gSA ;d`r &ihM+k esa Hkh xksew= dk lsou cM+k ykHknk;d gksrk
gSA ,d lar dks nekjksx FkkA mUgksusa NksVh cNM+h dk xksew= izkr% [kkyh
isV ,d rksyk izfrfnu ysuk 'kq: fd;k rks mudk jksx cgqr de gks x;kA
Nkrh esa] dysts esa nnZ gksrk gks rks ,d crZu esa xksew= ysdj mldks xje
30

djsA ml crZu ij ,d yksgs dh Nyuh j[kdj ml ij diM+k ;k iqjkuh
:bZ j[k ns og diM+k ;k :bZ xje gks tk; rks mlls Nkrh ij lsd djrs
jgsaA blls nnZ nwj gks tkrk gSA xksew= ls Luku djus ls 'kjhj dh [kqtyh
feVrh gSA
bl izdkj xkscj vkSj xksew= ls vusd jksx nwj gksrs gSA

xksew= vdZ esa ekStwn rRo o jlk;u
ukbZVªkstu] lYQj] veksfu;k] dkWij] vk;ju] ;qfj;k] ;wfjd] ,flM]
iksVk'k] esxuht] dkjO;wfyd ,flM] QkLQsV] lksfM;e] iksVsf'k;e]
dSfY'k;e] lkYV] foVkfeu ,]ch]lh]Mh]bZ] ysDVksl] ,utkbZel] okVj]
gkbZ¶;wfjd ,flM] fØ;ksfVfuu] gkbZMªksDlkbZd A
1- ;g jDr izokg dks o 'kkjhfjd rkiØe dks fu;af=r djrk gSA
2- ;g ân; esa lwtu o tyu feVkrk gSA
3- ;g dCt dks nwj djrk gS o ik;fj;k jksx esa ykHkdkjh gSA

xksew= vdZ esa ekStwn rRo o jlk;u ds ykHk %&
1- ;g jDr o fo"k dh fod`fr dks gVkrk gS] cM+h vkar esa xfr dks
'kfDr nsrk gS] 'kjhj esa okr fir o dQ nks"k dks fLFkj j[kus esa lg;ksx
djrk gSA
2- ;g vfuf'pr o vuko';d olk dks fufeZr gksus ls jksdrk gS] yky jDr
dksf'kdkvksa ,oa gheksXyksfcu ds mRiknu esa lUrqyu j[krk gSA
3- ;g fo"kk.kquk'kh o ew=o/kZd gksus ls fo"k ¼VksfDlu½ dks u"V djrk gS]
ew= ekxZ ls iFkjh dks gVkus esa lgk;d gS] jDr'kqf) djrk gSA
4- ;g rstkc foghu] oa'kkuqxr xfB;k jksx ls eqDr djrk gSA
vkyL; o ekalisf'k;ksa dh detksjh dks gVkrk gS] dhVk.kq uk'kd]
dhVk.kq dh o`f) jksdrk gS] ¼xsUxjhu½ ekal lM+ko ls j{kk djrk gSA
5- ;g jDr'kqf) drkZ vfLFk esa 'kfDr iznkrk ¼dhVk.kquk'kd½ jDr esa
rstkch vo;oksa dks de djrk gSA
6- ;g thou esa 'kfDr o mRlkgo)Zu esa lfØ;rk ykrk gS o ekufld
:X.krk o I;kl ls cpkrk gSA vfLFk esa iqu% 'kfDr iznku dj thou esa
meax o`f) djrs gq, iqujksRiknd 'kfDr iznku djrk gSA
7- ;g jksx izfrjks/kkRed 'kfDr o)Zd] ân; dks 'kfDr o larks"k iznku
djrk gSA
31

xkslsok ,oa xksj{kk ds ykHk
xk; dh j{kk ls euq";] nsork] Hkwr&izsr] ;{k&jk{kl] Ik'kq&i{kh] o`{k
?kkl vkfn lcdh j{kk gksrh gSA i`Foh ij dksbZ Hkh ,slk LFkkoj&taxe
izk.kh ugha gS ! tks xk; ls iqf"V u ikrk gksA xk; vFkZ] /keZ] dke vkSj eks{k
dks fl) djus okyh] yksd&ijyksd esa lgk;rk djus okyh vkSj ujdksa ls
m)kj djus okyh gSA
xksj{kk ds fy;s cfynku djusokyksa dh dFkkvksa ls bfrgkl] iqjk.k Hkjs
iM+s gSA cM+s Hkkjh nq%[k dh ckr gS fd vkt gekjs ns'k esa iSlksa ds yksHk ls
izfrfnu gtkjks dh la[;k esa xk;ksa dh gR;k dh tk jgh gS vxj blh rjg
xksgR;k gksrh jgh rks ,d le; xksoa'k lekIr gks tk;xkA tc xk;sa ugha
jgsxha rc ns'k dh D;k n'kk gksxh] fdruh vkQrsa vk;saxh&bldk vankt
ugha yxk;k tk ldrk gSA tc xk;sa [kRe gks tk;sxh vkSj tehu ls rsy
fudyuk can gks tk;xk rc [ksrh dSls gksxh ? [ksrh u gksus ls vUu rFkk
oL= dSls feysxk ?
yksxks dks 'kjhj&fuokZg ds fy;s vUu] ty vkSj oL= feyuk Hkh
eqf'dy gks tk;xkA jktLFkku ds xkaoksa esa eSus ns[kk gS fd igys ogka cSyksa
ds }kjk tehu ls ikuh fudkyk tkrk FkkA fQj ogka fctyh vkus ls
fctyh ls ikuh fudyus yxk vksj cSyksa dks yksxsk us fcØh dj fn;kA vc
vxj fctyh can gks tk;! rks ikuh Hkh can gks tkrk gS vkSj yksx nq%[k ikrs
gSA ;g izR;{k ns[kh gqbZ ckr gSA
tSls Hkxoku~ dh lsok djus ls f=yksdh dh lsok gksrh gS] ,sls gh
fu"dke Hkko ls xk; dh lsok djus dh fo'oek= dh lsok gksrh gS] D;ksfd
xk; fo'o dh ekrk gSA xk; dh lsok ls yksfdd vkSj ijyksfdd nksuks
rjg ds ykHk gksrs gSA xk; dh lsok ls vFkZ] /keZ] dke vkSj eks{k ;s pkjksa
iq:"kkFkZ fl) gksrs gSA j?kqoa'k Hkh xk; dh lsok ls gh pyk FkkA

yksxksa esa xksj{kk dh Hkkouk de D;ksa gks jgh gS
xk; ds dysts] ekal [kwu vkfn ls cgqr lh vaxzsth nokbZ;kW
curh gSA mu nokbZ;ksa dk lsou djus ls xk; ds ekal [kwu vkfn dk va'k
yksxksa ds isV esa pyk x;k gS] ftlls mudh cqf)efyu gks x;h gSA
yksx iki ls iSlk dekrs gS vkSj mUgh iSlksa dk vUu [kkrs gS]
fQj mudh cqf) 'kq) dSls gksxh] vkSj cqf)'kq) gq, fcuk lPph] fgrdj
ckr vPNh dSls yxsxhA
32

LokFkZ cqf) vf/kd gksus ls euq"; dh cqf)Hkz"V gks tkrh gS] cqf)
rkelh gks tkrh gS] fQj mldks vPNh ckrsa Hkh foijhr fn[kus yxrh gSA
vktdy euq";ksa esa LokFkZ&Hkkouk cgqr T;knk c<+ x;h gS] ftlls muesa
xksj{kk dh Hkkouk de gks jgh gSA

tks xk;ksa vkSj cSyksa dks csprs gS] mudks ;g gR;k yxrh gSA vr%
viuh iwjh 'kfDr yxkdj gj gkyr esa xk;ksa dh j{kk djuk] mudks
dRy[kkuksa esa tkus ls jksduk rFkk mudk ikyu djuk mudh o`f) djuk
gekjk ije drZO; gSA

xksj{kk ds mik; ,ao lk/ku

xk; ds ekal] peM+s vkfn ds O;kikj esa cgqr iSlk
v/kEkZ /keZfefr ;k eU;rs relko`rkA
lokZFkkZfUoijhrkaJ cqf)% lk ikFkZ rkelhA

dRy[kkus tkrs gq;s xkso'ka dh j{kk gsrq iqfyl o xks lsod dks
tkudkjh nsosaA
?kk;y xksoa'k dks cpkus ds fy, xk; ,Ecqysal dks Qksu dj Ik'kq
fpfdRlky; igqpk;saA
IykfLVd dh Fksyh esa Mkyh xbZ Hkkstu lkexzh] Qy o lfCt;ksa ds
fNyds] FkSyh lfgr [kkus ls xksoa'k ejrk gS] vr% IykfLVd dh
FkSfy;ksa dk iz;ksx u djsa] Hkkstu lkezxh vyx ls dkxt ij j[k dj
nsosa A
Hkkstu dk;ZØeksa esa IykfLVd fMLiksty dk iz;ksx u djsaA ;s xkso'ka
,oa Ik;kZoj.k ds fy, [krjukd gSA blds LFkku ij dkxt o feÍh ds
fMLiksty dk iz;ksx djsaA
vius ?kj] QSDVªh] nqdku ,oa dk;kZy; ij xks&xqYyd j[ksaA
izfrfnu 1 ?k.Vk xksoa'k dh lsokFkZ ,oa mUgs cpkus ds iz;kl o izpkj
&izlkj esa yxkosA
mre fdLe ds uUnh ls Hkkjrh; uLy ds xksoa'k dk loa/kZu djkosaA

^reksxq.k ls f?kjh gqbZ tks cqf) v/keZ dks /keZ vkSj lEiw.kZ phtksa dks mYVk
gh ekurh gS] og rkelh gSA iSLkk vkrk gqvk fn[krk gSA euq"; yksHk ds
dkj.k iSlksa dh rjQ rks ns[krk gS] ij xksoa'k u"V gks jgk gS] ifj.kke esa
gekjh D;k n'kk gksxh] fdrus Hk;adj ujdksa esa tkuk iM+sxk fdruh ;kruk
Hkksxuh iM+sxh&bl rjQ og ns[krk gh ugha rkRi;Z gS fd rkRdkfyd ykHk
dks ns[kus ls euq"; Hkfo"; dk fopkj ugha dj ldrk] D;ksfda yksHk ds
dkj.k mldh fopkj djus dh 'kfDr dqf.Br gks tkrh gS] nc tkrh gSA
yksHk ds dkj.k og viuk okLrfod fgr lksp gh ugha ldrkA

xksj{kk ds fy;s D;k djuk pkfg;s
xks&j{kkij dqN lVhd fopkj
eSa uezrk ds lkFk fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa ij vius fopkj izdV
djus dk lkgl djrk gwW A bu fOk"k;ksa esa esjk futh fo'ks"k vuqHko ugh A
fe=ksa ds vuqjks/k rFkk drZO; dh izsj.kk ls gh viuh le> esa tks ckr
mfpr tSlh yxh og fy[kh tk jgh gSA vk'kk gS fd ikBdx.k fopkj
djsaxsA vkSj vuqfpr fopkjksa ds fy;s lko/kku djus dh d`ik Hkh djsxsA

,d&,d xk; ?kj esa t:j t:j ikysaA
HkSal dh txg xk; ikyksA
u;s vPNh uLy ds uUnh cukvks vkSj lkaM dk gh nku djksA
xks nku dh txg igys pkjs nkus dk nku djksA
xkspj Hkwfe vf/kd ls vf/kd NqMokvks] [kjhndj xkoks dks d`".kkiZ.k
dj nksA ;g cM+s iq.; dk dk;Z gSA
xk; ds peMs dh dksbZ oLrq mi;ksx u djus dh izfrKk dj yks
u;s&u;s <ax dk pkjk ckaVuk vkjEHk djksA
nkc?kkl cukvks] pkjk dqVkbZ rFkkpkjk dkVus ds fy;s ;U=ksa ls dke
yksA
xk;ksa dh [kwc lsok djksA mUgsa jkst ekfyl djks /kksvks ugykvks vkSj
chp&chp esa Mqcdh yxokdj ugykrs jgks A

xk;ksa dh j{kk ds fy, mudksa vius ?kjksa esa j[kuk pkfg;s vkSj
mudk ikyu djuk pkfg;sA xk; ds nw/k ?kh dk lsou djuk pkfg;s] HkSal
vkfn dk ugha ! xk;ksa dh j{kk ds mís'; ls gh xkS'kkyk,sa cukuh pkfg;s]
nw/k ds mís'; ls ugha ? ftruh xkspj Hkwfe gS] mudh j{kk djuh pkfg;s
rFkk ljdkj ls vkSj xkspj&Hkwfe NqMkbZ tkuh pkfg;sA ljdkj dh
xksgR;k&uhfrdk dM+k fojks/k djuk pkfg;s vkSj oksV mudks gh nsuk
pkfg;s tks iwjs ns'k esa iw.kZ:i ls xksgR;k can djus dk opu nsaA
33

34

vki iqfyl gSa rks dkuwu dh mYya?kuk dj xk; cSyksa dk cwpM+[kkuks esa
ys tkus okyks dks idfM+;sA
;fn vki odhy gSa rks i'kq&O;kikfj;ksa ds paxqy ls xk;&cSyks dks
NqM+kus okys yksxks dks mRlkfgr cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fu%'kqYd eqdnek
yhft;sA
vki U;k;k/kh'k gS rks lafo/kku }kjk lqjf{kr xk; cSyksa ij vR;kpkj
djus okyks dks nf.Mr dhft;sA
vki Ik'kq&O;kikjh gSa rks ns'k dh vikj lEifr u"V djus okys xkS
O;kikj dks cUn dj nhft;sA
;fn vki ys[kd gSa rks xk;&cSyksa ds vkfFkZd lkaLd`frd vkSj
oSKkfud i{k dks mtkxj djus okyh jpuk dhft;sA
vki dlkbZ gSa rks xk;&cSyksa ij Nqjh pykdj jk"Vª ?kkr u dhft;sA
vki i=dkj gSa rks xk;&cSyks ls lcaf/kr lekpkjksa dks izeq[krk
nhft;sA
;fn vki laosnu'khy gSa rks viuk e;kZfnr vkReHkko ihfM+rksa rd
igqapkus ds fy, xkS&lsok dhft;sA
;fn vki fpard gSa rks yksxksa ds fpr&pfj= dks izHkkfor dhft;s
ftlls os LokFkZo'k Ik'kq gR;k u djsaA
;fn vki dfo gSa&rks jk"Vª dfo eSfFkyh 'kj.k xqIr dh Hkkafr
xkS&ekrk dh iqdkj dks Loj nhft;sA
;fn vki fo|kFkhZ gSa rks xk; dk nq/k gh fi;saA vki le; le; ij
xks'kkyk esa viuk le; nsaA

xk; vkSj mlds ifjokj dh tUei=h vkSj mudh mUufr dk fglkc
j[kksA
xk; ds nw/k ?kh dh iSnkbZ'k dks ns[kdj mldh vuqikr ls pkjk nkuk
nks A
xkscj dks tykuk NksM+ nks mlds cnys esa ydM+h iSnk djks vkSj mls
tykvksaA
xkscj&xksew= dwM+s dpjs vkSj ?kkl pkjs dh cph jn~nh ls oSKkfud
<ax ij [kkn cukvksA
fiatjkiksyksa ds fofo/k vaxks dk fodkl djds mUgs vkn'kZ xks&lnu
;k xksyksd cuk yksA
xksijh{k.k vkSj fujh{k.k ds fy;s la?k dk;e djksa A
lgdkjh i)fr ls nqX/k O;olk; vkSj mldh j{kk dk dk;Z djksA
nqX/kky; dh lgdkfjrk vkSj cqf)erk ds lkFk oSKkfud <ax ls
O;oLFkk djksA
iwath dh lqO;oLFkk djksA
xk;ks dks jksxxzLr er gksus nksA
lQkbZ fpfdRlk rFkk vU; mik;ksa ls mUgs lnk fujksx j[kksA
cSyks ds izfr Hkkj <ksus vkSj gy tksrus esa tqYe u gks bldk iwjk&iwjk
[;ky j[kksA
cSyks ds LFkku ij Vªdks dks vkSj VªSDVjks dks LFkku er nks A
Hkxoku dh d`ik 'kfDrij fo'okl j[kdj foKku foosd vkSj J)k ds
lkFk xksoa'k dh mUUkfr ds bu dk;ksZ dks 'kq: djksA budks pykrs jgks
vkSj leqTtoy lQyrk izkIr djksA

xkS&j{kk ds fy, viuk&viuk drZO; fuHkk;s
;fn vki Hkkjrh; gSa rks lef>;s fd xÅ gekjh ekrk gS] xÅ nw/k
LokLF; vkSj lq[k dk nkrk gS A
;fn vki O;olk;h gSa rks vFkZ&O;oLFkk ds vk/kkj&xk; cSyksa dks
cpkus gsrq /ku nhft;sA
vki ljdkjh@vljdkjh deZpkjh gS rks lkFk dke djus okyks dks
xk; cSyksa dk egRo le>kbZ;sA
vki fopkjd gSa rks viuk cqf)cy vkSj rst c<kus gsrq xkS&nw/k
ihft;sA
vki xkS&izseh gSa rks gR;k ds fy;s tkus ls jksdh xbZ xÅvksa dks
lEHkkfy;sA
35

iapxO; dh efgek
xk; ds nw/k dh efgek
xk; dk nw/k ftruk lkfRod gksrk gS] mruk lkfRod nw/k fdlh
dk Hkh ugh gksrkA gekjs ns'k dh xk;sa lkSE; vkSj lkfRod gksrh gS]
blhfy;s mudk nw/k Hkh lkfRod gksrk ] ftldks ihus ls cqf)rh{.k gksrh gS
vkSj LoHkko lkSE;] 'kkUr gksrk gSA fons'kh xk;ksa dk nw/k rks T;knk gksrk gS]
ij muds nw/k esa mruh lkfRodrk ugha gksrh rFkk muesa xqLlk Hkh T;knk
gksrk gSA vr% mudk nw/k ihus ls euq"; dk LoHkko Hkh dwzj gksrk gSA
fons'kh xk;ksa ds nw/k esa ?kh de gksrk gS vkSj [kkrh Hkh T;knk gSA
36

HkSal ds nw/k esa ?kh T;knk gksus ls og 'kjhj dks eksVk rks djrk gS]
ij og nw/k lkfRod ugha gksrkA xkM+h pykus okys tkurs gh gS fd xkM+h
dk gkuZ lqurs gh xk; lM+d ds fdukjs gks tkrh gSA tc fd HkSal lM+d esa
gh [kM+h jgrh gSA blfy;s HkSal ds nw/k ls cqf)LFkwy gksrh gSA lSfudksa ds
?kksM+ks dks xk; dk nw/k fiyk;k tkrk gSA] ftlls os ?kksM+s cgqr rst gksrs gSa]
,d ckj lSfudks us ijh{kk ds fy;s dqN ?kksM+ksa dks HkSl dk nw/k fiyk;k]
ftlls ?kksM+s [kwc eksVs gks x;sa ijarq tc unh ikj djus dk dke iM+k] rc
os ?kksM+s ikuh es cSB x;sA HkSal ikuh esa cSBk djrh gS] blfy;s ogh LoHkko
?kksM+ksa esa Hkh vk x;kA
ÅaVuh dk nw/k Hkh fudyrk gS] ij ml nw/k dk ngh] eD[ku
gksrk gh ughaA mldk nw/k rkelh gksusls nqxZfr esa ys tkusokyk gksrk gSA
Le`fr;ksa esa ÅaV] dqrs] x/ks vkfn dks vLi`'; crk;k x;k gSa] cdjh dk nw/k
uhjksx djus okyk ,oa ipus esa gydk gksrk gS] ij og xk; ds nw/k dh rjg
cqf)o/kZd vkSj lkfRod ckr le>us ds fy, cy nsus okyk ugha gksrk A
xk; ds nw/k ls fudyk ?kh ^ve`r* dgykrk gSA LoxZ dh vIljk
moZ'kh jktk iq:jok ds ikl x;h rks mlus ve`r dh txg xk; dk ?kh
ihuk gh Lohdkj fd;k&
^?k`ra es ohj Hk{;a L;kr~*

i`Foh ij dqN ve`r gS rks xm?k`r
u;k ?kh&Hkkstu] riZ.k] ifjJe] cyghurk] ikaMq] deyk rFkk us= jksxksa esa
ve`r tSlk A iqjkuk ?kh&f=nks"k uk'kd] ewPNkZ] dq"B] fo"k] mUekn] fexhZ
,oa eksfr;kfcan nwj djus esa l{keA
;K esa xkS?k`r ds lkFk pkoy dh vkgqrh nsus ls bZFkhyhu vkDlkbM]
izksihyhu vkDlkbM vkSj QkjeSYMhgkbM xSlsa mRiUu gksrh gSA xkS?k`r ls
;K djus ls vkWDlhtu curh gSA
?kh uO; ds :i esa iz;ksx djsa rks efLr"d ds lHkh jksx feV tkrs gSaA tSls
ljnnZ] ekbZxzsu] vfunzk] Lej.k'kfDr de gksuk] lnhZ&tqdke vkfn dQ
ds lHkh 40 jksx feV tkrs gSaA
xkS?k`r us=ksa ds fy, fgrdkjh] vfXuiznhid] f=nks"k uk'kd] cyo/kZd]
vk;qo/kZd] jlk;u] lqxa/k;qDr] e/kqj] 'khry] lqanj vkSj mÙke gksrk gSA
xkS?k`r ân; jksfx;ksa ds fy, mÙke vkS"k/k A xks?k`r ds lsou ls dkWysLVªky
ugha c<+rk D;ksafd blesa gkbZ MsaflVh fy;ksizksVhu gksrk gSA
37

vr% blds lsou ls ân; ij dksbZ cqjk izHkko ugha iM+rk gS cfYd ân;
cfy"B gksrk gSA :lh oSKkfud f'kjksfo; ds 'kks/k ds vuqlkj xk; ds ?kh esa
euq"; 'kjhj esa igqaps jsfM;ks/kehZ fdj.kksa dk izHkko u"V djus dh vlhe
'kfDr gSA

xkSew= /kuoarjh
xkSew= ls dSalj] ân;jksx] jDrpki] nek] e/kqesg] peZjksx] fdMuh] eksVkik]
L=hjksx vkfn tSls vlk/; jksxksa dks Hkh Bhd djus esa iw.kZ lQyrk feyh
gSA xkSew= 'kjhj esa O;kIr fo"k dks u"V djrk gSA
'kjhj esa lQsn jDr dksf'kdkvksa dh o`f) dj jksx izfrjks/kd {kerk c<+krk
gSA vesfjdk }kjk fy, x, xkSew= isVsaV dk uke QkekZL;qfVdy
dEiksft'ku dUVsfuax dkm ;wfju] fMLVhysV ,aM ,u ,afVck;ksfVd gS
ftldk uacj 6410059 gSA
vesfjdh oSKkfud ØkdksM gsfeYVu us vk/kqfud foKku dks ;g fl) dj
fn;k gS fd xksew= ds mi;ksx ls ân; jksx dks Bhd fd;k tk ldrk gSA
MkW- lhelZ us xkSew= ls jDr cgus okyh ukfM+;ksa dks uqdlkunk;d
dhVk.kqvksa ls eqDr djus dk nkok fd;k gSA xksew= vdZ ls dSalj dk
mipkj djus dk rjhdk vesfjdk us isVsaV djok fy;k gSA oSKkfudksa dk
ekuuk gS fd xksew= ls gkbZMªkstu lcls 'kq) :i esa izkIr gks ldrh gS A
tks fd Hkfo"; dk baZ/ku gS vkSj fcuk iznw"k.k ds tyrk gSA blh ds lkFk os
;g Hkh Lohdkj djrs gSa fd vxj fo'o dks dksbZ ;g gkbZMªkstu ns ldrk
gS rks og Hkkjr jk"Vª gh gSA
xkSew= esa rklz gksrk gS tks ekuo 'kjhj esa Lo.kZ ds :i esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk
gSA
xkSew= dhVuk'kd gksus ls okrkoj.k dks 'kq) djrk gS vkSj tehu dh
moZjk 'kfDr dks c<+krk gSA
xkSew= f=nks"k uk'kd gS] fdarq fiÙk fuekZ.k djrk gSA ysfdu dkyh xk; dk
ew= fiÙk uk'kd gksrk gSA
jkst losjs ty fi,sa] Hkkstu ds lax NkN A
nw/k fi,sa fQj jkr dks] jksx u vkos ikl AA

38

nf/k & foKku
'kjhj ds 95 izfr'kr jksx vkek'k; ds fodkj] jksx&dhVk.kq] ok;q vkSj
v.kql`f"V ls mRiUu gksrs gSaA bu lc foifÙk;ksa dks Vkyus dh 'kfDr
nw/k&ngh dh v.kql`f"V esa gSA nw/k&ngh esa mÙke izdkj ds iks"k.k inkFkZ
¼v.kq½ vf/kd ek=k esa gSA iSarhl cw¡n nw/k ¼1 D;wfcd lsaVhehVj½ esa 5 ls 10
yk[k vkSj NkN esa 5 ls 10 djksM+ iks"kd v.kq jgrs gSaA budk mi;ksx
jksxk.kqvksa dks ekj Hkxkuk gSA
lHkh nw/k ngh esa ,d gh izdkj ds mÙke v.kq ugha gksrs gSaA blfy;s tks Hkh
nw/k&ngh feys mls ihuk Bhd ugha gSA nw/k&ngh] muds crZuksa dh rFkk
okrkoj.k vkfn dh lQkbZ dk fo'ks"k /;ku j[kuk vko';d gSA
nw/k&ngh&NkN esa tks v.kqfötd ewY; gksrs og fo'ks"k :ils ^ySfDVd
,flM cSDVhfj;k* rFkk ^cslfyl cYxsfjd~l tkfr ds gSaA muesa
thouj{kd rRo gksrk gSA nwljs izdkj ds v.kqthoksa ds izos'k ls ngh [kV~Vk
gks tkrk gS] xa/k] jax] Lokn esa fodkj mRiUu gks tkrk gSA fcuk rik;k nw/k
?kaVksa rd iM+k jgk rks mlesa gok] /kwy] izdk'k vkfn ds dkj.k gkfudkjd
ifjorZu gksrk gSA rktk ;k /kkjks".k nw/k esa v.kqfötksa dh cgqyrk jgrh gS
vr% og ngh tekus ds fy;s vPNk gksrk gSA nw/k dks ean vk¡p ij mcky
yksA fQj BaMk djds ¼xquxquk½ mlesa fiNys fnu dk lkQ ngh tkeu ds
:i esa 1 izfr'kr ¼tkM+s ds fnu esa 2 izfr'kr½ Mkydj mls vPNh rjg
fgykdj NksM+ nsaA dk¡p ds crZu esa ngh vPNk ugha terkA feV~Vh ds
crZu vkn'kZ gksrs gSa fdUrq mudh lQkbZ Bhd ls ugha gks ikrhA tks ngh
,d leku gks] ikuh u NwVk gks] Qqndh u iM+h gks] Lokn esa [kV~Vk ehBk gks
og ngh ykHk djrk gSA ngh esa T;knk ty Mkyus ij NkN dk iks"k.k ewY;
?kVsxkA gok] izdk'k] /kwi vkSj /kwa,s ls mlds vfuok;Z lw{e rRo ?kVsaxsA
ngh ls Jh[k.M] dslhu] cqduh] NkN curs gSa] fdUrq vkU=jksxksa dks ykHk
igqapkus okys xq.k dsoy ngh vkSj NkN esa gh jgrs gSaA
Hkkjrh; laLd`fr esa xkS dks ifo= ekuk x;k gS rFkk xks dks ekrk dk
ntkZ fn;k x;k gSA 'kkL=ksa esa xks rFkk xkS ls izkIr inkFkksZa dk fo'ks"k egRo
gSA viuh ek¡ dk nw/k u feyk gks rks uUgsa f'k'kq dks xk; dk nw/k nsrs gSaA bl
nw/k esa lRoxq.k gksrk gS rFkk og nh?kkZ;q iznku djrk gSA blesa pjch
(Fat) de gksrh gSA ;g nw/k gesa papy vkSj m|ksxh cukrk gSA xk; dk
nw/k fiÙknks"k dks de djrk gSA
39

Hkkjrh; laLd`fr esa HkSal dks ifo= ugha ekuk x;k gS rFkk 'kkL=fof/k
esa mldk dksbZ egRo ugha gSaA viuh ek¡ dk nw/k u feyrk gks rks uUgsa f'k'kq
dks xk; dk nw/k nsrs gSa] HkSal dk ughaA bl nw/k esa reksxq.k gksrk gS rFkk og
nh?kkZ;q iznku ugha djrkA blesa pchZ (Fat) T;knk gksrh gSA ;g nw/k gesa
vkylh vkSj vuq|ksxh cukrk gSA HkSal dk nw/k dQnks"k dks c<+krk gSA

dkuwu tkfu, vkSj xkS oa'k cpkb, !
lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 48 esa xkS oa'k dk o/k jksdus gsrq dsUnz o jkT; ljdkjksa
dks funsZ'k A

dsUnzh; dkuwu
Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk (I.P.C.) dh /kkjk&429 esa i'kq o/k djuk] mls fo"k nsuk]
viax vFkok vuqi;ksxh cukuk naMuh; vijk/k gSA naM&nks o"kZ rd dk
dkjkokl rFkk vFkZnaM A
Hkkjrh; naM izfØ;k lafgrk (Cr.P.C.) dh /kkjk&154 esa laKs; vijk/k dh
izFke lwpuk ¼jiV½ ntZ djuk iqfyl vf/kdkjh ds fy, vfuok;Z A

jkT;ksa ds xkS j{kk dkuwu
vle i'kq ifj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1950 /kkjk 5&14 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q vFkok
{kfr] vaxHkax vFkok vlk/; jksx ds dkj.k vuqi;ksxh gq, i'kq vFkkZr
xk;] lkaM] cSy] cfN;k] HkSal vkSj HkSalk dk o/k rnFkZ fcuk izek.k i= izkIr
gksus ij vuqekU;A izko/kku ds mYya?ku ij N% ekg rd dk dkjkokl vFkok
1]000 :- rd dk vFkZ n.M A
vka/kz izns'k xkso/k izfr"ks/k rFkk i'kq laj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1977&vle
vf/kfu;e ds leku izko/kku A
fcgkj i'kq laj{k.k ,oa lq/kkj vf/kfu;e] 1955 ¼la'kksf/kr&1982½ /kkjk 3]
44¼1½&lHkh vk;q dh xk;ksa] cfN;k&cNM+ksa ds o/k ij izfrca/k] 15 o"kZ ls
de vk;q ds cSyksa o lkaMksa ds o/k ij izfrca/k A xksoa'k dks fcgkj jkT; ls ckgj
ys tkus ij Hkh izfr"ks/k A izko/kkuksa ds mYya?ku ds fy, N% ekg rd dk
dkjkokl rFkk 1000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
NÙkhlx<+ d`f"kd i'kq laj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 2004 /kkjk 4]5]6]8]10 o 11
fdlh Hkh vk;q dh xk;] cNM+k] cfN;k] ikaMk] ifM;k vkSj lkaM ;k cSy o
vU; d`f"kd i'kqvksa ds o/k dk izfr"ks/k A d`f"kd i'kqvksa dk Ø;&foØ;
ftyk dysDVj ls vuqKk i= ysdj gh A izko/kkuksa ds mYya?ku ij 7 o"kZ rd
dk dkjkokl rFkk 50]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M] fdUrq dkjkokl 3 o"kZ ls de
ugha vkSj vFkZn.M] 25]000 :- ls de ugha A
40

fnYyh d`f"kd i'kq laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1994 /kkjk 4]5&xksoa'k
o/k ij iw.kZ izfrcU/k] o/k ds fy, xksoa'k ds fu;kZr o ifjogu ij izfrca/k A
izko/kku ds mYya?ku ij ikap o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl rFkk 10]000 :- rd dk
vFkZn.M A /kkjk 8]9&fnYyh esa o/k fd, x, xksoa'k dk ekal dCts esa j[kus ij
izfrca/kA izko/kkuksa ds mYya?ku ij ,d o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl vFkok 2]000
:- rd dk vFkZn.M A
xksok] neu rFkk nho xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e 1978 /kkjk 3]
5&xk;] cfN;k o cNM+s ds o/k ij izfrcU/k] xkS ekal rFkk xkS ekal mRikn ds
foØ; ij izfrcU/k A mYya?ku vFkok mYya?ku ds iz;kl ds fy, 2 o"kZ rd
dk dkjkokl o 1]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M ;k nksuksa A
xqtjkr i'kq ifjj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1961] eqEcbZ i'kq laj{k.k
vf/kfu;e] 1994 la'kks/ku lfgr foLrkfjr /kkjk 5 o 8&xksoa'k o/k ij iq.kZ
izfrcU/k A xksoa'k o/k ij 6 ekg rd dk dkjkokl rFkk 1]000 :- rd dk
vFkZn.M A
iatkc xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 1955 /kkjk 3]4¼,½ o
5&xksoa'k o/k djus] fcuk ijfeV jkT; ds ckgj ys tkus] xkS ekal mRikn dh
fcØh djus@djokus ij nks o"kZ rd dk dBksj dkjkokl vFkok 1]000 :- rd
dk vFkZn.M rFkk nksuksa A
fgekpy izns'k&iatkc xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 1955 iw.kZ:is.k
ykxw gS A
gfj;k.kk xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e 1980 ¼iatkc xkso/k izfr"ks/k
vf/kfu;e fuEu of.kZr la'kks/kuksa ds lkFk ykxw ½ /kkjk 4 ¼[k½&xksoa'k dks ,sls
jkT; esa ys tkus gsrq ijfeV ugha fn;k tk;sxk A ftlesa xksoa'k o/k ij iw.kZr% izfrca/k
gks A /kkjk 8 ds izko/kkuksa ds mYya?ku ds fy, 5 o"kZ rd dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk
5]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
tEew d'ehj&j.kohj naM lafgrk] 1932 laor 1989 fo-/kkjk
298,&xksoa'k o/k djus ij 10 o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl rFkk vFkZn.M A /kkjk 298
ch&xkS ekal dCts esa j[kus ij ,d o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl rFkk 5]000 :- rd dk
vFkZn.M A
>kj[kaM xksoa'kh; i'kq gR;k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 2005&/kkjk 3]4]5]6
o 7 xksoa'kh; i'kq dh gR;k] gR;k ds fy;s ifjogu fcuk ijfeV fu;kZr xksekal
dCts esa j[kus vFkok foØ; djus ij de ls de ,d o"kZ rFkk vf/kdre nl o"kZ
rd dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk 10]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
dukZVd xkso/k izfr"ks/k rFkk i'kq laj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1964 /kkjk
4&xk;] cfN;k] cNM+s ds o/k dk izfr"ks/k A /kkjk 5&12 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q ;k pksV]
vaxHkax ;k vU; dkj.k ls vuqi;ksxh gq, lkaM] cSy] HkSal vFkok HkSals dk o/k ds

41

fy, l{ke vf/kdkjh }kjk izek.k i= ysdj vuqeU;A o/k ds fy, ifjogu rFkk
Ø;&foØ; dk izfr"ks/kA mYya?ku ds fy, 6 ekl rd dk dkjkokl ;k 1000 :- rd
dk vFkZn.M A
e/; izns'k xksoa'k o/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 2004 /kkjk 9 naM&/kkjk 4]5
o 6&xksoa'k o/k] xksekal dCts esa j[kus] o/k ds fy, ifjogu dk izfr"ks/kA mYya?ku
ds fy;s 3 o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl ;k :i;s 10]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
egkjk"Vª i'kq ifjj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1977 ¼1992 rd la'kksf/kr½ /kkjk 4]6 rFkk
9&xk; o cfN;k] cNM+s dk o/k dk izfr"ks/k] 14 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q ds vFkok
vuqi;ksxh gq, lkaM ;k cSy] ;fn mls tkucw>dj vuqi;ksxh u cuk;k x;k gks] dk
o/k l{ke vf/kdkjh ls rnFkZ izek.k i= ysdj vuqeU;A mYya?ku ij nks o"kZ rd dk
dBksj dkjkokl ;k :- 1]000 rd dk vFkZn.M A
mM+hlk xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 1960 /kkjk 3 ,] 3 ch rFkk 7
¼1½&xk;] cfN;k] cNM+s ds o/k dk izfr"ks/k] 14 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q ds vFkok
vuqi;ksxh gq, lkaM ;k cSy] ;fn mls tkucw>dj vuqi;ksxh u cuk;k x;k gks] dk
o/k l{ke vf/kdkjh ls rnFkZ izek.k i= ysdj vuqeU;A mYya?ku ij nks o"kZ rd dk
dBksj dkjkokl ;k # 1]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
ikafMpsjh xkso/k izfr"ks/k vf/kfu;e] 1968 /kkjk 3&xkso/k dk izfr"ks/k]
cSy ds o/k fu"ks/k dk izko/kku] naM o vFkZn.M mM+hlk ds leku A
jktLFkku xksoa'kh; i'kq dk o/k dk izfr"ks/k vkSj vLFkk;h izoztu ;k
fu;kZr dk fofu;eu vf/kfu;e] 1995 /kkjk 3]4]5]6]8 ¼1½] o ¼2½&xksoa'k dk
izfr"ks/k] xkS ekal rFkk xkS ekal mRikn j[kus] foØ; djus dk o/k ds fy;s xksoa'k ds
ifjogu djus rFkk fcuk ijfeV xksoa'k dks jkT; ds ckgj ys tkus dk izfr"ks/k A /kkjk
3&ds mYya?ku ij de ls de ,d o"kZ vU;Fkk nl o"kZ rd dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk
10]000 :i;s rd dk vFkZn.M A /kkjk 4 ;k 5 ds mYya?ku ds fy;s de ls de 6 ekl
vU;Fkk 6 o"kZ rd dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk 5]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
rfeyukMq i'kq laj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 1958 /kkjk 4 ¼1½ o /kkjk 8&10
lky ls vf/kd vk;q ds vFkok vuqi;ksxh gq, xk;] cSy] lkaM] HkSal] HkSals dk o/k
l{ke vf/kdkjh ls rnFkZ izek.k i= ysdj vuqeU; A mYya?ku ij rhu o"kZ rd dk
dkjkokl ;k 1]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
mRrjizns'k xkso/k fuokj.k vf/kfu;e] 1955 la'kksf/kr&2002 /kkjk 3]
5] 5, o 8&xksoa'k o/k dk iw.kZ izfr"ks/k A xksekal dh fcØh vFkok ifjogu ij
izfr"ks/k A fcuk ijfeV xksoa'k dks jkT; ls ckgj ys tkus ij izfr"ks/k mYya?ku ij 7
o"kZ rd dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk 10]000 :- rd dk vFkZn.M A
mÙkjk[k.M xksoa'k laj{k.k vf/kfu;e] 2007 /kkjk 3&xk; rFkk xksoa'k
ds o/k dk izfr"ks/k A /kkjk 5&xkS ekal mRikn j[kus] cspus o ifjgou djus ij
izfr"ks/k A /kkjk 6&fcuk ijfeV xksoa'k dks jkT; ds ckgj ys tkus ij izfr"ks/k A /kkjk 3
;k 5&mYya?ku ij U;wure 3 o"kZ ,oa vf/kdre 10 o"kZ dk dBksj dkjkokl rFkk
U;wure 5000 :- rFkk vf/kdre 10]000 :- vFkZn.MA /kkjk 6&mYya?ku ds fy,

42

fdlh Hkh Hkkafr dk rhu o"kZ rd dk dkjkokl rFkk U;wure 2000 :- rFkk
vf/kdre 2500 :- vFkZn.M A
if'pe caxky i'kqo/k fu;a=.k vf/kfu;e % 1950 /kkjk 4 ¼1½] 4 ¼2½]
4 ¼3½] 7&14 o"kZ ls Åij dh vk;q rFkk vuqi;ksxh gksus ij xk;] cSy] lkaM] HkSal]
HkSalksa dk o/k l{ke vf/kdkjh ls rnFkZ izek.k i= ysdj vuqeU; A izko/kku ds
mYya?ku ds fy, 6 ekl rd dk dkjkokl ;k 1000 :- dk vFkZn.M ;k nksuksa

fuHkZ; & eU=
jkr gks ;k fnu( vPNk le; gks ;k cqjk] fdruk gh cM+k Hk; D;ksa u mifLFkr gqvk gks]
;fn euq"; fuEu 'yksdksa dk euu djrk gS] rks lc izdkj ds Hk; ls eqDr gks tkrk gS A
^^xkoks ekeqifr"BUr gse'kax;% i;kseqp% A
lqjH;%lkSjHks¸;'p lfjr% lkxja ;Fkk AA
xkoS i';kE;ga fuR;a xo% i';Urq eka lnk A
xkoks vLekda rklk;rks xkoLrrks o;e AA**
vFkkZr %& tSls ufn;ka leqnz ds ikl tkrh gS] mlh izdkj Lo.kZ tM+s lhaxksaokyh]
nw/korh lqjHkh ,oa lqjHkh; xk;sa esjs fudV vkosaA eSa lnk xkSvksa dk n'kZu d:¡ vkSj
xkSekrk eq>ij d`ik n`f"V djsaA xk;sa esjh gS vkSj eSa xk;ksa dk gw¡] tgk¡] xk;sa jgs] ogk¡ eSa
Hkh jgw¡ A ¼egkHkkjr] vuq-78@23&24

xks xzkl nsus dk Qy
tks euq"; xks&xzkl dk ozr ¼iz.k½ ysdj izfrfnu Hkkstu ls iwoZ xkSvksa dks xks xzkl
nsrk gS rFkk 'kkUr vkSj fuyksZHk gksdj lnk lR;oknh jgrk gS] og ,d lgó
xk;&nku ds iq.; dk Hkkxh gksrk gS A

bZ'oj izkfIr dk ekxZ
Hkkjrh; laLd`fr dk ewyk/kkj xks&ekrk gh gS vkSj xkS&lsok ls /keZ] vFkZ] dke vkSj
eks{k bu pkjksa iq#"kkFkkZsa dh izkfIr gksrh gSA
izHkq&izkfIr ds mRre ekxksZa esa xkSekrk dh lsok Hkh ,d ekxZ gSA

izk.k &nkuh dh ln~xfr
^^xksd`rs L=hd`rs pSo xq#foizd`rs·fiok A
âU;Urs rq jktsUnz 'kdqysda oztfUrrs A**
vFkkZr~&xk; dh j{kk] vcyk L=h dh j{kk] xq# dh j{kk vkSj czkã.k dh j{kk ds
fy;s tks izk.k ns nsrs gSa&os euq"; LoxZ ds vf/kdkjh cu tkrs gSa A ¼egkHkkjr vkjo
oS".ko½

43

Jk) dk Qy
ftl O;fDr ds ikl Jk) djus ds fy, dqN Hkh u gks] og ;fn firjksa dk /;ku djds
J)k iwoZd xÅ ekrk dks ?kkl f[kyk ns] rks mls Jk) dk Qy fey tkrk gSA &
^^r`.kkfu ok xos n|r~A**

xks lsok ls firj & izlUurk
tks euq"; izfrfnu tkS vkfn }kjk xk; dh vpZuk djrk gS mlds firj vkSj nsork
lnk r`Ir jgrs gSaA tks lnkpkjh O;fDr fu;eiwoZd izfrfnu xk;ksa dks f[kykrk gS] og
bl lPps /keZ ds ekxZ ls lkjs euksjFkksa dks izkIr djrk gSA tks O;fDr xk;ksa ds 'kjhj ls
xUnxh] ePNj] eD[kh vkfn dks gVk nsrk gS] og Lo;a ,oa mlds iwoZt d`rkFkZ gksrs gSa
rFkk vkufUnr gksrs gSa fd ;g HkkX;'kkyh lUrku gekjk m)kj dj nsxh A** blfy;s
xk;ksa dks dHkh ghu n`f"V ls u ns[ksa] ekjuk rks cgqr nwj dh ckr gS A

nw/k c<+kus ds <ax
mfpr lsok vkSj O;ogkj ikdj xk; lnk 'kfDrHkj nw/k nsrh gSA xk; nw/k nsuk de
dj ns rks dkj.k dh [kkst djuh pkfg;s A tks dkj.k feys mldk vkS"kf/k vkfn ls
mfpr mipkj djsaA nw/k c<+kus ds vizkd`frd vkS"kf/k;ksa&Vhdksa vkfn ls xk; ds
Hkhrjh vaxksa ij ncko iM+rk gS] mldk LokLF; Hkh fcxM+ tkrk gSA
1- lcls cf<+;k rks ;g gS fd xk; ml lk¡M ls c/kkZ;h tk;] ftldh eka cgqr
nw/k nsus okyh gks ,oa ftldh dqy ijEijk (Pedigree) Kkr gks A
2- ;fn xk; us ?kcjkus] Mjus ;k LFkku ifjorZu ds dkj.k nw/k de dj fn;k gks rks
mls iqpdkjdj] :fpdj lkuh f[kykdj 'kkjhfjd ,oa ekufld
'kkfUr dh vuqHkwfr djkus ls og igys tSlk nw/k nsus yxsxh A
3- xk; dks nwgrs le; laxhr lqukus ls og vf/kd nq/k nsus yxrh gSA bl
ckr dks vk/kqfud fo}ku Hkh ekurs gSa Hkxoku d`".k dh eueksfguh
eqjyh ds fy;s xk;ksa esa fdruk vkd"kZ.k jgrk FkkA bl ckr dks lHkh
tkurs gSaA ;wjksi dh lEiUu xkS'kkykvksa esa laxhr dk izca/k jgrk gSA
4- xsgwa ;k tkS dk iryk nfy;k jka/kdj xqM+ feykdj _rq vuqlkj BaMk ;k
xje f[kykus ls nw/k c<+ tkrk gS vkSj xk; dks 'kkjhfjd 'kfDr nsrk gSA
5- nwc ?kkl] lsš] Xokj] ljlksa] eVj vkSj 'kyte vkfn dk gjk pkjk le;kuqlkj
xk;ksa dks nsaA usfi;j vkSj gyhe?kkl Hkh cf<+;k uhju¼pkjk½ gSA yluZ vkSj
cjlhe tkM+ksa esa cgqr ykHkdj gSA
6- xktj dks mckydj vkSj xqM+ feykdj f[kykus ls nw/k [kwc c<+rk gSA
7- Tokj dh gjh pqjh iwjh ek=k esa ;fn nh tk;s rks vU; pkjs&nkus dh vko';drk
gh ugha A
8- elwj ;k vjgj dh nky dks mckydj xqM+ feykdj 10&15 fnu nsus ls nw/k c<+
tkrk gSA

44

45

3860
4320
360
40

22-5

38600/- 115800/- 712000/-

3 yk[k
12
gtkj
:2360
2700
90
25

13-5

23600/- 70,000/-

148000/740
DohaVy
1080
36

1 ,d xk;
cPps
lfgr
2 1 xk;
cPps
lfgr$
,dtksM+h
cSy
3 ikap i'kq

10

6
,dM+

7400/- 22,200/-

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

okf"kZd
vk;
'kgj ds
fjVsy
fcØh ls
¼:-½
vkSlr
okf"kZd
tksr esa vfrfjDr
vk;
mi;ksx [kkn ls
'kgj
ds ckn okf"kZd
ds Fkksd
vfrfjDr vk;
fcØh ls
miyC/krk ¼:-½
¼:-½
¼DohaVy½
Hkwfe
nSfud okf"kZd mRikfnr ftlds
fy;s
[kkn
xkscj
xkscj
¼fdyks½ ¼DohaVy½ ¼DohaVy½ i;kZIr gS
¼,dM+½
xksoa'k
Ø- la[;k
la- ¼xk;]
cSy
cNM+s½

Vhds dk fodYi %& 6 'kfDr dh ,xszl dSDVl ¼gksE;ksiSfFkd½ dh 10&15
cwan crk'ks esa Mkydj nsrs jgus ls fQj dHkh Vhds dh vko';drk gh ugha jgrh A
xk; Lo;a gh nwgrs le; nw/k mrkjrh jgsxh A

vFkZ&'kkL= dh n`f"V esa xkscj fdruk ykHkdkjh ¼dEiksLV ds :i esa½

4- xsgwa ;k tkS dk iryk nfy;k jka/kdj xqM+ feykdj _rq vuqlkj BaMk ;k
xje f[kykus ls nw/k c<+ tkrk gS vkSj xk; dks 'kkjhfjd 'kfDr nsrk gSA
5- nwc ?kkl] lsš] Xokj] ljlksa] eVj vkSj 'kyte vkfn dk gjk pkjk le;kuqlkj
xk;ksa dks nsaA usfi;j vkSj gyhe?kkl Hkh cf<+;k uhju¼pkjk½ gSA yluZ vkSj
cjlhe tkM+ksa esa cgqr ykHkdj gSA
6- xktj dks mckydj vkSj xqM+ feykdj f[kykus ls nw/k [kwc c<+rk gSA
7- Tokj dh gjh pqjh iwjh ek=k esa ;fn nh tk;s rks vU; pkjs&nkus dh vko';drk
gh ugha A
8- elwj ;k vjgj dh nky dks mckydj xqM+ feykdj 10&15 fnu nsus ls nw/k c<+
tkrk gSA
9- xfeZ;ksa esa nw/k nqgus ls iwoZ xk; dks ugyk nsaA blls 'khryrk ikdj xk; iwjk nw/k
nsrh gSA
10-;fn vipu ds dkj.k nw/k de gks x;k gks rks iihrs ds ,d dPps Qy rFkk nks
iRrksa dh pVuh ihldj xqM+ ;k 'khjk vkSj xsgwa dk vuNuk vkVk feykdj yqxnh
¼isM+h½ ds :i esa izfrfnu ,d ckj N% lkr fnu rd yxkrkj f[kykosaA blls nw/k
dh ek=k esa o`f) gksxh A
vkSDlhVksflu ¼nw/k ds Vhds½ ls xk; dks cka> u cukosa %&
pkSik;ksa ds Fkuksa esa vcls gh ugha ekalis'kh gksrh gS ftlls os bPNkuqlkj nw/k p<+k
ysrh gSA tks cNM+s dh eerk ;k Vhds ls mrj vkrk gSA ;g Vhdk xHkkZ'k; vkSj tsj
izfØ;k dks nqcZy dj nsrk gSA xkHku dsfMEc vkSj xHkZ dks u"V Hkz"V dj nsrk gS]
/khjs&/khjs cka> gks tkrh gSA nw/k ihus okys ij Hkh bl Vhds dk dqizHkko gksrk gS]
mldks Øks/k&vkos'k vkus yxrk gS] xHkZorh L=h ds fy, vfr gkfudkjd gSA

mijksDr lax.kuk esa ;g ekuk x;k gS fd&
,d ,dM+ Hkwfe ds fy;s 100 DohaVy [kkn i;kZIr gSA ;fn o"kZ esa nks ckj Mkyh
tk; rks nks lkS DohaVy izfr ,dM+ mi;ksx gksxh A
46

Hkkjr ds fdlku dh vkSlr tksr 1-7 ,dM+ ekurs gq, mlds fy;s o"kZ esa 340 DohaVy
[kkn dk Fkksd fcØh nj xkao dh fLFkfr esa nl :- izfr DohaVy ¼50&60 :- izfr
cSyxkM+h½ yxk;k x;k gSA ;gh jsV 'kgj esa Fkksd fcØh esa 30@&izfr DohaVy curk gSA
;fn 'kgj esa fdpu xkMZfuax ds fy;s NksVs iSdsVksa esa cspk tk; rks 200&250@&izfr
DohaVy rd gks ldrk gSA
[kkn cukus esa ?kj ds lnL;ksa dk ifjJe iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA usMsi fof/k ls [kkn
cukus esa dsoy Je gh yxrk gSA
mijksDr [kkn dh ek=k usMsi fof/k ls izkIr gksrh gSA blesa lkS fdyks xkscj ls rhu
gtkj fdyks [kkn rS;kj gksrh gSA ¼1%30½
xksnqX/k dks fo'o Hkj esa Lohd`fr] Hkkjr esa gh mis{kk %&
xk; ds nw/k ds loksZÙke gksus dh ckr lalkj Hkj esa ,der ls Lohdkj dh xbZ gSA mUur
ns'kksa esa dsoy xÅ dks gh ikyk tkrk gS] HkSal rks vÝhdk dks NksM+dj vU;= cgqr gh
de ikbZ tkrh gSA ihus dks gj dksbZ xks nw/k dks gh dke esa ykrk gSA
ogka fpdukbZ dks ugha nw/k dh jklk;fud fo'ks"krk dks ns[kk tkrk gSA mlds nw/k dh
fujksxrk&fo'ks"krkvksa ls tu&tu ifjfpr gSA HkSal ds nw/k dks ogka rsy dh Js.kh esa
xhuk tkrk gSA ;g foMEcuk gh gS mUur dgs tkus okys vejhdk] :l] Ýkal]
MSuekdZ] fLoVtjySaM] vkLVªsfy;k vkfn ns'k tgka xkS ds fy;s eka tSlh Hkkouk ;k
xÅ gR;k ij jksd u gksrs gq, Hkh ihus ds fy;s dsoy xksnw/k gh dke esa ykrs gSaA ijUrq
ge gh ,sls vHkkxs gSa fd t; cksyrs xÅekrk dh vkSj nw/k ekaxrs gSa HkSal dkA blh
vKku vkSj Hkze ds dkj.k gh xksoa'k dh mis{kk rFkk âkl gqvk gS vkSj HkSal ikyu dks
mRlkg feyk gSA
HkSal ds nw/k esa fpdukbZ vf/kd gksus ds dkj.k og Lokfn"V yxrk gS rFkk mlesa ngh]
eB~Bk] iuhj] [kksok vkfn Hkh vf/kd fudyus ds dkj.k ykHknk;h izrhr gksrk gSA
xk; dk nw/k iryk gksrk gSA
blfy;s bldk egRo fxjk fn;k tkrk gS vkSj ysus esa vkukdkuh dh tkrh gSA
xksikyd vkSj nw/k [kjhnnkj nksuksa dh gh n`f"V esa egRo ?kV tkus ds dkj.k xk;ksa dh
la[;k ?kVrh tkrh gSA loZ lk/kkj.k ds euksa ij ;g Hkze xgjkbZ rd te x;k gS fd
HkSal ds nw/k dh rqyuk esa xk; dk nw?k ?kfV;k gS D;ksafd blesa eykbZ de vkrh gSA tc
fd okLrfodrk blls foijhr gS D;ksafd xk; dk nw/k iks"kdrk dh n`f"V ls yxHkx
mruk gh mi;ksxh gksrk gSA ftruk fd eka dk nw/k mlesa os lHkh jlk;u i;kZIr ek=k
esa ik;s tkrs gSaA ftudh euq"; 'kjhj dks vfrvko';drk jgrh gSA xk<+k ;k iryk
gksuk xkS.k ckr gSA fpdukbZ dks ;fn egRo fn;k tk;s rks og lks;kchu] ewaxQyh]
fry] ljlksa vkfn rsyksa ls vkSj Hkh vf/kd vkSj lLrh fey ldrh gSA fpdukbZ dh
vf/kdrk 'kjhj ds fy;s ykHknk;d ugha ] gkfudkjd gksrh gSA mlls eksVkik vkrk gS
vkSj ân; jksx gksrk gSA ikpu esa Hkh dfBukbZ gksrh gSA Hkkstu esa ftruh vf/kd

47

fpdukbZ gksxh og mruh gh nsj ls vkSj dfBukbZ ls ipsxkA bl izdkj HkSal dk nw/k
tgka egaxk iM+rk gS] ogha ykHknk;d Hkh mruk ugha gSA Hkys gh og xk<+k gks ;k
Lokfn"V yxsA euq"; ds fy;s izd`frd :i ls fgrdkjh ;fn dksbZ nw/k gS rks og eka ds
ckn xk; dk gh gSA

xk; ds xkscj dk vkfFkZd ykHk
,d xk; ds xkscj ,oa xksew= ls gesa izfrfnu 5 ,dM+ [ksr ds fy,
i;kZIr [kkn vkSj dhV [knsM+d feyrk gSA
,d xk; ds xkscj ls gesa izfrfnu 0-75 ?kuehVj ck;ksxSl] 500 okWV
ls T;knk fctyh dk mRiknu gksrk gSA

xkscj dk fofHkUu rjg ds mRikn cukus esa mi;ksx
vkS"k/kh; mi;ksx
xkscj xSl cukus esa mi;ksx
fo|qr fuekZ.k esa mi;ksx
d`f"k [kkn fuekZ.k esa mi;ksx
xkscj;qDr fMLVsaij dk fuekZ.k
xkscj ls VkbZYl dk fuekZ.k
xkscj ls bZaV dk fuekZ.k
lkSan;Z izlk/ku cukus esa mi;ksx

48

ve`r opu
xk; esjs vkxs gksa xk; esjs ihNs gks xk; esjs lc vkSj gks] eSa xk;ksa ds
e/;okl d:aA ¼Jh d`".k½
xksj{kk esa gh jk"Vª]/keZ] laLd`fr rFkk lef"V dh j{kk] fufgr gSA ¼i-iw
xks _f"k Lokeh nr'kj.kkuUnth½
xksoa'k dks Hk; ls eqDr dj nsus ij eUkq"; Lo;a Hkh Hk; ls eqDr gks
tkrk gSA xksHkDr euq"; ftl&ftl oLrq dh bPNk djrk gS] og lc
mls izkIr gksrh gSA
¼i-iw Lokeh jkelq[knklth½
xk; dh iwtk ¼;kfu½ ikyu] iks"k.k] djus ls 33 gtkj nsoh&nsorkvksa
dh Lor% iwtk gks tkrh gSA txg&txg HkVdus dh vko';drk ugha
jgrh gSA ¼vkpk;Z Jh gfjukjk;.kth 'kkL=h&js.k ihBk/kh'oj½
xksekrk] xaxk] xk;=h ,oa x.ks'k Hkkjrh; laLd`fr ds vk/kkj LrEHk gSA
¼i-iw- jk?kos'oj Hkkjrh th egkjkt½
xksoa'k tgk¡ cSBdj fuHkZ;rkiwoZd lk¡l ysrk gS] ml LFkku ds
leLr okLrqnks"k lekIr gks tkrs gSA i-iw ukjk;.knkl th egkjkt
¼f=os.kh /kke½
cSy txr~ dk firk o xk; ekrk gSA mudh iwtk djus ls lEiw.kZ
firjksa vkSj nsorkvksa dh iwtk gks tkrh gSA
¼i-iw- rqyNkjke th egkjkt½
ge xk; dks ugh ikyrs vfirq xk; gekjk iks"k.k djrh gSA
¼i-iw Jh th egkjkt½
xks ekrk Ik'kq ;k tkuoj ugha] og rks txr tuuh gSA
¼i-iw jes'k HkkbZ vks>k½
dbZ tUeksa ds iq.; o Hkxoku dh vUkU; d`ik gksus ij gh xks lsok dk
volj izkIr gksrk gSA ¼i-iw eksjkjh ckiw½
ftuds xkscj ls yhius ij nso LFkku] efUnj] Hkou vkSj ?kj Hkh 'kq}gks
tkrs gS] muxk;ksa ls c<+dj vkSj dskbZ izk.kh gks ldrk gS A
¼i-iw- ckck jkenso½
Li'kZ dj ysus ek= ls gh xk;sa euq"; ds leLr ikiksa dks u"V dj nsrh
gSA ¼ i-iw jktsUnz nkl th egkjkt½
rhFkZ LFkkuksa esa tkusa ls] ozr&mioklksa ls] nku djus ls] Jh gfj ds
iwtu ls osnksa ds v/;;u ls] leLr ;Kksa ls] tks iq.; feyrs gS os
lHkh iq.; euq"; dks dsoy xksoa'k dh lsok djrs gh rRdky fey
tkrs gSA ¼i-iw- lk/oh _raHkjk th½
49

gesa xks mRiknksa dk oSKkkfud egRo ds vk/kkj ij budk fuR; iz;ksx
djuk pkfg,A ¼ i-iw- Jh Jhjfo 'kadj½
:X.kkoLFkk esa xksoa'k dks vkS"kf/k iznku djus ls euq"; Lo;a Hkh lHkh
jksxks ls eqDr gks tkrk gSA
¼i-iw- xksoRl jk/kkd`".k th egkjkt½
;fn xksoa'k u"V gksrk gS rks] ns'k dks u"V gksus ls dksbZ ugha jksd
ldrkA ¼ i-iw- egf"kZ n;kuUn½
xksekrk dk peRdkj eSus Lo;a vius thou esa ik;k gSA tc eSus
flj]ryoksa o ukd esa ns'kh xk; ds ?kh dk mi;ksx dj yxHkx [kksbZ
gqbZ us= T;ksfr iqu% izkIr dhA ¼i-iw- xksfoUn nso fxjh th egkjkt½
xk; dk nw/k ve`r gS] bldk ?kh vkS"kf/k gS vkSj bldk ekal chekjh gSA
¼eqgEen gtjr½
,d cSy dh gR;k ,d xk; dh gR;k ds leku gSa ¼;h'kq elhgk½
xksoa'k dh vknjiwoZd lsok fd;s tkus ij euq"; dh lHkh euksdkeuk,sa
iw.kZ gksrh gSA ¼Lokeh foosdkuUn½
nl xk; nku djuk cM+k iq.; gSA exj blls Hkh cM+k iq.; dRy[kkus
esa tkrh gqbZ ,d xk; dks cpkuk gSA ¼eqfu Jh r:.klkxj th½
xkS j{kk dk iz'u LojkT; ls Hkh vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gSA ¼egkRek xka/kh½
eSus dqjku vkSj ckbfcy nksuksa dk v/;;u fd;k gS] mu nksuksa ds
vuqlkj ,d xk; dks ekjuk izR;{k :Ik ls egkiki gSA ?kj&?kj xk;]
xzke xzke xks'kkyk ¼vkpk;Z fouksck Hkkos½
tcls xks oa'k dh gR;k 'kq: gqbZ gS] mlds ckn ls eS Hkkoh ih<+h ds
fy, fpafrr gwa A eq>s ekj nks] ij xk; dks tkus nksA
¼yksdekU; fryd½
xks mRikn lsou ls lHkh 'kkjhfjd] ekufld chekfj;k¡ feV tkrh gS
rFkk vk/;kfRed lk/kuk esa iw.kZr;k lQyrk izkIr gksrh gSA
¼i-iw Jh jke 'kekZ vkpk;Z½
esjs fglkc ls orZeku ifjfLFkfr esa lcls T;knk oSKkfud vkSj
cqf}ekuh dk dk;Z gS] fd xkS gR;k ij izfrca/k yxk;k tk,sA
¼t; izdk'k ukjk;.k½
Hkkjr esa xks&ikyu lukru /keZ gS&¼MkW- jktsUn izlkn½
xksj{kk fcuk ekuo j{kk lEHko ugha ¼Hkxoku egkohj Lokeh½
igyh jksVh xk; dh A ¼xks HkDr dSnkjukFk Lokeh½
50

gekjk ladYi
1 izfrfnu igyh jksVh xk; dks ns] laHko u gks rks xkS'kkyk esa lsok jkf'k
nsoasA
2 vxj dqN ewY; vf/kd nsuk iMs+ rks Hkh xk; ds nw/k] ngh ] NkN vkSj ?kh
dk gh iz;ksx djasA
3 vxj laHko gks rks vius ?kj] QSDVªh] QkWeZ gkml ;k [ksr esa xk; j[ksa
;k fQj fdlh xkS'kkyk esa xk; xksn ysdj] mlds j[k&j[kko dh
ftEesnkjh ysaA
4 xksoa'k j{kkFkZ jk"VªO;kih tu vkUnksyu dks lQy cukus esa ru]eu]
/ku ls lg;ksx nsosaA
5 xksew= vdZ loksZre LokLF;o/kZd VkWfud gS] xksew= vdZ rFkk iapxO;
ls fufeZr vkS"kf/k;ksa o inkFkksZ dk mi;ksx dj LokLF; ykHk mBk,saA
6 LoLFk jgus ds fy, xksoa'k ds xkscj&xksew= ls mRikfnr tSfod vukt
Qy o lfCt;ksa dk gh mi;ksx djsA
7 ?kk;y] chekj] vlgk; xksoa'k dh lsok ân; ls djs] ;g lcls cM+k
iq.; dk dk;Z gSA
8 xkS ekrk ,d thrk tkxrk efUnj gSa] ftlesa leLr nso fo|eku jgrs
gSaA
9 vius] ifjtuksa o cPpksa ds tUefnu] oSokfgd o"kZxkaB] fookg mRlo
lHkh ekaxfyd voljksa ,oa ifjtuksa ds nsoyksd xeu ij xks lsok jkf'k
vo'; xks'kkyk esa HksaV djsaA
10 'kkL=ksa ds vuqlkj viuh dekbZ o O;olk; esa ykHk dk n'kkal ¼10
izfr'kr½ Hkxoku dk Hkh fgLLkk j[ksa ftls xks&fgr o vU; iq.; dk;ksZ
esa yxkosaA

51

Hkkjrh; xksekrk o fons'kh uLy
¼tlhZ] gksfyLVu] jsMhu] vesfjdu½ dh xk;ksa esa varj
vUrj

Hkkjrh; xksekrk

fons'kh uLy

lhax

cM+s

NksVs

ddwn ¼ihB½

mHkjk gqvk

lh/kk

xydacy

cM+h

NksVh

jaHkkuk

Li"V o e/kqj

vLi"V

fn[kus esa

lqanj o lqgkouh

lk/kkj.k

cSy

[ksrh o vU;

vuqi;ksxh

dk;ksZa esa mi;ksxh
nw/k
xkscj o ew=

ve`r rqY;

ikSf"Vd ugha

o ch&2 Js.kh

o ch&1 Js.kh

vkS"k/kh; xq.k;qDr vkS"k/kh; xq.k
ugha

52

xks&o/k can gksuk gh pkfg;sA
xk; dks dlkbZ ds gkFk ls cpkus dh cMh vko';drk gSA
dguk u gksxk dh xkso/k egku ikik vkSj Hkkjr ds fy;s rks cM+k Hkkjh
dyad gSa blesa iz/kku dkj.k gS peMs] gM~Mh] lw[ksekal vkSj jDr rFkk
vkar&rkr vkfn dk O;kikj] [kkl djds peM+s dh csgn ekax ! xksekal dh
vko';drk vR;f/kd c< x;h Fkh mlds fy;s nw/k nsusokyh xkfHkUk xk;ks
vkSj cNfM+;ksa dk Hkh vck/k vc/k gqvk tks djksM+ks ls Åij igWqp x;k FkkA
,sls fo'ks"kKksa dk vuqeku gSa bl vc xkso/k dksa can djokus ds fy;s
yksder dks tkxzr djs izcy vkUnksyu djus dh vko';drk gSA ;g
vkanksyu dsoy fganqvksa dks gh ugh j[kuk pkfg;sA eqlyeku bZlkbZ rFkk
vU; erkoyEch lTtuksa dks Hkh lân;rk rFkk izse ls bl ckr dk izpkj
djuk pkfg;s fd xkS ns'k ds izR;ssd euq"; ds fy, vko';d gS vkSj xkS ds
u jgus ls fgUnw&eqlyeku lHkh dks leku:Ik ls d"V gksxk] ftlls os Hkh
bl vkanksyu esa 'kkfey gks rkfd ljdkj dks dkuwu cukdj xkso/k jksdus
ds fy;s ck/; dj nsA
fgaUnqvks esa bl ckr dk [kwc izpkj gks tkuk pkfg;s fd ,d Hkh
xk; dlkbZ ds gkFk tk; ugh xk; u feysxh rks dlkbZ [kkus vius vki
gh can gks tk;sxs Tkc rd fganw xk; csprs fcdkrs gS rHkh rd dlkbZ [kkus
pyrs gSA
ftu Ik'kq esyksa esa dlkb;ksa dks xk;sa feyrh gSA mu esyksa dks ;k
muesa xks&fodz; dks dkuwu ps"Vk djds can djkuk pkfg;sA yksder
tkxzr~ djus] turk dks izHkkoiw.kZ jhfr ls le>kus rFkk ljdkj dks
ckj&ckj lq>kus ,slk gksuk dksbZ vk'p;Z dh ckr ugh gSA
;g iz;Ru Hkh gksuk pkfg;s fd esyksa esa fcdus ds fy;s xk;sa vkosa
gh ughA ljdkj us fiNys fnuks Hkkjr j{kk dkuwu ds vuqlkj mi;ksxh
xk;ks ds ekjus ij dqN izfrca/k yxk;s Fks ijrq os vLFkk;h FksA Hkjiwj ps"Vk
djds dkuwu esa u;s fcy ykdj mUgs mfpr vkSj vko';d la'kks/ku ds
lkFk LFkk;h dkuwu cuok ysuk pkfg;s vkSj izR;sd izkUr esa mu ij
Bhd&Bhd vey gksrk gS ;k ugh bldh vkSj xks&lsodksa rFkk xksjf{k.kh
laLFkkvksa ,oa E;qfuflifyVh ds lnL;ksa dks fo'ks"k:Ik ls utj j[kuh
pkfg;saA [ksn dh ckr gSfd izfrca/kksa ds jgrs gq, Hkh izfrcU/k ds fo:)
xk;ks dh gR;k gksrh gSA blesa gekjh vogsyuk vkSj xks gR;kjks dk LokFkZ
gh iz/kku dkj.k gSA
53

tc rd LFkk;h dkuwu u cus] rc rd Hkkjr ds lHkh izkUrksa esa
orZeku dkuwu ds ykxw djkus dh vkSj ml ij iwjk&iwjk vey gks bldh
lkoZtfud lfefr;ksa xks j{kklaLFkkvksa rFkk ftEesokj iq:"kksa dks O;oLFkk
djuh pkfg;sA
¼d½ tgka fdlh dlkbZ[kkus esa dkuwu ds fo:)Ik'kq ekjs tkrs gksa
ogka ds blls lacaf/kr egdesa ds LFkkuh; vf/kdkfj;ksa dks lwpuk nsuh
pkfg;s vkSj lekpkj i=ksa esa ?kVuk Bhd lR;:i esa t:j izdkf'kr djkuh
pkfg;sA
¼[k½ lHkk djds bldk 'kkfUriw.kZ fojks/k djuk pkfg;s vkSj
ljdkj ds Åaps vf/kdkfj;ksa dk Hkh bldh rjQ /;ku vkdf"kZr djuk
pkfg;sA
tc rd xkso/k iw.kZ:i ls dkuwu ds }kjk can u dj fn;k tk;]
rc rd dsoy mi;ksxh Ik'kqo/k u djus ds dkuwu ls dksbZ ykHk ugh gksrk
Ik'kq dVrs gh jgsrs gSA dlkbZ[kkus esa o/k ds fy;s Lohd`fr nsusokys vQljksa
vkSj ogk¡ ds pijkfl;ksa dk vo'; ykHk gksrk gSA larks"k dk fo"k; gS fd
bl le; ns'kHkj esa xkso/k lEiw.kZ:Ik ls can djkus ds fy;s vkUnksyu gks
jgs gS txg&txg nso vkjk/kuk vuq"Bkukfn gks jgs gSA mPp vf/kdkfj;ks
us Hkh xkso/k dkuwuh rkSj ij can djus dh lgefr nh gSA blls vk'kk gS
xkso/kcUnh dk dkuwu cu tkuk pkfg;s A ijarq xkso/k can gks Hkh x;k vkSj
vkfFkZd n`f"V ls xkS dk egRo ugh c<k rks nwj ys tkdj xk;ks dks NksM+ nsxs
vkSj os Hkw[k ds ekjs rM+i&rM+i dj ejsxh blfy;s gesa pkfg;s fd xk;ks
dh uLy lq/kkj dj mudk nw/k c<kos xks &?k`r dk gh O;ogkj djs peM+s
dk O;ogkj fcYdqy R;kx ns A ouLifr ?kh dk cfg"dkj djsA xks'kkyk esa
fcuk dke ds viax Ik'kq j[ks tk; mUgs f[kyk;k fiyk;k tk;A mUkls
larku mRiu u djk;h tk; vkSj mldss ey ew= peM+s bR;kfn ls
O;ofLFkr vkenuh dh tk; rFkk xkao&xkao xkspj Hkwfe NqM+ok;h tk;A
,slk gksus ij gh xksgR;k can gksxh ftldk can gksuk ije vko';d gSA
,slk dgus okys iq:"kksa dks tkuuk pkfg;s fd yksx 'kksdhu esa rFkk iru ds
xgjs xM~Mks esa fxjkus okys inkFkZ mi;ksx esa flusek esa fdruk [kpZ dj nsrs
gSA fQj ;fn va/ks] dkus] ywys] yxM+s] vSj cw<s ekrk firk rFkk viax cPPkks
ds tSls cw<s xk; cSy rFkk cNM+s cNfM+;ksa ds ihNs dqN iSls [kpZ gks tkrs
rks blesa bruk nq[k D;ks gksuk pkfg;sA ;g rks oLrqr& /ku dk lnO;; gSA
fQj [kpZ gh fdruk gksrk gSA
54

vr,o /kekZnk rFkk nku ij pyus okyh ,slh xks'kkykvks dks thon;k ds
ifo= mns'; ls vius xksj{k.k dk;Z ls dHkh gVuk ugh pkfg;sA mUgs ?kkVk
lgdj gh viuk lsok dk;Z pykuk pkfg;s A gka os ,d lw= esa ca/kdj
laxfBr gks tk;A rks cM+k vPNk gSA vo'; gh blesa rks leFkZ laLFkk, gS
mUgsa viuk Ms;jh foHkkx vyx [kksyuk vSj mlesa Ik;kZIr iwath yxkdj
xkslao/kZu dk;Z Hkh djuk pkfg;sA Ms;jh ds <ax dh vyx xkS'kkyk,sa cus
muds fy;s rks dksbZ ckr ubZ ugh gSA ij ;g ugh gksuk pkfg;s fd dsoy
Ms;jh ds <ax dh xks'kkykvks dh vksj gh gekjh iwjh n`f"V vkSj iwjh 'kfDr
yx tk; vkSj cw<h viax xks&ekrkvksa dks fujk/kkj NksM+us dk iki can gksus
yxsA xks&lnu cukus dh orZeku ;kstuk Hkh rks okLro esa viax vlgk;
Ik'kqvks ds ikyus ds fy;s gh rks gSA gesa if'pe ds xq.k ysuk pkfg;s ij
mUkds xq.kks dh pdkpkSa/k esa iM+dj vius iSr`d xq.kks dk foPNsn ugh dj
Mkyuk pkfg;sA vktdy fiatjkiksy ds izfr cqf)eku rFkk usrk ekus tkus
okys iq:"kksa dh dqN ,slh nqHkkZouk gksus yxh gS vkSj izdkjUrj ls os viax
xk;ks dks Hkkj:Ik le>dj mudks gVk ys tkuk vPNk ekuus yxs gSa
blhfy;s bruk fy[kk x;k gSA ,slk izLrko vk;k gSA fd dkedkt esa
v'kDr csdkj euq";ks dh ftEesokjh ikfyZ;keasV dks ys ysuh pkfg;s vFkkZr
mudh larku ij muds ikyu dk Hkkj drbZ ugh jguk pkfg;sA
esjh le> ls fiatjkiksy i)fr dh mlesa muds mns'; ds
vuqdqy vko';d lq/kkj djds j{kk djuh pkfg;s budh j{kk vkSj
lqO;oLFkk gks x;h rks ;s cus cuk;s xks &lnu gSA lkFk gh ,slh xks'kkyk,sa
vyx ;k lqfo/kk gks rks buds Lora= foHkkx ds :Ik esa [kksyuh pkfg;sa
ftues gV~Vh&dVh lqanj lqgkouh nq/kk: xk;sa gks vkSj tks mijkUr xk;ksa
ds lokZxhu mUufr esa lgk;d gksA

ouLifr ?kh
tek;s gq, rsSy ¼ouLifr ?kh½ ds fojks/k esa ns'k esa cM+k vkUnksyu gqvk gS
vkSj ge yksxks dk Hkh ;g er gS fd blls ns'k dh rFkk xksoa'k dh gkfu gks
jgh gSA ljdkjh fjiksVZ Hkh gS fd ouLifr ¼tek gqvk rsy½ vf/kdka'k
feykoV esa fcdrk tkrk gS vkSj 'kq) ?kh ds :Ik esa fcdrk gS blh dkj.k
mlls iSls vf/kd feyrs gSA iSlk dekus dh bPNk feykoV dks izksRlkgu
nsrh ;k feykoV pkgrh gh gSa blhfy;s rks rsy dks tekdj nkusnkj
cuk;k tkrk vkSj mls xk; vkSj HkSal ds ?kh ds ls jax dk cukus dh dksf'k'k
dh tkrh gSA cl ;gh cqjh ckr gSa nwljk dkj.k xkso/k gSA
55

igys Ik;kZIr xkspj Hkwfe FkhA pkjs&nkus dh dksbZ deh ugh FkhA
[ksrh esa bruk vUu vkSj pkjk gksrk Fkk fd x`gLFk Lo;a [kkdj vius Ik'kqvksa
dks Hkh [kwc f[kyk ldrk FkkA [ksrks esa Ik'kq jgrs Fks] blls mudh [kkn
[ksrks dks LokHkkfod feyrh FkhA gkFk ls dke djus dh vknr Fkh blls
lHkh dqN lLrk iM+rk Fkk ] ij xk; ij dksbzZ Hkh [kpZ ugh FkkA xk; Hkkj
ugh vk'khZokn FkhA uLy xkaoks esa vius vki Bhd djrh FksA xks/ku gh ije
/ku gSA fpfdRlk ds ?kjsyq uqL[ks ;kn Fksa] ftlls xk; chekj ugh jg ikrh
FkhA xk;ks dk vPNs [kk| iks"k.k gksrk FkkA vkSj lsok 'kqJw"kk ls jksx ls fuR;
fueqDr jgrh FkhA larku vPNh gksrh Fkha nw/k cs'kwekj gksrk FkkA blls lkjk
ifjokj nw/k ngh ih [kk ldrk FkkA nw/k ngh ckaVk tkrk FkkA cf<;k NkN
ds fy;s [kqyk njoktk Fkk dksbZ Hkh ys tk;s ;g lc eq¶r esa gksrk FkkA uQs
esa cp tkrk Fkk xkS dk ?kh mls vko';drkuqlkj x`gLFk csprs Fks] ij ck/;
ugh Fks ?kh dh bruh cgqrk;kr Fkh fd ?kh nqgkjksa ls ijkslk tkrk FkkA
pefp;ksa ls ugh A
bl n'kk esa tgka rd esjk [;ky gS fd ;s dkj[kkus can gksus rks
cgqr dfBu gS ns'koklh vkUnksyu djds ljdkj bruk djk ns ;k
dkj[kkus okys /keZ ds fopkj ls ftruk dj ldrs gks Lo;a gh dj ys rks
cgqr vPNk gSA
foVkfeu ds fy;s ;fn eNyh ds rsy tSlh pht nh tkrh gks rks
og dnkfi ugh nh tkuh pkfg;sA feykoV djus okyks dks dM+h ltk gksuh
pkfg;sA bldk uke ?kh u j[kdj tek gqvk rsy j[kuk pkfg;s
esjh rks ns'kokfl;ksa ls ;g izkFkZuk gS fd tc rd LokLF;gkfu]
vifo=rk vkSj fgalk dk rFkk blls gksusokyh xksoa'k dh gkfu dk dqN Hkh
lansg gSa rc rd dksbZ [kkos gh ugh ?kh u feys rks 'kq} rsy [kkuk vPNk gS
?kh ds uke ij fcxkM+ gqvk rsy [kkus esa vkSj ;fn mles foVkfeu ds uke
ij eNyh dk rsy feyk;k gks rks /keZ] vFkZ LokLF; dh gkfu gSA

56

xksoa'k ij funZ;rk,sa ;k vR;kpkj
yksHko'k dlkbZ ds gkFk xk; cspuk] ;g cM+k gh uhp deZ gS vkSj
bles funZ;rk Hkjh gSA
xk;ks ds vax ij vax tksM+dj mUgs vf/kd vaxokyh cukdj yksxks dks
Bxuk vkSj xk;ks dks d"V nsukA
cNM+s &cNfM+;ks dks muds iks"k.k ds yk;d mfpr ek=k esa nw/k u
nsukA
xkfM+;ks es bruk cks> yknuk fd cSy py gh u ldsA fQj mij ls
mudks cqjh rjg ls ekjukA ;g nnZukd utkjk 'kgjks dh cM+h cM+h
lM+dks ij vki fuR; gh ns[k ldrs gSA
cSyksa dks gkadrs le; mUgs cqjh rjg ekjukA fdlh&fdlh izkUr esa rks
bruh funZ;rk gksrh gSa fd jFk ;k xkMh ds cSyksa dks ftl MaMs ls
gkadrs gSA mldh vxyh uksd ij rh[kh /kkjokyh yksg dh uqdhyh
dhy yxh jgrh gSa ftldh pksV ls muds [kwu cgus yxrk gSA
eeZLFky esa pksV yx tkrh gS rks Ik'kq ej Hkh tkras gSaA
rhFkksZ esa i.Ms yksx ikS"k ek?k ds Hk;kud tkM+s esa NksVh&NksVh
xjhc cNfM+;ksa dks aty esa [kM+h j[krs gSa vkSj ;k=h yksxks dks mudh
iwaN idM+kdj dqN iSls ysdj xksnku dk ladYi djk nsrs gS u
;kf=;ks ds ikl xkS gksrh gSA vkSj u xks&nku djokus okys i.Ms iSlks
ds ykyp ls ,slk funZ; dk.M djrs gSa cNM+h ?kaVks rd lnhZ esa
dkairh gqbZ ty esa [kM+h jgrh gSa vcks/k ;k=h oSrj.kh rjus ds /kks[ks esa
bl funZ; dk;Z esa lgk;rk djrs gSA
xk;ksa dks dlkbZ;ksa ds gkFk fcdokus ds fy;s nykyh djukA xk;
cSy cNM+s vkfn dks dlkbZ [kkus igqpkus ds fy;s cgqr ls nyky gksrs
gSa vktdy rks budh la[;k cgqr c<+ x;h gSa blesa eqlyeku gksrs gh
gSA fuEu tkfr ds fgUnw Hkh yksHko'k ,slk ?k`f.kr dke djus esa ugh
fgpdrs A
;s yksx rjg&rjg ls xk;ks dk uk'k djokrs gSA dLVe okyks ls
iqfyl ls rFkk pjokgks ls feydj Ik'kqvksa dh pksjh djokrs gSa cM+s gh
/keZfu"B tehankj ds ?kj Ik'kq tk;sxsa ,slk fo'okl fnykdj rFkk iSlks
dk vf/kd ykyp nsdj ekfyd ls vFkok xkS'kkykvksa ls Ik'kqvksa dks
[kjhn ysrs gSa blds vfrfjDr ;s yksx peM+s ds O;kikfj;ks dks Åaps
nke ij fuf'pr le; ds vanj fuf'pr la[;k esa xkSvksa dk peM+k
nsus dk dkWVsªDV djds muls is'kxh :Ik;s ys ysrs gSA
57

xk; dks HkjisV pkjk&nkuk [kkus dks u nsuk A
gy esa detksj ;k csesy cSyksa dks tksrdj mu ij MaMs pykuk 'kkL=ks
esa rks nks csyks ls gy tksruk gh iki cryk;k x;k gSA fQj ;fn os
detksj ;k csesy gks vkSj mij ls ekjs tkrs gks rc rks ,slk djus
okys izR;{k gh funZ;rk dk Hk;kud iki djrs gSA
dqN O;oLFkk fd;s fcuk cNM+s dks nkxdj vlgk; NksM+ nsuk vksj
,sls Ok`"kksRlxZ ls LoxZ izkfIr dh dkeuk djukA
viuh vkSj ijk;h xk;ksa dks cqjh rjg ls ekjukA ijk;h xk; ds [ksr
ds ikl vkrs gh fdlku vkSj ljdkjh dkWth gkmlks esa ljdkj dh
lqO;oLFkk ls Hkw[kks ejrh gqbZ xk;ks dks ogka ds j{kd ftl funZ;rk ls
ekjrs mls ns[kk ugh tkrkA
fudEeh vkSj detksj xkSdk nku djukA fudEeh xkS
ftldks nku dh tkrh gSA og mls tks dqN iSls feyrs gSa mUgh ij
csp nsrk gSa vkSj fudEeh gksus ds dkj.k og fdlh :Ik esa dlkbZ ds
gkFk esa igqap tkrh gSA dbZ txg rks yksx xks'kkykvksa dks :Ik;s nks
:Ik;s nsdj HkkMs+ ij xkS ys vkrs gSa vkSj nku dk rek'kk iwjk gks tkrk
gSA

lnk ;kn j[ksa
xkse; clrs y{eh&xkscj esa y{eh dk okl gSA
xk; cpsxh&ns'k cpsxkA xk; dVsxh ns'k dVsxkA
Ik'kq vkokjk NksM+uk vijk/k gSA
xÅ dlkbZ dks cspuk egkiki gSA
xksoa'k cpkuk gS] Hkkjr HkO; cukuk gSa A
xÅ ekrk &fo'oekrkA
dkSu gekjk lq[knkrk /kjrh /keZ vkSj xÅ ekrkA
dVrh eS;k djs iqdkj&cUn djks ;g vR;kpkjA
ns'k /keZ dk ukrk gSA xÅ gekjh ekrk gSA
xk; j{kk jk"Vª j{kkA
vc xk; ds jDr dh ,d cwan dk fxjuk Hkh ns'k dk dyad gS A
xk; dks xzkl f[kykus ls x`g Dys'k nwj gksrk gSA
58

Hkxoku ls izkFkZuk
Hkxoku~ ls dkrj izkFkZuk tc tc i`Foh ij ladV vk;k ¼i`Foh
ij ladV vkus dk vFkZ gh gSA xks czkã.k ij ladV vkuk½ rc&rc
_f"k;ksa&nsorkvksa us xks:i/kkfj.kh ;k xks:ik i`Foh ds ihNs&ihNs tkdj
Hkxoku ls d:.k izkFkZuk dh Hkxoku dks iqdkjk vkSj Qyr% mudk ladV
Vyk A Hkxoku vorh.kZ gq, foiz /ksuq lqj lar fgr yhUg euqt
vorkjA vr,o lcls vf/kd vko';d gS Hkxoku~ ds eaxye; fo/kku dh
vorkjA
eaxye; O;oLFkk ds uhps vkuk vius dks Hkxoku ds dY;k.ke; pj.kksa esa
iw.kZr;k lefiZr dj nsukA blesa iz/kku lk/ku gS gn; dh lPPkh vUkU;
d:.k izkFkZuk xks dh j{kk ds fy;s Hkh lcls c<+dj ;gh lk/ku gS ftudk
bles fo'okl gS mudks pkfg;s os J)kiwoZd fuR; Hkxoku ls dkrj izkFkZuk
fd;k djsA ;fn izkFkZuk lR; gksxh vkSj gn; ls gksxh rks ,sls la;ksx vius
vki cusaxs ftls xksj{kk dk ekxZ lqxe gks tk;sxkA

milaagkj
LojkT; izkfIr ls igys ftruh xksgR;k gksrh Fkh] mlls cgqr xquk vf/kd
xksgR;k vkt gksrh gSA peM+s ds fu;kZr esa Hkkjr dk eq[; LFkku gSA Ik'kqvksa
dks funZ;rkiwoZd cM+h rsth ls u"V fd;k tk jgk gSA xk;ksa dk oa'k gh
u"V gks jgk gSA iSlksa ds yksHk ls cM+h ek=k esa xksekal dk fu;kZr fd;k tk
jgk gSA :i;ksa ds yksHk ls cqf) bruh Hkz"V gks x;h gS fd Ik'kqvksa ds fouk'k
dks ekal mRiknu ekuk tk jgk gSA HksM+&cdfj;ksa] eNfy;ksa] eqfxZ;ksa vkfn
dk rks ikyu vkSj lao/kZu fd;k tk jgk gS] ij ftudk xkscj&xksew= Hkh
mi;ksxh gksrk gS] mu xk;ksa dh gR;k dh tk jgh gSA [kqn esa rks vDy
ugha vkSj nwljh dh ekurs ugha ;g n'kk gks jgh gSA
:Ik;ksa ls oLrq,as Js"B gS] oLrqvksa ls Ik'kq Js"B gS] Ik'kqvksa ls euq";
Js"B gS] euq";ksa esa Hkh foosd Js"B gS vkSj foosd ls Hkh lRk~ & RkRo
¼ijekReRkRo ½ Js"B gSA ijUrq vkt lRk~ &rRo dh mis{kk gks jgh gS]
frjLdkj gks jgk gS] vkSj vlr~& oLrq :Ik;ksa dks c+M+k egRo fn;k tk jgk
gSa A :Ik;ksa ds fy;s vewY; xks/ku dks Uk"V fd;k tk jgk gSA xk;ksa ls :Ik;s
iSnk fd;s tk ldrs gSa xkaoks dh ijEijk rks xk;ksa ls pyrh gSA tc xk;sa
ugh jgsxh] rc :Ik;ksa ls D;k gksxkA mYVs ns'k fucZy vkSj ijk/khu gks
tk;sxkA xk;sa Hkh [kRe gks tk;sxh] :Ik;s HkhA :Ik;s rks xk;ksa ds thfor
jgus ls gh iSnk gksaxsA xk;ksa dks ekjdj :Ik;s iSnk djuk cqf)ekuh ugha gSa
59

60