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Gas quality and standards

Mattias Svensson, Swedish Gas Centre


Volvo Seminar: Methane gas as vehicle fuel, Gothenburg 26th of September 2011

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Todays topics
Summary Gas quality Wobbe index measure of the gas industry Overview, current natural gas market (SWE EU Global) Outlook on future market changes (e.g. LNG expansion) affecting specifications Gas quality regulations and standards Overview, international and national standardization EU mandates for CEN standardization changing the stagnant picture of international CNG standards?

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Wobbe index
The gas quality measure for the gas industry Wobbe Index = heating value/(square root of gas specific gravity). Heating value measured as higher (most of the world) or lower heating value (Sweden and some others) Gas specific density = Relative density of gas comprared to air In many countries 5 % variation in Wobbe index is deemed acceptable, the gases are then said to be interchangeable, since they give the same power output.

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Wobbe index
Three different families of gases This presentation: Family 2, gases dominated by methane UNECE regulation use the designations L and H for vehicle certification purposes (L, H, L+H)

MJ/Nm3

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Wobbe index
Examples from Northern Europe

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Wobbe index
The European scene Common Business Practice (CBP) of EASEE-gas EASEE = The European Association for the Streamlining of Energy Exchange, i.e. across boarders Note that allowed variation is higher than 5% (ca 7,5%)

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Wobbe index
EASEE-gas interchangeability box

Source: www.igu.org WGC 2009, Programme committee D1: LNG Quality & Interchangeability

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Methane number (MN) definition


Calculation suggestion: The AVL method, from DIN 51624 100% Methane = 100; 100% Hydrogen = 0 Calculation suggestion: The AVL method (not explained), from DIN 51624 (Test engine measurements (1970)) Higher hydrocarbons: MN Inerts (CO2, N2): MN

CFR/RDH Motor: n = 900 U/min, ZZP = 15 KW v. OT, = 1, tGem = 25 C bis 30 C, tKW = 80 C, Klopfstrke KL = 50 = konstant
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Natural gas exchange across borders


The Danish Gas System

Source: www.energinet.dk

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas exchange across borders


The North German gas system
200.000 Nm3/h 310.000 Nm3/h (2012) Ev. 700.000 Nm3/h (201???)

Ej i drift n 500.000 Nm3/h

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas from Denmark


The Danish natural gas today

Source: www.energinet.dk

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas from Denmark


and tomorrow

Source: www.energinet.dk

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas from Denmark


Summary of expectations, future natural gas supply in Sweden Share of imported gas (German) in gas reaching Sweden may vary between 0 and 40 %. Production disturbance in North sea: 60-80 % Lower concentrations of ethane (-1%), propane (-0,7%) Higher share of nitrogen gas (+1-3%) Lower heating value (1-5%), higher MN Russian gas part of import 2013 - ? Uncertain in the near future. Russian gas similar to biomethane Future biomethane injection may be done without propane addition Challenge: How to charge vehicle gas customers in a fair manner?
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Natural gas in the world


Examples of composition Gas quality ??

Source: www.sgc.se Gasers egenskaper

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas in the world


European Gas supply/demand outlook

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas in the world


Three main marketing areas
Non-UK Europe: Wide calorific spec (Flex LNG)

US+UK: Low calorific specs (lean LNG)

High calorific specs (rich LNG)

Source: Bergen Energi (Alain Bourgeois)

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas in the world

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards Source: TOTAL and Shell trading (www.igu.org, WGC 2009, Programme committee D1: LNG Quality & Interchangeability) www.sgc.se

Natural gas in the world


Local prod Imports; Pipe LNG

Source: ExxonMobil (Bergen Energi (Alain Bourgeois))

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas in the world


Methane Number (MN) variations

Source: SAE paper 2002-01-2737. An emission and performance comparison of the natural gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus versus Diesel in heavy- duty trucks 2002-10-21

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Natural gas in the world


Methane Number (MN) variations

Source: E.ON Ruhrgas presentation in CEN/BT WG197: Methane number An important parameter for Natural Gas Quality (Petra Nitschke-Kowsky 110215)

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Gas quality regulations and standards


Intl std focused on fueling stations and vehicle components

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

Source: Aldo Bassi, S.IN.TE.S.I. AB www.sgc.se

Gas quality regulations and standards


ISO 15403 only international standard for CNG Current international standard has no limits specified ISO 15403:2006 Natural gas for use as a compressed fuel for vehicles No standard limits given in the normative part 1 (Designation of the quality) Quantitative levels on OEM request given in part 2, an informative technical report (Specification of the quality) on certain trace elements. More or less copy of SAE J1616.
Water: < 30 mg/m3 CO2: < 0.03 volume fraction O2: < 0.03 volume fraction S: < 120 mg/m3 H2S: < 5mg S/m3 Mercaptans: < 15mg S/m3
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Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

Gas quality regulations and standards


National level CNG standardization more advanced Quantitative standardization for CNG exist on national level SAE J1616:1994 - focus corrosion related safety (ISO15403) DIN 51624:2008 - only std with MN (> 70, aiming at 75)
C2: < 12%; C2+: < 8.5%; C3: < 6%; C4: < 2% S: < 10mg/kg; H2S: < 7mg/kg; mercaptans: < 8mg S/kg Water: < 40 mg/kg O2: < 3%; H2: < 2%; N2+CO2: < 15%

California Code of Regulations, 13 CCR 2292.5* - 11 states


C2: < 6%; C2+: < 3%; C3: < 0.2% S: 16 ppmV O2: < 1%; H2: < 0.1%; N2+CO2: 1,5-4,5%
*Title 13. Motor Vehicles; Division 3. Air Resources Board; Chapter 5. Standards for Motor Vehicle Fuels; Article 3. Specifications for Alternative Motor Vehicle Fuels; 2292.5. Specifications for Compressed Natural Gas.
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Gas quality regulations and standards


International biomethane standardization in progress Current standardization (national) focused on grid injection Several European countries have grid injection specifications* SS 155438:1999 Motor fuels Biogas as fuel for high-speed otto engines only standard for direct utilization as fuel EC has given CEN mandate to standardize biomethane for transports no such effort on natural gas side M/475, technical specification for grid injection and standardization of direct utilization as fuel** Newly formed CEN committee will lead the work, kickoff meeting held 16 Sep 2011. The goal is to have one specification for grid injection, and one for automotive fuel at refuelling station level***
*See CEN/TC234/WG9 Gases from non-conventional sources - Injection into natural gas grids - Requirements and recommendations **M/475, Mandate to CEN for standards for biomethane for use in transport and injection in natural gas pipelines Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards www.sgc.se ***CEN/PC408 Project Committee - Biomethane for use in transport and injection in natural gas pipelines

Gas quality regulations and standards


No MN regulation in current international standards Work in progress on gas quality standard in Europe EC mandate 400 is trying to standardize the CBP of EASEEgas for natural gas type H* All compounds addressed in M/400 (Natural gas H) are excluded from the M/475 work on biomethane
The issue of heating value / Wobbe index The issue of sulphur

E.ON Ruhrgas address the issue of MN in CEN/BT WG197

*M/400 (2007) Mandate to CEN for standardization in the Field of Gas Qualities; Work in progress since 2009 (?) in CEN/BT WG 197 (http://ec.europa.eu/energy/gas_electricity/doc/gas_quality/2007_01_16_mandate_gas_quality_en.pdf)
Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards www.sgc.se

Gas quality regulations and standards


Trace elements in biomethane under std discussion Non-contested compounds CO2, O2 (corrosive in presence of water) N2 (inert, often present in landfill gas) Sulphur (catalyst poisoning and aging, odorisation big source) Siloxanes (forms abrasive silica sand at combustion, fouling of catalysts and lambda sensors suspected) Halogenated hydrocarbons (mostly health, but also corrosion) Contested compounds Heavy metals (mainly in landfill gas, removal during upgrading) Microorganisms (potential health and corrosion hazard; risks downplayed in some literature*, micron filtering enough?)
*Vinners et Mattias al 2006 Identification of the and microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of Volvo 110926, Svensson Gas quality standards microbial risks from gas usage; E.ON Ruhr Gas study (no reference)
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Gas quality regulations and standards


Regulation of oil and water important for all compressed gas Control of water content Easily removed and controlled (pressure water dew point) Corrosion risk only hazard considered in current standards Driveability should also be considered (risk of icy hydrocarbon hydrates forming in cooler climates due to expansion cooling) Control of oil content Entrained from the compressor lubricants, main source of PM Modern, sophisticated vehicle components more sensitive Proper filtering downstream and choice of oil can handle the problem a lot of the industry unaware of best practice! Challenge: Validated sampling and analysis methods missing SP project soon to start, need ind. funding
Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards www.sgc.se

Existing bio-CH4 grid injection standards. Source: SGC Rapport 229 (2011)
Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards www.sgc.se

Gas quality and standards


Conclusions Gas quality (The issue of MN) Allowed gas qualities range broadly, regional differences More (rich) LNG utilization in European market, MN MN addressed in CEN/BT WG 197 Standardization of gaseous automotive fuels Current international std not complete Current work focused on biomethane (M/475); CNG indirectly addressed by M/400 work in CEN/BT WG197 Consensus on allowed levels of trace elements and the issue of MN is much needed between gas industry and OEMs

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Gas quality and standards

Thank you for your attention! Any questions?


mattias.svensson@sgc.se +46-706-80 20 66

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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The issues of LNG Quality and Interchangeability continue to be of major interest to the producers and purchasers of LNG due to increased liquidity in the LNG market. The view at the moment is that the world is split into the areas where different specifications predominate the traditional Far Eastern market with its requirement for rich LNG, the Atlantic Basin with its preference for Lean LNG and growing markets such as the EU with its attempts to harmonise the quality specifications of its member states into a wide ranging specification that can accept both lean and rich LNGs.

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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Figure 5.1 shows the quality of various LNG supplies versus market specifications. The market specifications in this figure include the envelopes of the NGC+ guidelines (Natural Gas Council) and EASEE gas (European Association for the Streamlining of Energy Exchange). The following observations can be drawn from the above chart: i. LNG interchangeability issues are mainly present in the Atlantic Basin, with lean markets in the United States and in the United Kingdom. More LNG supplies fall into the operating envelope in the Asia Pacific (in this chart represented by Japan), and by injection of LPG it is easier for these countries to adjust to a higher Wobbe Index. ii. The majority of new LNG supplies (recently started production, being constructed or planned) have adjusted their quality towards a leaner market. This is for example Qatar, Tangguh, Snohvit or Nigeria LNG Train 7. Hence, it can be stated that the emergence of the US and the UK as LNG importers, together with consistent quality guidelines and the regulatory framework in place (NGC+, FERC) to impose these guidelines, has led to a shift in produced qualities towards leaner LNG. This comes mainly from new production in the Atlantic Basin. It is projected that in 2012, the majority of Atlantic Basin supply will meet the US Wobbe Index requirements[4]. The commercial drivers for lean LNG production, apart from entering a new market, are different from project to project, and include leaner (non-associated) feed gas supply, the development of a local petrochemical industry which uses ethane or LPG as feedstock (e.g. Qatar), or reaping benefits by establishing a separate LPG value chain.

Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards

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13 CCR 2292.5 Cal. Admin. Code tit. 13, 2292.5


[FNa] The dewpoint at vehicle fuel storage container pressure shall be at least 10 degrees F below the 99.0% winter design temperature listed in Chapter 24, Table 1, Climatic Conditions for the United States, in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineer's (ASHRAE) Handbook, 1989 fundamentals volume. Testing for water vapor shall be in accordance with ASTM D 1142-90, utilizing the Bureau of Mines apparatus. [FNb] The compressed natural gas shall not contain dust, sand, dirt, gums, oils, or other substances in an amount sufficient to be injurious to the fueling station equipment or the vehicle being fueled. [FNc] The natural gas at ambient conditions must have a distinctive odor potent enough for its presence to be detected down to a concentration in air of not over 1/5 (one-fifth) of the lower limit of flammability.

Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness Title 13. Motor Vehicles (Refs & Annos) Division 3. Air Resources Board Chapter 5. Standards for Motor Vehicle Fuels Article 3. Specifications for Alternative Motor Vehicle Fuels Current Section 2292.5. Specifications for Compressed Natural Gas. The following standards apply to compressed natural gas (The identified test methods are incorporated herein by reference):

Specifications for Compressed Natural Gas Specification Value Test Method Note: Authority cited: Sections 39600, 39601, 43013, 43018 and 43101, Hydrocarbons (expressed as mole percent) Health and Safety Code; and Western Oil and Gas Ass'n. v. Orange Methane 88.0% (min.) ASTM D 1945-81 County Air Pollution Control District, 14 Cal. 3d 411, 121 Cal. Rptr. 249 Ethane 6.0% (max.) ASTM D 1945-81 (1975). Reference: Sections 39000, 39001, 39002, 39003, 39010, 39500, C 3 and higher HC 3.0% (max.) ASTM D 1945-81 40000, 43000, 43016, 43018 and 43101, Health and Safety Code: and C 6 and higher HC 0.2% (max.) ASTM D 1945-81 Western Oil and Gas Ass'n. v. Orange County Air Pollution Control Other Species (expressed as mole percent unless otherwise indicated) District, 14 Cal. 3d 411, 121 Cal. Rptr. 249 (1975). Hydrogen 0.1% (max.) ASTM D 2650-88 Carbon monoxide 0.1% (max.) ASTM D 2650-88 HISTORY Oxygen 1.0% (max.) ASTM D 1945-81 Inert gases 1. New section filed 12-9-92; operative 1-1-93 (Register 92, No. 50). Sum of CO2 and N 2 1.5-4.5 % ASTM D 1945-81 13 CCR 2292.5, 13 CA ADC 2292.5 (range) This database is current through 9/9/11 Register 2011, No. 36 Water [FNa] END OF DOCUMENT Particulate matter [FNb] Odorant [FNc] http://government.westlaw.com/linkedslice/default.asp?Action=T Sulfur 16 ppm by Title 17 CCR Section 94112 OC&RS=GVT1.0&VR=2.0&SP=CCR-1000 vol. (max.) _________ Volvo 110926, Mattias Svensson Gas quality and standards www.sgc.se