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JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION

A Publication of the Society for Scientic Exploration Volume 22, Number 2


Editorial 145 Editorial Research Article 147 Meditation on Consciousness 161 An Exploration of Degree of Meditation Attainment in Relation to Psychic Awareness with Tibetan Buddhists 179 Thematic Analysis of Research Mediums Experiences of Discarnate Communication Peter A. Sturrock Itai Ivtzan S. M. Roney-Dougal J. Solfvin J. Fox Adam J. Rock Julie Beischel Gary E. Schwartz Robert G. Jahn Brenda J. Dunne Adam J. Rock Stanley Krippner Dietrick Kuhlke Dieter Gernert Imants Baruss James McClenon Bryan J. Williams Alexander Imich Imants Baruss Ingo Swann Richard Conn Henry William C. Gough Stephen C. Jett

2008

Essay 193 215 227 233

Change the Rules! Proposed Criteria for the Necessary Conditions for Shamanic Journeying Imagery Scalar Wave Effects according to Tesla and Far Range Transponder by K. Meyl How to Reject Any Scientific Manuscript

Book Reviews 245 The Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological Investigations, by Stephen E. Braude 247 The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth: A Sociological Account, by Jeremy Northcote 251 Opening to the Infinite: The Art and Science of Nonlocal Awareness, by Stephan A. Schwartz 260 Psi in the Sky: A New Approach to UFO and Psi Phenomena, by Keith L. Partain 262 The Intention Experiment: Using Your Thoughts to Change Your Life and the World, by Lynne McTaggart 264 The Synchronized Universe: New Science of the Paranormal, by Claude Swanson 266 The God Theory: Universes, Zero-Point Fields and Whats Behind It All, by Bernard Haisch 269 The Chaos Point: The World at the Crossroads, by Ervin Laszlo 271 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus, by Charles C. Mann 279 Articles of Interest SSE News 284 27th Annual Meeting Announcement and Registration

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, p. 145, 2008

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EDITORIAL
Henry Bauer always wrote erudite, perceptive, and witty editorials. I am going to miss themand so are you! My big news of the quarter is that we have been fortunate enough to recruit Courtney Brown as an Associate Editor. He has already managed three submissions and made persuasive recommendations (that I have been happy to accept) on all three. As you will learn by going to Google, there are two famous Courtney Browns. One was a defensive end for the Cleveland Browns. (He is not an Associate Editor.) The other (who is an Associate Editor) is a mathematician who is Professor of Social Science at Emory University. Courtney has very wide interests, so he may expect to get more than his fair share of submissions. (That is the price you pay for being eclectic.) Welcome aboard, Courtney. I am also happy to report that in this issue we resume the Book Review Section that we had to drop in Volume 22, Issue 1, which was devoted entirely to our late lamented and revered Ian Stevenson. We are grateful to David Moncrief for continuing to shepherd this entertaining and enlightening part of the Journal. I personally look forward to the book reviews as a welcome dessert that comes after the meat-and-potatoes of the research reports. Welcome to Volume 22, Issue 2.

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RESEARCH

Meditation on Consciousness
ITAI IVTZAN
Department of Psychology UCL (University College London) University of London London WC1H 0AP, UK i.ivtzan@ucl.ac.uk

AbstractThis study evaluates the idea that consciousness is creating an influence on the environment in a way that makes random systems (Random Number Generator RNG) become more ordered. This evaluation is combined with an exploration of two, potentially, influencing factors: distance from the target and awareness of the target. The experimental procedure was based upon data derived from meditating groups where experimental data (during meditation) was compared with the control data (pre-meditation). Comparison was also made between awareness and non-awareness groups (participants were aware/non-aware of the RNG). This allowed the influencing factor of the participants awareness to be tested. The factor of distance has been tested by applying a second RNG. The first machine (local) was positioned in the room with the meditators while the second machine (distant) was positioned away from that point. Results showed completely random data for the non-awareness group (both control and experimental periods) while the awareness group produced significant data in the experimental periods of the local machine and random data in the distant machine. It is suggested that awareness of the PK (psychokinesis) target and distance from the PK target could be influencing factors in the way consciousness might be influencing a random environment. Keywords: consciousnesspsychokinesisRandom Number Generator influencing factorsmeditation

Introduction The contemporary era in psychokinesis (PK) research, which began in the 1960s, might be characterized by the technical advance which allowed conducting experiments with Random Number Generator (RNG) machines, also known as Random Event Generator (REG) machines. This technology enhanced an important line of research: monitoring specific situations where human consciousness might be influencing its surroundings (Radin, 1997). RNGs generate numbers in a sequence in such a way that the next number has no relation with the previous numbers. The first truly random RNGs (in contrast with machines using an algorithm to calculate the next number from an initial 147

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seed number) used radioactive decay and the first study to use such a truly random source was Beloff and Evans (1961). In later stages, as their source of randomness, RNGs were based on avalanche noise (Zener diode) and thermal noise. The output produced from the RNG is transformed into random bits of 0 and 1 and stored on a computer. The number of 0s and 1s produced by the RNG is supposed to be random and the participant in such an experiment is, supposedly, influencing the machine so order might be found in the data. Order, in this context, might for example be a frequency of 0s or 1s which is above or below their chance expectancy. Radins Theory Of the Whole Shebang (tows) theory (Radin et al., 1996) proposes consciousness as one possible influencing factor underlying mindmatter interaction allowing a tentative debate concerning the effect on RNGs. This model of psi offers specific properties of consciousness, which are testable experimentally, and elaborates the way it is supposed to create any effect upon the environment (Radin, 1997: 160): 1) Consciousness extends beyond the individual and has quantum field-like properties, in that it affects probabilities of events. 2) Consciousness injects order into systems in proportion to the strength of consciousness present. 3) The strength of consciousness in an individual fluctuates from moment to moment, and is regulated by focus of attention. Some states of consciousness have higher focus then others. Ordinary awareness has a fairly low focus of attention compared to peak states, mystical states and other non-ordinary states (Cskszentmihlyi, 1975). 4) A group of individuals can be said to have group consciousness. Group consciousness strengthens when the groups attention is focused on a common object or event, and this creates coherence among the group. 5) Physical systems of all kinds respond to a consciousness field by becoming more ordered. The stronger or more coherent a consciousness field, the more order will be evident. It is evident why such a theory of consciousness could be tested easily in the field of PK. Most of the experiments, in order to be testable, are based on a comparison of data found under supposedly PK influence with the Mean Chance Expectation (MCE; the value that one would expect to find, on average, if nothing other than chance coincidence, mere random variability, were operating in the situation). In other words, we compare what we expect to find randomly with data found under the participants consciousness influence. Under these circumstances the whole idea of a shift from random to ordered data is highly relevant since, if indeed consciousness is creating any psi effect, it will be reflected as a significant difference between the data and MCE. FieldRNG Experiments The fourth property in Radins (1997) theory refers to the idea of group consciousnesses. In connection with this idea a line of research was established,

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studying the possible influence of consciousness when a group of individuals are engaged in high-focus attention events involving intense or profound experiences; this kind of engagement will, allegedly, influence the RNG. These experiments involve the running of the RNG at the same time as a meaningful event occurs (anything between huge disasters such as the 9/11 terror attack to a concert in the park or a group of people engaged in some spiritual practice), trying to observe any deviance from random data in the RNG. This kind of experimentation was initiated in the mid-1990s by Roger Nelson (Nelson, 1997) and was referred to as field consciousness experiments. Such studies require the experimenter to announce, in advance, the venue or situation of interest, and define which time-segments are supposed to produce deviations from randomness. As an example of a fieldRNG experiment we can examine Bierman (1996) who tested the possible correlation between a mental state and the data produced by an RNG. On 24 May 1995 most of the Dutch population was fascinated by the European football cup final where a Dutch team met an Italian one. The 90 minutes of the match (experimental data) were compared with the 90 minutes before the match (control data). The experimental data was found to be significant at p , 0.05 while the data for the control period produced a nonsignificant result. An interesting segment of data was found around the time of the only goal that was scored during this game, two minutes before the official end of the game, for the Dutch team. Such a goal obviously created a wave of euphoria across the Netherlands and the experimenter hypothesised that the RNGs data would show evidence of such a response. The experimental period was chosen to be the four minutes following the goal, and the ten minutes preceding the goal were analysed as the control period; comparing theses time periods showed a negative trend (t 1.94, df 54, p 0.058, two-tailed). This hints at a possible change in the influence of the collective group consciousness influencing the RNG. Two overviews of fieldRNG experiments (Nelson et al., 1996, 1998) present a list of experiments which, when combined, add credence to the concept of a consciousness field as an agency for creating order in random physical processes (1996: 111). A variety of study environments are described in these overviews, which include data-gathering from group meetings (such as the working group on direct mental and healing interactions), ritual gatherings (such as the gathering of the covenant of Unitarian Universalist pagans) and conferences (such as a humour conference). These studies found, according to the authors, that high degrees of attention, intellectual cohesiveness and shared emotion tend to correlate with levels of order in the RNG deviating from chance expectation. Considering the actual data gathering, combined results for a series of ten such experiments in the 1996 overview show a v 2 of 50.008, df 20 and a significant corresponding p value of 2 3 104. A prominent example of such experimental work is reflected in the Global Consciousness Project (GCP) led by Roger Nelson. As part of the GCP,

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scientists from all over the world continuously record data from RNGs and send these data through the internet to a server in Princeton, NJ, USA. The project includes 65 active RNGs located mostly in Europe and North and South America but also in other countries such as India, New Zealand, Israel, Japan, China and Thailand. This allows later analysis and possible correlation with different events around the globe that might arouse high coherence in consciousness. The recording sites for the Global Consciousness Project are called eggs (a humorous acronym for ElectroGaiaGram, a play of words on EEG and Gaia) and refer to RNGs which continuously produce data that is kept on the computer to which it is attached. A few examples of the measurements produced by the GCP are the events of the 9/11 terror attack, the death of Princess Diana and the funeral of Pope John Paul II, all events which captured the complete attention of hundreds of millions of people around the world. In the 9/11 terror attack, for example, as a result of the complete coverage by CNN, the BBC and the other media, people from the entire world were experiencing, simultaneously, the same terrible emotions as the tragedy unfolded in front of their eyes, live, on the TV screen. According to Nelson (2002) these powerful feelings of horror, fear, shock and fascination joined together to create a collective consciousness tuned to a single frequency. This kind of coherence would have to be detected by the RNGs spread all over the world. The primary prediction, where specific segments of time were chosen for analysis, was made without the knowledge of the actual results and was based on prior models created after similar terror attacks (such as the terrorist bombings of the US embassies in Africa, August 1998). The prediction time to be tested was chosen to be the ten minutes prior to the first crash and continuing for four hours after that same crash (thus including the timeframe of all the attacks with an addition of two hours). The data from the 37 reporting eggs show a v 2 of 15,332, df 15,000, which shows this body of data is not random with significance of p 0.028. FieldRNG Influencing Factors Although, as shown, interesting results have been reported in different fieldconsciousness experiments, there are still vague parameters that need to be clarified in this line of research. Two factors in need of more testing are the issues of distance and awareness. As part of the tows theory, Radin et al. (1996: 146) claim: In the case of hidden and remote RNGs tows offers the same prediction . . . we see order even in hidden and remote RNGs because tows says any RNG, anywhere, would reveal anomalous order in time-correspondence with moments that consciousness, located anywhere, was focused and coherent. This is a statement which is quite hard to digest; as we consider the huge number of events, festivals, violent attacks, nature disasters and other powerful human experiences which occur across this planet at any given moment (combined with the fact that, theoretically, distance is of no significance in such a process), it is hard to contemplate the idea that the RNG is being influenced

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by the exact event that we are interested in when so many other events might also influence it. Radins claim also does not correspond with the data collected on 11 August 1999 as the full solar eclipse passed over Europe and parts of Asia. The prediction was that, due to the excitement and interest in the event, significant departures from randomness would be found in the output from machines spread all over the world recording data as part of the GCP. When the full data set was summarised the deviation was found to be non-significant but when data were extracted only from the seven machines in the specific areas where the eclipse occurred, the outcome was highly significant, with a chance probability of only 3 in 10,000. Nelson (1999: paragraph 35) reacted to these results: Although some other cases suggest otherwise, these eclipse results indicate that the RNGs are most sensitive to relatively local influences, in apparent contradiction of one of our on-going assumptions, which says that the location of events relative to the eggs should be unimportant. If this indication is confirmed in other assessments, it means that although the anomalous interaction of minds and machines that we use for our measure is nonlocal, it isnt unboundedly so. The intensity of regard or the concentration of attention may have an effect that is stronger on machines least distant from the people who generate the group consciousness. At the same time, we must emphasize that other evidence suggests a different relationship. We have to learn much more before drawing conclusions in this deeply complex area. Different conclusions are proposed by Dunne and Jahn (1992). In a series of remote experiments, the issue of the RNGs location was tested. Two hundred and five remote RNG series were made, generated by 30 different participants over a six-year period. The machine was generating the data at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratories while the participants were situated at a variety of different countries such as Kenya, India, New Zealand, Hungary, the USA and Canada (distances of half a mile to 9000 miles) as they were trying to influence the machines by focusing their intention on either higher or lower values. Cumulative results show that the aiming for the lower values resulted in non-significant data but the high-values aiming resulted in a z-score of 2.348 ( p 0.009). These results drove the authors to conclude that the RNGs are insensitive to distance. In the Academy Awards broadcast experiment by Radin et al. (1996), an attempt was made to test whether the ordering effect was distance-independent. An estimated one billion people in 120 countries were watching the live television broadcast of the annual Academy Awards in 1995 and RNGs were assessing the fluctuation in group coherence. The experimenters divided the broadcast into high coherence time segments, which were judged to be interesting and attract the viewers high focus of attention, and low coherence time segments, which were judged to be uninteresting and attract low focus of attention. An interesting part of this experiment was the experimenters effort to assess the question of distance by using two RNGs: one was located in the first authors home as he was watching the broadcast while the second was located

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alone in the laboratory suites at the University of Nevada. The prediction which is relevant here was that the statistical behaviour of the two RNGs would be affected in the same way at the same time regardless of the distance between them. In accordance with this prediction, a positive correlation was found between the output of the two RNGs (r 0.28, p 0.05, one-tailed). Only this experiment is not helpful as we try to understand the complexities of distance issues in RNG experiments. The experiment proves that two different machines, distant from each other, produce similar data. However, it completely fails to address the most important question relating to distance, namely: What is the effect, if any, of the distance of the RNG from the source of effect? The event Radin et al. have chosen for their experiment is not an appropriate one. Since we are dealing with one billion potential participants who, supposedly, influence the machines from every corner of the world there is no control over the question of the machines distance from the focus of effect. As we have seen in the solar eclipse experiment, the significant data were produced by the local machines, which were near the event, in comparison with the distant machines, distant from the event, which produced random data. This is the kind of comparison we need to aim at in order to understand whether or not being nearer the RNG influences the levels of order. Although we can find experiments involving near-situated RNGs and experiments involving far-situated RNGs, no experiment can be found, to date, where a comparison is made between RNGs, which are known to be local vs. distant from the event, under the same conditions. The methodology employed in this study, therefore, will be the first attempt to investigate this issue by comparing data from two RNGs: one positioned at the centre of the event and the other positioned away from that point. The second issue addressed in this study is the question of awareness. Is it true that awareness of a target does not contribute to the effectiveness of consciousness in affecting an RNG? In what way, if at all, does knowing of the target contribute to the effect? Most of the individual RNG experiments (e.g., Schmidt, 1973; Braud and Hartgrove, 1976) are based upon conscious attention of the participant who is aware of the RNG and trying to manipulate the data or cause some sort of event to happen (such as influencing the direction of the lights movement). On the other hand, within the fieldRNG experiments, participants (who are, in many cases, not even aware of the fact they are performing as participants in an experiment) are usually not aware of the RNG and therefore not directing their focused attention on the machine and not willing a specific change, as was the case with the individuals lab RNG experiments. In both cases the body of data is interesting enough to suggest a possible PK effect, and we might have claimed that there is no need for the participants to be aware of their target. The problem with such an assumption lies with the number of participants in the fieldRNG experiments. One of Radins properties, as presented earlier, states that group consciousness (where a large number of participants are joined together) would be more effective when, supposedly, influencing a random event. The fieldRNG experiments, therefore, are enhanced

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by the number of participants (groups of a few individuals up to many millions of people), which might raise the assumption that these successful results were obtained not because of but in spite of the fact that participants were not aware of the PK target. It might be that the strength of the group consciousness overcame the weakness of not being aware of the influenced target the RNG. When discussing the future course of RNG experiments, Nelson et al. (1998: 448) stated: An adequate model must help us to understand both the intentiondriven laboratory experiments, and the field studies where little or no attention is given to the RNG and there is no explicit intention. Although we can find experiments involving participants aware of the RNG and experiments involving participants who are non-aware of the RNG, no experiment can be found, to date, where a comparison is made between participants who are aware vs. nonaware of the RNG under the same conditions. The question of awareness, therefore, would be a further novel aspect in this studys specific methodology, where this issue will be investigated by comparing data from two groups: an awareness group, where participants have the knowledge of an RNGs presence in the room, and a non-awareness group, where participants have no knowledge of the fact that an RNG is running in the vicinity of the group. One last experiment that has to be considered, due to its relevance to the study presented in this paper, is the breathwork workshop experiment by Radin et al. (1996). In this study, nine participants went through a Holotropic breathwork session that brought the participants to an altered state of consciousness. An RNG generated data throughout the nine-hour session (experimental data) and during the nine hours following the session (control data). The control data was used as a matching random control sequence. The prediction was that high coherence events (important segments of time during the workshop such as group meditation) would show ordered data while the low coherence events (non-important segments of time such as lunch break) and the control data would show results corresponding to chance. Results confirmed the predictions: experimental data showed significantly increased order in high coherence periods (z 3.12, p 0.0009), and random data in low coherence periods (z 0.79, p 0.215). Control data showed random results both for high coherence periods (z 0.3, p 0.618) and in low coherence periods (z 1.4, p 0.919). Since many of the questions asked within the context of Radin et al.s experiment resonate in the study presented in this paper, it has influenced a variety of choices concerning the methodology and statistical analysis. A list of hypothetical properties of consciousness was given by Radin (1997) trying to explain the way consciousness might interact with the environment. As this paradigm is still at its preliminary stage, these properties require more investigation and this is the purpose of the current study. This study was trying to replicate the basic effect, the possibility that consciousness affects the data produced by an RNG, while measuring the possible influence of two additional factors: distance from the RNG, and awareness of the RNG. Two groups, with ten participants in each, met separately for a five-week meditation course. The

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first group was not aware of the fact that a hidden RNG was recording data throughout the sessions while the second group knew of the RNG, which was positioned in a prominent place in the room, being present. Two RNGs were used for this experiment: the first, RNG1, was in the room where the meditation took place; the second, RNG2, was 2 km from the meditation room. Both RNGs collected data in the hour before the class began (control data) and during the one-hour meditation period (experimental data). The output from the RNG was analysed and compared in order to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 The basic PK effect would be found under a state of meditation influencing the levels of order for experimental data and not the levels of order for the control data. Hypothesis 2 The factor of awareness of the RNG would influence the levels of order for the experimental data in the awareness group in comparison with the non-awareness group. Hypothesis 3 The factor of distance would influence the levels of order for the experimental data in RNG1 in comparison with RNG2. Method Participants Participants in the non-awareness group were ten volunteer students (six females), aged between 19 and 36 years (mean age 27.6 years, SD 4.04). Participants in the awareness group were ten volunteer students (seven females) aged between 18 and 32 years (mean age 25.1 years, SD 3.19). The experimenter was also the meditation teacher, having had ten years experience of practicing meditation. Materials The RNGs were built by an experienced technician in Goldsmiths College and had already been used and tested in former research (Crawley et al., 2002). The noise generator is based around a germanium diode in reverse bias. The diode undergoes Zener breakdown where quantum mechanical tunnelling of carriers through the bandgap as well as thermal effects on the charge carriers in the diode give rise to a broadband noise signal. The AC component of the leakage current through the diode is amplified and converted into a digital signal via a 12-bit analogue to digital converter. The signals at this stage are Gaussian distributed and are over-sampled eight times and converted to uniformly distributed bytes at a rate of 100 Hz. The machines were built in a way that was supposed to prevent any external influence: the case was of metal construction and thus helped to attenuate radio frequency interference and other stray electromagnetic fields. The power supply was external battery so that no possibility of electrical influence on the machine would exist. For that end a battery (PP3 9 volt) was used to supply power to the RNG circuitry. Within the equipment, a second

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regulator circuit ensured that no power surges could enter the RNG circuit. The power supply was also well decoupled with capacitors. The RNG was tested before the experiment, using the diehard set of tests (Marsaglia, 1995) to ensure randomness of the data generated. The full set of results showed that the performance of the RNG was statistically indistinguishable from theoretical chance expectation.

Design and Procedure Participants were randomly divided into two groups of ten: The first group (the non-awareness group) was taught the meditation course for the first five weeks of the experiment while the second group, the awareness group, was taught the same meditation course for the next five weeks. The chosen meditation for this experiment is called Kundalini which is one of Oshos (1997) active meditations. This is a 60-minute meditation divided into four stages (these are the instructions given for each stage): 1) First Stage: 15 minutes Be loose and let your whole body shake, feeling the energies moving up from your feet. Let go of everything and become the shaking. Your eyes may be open or closed. 2) Second Stage: 15 minutes Dance, in any way you feel, letting the whole body move as it wishes. Again, your eyes can be open or closed. 3) Third Stage: 15 minutes Close your eyes and be still, sitting, observing your breathing. 4) Fourth Stage: 15 minutes Keeping your eyes closed, lie down, observe your breathing and be still. The meditation course was similar for both groups: participants and the experimenter met once a week, for five weeks, for an hour of meditation. Sixty minutes of music accompanied this meditation, a fact that ensured that all meditation sessions lasted exactly the same period of time. The meditation is promptly measured to run for sixty minutes and therefore the effect is hypothesised to be found within the boundaries of this specific time frame. The exact time of the beginning and end of the meditation was recorded by the experimenter. These 60 minutes of collected data from the RNG comprised the experimental data. In the 60 minutes before the session, alone in the room, the RNG recorded the control data. One RNG (RNG1) was positioned in the corner of the room where the group was meditating. In the case of the non-awareness group, the machine was hidden inside a bag, while for the awareness group it was uncovered on a table. The awareness group not only viewed the machine but also received a detailed

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explanation about the machine and the way it works. The second RNG (RNG2) was placed 2km from the meditation venue. The computer-controlled, truly random, RNGs were programmed to generate two samples of 400 random bits per second in the two hours of testing, one hour before and one hour during the meditation. This resulted in 7200 samples for the control data (pre-session) that were compared with the 7200 samples of the experimental data (during group meditation). Analyses and presentation of the results followed the approach taken by Radin et al. (1996) when performing the breathwork workshop experiment. In each sample (400 bits), the sum of 1 bits would be counted and this number would be transformed into a standard normal deviate: z (x 200)/10, where x represents the raw output, the expected mean is 200 and 10 is the expected deviation. The measure of order induced in the RNG is based on the formula V z2 where the V is the sum of a sequence of z-squared scores and is a chi-square statistic. In this formula the V is chi-squared distributed with the same number of degrees of freedom as the number of z scores used in tohe sum. The last step was converting the V scores into a z score representing all samples; the V here is the number ofp degrees of (df). For this purpose the following formula was pfreedom used: z (2x2) c;(2df 1). Results A summary of results for the non-awareness and awareness group is presented in Table 1 (with significant results indicated in bold). For the non-awareness group, all five control and experimental sessions in both RNGs show random data. For the awareness group, all five control sessions in both RNGs show random data; the experimental data in RNG1 is significant statistically while data derived from RNG2 is random. As a result of the fact that four tests are cited, and multiple testing might inflate the likelihood of finding a significant result, it should be noted that the significant data withstands correction for multiple testing. Discussion Results found in the non-awareness group contradict the suggested basic PK effect of Hypothesis 1. All five sessions, both for the experimental and the control periods, were found to be random. Results found in the awareness group, however, supported the suggested basic PK effect of Hypothesis 1. Three of the five sessions in the experimental period produced ordered output from the RNGs while the data from the five control sessions were random. The question is, why was there an effect of consciousness found for the second group and not for the first group? To find a possible explanation to this difference we need to discuss the second hypothesis, the issue of awareness. The ordered data in the experimental period was found only in the awareness group and not in the non-awareness group. The difference between the

Meditation on Consciousness
TABLE 1 A Summary of Results for the Non-Awareness and Awareness Groups RNG1 local Control V z p V Experimental z p V Control z p V RNG2 distant

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Experimental z p

7070 7308 7193 7331 7142 7111 7275 7160 7152 7061

1.08 0.9 0.05 1.09 0.47 0.73 0.63 0.32 0.39 1.15

0.86 0.18 0.52 0.13 0.68 0.77 0.26 0.62 0.65 0.88

7163 7211 7217 7141 7320 7684 7290 7511 7641 7380

Non-awareness group 0.3 0.62 7217 0.15 0.1 0.46 7137 0.51 0.15 0.44 7221 0.18 0.48 0.68 7213 0.12 1 0.16 7070 1.08 3.96 0.74 2.56 3.62 1.49 Awareness 0.00004 0.23 0.0052 0.0002 0.07 group 7313 7040 7324 7137 7276 0.95 1.33 1.03 0.51 0.64

0.44 0.7 0.43 0.45 0.86 0.17 0.91 0.35 0.7 0.26

7034 7220 7141 7190 7213 7128 7171 7379 7171 7319

1.98 0.18 0.48 0.07 0.12 0.59 0.23 1.49 0.23 0.99

0.32 0.43 0.68 0.53 0.45 0.72 0.59 0.07 0.59 0.16

Summary RNG1 control Non-awareness V 7208 z 0.07 p 0.47 V 7152 z 0.4 p 0.66 RNG1 experimental V 7210 z 0.08 p 0.46 V 7501 z 2.48 p 0.0066 RNG2 control V 7171 z 0.24 p 0.59 V 7216 z 0.13 p 0.44 RNG2 experimental V 7160 z 0.33 p 0.63 V 7234 z 0.28 p 0.39

Awareness

experiences of the awareness and non-awareness group participants should be considered. The awareness group participants had the RNG prominently positioned in the room, which might have created more interest and challenge. The non-awareness group participants were not aware of the machine and therefore had no such challenge of affecting it. At the same time we need to consider that this is the claim lying at the heart of the discussion concerning awareness of the machine as a moderating variable. The difference found between the data of the awareness and non-awareness groups might be attributed to the difference between their experiences. Although it seems to be an important question this issue has not been addressed in former studies at all. No previous experiment can be found where the experimenter compares data which has been collected when a group of participants are aware of their target and then collect the data, under similar conditions, when a similar group of participants are not aware of the target. These intriguing results, presented in this study, hint that the difference of experience, being aware in comparison with not being aware of the random environment, might be a moderating variable in the influence of PK. It also implies that by acknowledging some facet in our

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environment our consciousness becomes more coherent and effective in its ordering influence on that target. The third hypothesis was not supported by the data from the non-awareness group where no difference was found in the experimental data between RNG1 and RNG2 (both generated random data). Data found for the awareness group, on the other hand, appears to support Hypothesis 3 (again strengthening the importance of awareness) insofar as RNG1 (local) produced significant deviations from randomness compared with the random data produced by the distant RNG2. This result may suggest that consciousness is more effective in its immediate and local environment but at the same time it still allows the possibility that with a large group, consciousness effect might be detected in distant areas in somewhat diminished capacity. Former studies exhibit contradictory results; Dunne and Jahn (1992), for example, support the claim that distance is meaningless for anomalous effects while Nelson (1999) supports the completely opposite idea when he shows that local machines react to a certain event while distant ones do not. The issue of distance is controversial and this papers awareness group results, by showing significant data in the local machines and non-significant in the distant machines, contribute to the argument by strengthening the idea that a local target is influenced more coherently than a distant one. For future PK research, this does not mean that distant machines are not being affected, only that they might be less sensitive to such effects in comparison with local ones. The expectations of the experimenter should be considered here. The experimenter in this study has been aware of the condition which is being tested. The expectations that arise out of the particular condition might have modulated the results and any follow-up of this study should carry a double-blind procedure, where both the participants and the experimenter are not aware of the specific condition which is being tested in the session. The data presented here demonstrate how different influencing factors might work together to determine the influence of consciousness on random environments, the level of PK effect. These different factors create, symbolically, an equation where each factor provides a variable that is influencing the final result. This paper has presented a number of variables but the equation is still fairly vague. Much more work is needed in order to unravel the uncertainties and discover more influencing factors so that the equation might become easier to work with and future consciousness-PK studies might produce more stable and replicable experimental results. References
Beloff, J., & Evans, L. (1961). A radioactivity test of psychokinesis. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 41, 4146. Bierman, J. D. (1996). Exploring correlations between local emotional and global emotional events and the behaviour of random number generator. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 10, 363373. Braud, W. G., & Hartgrove, J. (1976). Clairvoyance and psychokinesis in transcendental meditators and matched control subjects: A preliminary study. European Journal of Parapsychology, 1(3), 616.

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Crawley, S. E., French, C. C., & Yesson, S. A. (2002). Evidence for transliminality from a subliminal card-guessing task. Perception, 31, 887892. Cs kszentmiha lyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Dunne, B. J., & Jahn, R. G. (1992). Experiments in remote human/machine interaction. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 6, 311332. Marsaglia, G. (1995). Diehard battery of tests of randomness. The Marsaglia random number. CDROM, Department of Statistics, Florida State University. Nelson, R. D. (1997). Multiple eld REG/RNG recordings during a global event, Part I and II. Electronic Journal for Anomalous Phenomena, 97.2. Nelson, R. D. (1999). Gathering of global mind. Available at: http://noosphere.princeton.edu/ story.html. Nelson, R. D. (2002). Coherent consciousness and reduced randomness: Correlations on September 11, 2001. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 16, 549570. Nelson, R. D., Bradish, G. J., Dobyns, Y. H., Dunne, B. J., & Jahn, R. G. (1996). FieldREG anomalies in group situations. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 10, 111141. Nelson, R. D., Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., Dobyns, Y. H., & Bradish, G. J. (1998). FieldREG II: consciousness eld effects: replication and explorations. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 12, 425454. Osho (1997). Meditation: The First and Last Freedom. NY: St. Martins Grifn. Radin, D. I. (1997). The conscious universe: The scientic truth of psychic phenomena. Harper. Radin, D. I., Rebman, J. M., & Cross, M. P. (1996). Anomalous organization of random events by group consciousness: Two exploratory experiments. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 10, 143 168. Schmidt, H. (1973). PK tests with a high speed random number generator. Journal of Parapsychology, 37, 105118.

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 161178, 2008

0892-3310/08

RESEARCH

An Exploration of Degree of Meditation Attainment in Relation to Psychic Awareness with Tibetan Buddhists
S. M. RONEY-DOUGAL
Psi Research Centre 14 Selwood Rd. Glastonbury Somerset BA6 8HN Britain

J. SOLFVIN
Centre for Indic Studies University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

J. FOX
School of Psychological Sciences Manchester University, Britain

AbstractMany traditional Mahayana, and modern Tibetan, Buddhist texts relate meditation attainment to psychic ability. This teaching served as the hypothesisthat more advanced meditators would choose a psi target correctly, significantly more often than beginners. A basic free-response design was used in which a computer programme (PreCOG) chose a target picture at random from a 4-picture set. There were 25 sets, all pictures of Tibet. PreCOG guided the participants through the procedure, in which they aimed to become aware of the target. 18 participants, Tibetan monks, nuns and Western Buddhist meditators, completed 8 sessions each. Half the sessions used a clairvoyance, and half a precognition, protocol. Age and years of meditation practice correlated significantly with the psi scores (Pearson r = 0.52, p , 0.05). This suggests that, as one practices meditation, psychic awareness begins to manifest more reliably. This result was confounded by a non-significant psi-missing trend. There was no significant difference between the clairvoyance and precognition trials (t-diff (142) = 0.800). There was, however, significant psi-missing from the group of Rinpoches (t 2.09, 2tail p , 0.05). The three participants who scored most strongly in the psi-missing direction all reported childhood memories of previous lives as monks in Tibet. Keywords: psychic awarenessTibetan Buddhistsmeditation

Introduction In the 1970s there was interest in researching meditation as a psi-conducive state (Schmeidler, 1994), partly as a result of the teachings of Patanjali in which 161

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he states that psychic abilities manifest on attainment of Samadhi (Honorton, 1977). An opportunity for research in an ashram in India with advanced Yogis and students enabled this research to be extended to explore whether or not years of meditation and Yoga practice are in fact related to increasing psi awareness (Roney-Dougal & Solfvin, 2006). There are two possible interpretations of Patanjalis sutras. The first, on which previous research has been based, is that as one practices meditation so, bit by bit, ones psychic awareness begins to manifest. The other is that it is only once Samadhi has been obtained that the psychic abilities manifest reliably. Two studies were run in the ashram and the data left this matter unresolved. Whilst overall the results were non-significant, selected data from the first study did show a significant difference between the advanced meditators and the student beginners. This was not replicated in the second study. What did show from that second study was that the significant difference between the beginners and advanced in the previous study was primarily due to a psi-missing tendency of the students. In the second study there was no psi-missing tendency in this group and no significant difference between the groups. However, in both studies the advanced meditators scored consistently in the psi-hitting direction with an overall 33% direct hit rate which, if research had continued, may well have resulted in a cumulative deviation from chance (Jahn et al., 1997). The results therefore, suggested that this line of research is one that is unresolved and worth following, and it was decided to extend this meditation research to Tibetan Buddhists, who have an extensive tradition of psi being used by advanced meditators. The initial visit in 2005 was devoted primarily to a preliminary overview of Tibets psychic traditions (Roney-Dougal, 2006), in order to give a ground base for the present study. In Buddhism there are two meditation disciplines: the shamatha discipline of one-pointed concentration and the vipassana discipline of contemplative insight. Developing shamatha (calm-abiding or mental quiescence) is considered to be an essential first step. Many traditional Mahayana and modern Tibetan Buddhist texts (e.g. Conze, 1975; Lamrimpa, 1995, p. 63; Tsong Khapa, 2002) relate meditation attainment to development of psychic powers, as do Yogic teachings. The meditation technique that the Buddhist texts recommend is one-pointed concentration, this again being similar to the Yogic teachings. However, there appear to be different opinions with regard to precisely when the clairvoyant ability manifests (Khensur Lobsang & Khangser Rinpoche, personal communication, May 8th, 2006). In Tsong Khapa, the primary Gelugpa exponent, psychic ability is called the superknowledges and is related to meditative stabilization:
In particular, train well in meditative stabilizationthe heart of meditative serenityin order to make your mind capable of being set on a virtuous object of meditation according to your wish. [93] The Elders Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment says that you should develop meditative serenity for the sake of producing the superknowledges. (Tsong Khapa, 2002, Vol. 1, p. 136).

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However, on the basis of meditative stabilization you also achieve the five kinds of superknowledge, but I shall not discuss them due to fear of verbosity. (Tsong Khapa, 2002, Vol. 2, p. 100). Here, the attainment of clairvoyance is equated with attainment of meditative stabilization.

But in Lodro (1998), a modern Gelugpa scholar, it is equated with calm-abiding:


What do non-Buddhists have? They have attainment of calm abiding and of the first five of the six clairvoyances. It is impossible to attain the first five clairvoyances without having attained an actual absorption of a concentration; the first five clairvoyances and the four immeasurables must be attained in dependence on an actual concentration. Without dependence on an actual concentration, no personwhether Buddhist, nonBuddhist, Bodhisattva, or whatevercan attain any of the first five clairvoyances. (Lodro, 1998, p. 226).

Also it seems that this clairvoyance is more akin to what in the West we would more closely define as omniscience, rather than the clairvoyance we research in parapsychology. The Buddhist clairvoyance includes what we consider miraculous powers:
It is usually said that a yogic practitioner who has attained calm abiding can fly, and so forth. Some scholars say that someone who attains calm abiding can pass unimpededly through a wall, and there are many accounts of such occurrences. (Lodro, 1998, p. 117).

Khangser Rinpoche (personal communication, 8th May, 2006) says that first one attains Samadhi, by practising shamatha and obtaining stabilisation in this, i.e. having attained the 9th stage. There are said to be 9 abilities you reach at different stages of meditation. Then one practises vipassana and attains perfection in special insight, and then one has to overcome the five sensory attachments of the desire realm. Only then do you attain to the high form of clairvoyance. Tibetans separate two types of clairvoyance. They consider that the one Western parapsychologists research is a low-level ability that is unreliable and subject to fraud. Many people are considered to have this ability and Tibetans consider that it is an inherent ability resulting from past life karma, which could, however, benefit from training by meditation. The clairvoyance you attain after reaching Samadhi is a high level ability which is reliable. In interviews with various monks, it was stressed over and over again that only a few people attain Samadhi and clairvoyant abilities, and even then the clairvoyance is no more than 80% reliable. Omniscience arises only with full enlightenment. Not everyone who practices meditation will attain Samadhi, so not everyone who practices meditation will become psychic. In other words:
& & &

There is a genius for enlightenment. There is a genius for meditation. There is a genius for psychic awareness.

We can all learn anything but not everyone has a talent. Only a few have genius.

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However, there are still the two possibilities which were outlined in the ashram research. Either this reliable clairvoyance manifests only after one has attained Samadhi and there is no sign of it before then. Or, as one develops in ones meditation, so signs of reliable clairvoyance begin to manifest. If that is the case, then comparing beginners with advanced meditators could well show a difference in scoring on a receptive psi task. Therefore in this experiment we repeated the preliminary ashram research using a formal design, working with beginners and advanced meditators, to see if there were any signs of increasing psi ability with increasing meditation practice. Hypothesis In a population of Tibetan Buddhist meditators, participants degree of meditative attainment (duration and forms) as assessed by the Meditative Attainment Questionnaire (MAQ) will correlate positively with psi scoring, such that the more advanced meditators will choose the target correctly significantly more often than the beginners. Method Design A free-response design was used in which all participants were required to complete 8 sessions: 4 clairvoyance and 4 precognition. A computer programme (PreCOG) chose a target set at random from a pool of 25 sets, and a target picture at random from a 4-picture pool. The participant aimed to accurately perceive this target picture before feedback from the computer. PreCOG was used so that the sessions could be run without any assistants, enabling Serena Roney-Dougal to work with the participants at any time that was mutually convenient for them and under whatever conditions there might be. As the target was chosen by the computer, this clairvoyance/precognition design has both a randomised double-blind design and inbuilt fraud control, so there is no need for specially designed rooms, multiple linked-up computers or any of the other laboratory facilities. Therefore it is ideal for research in the field. It is also a suitable method to use with Tibetan people who have a tradition of precognition (oracles and Mo divination) being used by the lamas in their monasteries, as well as the use of clairvoyance for discovering tulkus1, etc. They are therefore very open to the possibility of precognition and clairvoyance. For further details of these beliefs and practices see Roney-Dougal (2006). Materials The precognition computer programme (PreCOG), originally developed for this field research in India by Jezz Fox for an Apple Macintosh G4 Powerbook, was further developed for this study. Custom written software (preCOG) was

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developed for the presentation of the materials and recording of data. The software was written using RealBasic (www.realbasic.com) and compiled for use on an Apple Macintosh computer running OS 9. The software guided the researcher and participant through the procedure, beginning with a data entry screen to enter trial and participant details, to the preparation and trial periods, and ending with the rating and feedback stages. A configuration file allowed specifics of the design to be set including: 1) the number of trials each participant would take part in; and 2) the point in the procedure at which the target would be selected (before the trial period for a clairvoyance protocol, after the trial period for a precognition protocol, or randomly before and after). The random selection was used in this study; for half of the trials for each participant the target was selected before the trial period and for the other half the target was selected after the trial period. The order of selection was randomised and neither the participant nor the experimenter was aware of whether a clairvoyance or precognition trial had been selected. preCOG determined whether the trial would be a clairvoyance trial or precognition trial following the entering of trial and participant details. There were 25 target sets, which were static pictorials adapted to be appropriate for Tibetan monks, comprising pictures of Tibet. Target selection was a 2stage process, firstly a selection of the judging set was made, such that the participant never received the same set more than once, then a selection of the target from within the judging set was made. For the judging/rating stage preCOG displayed the 4 items in the judging set one at a time on the screen at their full size. When all 4 had been viewed they were displayed simultaneously on the screen at half of their full size for rating on a scale of 0 to 100 with the restriction of each item having to be awarded a unique rating. Following the ratings the data were recorded to disk before providing feedback to the participant by displaying the target for the session. All the randomisation was performed using pseudo-random algorithms. The participants mentation was recorded throughout the session, which permits qualitative analysis as well as the more customary quantitative statistical analyses. A Meditation Attainment Questionnaire (MAQ) was designed with help from David Luke (see Appendix 1). This questionnaire assessed the number of years the participants had practised different disciplines, such as physical asanas, breathing techniques (pranayama), and meditation, including the different types of meditation practise the person had done. It also assessed the preliminary practices (ngondros), which all monks must complete prior to starting meditation practices and which are normally done in a retreat situation. This enabled the amount of meditation practice to be clearly specified, each participant estimating the number of hours per day or week that they practised the various techniques, as well as specifying the number of years for which they have practised them. In addition they stated whether or not they were practising regularly at the time of doing the research. The degree to which years of practice is actually related to

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meditation attainment is uncertain, but this does at least give a quantifiable measure which may bear some relation to attainment. Participants The study included any Tibetan monks, nuns, lamas,2 or Western Buddhist students who wanted to participate. There were a total of 24 participants, but 6 dropped out having completed only 14 sessions. In the preliminary study (Roney-Dougal & Solfvin, 2006) it was found that those who completed only a few sessions gave highly variable and inconsistent scoring. Therefore, in this study it was pre-designated that only those who completed 8 sessions would be retained for analysis. Thus there were a total of 18 participants who completed the required 8 sessions, comprising 6 Western students, 1 Western nun, 1 Nyingma lama, 1 Kagyu Rinpoche (Rinpoche is the formal title of a tulku), two Gelugpa Rinpoches, 1 Gelugpa Khensur (a Khensur is an ex-abbot of a monastery), and 6 Gelugpa Geshes (a monk who has a degree equivalent to a PhD in Buddhist philosophy). Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelugpa are 3 sects within Tibetan Buddhism. They all have different training in meditation. This permitted a wide spread of degree of meditation attainment to be assessed and a sufficiently wide number of different participants to check on the suitability of the methodology, target sets, questionnaire, etc. Sampling was conducted by personal visits to Tibetan Buddhist monasteries, monastic universities, and meditation centres in India. The director (in monasteries and universities this was the monastic abbot) was contacted, the project described, permission formally requested, and assistance solicited in locating potential participants. A personal meeting with potential participants was arranged, with a translator if necessary. The project was described in detail and an invitation to participate was made. Any candidate who volunteered was included in the study. Sessions were run in Dharamsala, Bylakuppe, and Ladakh during 20052006. It took more than 1 year to recruit and work with the 18 participants. Procedure The procedure for each session was the same. The same time-of-day and location was used, wherever possible, for each session with a given participant. Sessions were kept approximately equally spaced in time, and done daily wherever possible. On arrival for the first session the participant was fully informed of the protocol and what was expected of them. The procedure was recorded on the computer in English and on to tape in Tibetan, which guided the participant through the session. This procedure was also written in Tibetan for the participant to refer to if needed (see Appendix 2). There was a 5-minute relaxation period, a resolution statement of intent, followed by a 15-minute meditation practice. At the end of this there was a

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4-minute awareness period in which they were instructed to allow their mind to go blank and allow any target related experience to occur. On completion of the awareness period the participant verbally described and drew out their awareness experience relating to the target. They then saw all 4 pictures, viewing them 1 by 1 on the large screen size, starting with picture A. They were free to view the pictures as many times as they wished. After they viewed all 4 they rated them on a 1100 point rating scale, according to the degree of confidence with which they considered the picture to be the target. The computer then showed them the actual target picture. This self-judging method is in line with Tibetan practice. After they had completed all 8 sessions, they completed the MAQ and a short interview asking them about their previous experience of, and belief in, psychic abilities, as well as various aspects of the present study. Results The unit of analysis for the psi scoring (free-response test) was the individual participants rating of the target for the session. This is operationalised by a z-score relative to the mean and standard deviation of all ratings assigned in the trial. A z-score for each trial was formed using the formula: z Where:
Target rating the rating (1100) assigned in the session to the actual target Mean of trial ratings average of all 4 ratings assigned to trial pool SD of trial ratings standard deviation of all 4 ratings assigned to trial pool This z-score is designated as TrDev.

Target rating Mean of trial ratings SD of trial ratings

The primary goal of the current study is not to find evidence for psi but rather to test the hypothesis that psi scoring is enhanced by meditative practices. The hypothesis was tested by averaging participants session scores (TrDev) and correlating these with their MAQ item scores. Pearson correlations were used and tested for significance with t-tests. To achieve this, the TrDev scores assigned to each trial above were collapsed as follows. Each participant was given: 1) an average TrDev score for their 4 clairvoyant trials; 2) an average TrDev score for their 4 precognitive trials; and 3) and average TrDev score for their entire 8 trials. These TrDev scores were then correlated with the relevant study variables as shown in Table 1. In Table 1, we see that overall scoring (clairvoyant and precognitive trials together) was significantly correlated at p , 0.05 with age, years of practice, and years of meditation. Participants who are older, and have practiced and

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TABLE 1 Pearson Correlations between TrDev Scores and Other Variables

Variable TrDev-clair TrDev-precog Age Years practice Meditation years Asana hours Prana hours Meditation hours Retreat hours Total hours

TrDev-clair 1.000 0.241 0.493* 0.356 0.357 0.154 0.132 0.344 0.266 0.254

TrDev-precog 0.241 1.000 0.112 0.284 0.285 0.173 0.044 0.015 0.165 0.014

TrDev-All 0.746*** 0.466* 0.526* 0.520* 0.521* 0.021 0.093 0.314 0.356 0.222

Note: n 18 for all correlations. *p , 0.05. **p , 0.01. ***p , 0.001 (all 2-tailed tests).

meditated for longer, tended to give higher ratings to the targets. This appeared to confirm the main hypothesis of this study on 2 counts, years of practice and years of meditation. Closer inspection of the raw data showed that these 2 variables are essentially identical with all but 1 participant giving the same answer to both questions (r 0.999), and that age is highly correlated with both of them (r 0.718 and r 0.717). Thus, age confounds the correlations between psi score (TrDev) and years of practice and years of meditation. In an attempt to untangle this confound between predictor variables age and years of meditation practice, the student and monk groups were separated and the correlations reassessed as shown in Table 2. Table 2 suggests that the correlations of TrDev with age and with years of meditation were due entirely to the monk group. Thus, the multiple correlations (R2) of these two predictors individually and in combination were examined solely for the monks as seen in Table 3. Table 3 suggests that years of meditation practice accounts for a larger (not significantly) proportion of the explained variance. Moreover, adding age to the regression, the net increase in R2 was quite small, whereas starting with age as
TABLE 2 Simple Correlations of TrDev with Age, and Years Meditation by Group Group Variable Age Meditation *p , 0.05. **p , 0.01 (2-tailed). Students 0.378 0.256 Monks 0.652* 0.748** All 0.526* 0.520*

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TABLE 3 Multiple Correlations of TrDev for Monks with Age and Years Meditation Predictors Years meditation Age Both *p , 0.05. **p , 0.001 (2-tailed).

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Multiple correlation (R2) 0.560** 0.426* 0.574*

the sole predictor and then adding years of meditation to the regression produced a more substantial (not significant) increase in the prediction. Thus, while this confound cannot be settled absolutely with these data alone, these additional analyses shed some light on the issue. The graph (Figure 1) shows the scatter plots for the correlations of psi with years of meditation, for the monk group. Note that a fitted line for the monks would be positive ( slope). Also note that the 1 monk with over 30 years meditation also has the highest TrDev score. This could be an outlier. However, even without that data point, the best fit line is still fairly strong and positive. Of course, the negative TrDev scores, which are important for these correlations, are problematic interpretationally, so that if we were to use the absolute values of TrDev scores, the correlations here would disappear. It is therefore concluded that, as hypothesized, years of meditation practice may be a statistically significant predictor of psi target rating. And while a confound with age is possible, and not entirely decipherable with these data

Fig. 1. Psi score by years of meditation for monks.

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TABLE 4 Mean Target Rating Scores (TrDev) by Condition (Clairvoyant, Precognitive) by Group Session type

Group (n) Students (6)

Statistic TrDev SD n ES(r) TrDev SD n ES(r) TrDev SD n ES(r)

Clairvoyant 0.009 0.828 24 0.01 0.136 0.879 48 0.15 0.088 0.860 72 0.10

Precognitive 0.094 0.842 24 0.11 0.137 0.763 48 0.18 0.123 0.784 72 0.16

All sessions 0.042 0.828 48 0.05 0.137 0.819 96 0.17 0.105 0.820 144 0.13

Monks (12)

All (18)

only, additional multiple regression analyses strongly (though not significantly) suggest that years of meditation practice is the primary predictor variable. Thus, this hypothesis is at least provisionally confirmed, though confused by the psimissing. Subject Centred Analyses This design, of each participant doing multiple trials, enabled an exploration of possible differences between individuals who were more advanced in their spiritual practice as reflected in their community status. So first let us look at the psi scoring of the different groups, as shown in Table 4. A positive score indicates that the target was rated higher than average among the stimuli, the psi-hitting direction. A negative score indicates a lower than average rating was assigned to the actual target, the psi-missing direction. Chance expectation of the TrDev score is zero. These scores are tested against chance expectation using a single mean t-test. There was a non-significant trend in this study towards psi-missing (TrDev 0.105). The table shows that negative TrDev mean values predominate in the subgroupings. Overall, scoring on clairvoyant trials was at chance levels (TrDev 0.088, SD 0.860, t(71) 0.867, 2-tail p 0.389) with a slight tendency towards psimissing on the precognitive trials (TrDev 0.123, SD 0.784, t(71) 1.327, 2-tail p 0.189). As there was no significant difference between the clairvoyance and precognition trials (t-diff (142) 0.800, 2-tail p 0.425), the clairvoyant vs. precognitive trial breakdown was eliminated from all further analyses. Half of the student group and two-thirds of the monk group showed negative average TrDev scores, rating the targets lower than the decoys in the target pool. As these participants were unaware which target pool materials were the actual

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TABLE 5 Mean Target Rating Scores (TrDev) for Participants Participant STUDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 MONKS Nun Geshe 1 Geshe 2 Geshe 3 Geshe 4 Geshe 5 Geshe 6 Rinpoche 1 Rinpoche 2 Rinpoche 3 Lama 1 Lama 2 M SD t-test

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Effect size (r)

0.188 0.344 0.024 0.062 0.014 0.151 0.099 0.164 0.518 0.315 0.052 0.029 0.055 0.436 0.088 0.429 0.034 0.306

0.931 0.840 0.880 0.899 0.838 0.742 0.947 1.062 0.479 0.806 0.875 0.891 0.762 0.847 0.794 0.617 0.626 1.083

0.57 1.16 0.08 0.20 0.05 0.57 0.30 0.44 3.06* 1.10 0.17 0.09 0.20 1.46 0.31 1.97** 0.15 0.80

0.21 0.40 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.21 0.11 0.16 0.76 0.38 0.06 0.03 0.08 0.48 0.12 0.60 0.06 0.29

Note: t-tests with 7 degrees of freedom, 2-tailed. *p , 0.05. **0.05 , p , 0.10.

targets, a parapsychological explanation is still required for any significant results. At this stage, parapsychologists have no evidence-based solutions to the problem of psi-missing in free-response tasks. Until we do, its essential to keep an open mind regarding psi-missing scores. Table 5 shows the TrDev average scores of each participant, including a single mean t-test of the participants 8 trials against chance expectation of zero. In Table 5, there is 1 participant, a Geshe, with an independently significant average TrDev of 0.518 (SD 0.479) which yields t(7) 3.06, p 0.018, 2tailed. (NOTE: We expect, by chance alone, that 1 out of 18 participants would score at the 5% significance level.) One other monk, a Rinpoche, scored an average TrDev of 0.429 (SD 0.617), which gives t(7) 1.97, p 0.09, 2tailed. The monk group showed more extreme scores than the student group. Four of the 12 monks had individual average TrDev scores more than 1 standard deviation from chance expectation, while only 1 of the 6 students did. Finally, it was of interest to examine the TrDev scores according to the monk hierarchy. Among the 12 monastics there was 1 Nun, 6 Geshes, 3 Rinpoches, and 2 lamas. Table 6 shows the mean TrDev scores of the nun, Geshes, Rinpoches, and lamas. Here we see that 1 group, the Rinpoches, score significantly in the psi-missing direction, whilst the 2 lamas are the only group to score in the psi-hitting

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TABLE 6 Mean Target Rating Scores (TrDev) for Monastics

Group Nun (1) Geshe (6) Rinpoche (3) Lama (2)

Statistic M SD n M SD n M SD n M SD n

TrDev 0.099 0.947 8 0.143 0.816 48 0.318 0.744 24 0.136 0.873 16

t-test 0.30 1.22 2.09* 0.62

Effect size (r) 0.11 0.18 0.40 0.16

*p , 0.05 (2-tailed).

direction. Figure 2 compares the average effect sizes across groups of participants. It illustrates the scoring tendencies rather nicely. Discussion This study, the first formal test of this hypothesis, suggestively confirms the preliminary findings from the prior ashram studies, that years of practice of meditation is related to more positive psi scoring. The number of hours of meditation practise was in the predicted direction, but not significantly so, whilst asana and pranayama practise was unrelated to psi scoring. In fact, very few of

Fig. 2. Average effect sizes by groups.

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the monks practised any asanas, though most did some form of pranayama prior to meditation. We can, therefore, tentatively suggest that as you practise meditation, it is the consistency of the practise day by day, year by year, rather than doing long retreats or extensive hours, that is the prime factor in affecting consciousness, so as to have greater clarity of awareness as measured by this psi task. Doing long retreats was negatively related to psi awareness, but, as this is the first time this measure has been included and the correlation is non-significant, it is better not to attach too much importance to this finding. Although not reported in Roney-Dougal and Solfvin (2006) owing to lack of space, this consistency of practice being a key variable was suggested by the initial preliminary analysis of the ashram studies (Roney-Dougal, 2003). However, as pointed out earlier, this is confounded by the age of the participants. The mean age of the Western students was 36 years (range 2744); that of the Geshes was 40.5 years (range 3548). The Rinpoches were comparatively young with a mean of 26.7 years (range 2227), whilst the lamas were much older at 55 years (range 4466). The significant correlation is weighted heavily by the significant psi-missing of the comparatively young Rinpoches at one end and the psi-hitting of the lamas. Obviously older monks were more likely to have done more years of practice, hence the confound with age. The overall non-significance of the psi scoring is almost to be expected when working with such a wide range of participants as we had herefrom Western students, to Tibetan monks just starting meditation practise, to one old lama, a Khensur (ex-abbot), who had practiced for 35 years and who lived in a small monastery 4,000 m up a mountain in a remote valley in Ladakh in the Himalayas. Although not apparent with this rating based analysis, the Khensur had a 50% direct hit rate. There were 3 participants who scored most strongly in the psi-missing direction, 1 Geshe and 2 Rinpoches (TrDev 0.52, 0.44, 0.43). These 3 were participants who, quite independently of each other, and not knowing the other participants, reported during the post-session interview that as a child they had had past life memories of being a monk in Tibet during the Chinese invasionwith the resultant imprisonment, torture, and death. For 2 of these, independent confirmation from relatives was obtained prior to analysis, and Jerry Solfvin, who performed the analysis, had no knowledge of these reports. Whatever might be the cause of their psi-missing, this is certainly an unexpected and interesting correlation worthy of much discussion. The other interesting data to emerge from this analysis are the independently significant psi-missing of the Rinpoches. Obviously this is composed in large measure of the 2 already mentioned who had had childhood memories of a previous life, which is presumably partially the reason they were selected as tulkus. However, Tibetan traditions accord a very special status to these people, believing that they were high lamas in their previous life and that they consciously chose to reincarnate to help all beings attain enlightenmentthe bodhisattva ideal. Whilst there has been considerable research with children who

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talk about a previous life, these have all been cases where there was no particular training in passing through the intermediate period between one life and the other with the conscious intention to reincarnate. Here we have a group who are considered to have mastered this taskand we find with them that there is significant scoring, albeit in the psi-missing direction. There are many possible reasons for psi-missing, as discussed in our earlier paper (Roney-Dougal & Solfvin, 2006). The most obvious possibility is that with the Tibetan community participating in this, it was their first exposure to science. Only in the past 4 years has there been any science taught (to Gelugpa monks only), and that as a voluntary class during their lunch breakso very, very few monks have any idea about science, its methodology, premises, etc., and most are very suspicious of it considering that science is responsible for the breakdown of Western spiritual traditions. To find any monks willing to participate was possible only because His Holiness Dalai Lama is so keen on Buddhist teachings being related to scientific findings. The monks were therefore doing something very alien to them and, for most, primarily because His Holiness supports meditation research. However the 3 Rinpoches and 1 independently significantly scoring Geshe account for all of the non-chance psi-missing, and 3 of them have past life memories, 2 of them being particularly unpleasant. The 1 Rinpoche who did not mention previous life memories in the interview did not score so strongly. Could it be that there is some sort of psi block in operation here? Owing to trauma from a memory holding over from what may have been a previous life? Far-fetched but well worth speculating about. Of concern however is that this psi-missing amongst the younger people distorts the correlation. This is the same distortion as found in the first ashram study (Roney-Dougal & Solfvin, 2006). This correlation significance in meditation studies occurring partially as a result of psi-missing was also found by Dukhan and Rao (1973) in their study, in which beginners and more advanced meditators both obtained highly significant psi-missing prior to meditation with significant psi-hitting after meditation. Roll and Zill (1981) obtained a similar significant difference, with the participants scoring negatively before the meditation and positively after. They consider that these results are more due to the participants conforming to the experimenters wishes than to the effect of meditation per se, because the significance of their study was primarily due to the decreased scoring before the meditation. Therefore, though there are now 3 studies which all point to more advanced meditators scoring better than beginners, it is not clear exactly what this means. The most that can be said is that those who have practised meditation for more years are less likely to psi-missfor whatever reason that might be. Conclusion This first formal experiment of the hypothesis, that years of practice of meditation affects ones change in awareness at the clairvoyance and pre-

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cognitive level, gives support to the Yogic and Buddhist teachings which state that such abilities arise as a result of meditation attainment. This conclusion is qualified by the fact that the correlation occurs primarily owing to extensive psi-missing by many of the participants. The cause for this psi-missing is uncertain. Acknowledgements Deep gratitude to His Holiness, Dalai Lama, whose request for science to investigate Tibetan psychic traditions initiated this study; to Perrot-Warwick Fund and Bial Foundation, grant no. 64/04, for their financial support of this research, without which it could not have happened; to Tenzin Geyche Tethong whose support enabled the grants to be obtained; to Geshe Jampel Dhakpa of Sarah College who affiliated this project to his Institute and has guided and assisted all the way; to His Holiness, Penor Rinpoche for permitting the research to take place at Namdroling Monastery; and to Khenpo Geshe Lobsang Palden at Sera Jey Monastic University for his support and assistance; to Khangser Rinpoche for his assistance in enabling the research to take place at Sera Jey Monastic University; to the translators, Gen Andu at Sera Jey, Choegyal Wangdu at Namdroling, Tenzin Dhakpa at Zanskar, and Dalden Gowa Otsal at Leh, Ladakh; to all the participants who shared most kindly of their time and expertise; to Guru Tinley for helping find my translator and participant at Namdroling; to Acharya Ngawang Nyima for help finding participants at Sera Jey; to Science Meet Dharma for their support of this project at Sera Jey; to Chockor Rinpoche for his excellent recording of the instructions in Tibetan used by so many participants and to Gen Tenzin for doing the translation; to David Luke and Geshe Dorje Dumdal-la for help with the questionnaire; to Ed May for help with the analysis; to Chris Roe for help with grant application, and support along the way; to Bradley Rowe for his beautiful photos which were used as target pictures. May this research be for the benefit of all beings. References
Conze, E. (trans. & ed.) (1975). The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, New Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidas. Dukhan, H., & Rao, K. R. (1973). Meditation and ESP scoring. In Roll, W. G., Morris, R. L., & Morris, J. D. (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1972 (pp. 148151). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Honorton, C. (1977). Psi and internal attention states. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology (pp. 435472). Van Nostrand Rheinhold. Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. H., & Bradish, G. J. (1997). Correlations of random binary sequences with pre-stated operator intention: a review of a 12-year program. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 11, 345367. Lamrimpa, Gen (1995). Calming the Mind: Tibetan Buddhist Teachings on Cultivating Meditative Quiescence. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion. Lodro, Gedun (1998). Calm Abiding and Special Insight. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion. Roll, W. G., & Zill, R. (1981). Psi scoring on individual and group targets before and after meditation. In Roll, W. G., & Beloff, J. (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1980 (pp. 7375). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

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Roney-Dougal, S. M. (2003). Free-response Psi experiments in a Yoga ashram: preliminary studies: part 2. Paper presented at SPR Conference, Manchester, UK, September. Roney-Dougal, S. M. (2006). Taboo and belief in Tibetan psychic tradition. Journal of the Society of Psychical Research, 70, 193210. Roney-Dougal, S. M., & Solfvin, J. (2006). Yogic attainment in relation to awareness of precognitive targets. Journal of Parapsychology, 70, 91120. Schmeidler, G. (1994). ESP experiments 19781992. In Krippner, S. (Ed.), Advances in Parapsychological Research (Vol. 7, pp. 104197). McFarland. Tsong Khapa (2002). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment: Lam Rim Chen Mo. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion.

APPENDIX 1 Meditation Attainment Questionnaire Name: 1) For how many years have you been practising meditation: 2) During this time: a) For how many years have you practised: Asana as a daily practise as a weekly practise irregularly Not at all Please circle the level of practise you are doing at the moment. b) For how many years have you practised: Pranayama (breath techniques) as a daily practise as a weekly practise irregularly Not at all Please circle the level of practise you are doing at the moment. 3) For how many years have you practised: Meditation as a daily practise as a weekly practise irregularly Not at all Please circle the level of practise you are doing at the moment. What type of meditation do you practise: i) Concentration (one-pointed) meditation Please specify practise/s you do ii) Analytical inquiry meditation Date:

estimate hours/day estimate hours/week estimate hours/year

Estimate hours/day estimate hours/week estimate hours/year

Estimate hours/day estimate hours/week estimate hours/year

Meditation and Psi with Tibetan Buddhists Please specify practise/s you do iii) Visualisation practices Please specify practise/s you do iv) Special insight meditation e.g.) Emptiness meditation Bodhicitta and Compassion meditation 4) For how many years have you practised: Dream Yoga as a daily practise as a weekly practise irregularly Not at all Please circle the level of practise you are doing at the moment. 5) Have you practised any of the Ngondros? If yes, Which ones have you completed? Which Ngondros have you done partially? Not at all 6) Have you completed any retreats? If yes, How many? For how long?

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APPENDIX 2 Session Instructions (All participants are given the following instructions, spoken in English on the computer at the appropriate time interval, and recorded on tape in Tibetan for non-English speakers. They are also written in Tibetan for them to review if necessary. These instructions are fully discussed until the participant clearly understands what is required of them. For some participants this took two or three sessions.) 1) The session is now about to begin. Please relax your body completely for a few minutes. 2) It is now time to make your resolution. This is a short statement of intent that you will become aware of the target picture which you will see on the computer at the end of the session. Please repeat this to yourself three times in the certain knowledge that it will come about. 3) Please begin your 15-minute meditation practise. 4) Staying in your meditation state, for the next few minutes look into the space

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behind your closed eyes and allow any thought, image, feeling, emotion, memory, come to mind and know that it is related to the target picture. 5) Now review what you have just experienced so that you remember your experience fully. 6) It is time to complete your meditation. Please ask the experimenter to join you now. Judging Instructions for Precognition Research 1) Verbally describe your experience during the awareness sessionand anything you feel might be relevant from before this. Remember shape is important for some people, feelings, intuitions, hunches, random thoughts, memories, associations, synchronicities, etc., are more relevant for others. As you practice you will learn the type of mentation that is appropriate for you; the way that you pick up psychic impressions. 2) Draw out any images and try not to label them. The verbal label of a shape is very often a distraction. 3) Look at all four pictures on the full screen starting with picture A, top left; then picture B, top right; then picture C, bottom left; then picture D, bottom right. 4) Look at them again and find connections between all of them and your experience that you have describedas well as anything that you remembered whilst looking at the pictures, or any feelings, intuitions you receive whilst looking at them. 5) Decide which connection is the strongesti.e. which picture you think is the target, the one that you will see at the end of the sessionbased on your experience. 6) Give this picture a rating from 199, the higher the rating, the stronger your confidence that it is the target. A rating of 99 means you are absolutely certain that it is the target; of 75, that you think it might be; of 50, that you are unsure; of 25, that you dont think it is; of 1, that you are absolutely certain it is not the target. A rating of 1 is as strong as a rating of 99. 7) Decide which picture is your second choice, the one that is second closest to your experience and give this a lower rating than the first choice; repeat for third and last picture. 8) When you are absolutely certain get feedback. Notes
1

A tulku is a person who is considered to be a reincarnation of a high lama who has attained to conscious rebirth for the purpose of gaining enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. A lama is formally defined as a monk who has completed a 3 year, 3 month, and 3 weeks retreat, but we are using the term more loosely in this study.

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 215226, 2008

0892-3310/08

ESSAY

Proposed Criteria for the Necessary Conditions for Shamanic Journeying Imagery
ADAM J. ROCK
Deakin University Melbourne, VIC, Australia e-mail: rock@deakin.edu.au

STANLEY KRIPPNER
Saybrook Graduate School San Francisco, CA

AbstractDespite renewed interest in shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties such as journeying imagery, these phenomena are neither well defined nor sufficiently understood. Consequently, we propose criteria pertaining to four necessary conditions for a visual mental image to qualify as a shamanic journeying image. Finally, we demonstrate how these necessary conditions may be used to extrapolate a scoring system that allows one to empirically test, via falsificationism, a visual mental images ostensible shamanic status. Keywords: shamanismshamanic journeying imagerynecessary conditions

Introduction Shamanism may be defined as a body of techniques and activities that supposedly enable its practitioners to access information that is not ordinarily attainable by members of the social group that gave them privileged status (Krippner, 2002: 962). The shaman performs a social-role function by using this information to serve the community (Walsh, 1989a). Many scholars (e.g., Eliade, 1989; Heinze, 1991; Ripinsky-Naxon, 1993) concur that altered states of consciousness (ASCs) are an integral part of shamanism, particularly those ASCs involving ecstatic journeying (i.e., soul ight or out-of-body experience) (Krippner, 2002: 966). Harner (1990) refers to ASCs experienced by these practitioners as shamanic states of consciousness. That is, shamanic techniques (e.g., listening to monotonous drumming, perceptual deprivation, ritualistic dancing, ingesting hallucinogens) are considered to facilitate purported shifts in consciousness. In other articles (e.g., Rock & Krippner, in press) we have 215

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provided our rationale for replacing shamanic states of consciousness with shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties, and will use that wording throughout this paper. Noll (1985) states that, Shamanism is an ecstatic healing tradition which at its core is concerned with the techniques for inducing, maintaining, and interpreting the experience of enhanced visual mental imagery (p. 45). Similarly, Peters (1989) writes that, The shaman is a visualizer . . . (p. 130) and that, In shamanism, the key to the transpersonal is through visualization (p. 129). Indeed, Houran, Lange, and Crist-Houran (1997) examined the phenomenology of 30 narratives pertaining to shamanic journeying experiences presented in Harner (1990) and reported that 93.3% involved some form of visual phenomena. The shamans visualisations (i.e., journeying imagery) tend to be consistent with his or her learned cosmology (Krippner, 1990; Walsh, 1995, 2007), which consists of a multi-layered universe often exemplified by a lower world (the underworld or land of the dead), upper world (sky) and middle world (the terrestrial world or Earth). However, it would be an oversimplification to assume that all shamanic traditions equate the lower world with the land of the dead, and the upper world with sky. For example, Lepp (2004: 217 218) states that Mongolian shamans travel to the Lower World to talk with the dead (p. 218) but Na-hki and Moso shamans (in the Tibet area) believed that souls should rise to heaven. The various worlds are held to be connected by a central axis that may take the form of, for example, a world tree, cosmic mountain or world pillar (Eliade, 1989). Walsh (1989b: 27) states that the upper world tends to be associated with spirit guides and teachers, while others (e.g., Kalweit, 1988) suggest that light experiences and encounters with celestial beings are common. In contrast, the lower world is often a place of tests and challenges (Walsh, 1990a: 147), where the shaman may encounter, for example, infernal rivers (Eliade, 1989) or predatory creatures (Kalweit, 1988). Despite renewed interest in, for example, shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties such as journeying imagery (Walsh, 1989b), these phenomena are neither well defined nor sufficiently understood. It is, of course, a commonsense point that a shamanic journeying image is an image that occurs in the context of a shamanic journeying experience. Clearly, this statement is true by definition, or tautology, and is, thus, redundant. What is needed is a formal statement of the criteria for the necessary conditions for shamanic journeying imagery. Our proposed criteria are derived from a review of generally accepted examples of shamanic journeying found in the anthropological and psychological literature. That is to say, the criteria will be validated by showing that they are features of imagery that are considered by scholars (and by shamans themselves) to be shamanic. Furthermore, it will become evident that our criteria are indicative of an experientially consistent journeying experience with regards to (1) the way the images

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are integrated to form a geography or landscape, (2) shamanic cosmology, (3) the purpose of the journey, and (4) the function of the journeying image. The purpose of the present paper is to propose criteria for the necessary conditions for shamanic journeying imagery. Before proceeding, however, a qualifying statement is required. Shamanic journeying imagery is not restricted to any particular sensory modality, that is, journeying imagery may be visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile or multi-modal (Walsh, 1995). However, for the purpose of the present paper, shamanic journeying images will be delimited to their visual modality because these are arguably the most abundant (Houran et al., 1997; Noll, 1983). We will argue that there exist four necessary conditions for a visual mental image to be deemed a shamanic journeying image: N1: The visual mental image, X, must be integrated with other visual mental images; N2: The outward appearance of X must be consistent with a shamanic cosmology; N3: X must be consistent with the purpose of the shamanic journey; and N4: The function of X must be consistent with X. N1N3 were formulated a posteriori while N4 was constructed a priori. An example of an ostensibleyet ultimately nonshamanicjourneying image might be an X that satisfies, for instance, N1 (i.e., the visual mental image, X, must be integrated with other visual mental images), but fails to satisfy one or more of the remaining necessary conditions. N1: X Must Be Integrated With Other Visual Mental Images We are using the term integrated to emphasize that during shamanic journeying experiences various visual mental images combine to form cohesive geographies or landscapes, wherein events unfold in a sequential manner. Consequently, during journeying the shaman does not, for example, aim to cultivateand subsequently focus ona single visual mental image while attempting to eliminate all other thought-forms. By way of illustration, one may consider the following narrative provided by a Magar shaman detailing a journey to the lower world or underworld:
The shaman travels to a high mountain pass, and from there descends into the underworld. Many of the geographical names used are both real and symbolic. For example, just beyond Dhorpatan is a large stone with a natural groove around its middle. The stone is called The Tying place of the Death sacrifice, and as such is a symbolic road marker for the road of death. The groove is attributed to the wear of the ropes of animals which have been tied there for the Casting-away-the-soul sacrifice. Further on, at the mountain pass, is a dividing of watersheds. The water which runs toward the village is known as The Waters of Remembrance, and the water flowing the other way as The Waters of Forgetfulness. In retrieving the soul, it is said that if the shaman can overtake it while it is still within the Waters of Remembrance, its capture and subsequent

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reinstallation is comparatively easy. If, on the other hand, the soul has reached the Waters of Forgetfulness, it will forget its home and family and wander into the underworld. (Waters; cited in Desjarlais, 1989: 291)

It is noteworthy that, in the preceding example, visual mental images such as a large stone, mountain pass, watershed, and a village are integrated to form the geography of the Magar shamans underworld. Consequently, these visual mental images satisfy N1. An example of a visual mental image that doesnt satisfy N1 is any image that is not a constituent of a coherent geography or landscape. For instance, if an individual reported a single visual mental image (e.g., a large stone) manifesting in a vacuum, then this would be inconsistent with N1.

N2: The Outward Appearance of X Must Be Consistent With a Shamanic Cosmology By outward appearance we are referring to the form or garb of X. For example, Strassman (2001) has speculated that entities encountered during dimethyltryptamine-induced experiences may manifest in forms (e.g., elves, aliens) recognisable to the percipient. Thus, to invoke Kants (1781/1933) noumenal/phenomenal distinction, one may distinguish between the entity as a thing-in-itself (i.e., the noumenon) and the entity as perceived by the percipient (i.e., the phenomenon, outward appearance, form, garb). It is noteworthy that the proposed criteria for this necessary condition consist of a shamanic cosmology rather than merely shamanic cosmology because the latter implies an arguably erroneous universality. During a shamanic journeying experience the aspirant purportedly travels to realms or worlds located within the shamans cosmos (Walsh, 1995). While each shamanic culture has developed its own cosmology, Ellwood (1987) suggests that a shamanic cosmology tends to consist of a three-tiered universe of varying ontological status. Harner (1990) considers it instructive to divide the shamans universe into bipolar opposites: ordinary and non-ordinary reality. During shamanic journeying experiences the shaman purportedly accesses what is technically referred to as the lower world and the upper world (non-ordinary reality) (Doore, 1989; Walsh, 1990b, 1994). In normal waking consciousness (ordinary reality) the shaman experiences what is known as the middle world, which is simply ones everyday existence on Earth (Harner, 1987). Eliade (1989) states that all three worlds are interconnected by a central axis (e.g., a pillar, tree, mountain). Moreover, the upper and lower worlds are believed to be multi-layered in many shamanic cultures (Walsh, 1990b). For example, Peters (1990) states that according to Tamang cosmology the universe is held to exhibit a configuration of nine lower worlds and nine upper worlds. Furthermore, six planets are understood to surround the terrestrial world in various directions. Rather than the central axis assuming the form of a world pillar, cosmic

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mountain, or world tree (Eliade, 1989), the Tamang shaman utilises a rainbow rope that emanates from the top of the cranium (Peters, 1990). Numerous scholars (e.g., Eliade, 1989; Kalweit, 1988; Walsh, 1989b) concur that shamanic cosmologies consist of various transcultural elements. Kalweit (1988) states that the upper world is a realm that is associated with experiences of light and celestial beings. Walsh (1989b: 27) asserts, The upperworld is a place where teachers and guides may be found and is perhaps populated with strange animals, plants, and people. Additionally, Shirokogoroff (1935; cited in Kalweit, 1988: 70) writes that in the cosmology of the Tungus, the upper world is where the stars, the sun, the moon, and a few spirits and souls reside. The shamans lower world is commonly referred to as the underworld (Eliade, 1989) or the Land of the Dead (Kalweit, 1988), and its geography is frequently characterised as funerary (Eliade, 1989: 509). Indeed, the Nepali shaman habitually visit cremation grounds, the Magar shaman purportedly journeys to a graveyard (Desjarlais, 1989), and the cosmology of Tamang shamanism makes reference to a black castle of death in the middle of a cemetery (Peters, 1990: 78), whilst amongst the shamanism of North Asia the geography of the underworld contains graves decorated with inverted objects (Eliade, 1989). Symbolic death and rebirth is a prevalent theme in the shamans lower world (Dobkin de Rios & Winkelman, 1989; Peters, 1989; Winkelman, 1986). Amongst the shamans of western South Australia the neophyte is inserted into a water hole, swallowed by a mythical snake and subsequently ejected in the form of a newborn child (Drury, 1987). Similarly, in Labrador Eskimo shamanism Tongarsoak the Great Spirit purportedly manifests in the guise of an enormous white bear and consumes the candidate (Eliade, 1989). As Campbell (1993: 91) explains, This popular motif gives emphasis to the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation. Whilst descending to the lower world the neophyte routinely encounters obstacles (e.g., rivers, bridges, mountains) (Desjarlais, 1989; Harner, 1990; Kalweit, 1988; Peters, 1989, 1990). Eliade (1989) holds that aquatic symbolism often fulfils the negative performative function of an obstacle. Eliade (1989: 312) contends that the infernal river is a classic motif of the descent to the underworld, which is present in nearly all the variants. Indeed the Waters of Death are held to be a prevalent theme amongst, for example, Asiatic, Oceanic, and palaeo-oriental mythologies (Eliade, 1959: 135). For example, the Altaic shamans descent to the lower world is characterised by seven subterranean regions, referred to as pudak (i.e., obstacles), of which the fifth and the seventh pudak incorporate aquatic symbolism (i.e., waves and rivers, respectively) (Eliade, 1989). This is consistent with Walshs (1990a: 147) assertion that the lower world is often a place of tests and challenges. Walsh (1993: 750) states that the experiential content of the shamanic journey is . . . consistent with the shamans learned cosmology. Thus, a shamanic

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journeying image is, at least in part, a visual mental image that is consistent with the shamans cosmological framework. An example of shamanic journeying imagery would be Maria Sabinas (the Mazatec shaman) journeying imagery (Wasson et al., 1974). When treating a young man, she asked some basic questions (e.g., What happened to your foot?: p. 31) and then provided diagnostic answers (e.g., It isnt a sickness. . ., it is a blow of fortune that hit him: p. 33). And, as the psychotropic mushrooms both shaman and her client had ingested began to take effect, she launched into her healing journey. For example, Oh Jesus, clock woman am I, eagle woman am I (pp. 6465). I am going to thunder, I am going to sound. Even below the water, even the sea (p. 83), woman lord of the holy clown am I, the mushroom says (p. 91), lawyer woman, affairs, Mexican flag (p. 103), woman of the whirlpool, in the lake am I (p. 107), woman of the star of the Southern Cross am I. . ., woman of the shooting stars am I, lawyer woman am I, woman of affairs I am, I am going to the sky. Yes, Jesus Christ says, there my paper book is, there my Book is, my clean Book, my good Book (p. 109). There is where my prayers are, and where my little nuns are, and I go to the sky (p. 111). At the end of the session, Maria Sabina asked the young man, Has your body become lighter now? (p. 201) and he answered in the affirmative. However, the healing was not complete and she concluded that her client probably needed many more mushrooms (p. 203). Back from the sky, Maria concluded the session by saying, We are left only perplexed (p. 205). These excerpts qualify as shamanic journeying images because they were a series of images that occurred during a shamanic ceremony, and they reflected Mazatec shamanic cosmology (e.g., the lower world of the whirlpool, sea, and lake; the upper world of the eagle, shooting stars, and the sky. In contrast, the overlay of Roman Catholic symbolism (Jesus Christ, nuns, and the Book), Mexican folklore (clock woman, holy clown), and politics (lawyer woman, Mexican flag) do not satisfy N2 and, thus, do not qualify as shamanic journeying images. N3: X Must Be Consistent With the Purpose of the Shamanic Journey Walsh (1995: 37) suggests that the mental images encountered during shamanic journeying are consistent with the purpose of the specific session. For example, a shaman called Semyon Semyonov describes the following sequence:
. . . my ancestors made me into a shaman. They set me up like a wooden pole and shot arrows at me until I became unconscious. They cut the flesh off me. They separated my bones and counted them. My flesh they ate raw. When they counted my bones, they found that there was one too many. Had there not been enough bones I could not have become shaman (Ksenofontov, cited in Kalweit, 1988: 106).

It is arguable that the purpose of Semyon Semyonovs journeying session is what Eliade (1989: 59) has referred to as ritual death and resurrection. Consequently, the entire series of images (e.g., ancestors cutting and eating the shamans flesh) may be regarded as consistent with the task at hand, thus,

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satisfying N3. In contrast, if the purpose of a shamanic journeying session was ritual death and resurrection (Eliade, 1989: 59) and if the imagery sequence was inconsistent with this purpose (e.g., the shaman traversed a jungle), then the imagery would fail to satisfy N3. N4: The Function of X Must Be Consistent With X We are using the term function to denote the action or activities expected of X according to a particular shamanic cosmology. It is arguable that Xs perform either literal or symbolic functions. If some X performs a literal function, then X functions in exact accordance with or limited to the primary or explicit meaning of a word (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1999: 854). Consider a Siberian shamans description of the features of a journey to the lower world:
His soul is taken to the shaman ancestor, and there they show him a kettle full of boiling tar. There are people in it. There are some who are known to the shaman. A single rope is fastened across the kettle and they order him to walk over it. If he succeeds, he will live long. If he falls into the kettle, he might still become a Kam (shaman), but usually they do not survive (Dioszegi, cited in Kalweit, 1988: 231).

The function of the shaman ancestor image is to impose tests that the neophyte must pass. This function is consistent with the explicit meaning of the term shaman ancestor. That is to say, one literal function of a shaman ancestor is to provide shamanic training. Consequently, the shaman ancestor image satisfies N4. If, for example, the shaman ancestor exhibited the behavior of a court-jester (e.g., juggling red balls for the purpose of entertaining spectators), then this would be inconsistent with the literal function of a shaman ancestor and, thus, N4. In contrast, if some X performs a symbolic function, then the function of X is such that it represents or stands for something else, usually by convention or association (Collins Concise Dictionary, 1999: 1507). One may consider the rope across the kettle of tar image from the previous example. This image may be conceptualized as a symbol of hell (Kalweit, 1988), thus, satisfying N4. In contrast, if the shaman, for instance, drank from the kettle of tar and claimed that his/her thirst had been quenched, then this would be inconsistent with the symbolic function of this image and, thus, would constitute a violation of N4. A Critical Issue It might be argued that a necessary condition should be formulated that addresses the ontological foundations of shamanic journeying imagery (e.g., the ontological foundations of a visual mental image, X, must be Y). Ontology may be defined as the matter of what there is in the world (Chalmers, 1996: 41); it is concerned with an overall conception of how things are (Heil, 1998: 6). The term ontological foundations refers to the fundamental nature of the underpinnings of, for instance, a visual mental image. For example, an ontologist

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might be concerned with whether the kind of thing (i.e., denoted by Y) to which a shamanic journeying image is referentially linked is imaginal (i.e., a projection of the shamans mental set) or exosomatic (i.e., independent of the shamans mind-body complex) (Irwin, 1985; Walsh, 2007). Walsh (1990b: 89) argues that, As metaphysicians, shamans tend to be realists. That is, shamans conceptualize phenomena encountered during, for example, magical flight or soul journeying as real, objective, and independent of the shamans mind-body state (Walsh, 1989b). For example, in a survey of the ethnographic literature, Noll (1985: 446) states that during a North American Indian vision quest, a vision was taken to be a real perception: an encounter with an order of reality independent of the perceiver. Indeed, Peters and PriceWilliams (1980: 405) assert that, Whereas Western psychiatry explains the visions as symbolic of internal processes, the shaman sees them as objective events. Noll (1985) concludes that an increase in the perspicacity of the shamanic practitioners mental imagery is contemporaneous with alterations in ones psychophysiology, which, in turn, increase ones certainty that the upper world and lower world are veridical. Similarly, Harner (1987) suggests that the shamans cosmos is not a mental projection, but rather exists independently of the perceivers mind. Furthermore, Walsh (1990a) contends that one crucial distinction between Buddhist meditative experiences and shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties is that the shamanic practitioner regards mental imagery as concrete and real, while the Buddhist adept considers imagery to be ephemeral and devoid of any independent reality. It would, of course, be useful to resolve the ontological foundations (i.e., whether Y is imaginal or exosomatic) of shamanic journeying imagery using a priori or a posteriori methods, rather than merely to assume that shamans knowledge claims are valid. In this context it may be prudent to consider Mercantes (under review: 67) suggestion that a persuasive argument for considering imagery associated with the Ayahuasca experience (i.e., mirao, singular; miraoes, plural) an involuntary and spontaneous process is that voluntary events rely on memory. Extrapolating from Farthings (1992) discussion of mental imagery to miraoes, Mercante (under review: 67) writes:
If the arrival and dissipation of miraes were subject to the command of the individual, it would follow that no alien elements (outside a persons familiar universe) would be present. . .. The idea is that one can only voluntarily manipulate images that are impressed upon the memory through sensation. Not that a person cannot assemble new patterns from recorded sensory data, but he or she cannot manufacture fundamental data beyond the pale of experience. The revelatory qualities of the mirao would be lost or at least considered illusory if the experience of it were limited to the cache of existing memory.

One may apply Mercantes argument to shamanic journeying imagery and contend that if shamanic journeying images are immune to voluntarily manipulation, then shamanic journeying images are not constructed from material derived from a percipients long-term memory system. Ethnographic data, however, suggest that shamans tend to cultivate a mastery over journeying images (e.g., Noll, 1985), thus indicatingprovided one accepts Mercantes

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preceding argumentthat shamanic journeying imagery is the result of an epistemological process involving memory recall and superimposition within a percipients phenomenal space. Furthermore, it is arguable that even if the outward appearance of a shamanic journeying image, X, is derived from material stored in a percipients long-term memory system, this does not necessarily preclude the ontological foundations of X from being exosomatic. For example, if a shaman encounters a predatory creature during a journey to the lower worldand the outward appearance of this predatory creature is the derivative of an autobiographical memoryit remains possible that the predatory creature is merely the manifestation or personae of an external entity. As previously stated, Strassman (2001), for instance, has suggested that entities encountered during dimethyltryptamine-induced patterns of phenomenal properties tend to manifest in forms recognisable to the percipient (e.g., elves, aliens, angels, deceased relatives) and yet may reside in parallel universes or darkmatter realms. Walsh (1990b) suggests that we are not currently in a position to prove or disprove the proposition that the ontological status of spirits is transpersonal. Similarly, the ontological status of the referents of journeying phenomena currently resists resolution. Thus, the usefulness of a necessary condition pertaining to the ontological foundations of journeying imagery is hampered by the inability to determine whether Y denotes imaginal or exosomatic.

Scoring With Regard to Shamanic Journeying Image Status The formulation of N1N4 constitutes a set of criteria that allows one to investigate whether a visual mental image isnt a shamanic journeying image. If the visual mental image fails to satisfy all necessary conditions, then it is falsified and regarded as a nonshamanic image. However, if all the proposed necessary conditions are satisfied, then it doesnt necessarily follow that the visual mental image is a shamanic journeying image because the conjunction of N1N4 may not constitute a sufficient condition (i.e., there may exist necessary conditions that we have overlooked). One might invoke a dichotomous yes/no scoring format with regard to each necessary condition and code yes as 1 and no as 0. Thus, any score less than 4 would result in the falsification of a visual mental images purported shamanic status. Consider a Tamang shamans description of his initiatory calling:
. . . I took my fathers [also a shaman] magical dagger and went to where the three rivers cross [a cemetery]. . .. In the cemetery, I saw many evil spirits, some with long crooked fangs, others with no heads and with eyes in the middle of their chests, still others carrying decayed corpses. They attacked me and, before I knew it, they were all over me devouring my body. I was scared to death and, in a last hope, cried for the gods to save me, pleading that I was only a young boy. I drew out my fathers magical dagger to defend myself, but it fell to the ground and struck a rock. This created a spark of light and

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everything changed. Suddenly it was daytime and the demons were gone. I was alive! (Peters, 1982: 23)

One may proceed to assess, for example, the evil spirit images as follows: The evil spirits satisfy N1 on the grounds that they are integrated with other visual mental images (e.g., a cemetery, decaying corpses, a magical dagger, a rock). The outward appearance of the visual mental image (e.g., evil spirits with crooked fangs) is consistent with Tamang shamanic cosmology (i.e., the shaman often encounters predatory creatures), thereby satisfying N2. The evil spirits satisfy N3 on the grounds that they appear consistent with the purpose of the journey, which is arguably shamanic death/ rebirth. It is noteworthy that the shaman states that the evil spirits attacked me. . .. I was scared to death. . .. (Peters, 1982: 23). This mental imagery sequence is consistent with the contention that predatory creatures such as evil spirits perform the symbolic function of representing the shamans fear (Kalweit, 1988), thus, satisfying N4. Given that the evil spirits satisfy N1N4, a score of 4 is awarded and the purported shamanic journeying status of the visual mental image is not falsified. It may also be observed that when N1N4 are satisfied the journeying imagery experience is arguably more coherent and, thus, more likely to be productive and meaningful for the shaman and his/her community. That is to say, if one or more of the necessary conditions is not satisfied, then the experiential consistency of the journey is compromised. For example, if the purpose of a journeying session is ascension to the upper world to communicate with ones power animal, then being attacked by evil spirits in the lower world is inconsistent with this purpose and, thus, a contravention of N3. Consequently, it might be argued that, given the purpose of the session, being attacked by evil spirits detracts from the experiential consistency of the journey.

Conclusion It was argued that despite renewed interest in shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties such as journeying imagery, these phenomena are neither well defined nor sufficiently understood. Consequently, we formulated proposed criteria for the necessary conditions for a visual mental image to qualify as a shamanic journeying image. The criteria were validated by demonstrating that they constitute features of visual mental imagery deemed by scholars (and by shamans themselves) to be shamanic. It was contended that, taken as a whole, the criteria are indicative of an experientially consistent journey. A scoring system was also developed that allows one to falsify a visual mental images purported shamanic status. Essentially, the aforementioned proposed criteria provide future researchers seeking to examine shamanic journeying imagery with the conceptual tools needed to identify the phenomenon that they are intending to investigate.

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The authors express their gratitude to the Chair for Consciousness Studies of Saybrook Graduate School for supporting the preparation of this paper.

References
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Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 193213, 2008

0892-3310/08

ESSAY

Change the Rules!


ROBERT G. JAHN
AND

BRENDA J. DUNNE

Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research School of Engineering and Applied Science Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 rgjahn@princeton.edu

AbstractAlthough consciousness-correlated physical phenomena are widely and credibly documented, their appearance and behavior display substantial departures from conventional scientific criteria. Under even the most rigorous protocols, they are only irregularly replicable, and they appear to be insensitive to most basic physical coordinates, including distance and time. Rather, their strongest correlations are with various subjective parameters, such as intention, emotional resonance, uncertainty, attitude, and meaning, and information processing at an unconscious level appears to be involved. If science, by its most basic definition, is to pursue understanding and utilization of these extraordinary processes, it will need to expand its current paradigm to acknowledge and codify a proactive role for the mind in the establishment of physical events, and to accommodate the spectrum of empirically indicated subjective correlates. The challenges of quantitative measurement and theoretical conceptualization within such a Science of the Subjective are formidable, but its potential intellectual and cultural benefits could be immense, not least of all in improving the reach, the utility, the attitude, and the image of science itself. Keywords: consciousness-correlated physical phenomena (CCPP)science of the subjective (SOS)scientific criteriascientific models

I. Background In a prior article we reviewed in some detail the multidimensional history and accomplishments of the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) program over the past quarter century, as it endeavored to assess and comprehend a variety of consciousness-correlated physical phenomena (henceforth CCPP) evidenced in the course of that research. As specified at the close of that essay, these experimental and theoretical studies, complemented by many other scholarly investigations conducted elsewhere, and by a broad range of less formally reported public and personal experiences, have led us to a hierarchy of 193
(1)

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convictions about the fundamental nature of these extraordinary phenomena that may serve as an epistemological platform for their further comprehension and possible beneficial applications. Reprising that list [cf. pp. 238239 of reference (Ref.) 1] in more succinct terms: 1) The anomalous effects, although small and irregular, are demonstrable under rigorously controlled, albeit conducive, laboratory conditions. 2) Their replicability, even under the most propitious experimental protocols, is broadly statistical at best, entailing unpredictable short- and long-term variations in their effect sizes and qualitative character. 3) To the extent that they can be statistically established, the effects seem to be largely independent of such objectively specifiable physical parameters as distance, time, or the nature of the devices or processes addressed. 4) Rather, their primary correlates appear to be subjective in character, including such nebulous factors as teleological intention (need, desire); emotional resonance (bonding, meaning, personal importance); attitude (confidence, playfulness, low ego involvement); masculine/feminine distinctions (both psychological and biological); and perceived uncertainty or complexity (both conceptual and technical), all of which may function at the unconscious as well as the conscious level. In short, the manifestation of these anomalous physical effects does not conform well to prevailing scientific criteria. Specifically, they appear to challenge such honored requisites as causal determinism, falsifiability, reductionism, objectivity, and quantifiability of the salient correlates. In some respects, they more closely resemble the category of human experience that Carl Jung labeled acausal,(2) leaving us, like him, with a major problem of how to approach their study and comprehension in a scholarly fashion. Five categories of response might be considered, and indeed have been propounded in assorted contexts by various commentators: 1) Reject the entire body of empirical evidence as illusory. 2) Concede the anomalous effects, but dismiss their intellectual or pragmatic importance because of their small scale and elusive character. 3) Admit their existence and potential relevance, but concede the impotence of scientific methodology to deal incisively with them. 4) Attribute their irregularity and incomprehensibility to inadequate identification of additional physical factors which, once specified and controlled, would bring the phenomena into the fold of deterministic scientific processes. 5) Relax and/or expand certain elements of scientific doctrine to encompass such phenomena in a broader scholarly paradigm. Option #1 seems the least intellectually responsible, given the quality and quantity of the extant empirical evidence. Scraping aside the inevitable over-

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burden of nave, incompetent, or fraudulent representations that continue to confound the topic, the residue of solid experimental data is in fact far more extensive and incontrovertible than that undergirding many of the more esoteric concepts of contemporary physics and biology. Option #2 seems dangerously short-sighted in light of the numerous examples over the history of science where initially microscopic effects, once comprehended in fundamental terms, have vaulted into monumental intellectual and pragmatic importance. Option #3 needs to be considered more seriously, for it draws a line in the sand in front of contemporary science that could limit its future growth in intellectual and public authority. In essence, it would restrict the professional purview of future science to those phenomena that submit to its increasingly rigid, mechanistic rule system, leaving assessment and understanding of all other forms of human experience to alternative modes of establishment, inspection, and representation. Option #4 is reminiscent of the attitude of Albert Einstein in deferring acceptance of the probabilistic interpretations of quantum science pending a thorough search for hidden variables that could return the mechanics to causal terms. Unfortunately, his celebrated God does not play dice injunction has yet to be empirically validated for most quantum-scale physical events and seems not to apply to the broader range of human experience. Yet more to the point, our established empirical data strongly indicate that at least some of such neglected correlates must be intrinsically subjective in character, for which conventional science has little capacity for specification, quantification, and mathematical manipulation. Thus the distinction between this approach and the following option #5 essentially devolves into an attack on the subjectivity issue, per se, or to a reformulation of the scientific paradigm on more comprehensive grounds. Option #5 is clearly the most challenging, and admittedly entails two elements of substantial risk. First, there is the danger that the proposed major rule changes could be invoked illegitimately to rationalize flawed empirical data, analytical procedures, or theoretical logic, which if remedied directly would obviate the need for the more fundamental revisions. Clearly, such milder alternatives must be fully exhausted in every case before resorting to more radical resolutions. Second, if such rule changes are indeed to be installed, care must be taken not to compromise those aspects of the scientific methodology that remain valid and will continue to be essential going forward. In particular, the unavoidable loss of precision in incorporating subjective dimensions cannot be allowed to dilute the validity of the observations and models. All of this said, it is our considered position that such fundamental broadening of its strategic approach is ultimately inescapable if science is to continue to maintain its premier position in the arsenal of cultural logic and utility. If these phenomena indeed exist and can significantly impact human experience and behavior, society has a right to demand their ongoing scientific assessment and

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comprehension. Beyond this, the proposed extension of the range of science would substantially alleviate several of the ideological dichotomies which its more rigid definition has fostered, e.g., science vs. religion, logic vs. intuition, material vs. mental, functional vs. aesthetic, etc., etc. However, two formidable obstacles will obstruct this ambitious tactical path: a) the obdurate recalcitrance of the established scientific community toward consideration of the requisite revisions; and b) the difficulty in formulating and implementing those revised rules. The first obstacle can be countered by noting the proliferate sequence of substantial rule changes that already have marked the course of scientific endeavor throughout its long cultural history. As Thomas Kuhn has documented, the recurrent pattern is for science to proceed along a relatively flat conceptual path until some imposing body of anomalous empirical evidence forces it to revise its rule system and thereby to jump rather abruptly to a new plateau of presumption, which then serves as the conceptual and strategic level for another extended era of activity until the next paradigm shift is forced to occur.(3) The familiar examples comprise the well-known rungs in the historical ladder of Western science, usually labeled by their primary proponents, e.g., Ptolemy to Aristotle to Galileo to Newton to Einstein to Bohr to Schrdinger, etc. From such a retrospective, we clearly have the precedents for a new rule-change process to be considered, and need only to argue whether the extant anomalous evidence is now sufficient to cause yet another shift in scientific attitude, and how this may best be achieved. But beyond the historical argument, it should be obvious to any astute practitioner or informed observer of contemporary science that this scholarly trade is already far from a purely objective business. In choosing a topic, designing experiments, collecting and analyzing data, conceiving and formalizing models, and interpreting the ensuing dialogue between predictions and results, there is inescapable intrusion of subjective investments in the tasks at hand, acceptance of the intrinsic uncertainties lurking therein, and utilization of many forms of unconscious processing, including intuition, instinct, and creative inspiration. While many scientists will concede, however grudgingly, the parallel presence of these factors in their daily scholarly activities, most will stoically resist attributing to them any tangible correlations with the emergent physical effects. But this attitude, in the absence of any objective study of the possibilities of subjective/objective cross-talk, is itself an egregious violation of scientific objectivity. Categorical, a priori rejection of subjective influences in the face of the extant technical data and ubiquitous common experience constitutes a damning indictment of the entrenched scientific establishment and its pontifical methodology. II. Other Precedents The dereliction of objectivity about subjectivity in science cuts far wider than any particular research agenda addressed. Indeed, any scholarly discipline, in

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the pursuit of its own information processing and analyses, needs to confront the possibility that the tangible experiences of its domain may be subjectively conditioned to some degree. For this reason, we need not limit our search for precedents to the scientific milieu, but we may also examine the subjectively inspired rule changes that have characterized many pragmatic and humanistic fields of endeavor, as well. In point of fact, most of the concepts of the exact sciences have been metaphorically appropriated from more mundane common experience; hence their ongoing metamorphosis will tend to reflect the broader evolution of human thought and inspiration. Thus, if we are searching for rule changes that can productively accommodate the subjective aspects of science, we may benefit from reflection on such influences in other realms of human affairs. In the most common of public activitiesgovernment and law enforcement; industry and business; education at all levels; medical practice and health care; and many other sectorswe have repeatedly instilled alterations in the prevailing regulations that have reflected evolutions of public and private needs, desires, knowledge, and aspirations. In virtually every case, the issue has not so much been whether to change, but what to change, i.e., what portion of the prevailing architecture of rules should remain fundamental and indispensable, and what could be beneficially modified. Current examples would include the green revolution, the ramparts erected to restrain terrorist incursions, and of course the panoply of equal opportunity retrofits to societal mores. In the Appendix we discuss particular cultural and formalistic rule changes that have characterized several fields of scholarly and pragmatic endeavor. The take-away distillation from such multidisciplinary retrospection is that quantized changes in perspective are common, and for the most part necessary, in virtually all categories of human activity, and that scientific research in particular cannot be held immune from occasional overhaul when empirical evidence or philosophical maturation so predicates. The essential tasks are to justify, program, and install such changes in constructive and expeditious fashions that minimize wastage of the prior formats, defuse resistance from the recalcitrant oppositions, and engender productive utilizations by the avant-garde generations of new scholars. III. Conceptual Bases Before attempting to specify the particular scientific rule changes we envisage, it may also be useful to review the evolution of our own prior attempts to model consciousness-correlated physical phenomena, per se. In the cited previous publication,(1) we outlined several efforts to formulate conceptual representations of possible CCPP mechanisms, as stimulated by various batches of experimental results obtained over the course of the PEAR program. Early on, we were impressed by certain phenomenological and epistemological similarities of the empirical experiences with those of elementary quantum

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science, and we proposed a metaphorical extension of the Copenhagen physics of observation approach to a more general physics of experience attitude we called the Quantum Mechanics of Consciousness (QMC) that could embrace a number of specifiable subjective parameters.(4) From the recognition that physics describes reality as exposed to our method of questioning(5) emerged such conceptual aids as consciousness atoms, molecules, resonant bonds, and coherent ensembles, along with behavioral interpretations of the quantum principles of uncertainty, complementarity, exclusion, superposition, correspondence, and entanglement, that helped to conceptualize the anomalous results. Somewhat later, we introduced a Modular Model of Mind/Matter Manifestations (M5), which explicitly acknowledged the role of the unconscious mind in the anomalous events, especially its capacity to dialogue effectively with the sub-physical or intangible processes that underlie abstract theoretical physics.(6) This was supplemented by a proposed mathematical formalism entitled M*: A Vector Representation of the Subliminal Seed Region of M5.(7) Yet more recently, we mused about Sensors, Filters, and the Source of Reality (SFS) in a framework that generalized all forms of experience in terms of an interpenetration of two primary entities: an organizing Consciousness, whether individual or collective, localized or extensive, objective or subjective, conscious or unconscious, sensory or subtle, and an undifferentiated Source, an ineffable, unbounded, inexhaustible reservoir of potential experience and information that could be tapped by suitable interpenetration with the relevant Consciousness within a given context of meaning.(8) An important by-product of this representation was the recognition of a multitude of Filters imposed on the interpenetration channels by physiological, psychological, and cultural factors that could obstruct, restrict, or distort the raw information flow between the Consciousness and the Source in either direction, but which also could be opened or tuned to particular purposes to deepen the interpenetration and release more profound experiences. Overarching these explicit models was a more generic proposition defining their common purpose, entitled Science of the Subjective, (SOS) which remains our charter statement of the composite experimental and theoretical attack on this topic.(9) Although the concepts and mechanics presented in this array of models may seem somewhat disparate, their larger value going forward may lie in the identification of certain common-denominator issues that arise in one form or another in all of them, and thus comprise a skeletonic structure of the encompassing SOS, and may eventually enable a yet-more-fundamental representation of the entire CCPP domain of experience. The list of such common theoretical ingredients is appropriately similar to that inferred from our experimental studies, namely: 1) Uncertainty The critical importance of some form of intrinsic indeterminacy or randomicity in the physical process, device, or event involved has been thoroughly de-

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monstrated in the experimental program. In the quantum model, the uncertainty resides in the probabilistic character of the mechanics itself. In M5, it is inherent in the unconscious mental processing, and in the sub-physical representations. In the SFS approach, it resides in the infinite potentiality of the Source, and in the multitude of possible Consciousness representations thereof. Whatever the origin of this uncertainty, it appears to be the requisite raw material out of which the anomalous CCPP are constructed, and without this ingredient, no such effects will arise. 2) Intention Meaningful human intention, desire, purpose, or need explicitly correlates with all of the laboratory-based human/machine results, and implicitly drives the FieldREG effects.(10,11) It also seems to be a major factor underlying most common CCPP experiences reported anecdotally. This property has its theoretical counterparts in the observational acts of the quantum model, in the stimulation of unconscious processing in M5, and in the filter adjustments of SFS. 3) Resonance The sense of resonance or coherence is a similarly ubiquitous attendant to CCPP effects in the laboratory experiments, and more particularly in the FieldREG applications where it is clearly the primary subjective correlate. It also is evident in many common anomalous experiences, and has important counterparts in each of the proposed models. In the quantum metaphor, it manifests in the bonding of consciousness molecules and as consciousness collective effects. In M5 it is essential to the dialogue between the unconscious mind and the sub-physical mechanics. For SFS it is the most powerful filter-tuning mechanism. 4) Attitude In our earlier list of empirical correlates we also mentioned attitude or style, which essentially reflects the degree of openness and positiveness the human participant brings to the interaction, the acceptance of the possibilities of CCPP and of alternative interpretations and representations of the experiences of the interaction, and the willingness and capacity to set aside rigid expectations, fears of implications, and ego-investments in the outcome. In short, it denotes the degree of receptivity to the possibility of the phenomena, as opposed to a personal investment against them that freezes the requisite subtle capacities for their experience. In a number of contexts we have addressed the evident masculine/feminine gender distinction in such attitudinal aspects, and the corresponding disparities in the empirical results.(12) Such attitudinal properties also prevail in all three conceptual models. In QMC they appear explicitly as consciousness coordinates and implicitly in the basic premise that the origin

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of physical quantum effects resides as much in the human mental processing as in the material world, per se. The masculine/feminine dichotomy in particular is acknowledged via the quantum spin coordinate, which underlies the exclusion principle in consciousness space. In M5, they are coupled to the willingness and facility with which the desired outcome is entrusted to the unconscious mind. In SFS, again, resonant tuning of the filters between the Consciousness and the Source is largely a matter of the attitude that is brought to the task.

IV. The New Rules If the expansion of scientific methodology we are proposing is to continue to fulfill the most fundamental criteria of the discipline, it must embrace the same sequence of essential procedures that has characterized productive scientific endeavor over many preceding eras, namely: postulation of a hypothesis; conception, design, and implementation of incisive experiments; acquisition of incontrovertible empirical data; thorough, cogent analyses and interpretation of the empirical results; and conception and formulation of pertinent theoretical models to dialogue with the experimental programs. While the rule changes we require cannot be allowed to compromise the intellectual integrity of any of these basic steps, they do have major implications for the execution thereof. For example, if subjective properties are to play a complementary, in some cases dominant, role to the objective aspects in the establishment of the phenomenological effects, they must be afforded comparable respect in the design and implementation of the experiments, e.g., the desirable laboratory ambience, the treatment of the operators, their attitudes and styles of operation, the deportment of the experimenters and the expectations, desires, and other personal investments they bring to the task, the selection of feedback modalities, and, perhaps most difficult of all, the identification and cataloguing of these various subjective parameters throughout the course of the experiments. The prior paper(1) reported in some detail on the treatment of these environmental and attitudinal issues as they empirically and intuitively evolved over the course of the PEAR program. Here we would extend this to a plea for more extensive, tolerant, and astute dialogues with both the academic and pragmatic sectors of the scientific community regarding the specification, assessment, and, where possible, quantification of such properties for correlations with the empirical physical results. In searching for these empirical correlations, however, the acquisition of viable experimental data faces an important tactical trade-off, namely how to retain adequate technical rigor without sterilizing the processes and protocols to the point of suffocation of the subjectively driven anomalous effects. Alternatively put, experiments may be disqualified either because excessive subjective license renders their results vulnerable to artifact or illegitimate interpretation, or because excessive demands for technical rigor suppress the spontaneous CCPP effects. This inescapable trade-off was also discussed in

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more detail in several earlier compositions(1,4,8,13,15) in terms of a consciousness uncertainty principle, the recognition of which seems essential if this new scientific format is to advance. Faced with the characteristic statistical irregularities in the CCPP results already mentioned, the tasks of data analysis and interpretation also demand correspondingly higher levels of sophistication than are commonly required for more conventional scientific investigations. For example, as noted in Refs. 1 and 17, application of parametric statistics needs to be tempered by the empirical evidence that these effects can undergo substantial long-term regime changes in their elemental binary probabilities and hence in their effect sizes, for reasons beyond our current understanding or perhaps even as another of their bizarre intrinsic characteristics. A second challenging tendency is for the anomalous behavior to transform its appearance from the output variable specified in the experimental design to some other mode of expression in the data profiles. Coping with such anomalies within the anomalies via legitimate statistical arguments is no minor task. In our work, we have found certain forms of Monte Carlo simulation useful in their capacity to assess the appearance of structural aberrations in large bodies of programmed chance effects, in a fashion that precludes multiple-testing artifacts being awarded anomalous validity in actual experimental data.(14) A second potentially valuable weapon may be offered by Bayesian methods which in their assignment of prior probabilities entail an implicit element of subjectivity that may be linked to the experimental factors. The difficulties of posing theoretical models capable of explicating and predicting physical phenomena that are correlated with subjective properties are largely self-evident, given the inherent vagueness of specification and quandaries of quantification of such correlates. Possible avenues of approach to relieve such impasses have been proposed in various other publications, most notably in Section IV, Chapter 5 of our book, Margins of Reality,(15) where some metaphorical multidisciplinarity and the linguistic indicators that can be derived therefrom were suggested as entrees to specifications of the consciousness coordinates. But there is a larger, even more challenging issue that must be raised in this context, as well. Namely, what is the role of consciousness in the very conception and formulation of models and theories of any genre, most especially of this one? If we are prepared to concede that consciousness can play proactive roles in the establishment of tangible, i.e., empirical, reality, are we not obliged, for philosophical consistency and symmetry if nothing else, to include and cogently represent a comparable capacity of consciousness in the theorizing process, as well? In other words, are we not now necessarily committed to reflexive theories, wherein the creation of the model entails the same sort of dynamical intercourse of Consciousness with its Source that we employ to produce the tangible physical experiences? Bluntly put, have we not now moved from the creation of models of reality, to the creation of models of consciousness creating reality, to the creation of models of consciousness

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creating models of consciousness creating reality? Bemusing as it may seem, the inevitable consequence and high benefit of this entanglement of perspective would be to bring both our experience of reality, and our conceptual representations thereof, into synergistic indistinguishability, and thereby to avail of the most powerful technique for conditioning that reality. As Einstein succinctly put it in only a slightly different context nearly a century ago: It is the theory that determines what we can observe.(16) In our present context we would rephrase this to: Change the rules; change the reality. Clearly, in the acceptance of each of these categories of rule changes, the expanded science would be surrendering some portion of its precious principles of rigid replicability, objectification, and causal determinism, to be replaced by subtler statistical criteria, consistency of correlations, metaphorical coherences, and trade-offs of precision with the requisite uncertainty and randomness. Which is to say that successful experiments and models would strive to establish correlations of the effects with both subjective and objective aspects of the protocols, not so much to trace a causal chain, but to identify fellow-travellers to the primary phenomena that characterize propitious procedures and environments for their spontaneous appearance. The astute experimenter thus would endeavor to configure his laboratory and its strategies to be conducive to emergence of CCPP effects, rather than to guarantee them, and the astute theorist would cast his models in terms of enhancement of the spontaneous probabilities via the ensemble of such demonstrated correlates. The possibility that such a correlational approach might ultimately lead to a more elaborate and esoteric causal model of the Consciousness/Source dialogue is intriguing, but at this point in our understanding, is beyond our grasp. Other than a few relatively primitive discussions of so-called second-order or higher-level models, construction of fully reflexive, adequately sophisticated formalisms seems to lie well ahead.(17,18)

V. Beneficial Consequences and Applications If the proposed Science of the Subjective actually could be implemented and widely deployed, a host of beneficial consequences and applications spring to mind. Here we offer only a superficial sampler: 1) Dialogue with the Skeptical Community The long and tedious controversy between CCPP proponents and the various components of the skeptical and critical communities, including the scientific, religious, and nave public sectors, has largely been sustained by the presumption, on both sides, that the phenomena should adhere to the conventional scientific rules if they are to be regarded as real. If this requirement were to be relaxed, it would be possible for the debate to proceed on a much more constructive scholarly basis, wherein the advocates would concede at the outset the

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irregularity of the events, and the opposition would focus on the quality of the research, the validity of the empirical demonstrations and their correlations, and the credibility of the higher-level reflexive models posed for their interpretation. With the prevailing corrosive confrontations thus replaced by more enlightened and refined scholarly discussion, both sides could contribute to the advancement of understanding of CCPP, and to their eventual pragmatic utilization. As has always been true in scientific scholarship and deployment, informed, astute, and constructive critics are essential elements in the qualification and refinement of new ideas, and should be welcomed, indeed solicited, for this valuable service. But in this particular case, the exchange cannot be bound by last centurys scientific rules; it can be engaged only on grounds that fit the phenomena (cf. Appendix, Section ii). 2) Health Care Benefits Perhaps the most evident and accessible arena for beneficial application of the proposed expansion of the scientific paradigm is that of public and personal health care and well-being. Here, all of the empirically established correlates are clearly in place: desire or purpose on the part of the patient and healer; intimate resonance between them and with the physiological and psychological elements, systems, and processes addressed; proliferate sources of uncertainty and complexity in their normal functions and pathologies; and a variety of attitudinal, stylistic, and environmental options. If such correlates have been shown to be conducive to the appearance of anomalous effects in experiments on laboratory benches with simple physical devices, it is not unreasonable to expect the more complex and more sensitive physiological effects to be responsive to the intimate and personalized efforts of a healing agent, whether that be a professional practitioner, a concerned individual or group, or the patient himself. The efficacy of such alternative healing strategies already has been documented in many venues,(19,20) and it has been addressed in basic terms in a few of our earlier articles, and in a 150-page anthology devoted to this particular application.(21,22,23) Especially clamoring for comprehension are an ensemble of macroscopic medical anomalies including, but not limited to, placebo and nocebo effects, hypnotic healing, psycho-neuro immunization, and multiple personality syndromes, wherein the participation of subjective factors in the establishment of specific physiological states seems inescapable. 3) Creativity and Inspiration The ephemeral processes of human creativity seem similarly to be favored by the CCPP correlates of purposeful need or desire, and resonance with the topic at hand or with some source of inspiration or intuition, and they display similar sensitivities to the prevailing environments and attitudes. And once again the new ideas seem to emerge from a background mlange of potential but unspecified information, or to comprise a rearrangement of existing information in an

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alternative context. As discussed in more detail in Ref. 24, although creativity is usually manifested in the currency of information, this is in fact fungible with the more tangible material and energetic evidences that appear in other CCPP applications. In any case, the issue remains whether the proposed expansion of scientific methodology could lead to enhanced understanding and more effective invocation of such creative stimulation. 4) Science vs. Religion One of the most tantalizing prospects is that the proposed broadening of scientific perspective would finally enable some rationalization of the age-old confrontation between science and religion. This weary dichotomy has generated more literary poundage, uninformed and tautological debate, and irrational behavior on both sides than virtually any other philosophical issue in this or any previous era of human culture, all of it predicated on categorical either-or presumptions. If subjective issues were to be legitimized within scientific methodology, the mutual respect that could be engendered could recast this combination of orthogonal perspectives into a constructive complementarity that would vastly benefit both, and greatly enrich the inherently composite experiences and their understanding. As Ouspensky put it:
A religion contradicting science and a science contradicting religion are equally false.(25)

It is our suggestion that the catalyst that would enable such amalgamation would be the addition of such revered religious properties as faith (attitude), hope (desire), and love (resonance) into the functional vocabulary of science. 5) Evolution One particularly pertinent candidate for resolution of needless and destructive dispute between scientific and religious perspectives presents in the currently raging arguments over origin of species that are being ventilated by the neoDarwinist random selection factions on the one side and the creationists or intelligent design advocates on the other. Curiously, neither side seems to include in their models the possibility that the desires and environmental resonances of the species themselves might be factors in conditioning their evolutionary paths, either by directly biasing the biological processes involved, or by enhancing access to their information reservoir, however that may be defined for those species and purposes. For example, if the teleological influence, or reverse causation, that has been demonstrated in various CCPP contexts(6,26) is allowed to enter the evolutionary process, either consciously or unconsciously, as a probability modifier that reaches backward from desired future states, then, over a large population and many generations, a somewhat subtler form of intelligent design may function that actually utilizes much of the random selection mechanics. Thus, as we advocated in a paper entitled Consciousness, Information, and Living Systems,(27) a science that carried such

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possibilities in its biological arsenal could help to clarify the complementarity of these superficially disparate perspectives, to the deeper satisfaction of both. VI. The Down Side If the empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning presented in the prior article,(1) and the arguments so far advanced in this essay have been at all persuasive, it is not unreasonable to raise a complicating aspect of the matter. Namely, are all appearances of CCPP necessarily positive in character, i.e., do they invariably enhance information, reduce entropy, and fulfill legitimate needs and noble desires, and are they otherwise beneficial in their applications? While we have much less experimental evidence on which to base a response, it nevertheless seems clear that such categorical assurance cannot responsibly be made. For example, our PEAR operator pool contains a small fraction of participants, both female and male, who, for whatever reason, tend to produce results opposite to their pre-stated intentions, to a statistically impressive degree.(28) This propensity to psi-missing is also well known and widely reported in more conventional parapsychological research.(29) While it is tempting to assign such performance to an inept style of interaction, an unconscious perversity of effort, or a more deliberate attempt to confound the data, it is our suspicion that this tendency may also derive from the inclination of some operators to invest more of themselves in the resonance of the interaction than in fulfilling a particular intention, with the result that for them a deviation from chance in either direction of achievement constitutes a successful result. On a broader cultural level, persistent negative correlations bring to mind personalities like Christopher Robins Eeyore(30) or Lil Abners Joe Btfsplk,(31) for whom life is an endless stream of aggravations and failures to cope, and who are doomed to wander about unhappily and ineffectually with makeshift tails pinned to their posteriors, or with rain clouds drizzling onto their heads. If we stay trapped within our present causal logic, we are forced to engage the dilemma of whether it is their negative personalities that cause, or at least attract, the depressing events, or whether it is the incessant stream of those events that deforms their personalities. But in the correlational approach, we need simply acknowledge the consistency and synchronicity of the negative mental and physical expressions. Nor does this attraction of negative effects focus only on such sad individuals per se. Certain consciousness experimenters and laboratories have actually acquired reputations for producing null or contrary effects to exceptional degrees, and similar disruptive influences have been observed in other fields of study. The famous theoretical physicist Wolfgang Pauli was more than once accused of disabling equipment simply by being in its vicinity. On one occasion, a particularly catastrophic experimental collapse was attributed to his having been waiting in a nearby train station at precisely the fatal moment!(32) To these anecdotes one can of course add the storied gremlin effects of the Second

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World War; our personal Murphys Law experiences of automobiles, household appliances, and computers failing at the most inconvenient moments; the capacity of certain people to repeatedly disable their own watches, clocks, and other programmed utilities; and the legion of SLIders for whom lighting fixtures seem to be the preferred targets for their negatively proactive unconscious psyches.(33) And of course the bizarre assortment of reported poltergeist phenomena that appear to correlate with repressed emotional stress in certain adolescent agents may be the strongest indicators of the negative capacities of the unconscious mind.(34) To pursue these inverted manifestations of CCPP, one should probably distinguish among those effects that appear spontaneously, possibly correlated with some form of psychopathology; those that arise from inadvertent or nave misapplications of the psychical strategies (cf. for example Larry Dosseys treatise Be Careful What You Pray For(35)); and those that are deliberately malicious invocations of esoteric techniques. We have neither the experience nor the understanding to attempt to clarify this issue further here, other than to note that the same array of subjective correlates found in the positive events appears to be involved at all negative levels, as well, i.e., intentionality, whether conscious or unconscious; prevailing uncertainty, complexity, or disorder; characteristic attitudes; and generous involvement of the unconscious mind in the interactions. It would be comforting to contend that the remaining major correlate, i.e., resonance or coherence, would by its nature exercise a beneficial constraint on the process, but unfortunately we are all too familiar with organizations and individuals whose religious or political zeal engenders intense sacrificial commitment and unity of purpose to their malevolent agendas. Over the long tortuous history of scientific endeavor, rarely has there been a major breakthrough in basic understanding that has not brought with it serious concerns for destructive or careless misapplications of the new knowledge and the technology that could be derived from it, and in the majority of cases such chimeras have indeed manifested in some form, e.g., as weaponry of many ages, environmental contaminants, de-humanizing agents, pharmacological and nutritional mistakes and abuses, and many other prompters of cultural and global catastrophes. On most occasions the scientific community has declined culpability for such egregious misdirections of their products, arguing that the search for new fundamental knowledge cannot be held hostage by the potential abuses thereof. Science, they would claim, is by its nature an abstract, dispassionate business that deals only in objective facts; the public utilization of those facts is the scholarly concern of the psychologists, sociologists, theologians, and humanists, and the pragmatic concern of politicians, legislators, law enforcement agencies, and, in severe cases, the military. Yet this same scientific establishment also has allowed its authoritative weight to be placed behind products and enterprises of questionable social and personal value; to bias our educational system toward dispassionate objective logic at the expense of aesthetic humanistic sensitivities; to engender and undergird international political postures

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based mainly on technological power and needs; or to emphasize monetary advantage over ethical consideration; thereby propelling itself and the culture it serves to an excessively secular, at times arrogant, attitude that desperately needs renovation. In the particular revision we are proposing here, however, such an insensitive stance would be less defensible, for the proposed Science of the Subjective by its nature must explicitly acknowledge the functional roles of human values, needs, purposes, and resonances in the fundamental essence and dynamics of an interdependent world, and therefore careful cultivation of these requisites would be inescapable in its pursuit and successful applications. The responsibility for constraining those deployments to those that are beneficial, and for precluding those that are destructive or evil, thus could not be handed on to some other authority. Rather, SOS would be designed and developed to be self-regulating from the bottom up, with potentially detrimental aspects precluded or controlled by failsafes at the structural level.

VII. Apotheosis Over the course of the PEAR odyssey, we have encountered our share of misguided scholarly, economic, political, and cultural vicissitudes that had to be struggled through. At such times, we would often make recourse to a powerful poem by James Russell Lowell entitled The Present Crisis.(36) Although motivated by a different issue, in a different era (the emancipation movement of the mid-19th century), this inspiring work is replete with ringing one-liners and memorable heroic verses that gush from the writers personal penetration into his own Source of truth, with a profound pertinence that extends far beyond the specific topic he addresses. The final stanza sounds precisely the generic rulechange challenge that must be met by pioneers in any venue:
New occasions teach new duties; Time makes ancient good uncouth; They must upward still, and onward, who would keep abreast of truth. Lo before us gleam her campfires! We ourselves must Pilgrims be, Launch our Mayflower, and steer boldly through the desperate winter sea, Nor attempt the Futures portal with the Pasts blood-rusted key.

If science is to continue to fulfill its proper role in human society, it cannot hold itself aloof from such revitalization of its own rule system. To those of the scientific Old Guard who will object that the final lines allegorical allusion constitutes an unjustified exaggeration of the public abuses of science past and present, we would only suggest some reflection on how many of those evil consequences could have been avoided, had the softer, subjective capacities of the human mind been carried along in constructive complement to its much more intensely cultivated objective rigor. And, for replacement of those demeaning cultural failures, we would offer a dream of the magnificent new world such a refitted scientific Mayflower could open for our exploration and enjoyment.

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R. G. Jahn & B. J. Dunne APPENDIX Precedents for Cultural Rule Changes in Various Sectors of Human Enterprise

As broached briefly in the body of the text, the history of science has inevitably reflected the evolution of human skills, attitudes, and priorities in many other areas of endeavor. Hence, scholarly examination of rule-change scenarios in those sectors could help to establish a generic envelope to guide reformulation of the scientific paradigm. The following musings are far from complete or rigorously astute, but they may serve to stimulate more thorough reflection on such correlations. i) Sporting Competitions To begin with a somewhat trivial but illustrative example, the genre of common team sports offers particularly familiar cases of expeditious rule changes. For example, the evolution of modern American football from its international soccer and rugby ancestors was primarily enabled by the acceptance of the previously prohibited forward pass. The subsequent introductions of the twoplatoon system, the two-point conversion, and the tie-breaker formats have further altered the experience and mystique of the game for both players and spectators. Likewise, modern baseball emerged from its original awkward form via the basic change from put-outs by striking runners with thrown balls to tags and forces at bases. The more recent additions of designated hitters and dedicated relief pitchers have substantially streamlined baseballs contemporary dynamics. In basketball, the introduction of the three-point shot constituted a major change in game strategy, player skills, and the consequent impressionistic impact, and so on. One may legitimately argue whether all sporting rule changes have indeed improved the aesthetic appeal, fairness, and excitement of their respective games, but they seem clearly to have been motivated by a well-intentioned set of common principles, e.g., participant satisfaction and safety; evolution of player skills; spectator enjoyment and resonance; and the associated financial and legal issues. For these reasons, we should anticipate continuing sequences of changes into the future courses of the various sporting venues. ii) Creative Arts The histories of all creative artistic sectors are replete with sequences of technical and aesthetic rule changes and their associated effects. Certainly the formats, techniques, and impact of the modern visual media would have been totally foreign to their predecessors of the Classical and Romantic eras, who themselves had developed techniques of color, perspective, and dimensionality that would have been anathema to their medieval and primitive forebears. A

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similar evolution characterizes the development of literary technique from its primitive forms to its contemporary prolific complexity. In music, likewise, in the evolution from tribal rhythms to religious chants to Bach to Beethoven to Brahms to Berlioz to Bartok to Bernstein, we see inexorable expansion and sophistication of the repertoire of tonalities and structures, where the formats of one era become either pass or archival, to be superceded by others that earlier would have been rejected as cacophony, or as violating the established technical rules. An equally vigorous, perhaps even more frenetic pattern of change has driven in parallel through the evolution of popular and folk music throughout the ages, also leaving in its wake corresponding cadres of conservative complainers who resent the evaporation of their beloved older formats and decry the insensitivities and vulgarities of the new. No better illustration of the confrontations between pioneers of new forms of musical expression and status quo critical communities could be cited than that stimulated by the towering German composer Richard Wagner, whose introduction of the Singspiel format, the Leitmotif technique, and the utilization of the voice as one instrument of the orchestral representation revolutionized the operatic stage, thereby drawing unrelenting fire from a battery of critics mired in the rigid dogma of 19th-century musical theatre. As an exquisite and devastating rebuttal to their carping, Wagner constructed an entire opera, Die Meistersinger von Nremburg, which comprises a hilarious satire on the foibles of this hidebound bunch of complainants. At one point, the visionary hero of the story, the cobbler Hans Sachs, sings an injunction to his master-singer colleagues that could well serve as the theme of the present-day quarrel of CCPP advocates with their own skeptical detractors:
Would you measure by your rules something that is not governed by them? Forget your own guidelines; seek first the appropriate rules.

On a somewhat lighter note, Gilbert and Sullivan fans will recall that the convoluted plots of virtually all of their operettas are in the end resolved by someone of authority simply proposing a change in the pertinent rules.

iii) Spirituality Moving to the spiritual terrains of religion, theology, faith, and morality, the overarching observation would be that the historical advents of most new religious forms, while usually entailing significant rule changes relative to their predecessors or to contemporary competitive versions, nonetheless have retained and built upon many of the basic features of the older forms. One can argue whether these changes were driven by prevailing social pressures, political expediency, maturation of human consciousness and conscience, or divine inspiration, or whether they were evolutionary or revolutionary in character, but their specification and modes of implementation, usually cast with some reference to their prior or alternative versions, comprise the essential trademarks

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of those faiths. Obvious examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition can be cited by comparison of the Pentateuch of the Old Testament with the profound modifications thereof in the sermons, parables, and Letters of the New Testament, e.g.:
The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.(37) He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.(38) Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; But I say unto you that ye resist not evil, but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.(39) A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.(40)

and perhaps most pertinent to our thesis here:


And no man putteth new wine into old wineskins; else the new wine will burst the wineskins, and be spilled, and the wineskins shall perish. But new wine must be put into new wineskins; and both are preserved.(41)

Note, however, how these changes were couched in enduring respect for the prior or competitive systems, e.g.:
For verily I say unto you, Til heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, til all be fulfilled.(42)

or:
Render, therefore, unto Caesar the things which are Caesars; and unto God, the things that are Gods.(43)

In other words, the changes were posed more as amendments, generalizations, clarifications, or expansions of the prevailing systems, rather than as a revolutionary overthrow of them, a feature worth retaining in our scientific context.

iv) Psychology Closer to our technical territory lies the turbulent terrain of human psychology. Although much younger in its formalization, its history of rule changes has been particularly severe and consequential. In clinical psychology, the early insights, theories, and models of Wundt and Witmer were drastically transformed by later theorists, such as Rogers, Frankl, Perls, or Maslow, into socalled humanistic, existential, Gestalt, or transpersonal schools of thought, to name just a few. Similarly, Freuds original psychoanalytic concepts underwent substantial modifications by his various followers, such as Adler, Reich, Jung, and others. And the evolution of contemporary cognitive psychology can be traced from Broadbents information processing model in the 1950s through the later schools of social, personality, or developmental psychology, to those currently preoccupied with cognitive neuroscience, mechanistic brain function,

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and microbiology. While some of these alterations have opened doors to better comprehension of cognitive and emotional experience and behavior, others have engendered pedantic periods of follow-the-leader stagnation that have insisted on searching for the key under the lamp-post. In the former category reside such monumental break-outs as the identification and pursuit of the role of the unconscious mind; the tracking and treatment of traumatic repression; the postulation of the archetypal presence, synchronicity, and the collective unconscious; and the acknowledgment of acausal phenomena (many of which have now been discounted, if not derided, by the contemporary psychological establishment). In the latter category we would lump much of the current neuroscientific aspiration to complete the understanding of human behavior via DNA analyses or diagnostic probing of the electrochemical processes of the brain, which, while potentially clarifying some of the information processing circuitry, are not likely to illuminate the character of Consciousness itself, or its sublime dialogue with the ultimate Source of the information. v) Philosophy In this most abstract of academic regimes, one could reasonably contend that the entire history of philosophy has constituted a tightly woven fabric of rules of thought and their transitions, refinements, and alterations. Indeed, philosophy could be regarded as an endeavor to establish the rules of epistemology and the alteration of such rules, i.e., metarules. Whether we dwell on the classical foundations of Heraclitus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and their many toga-clad colleagues; the refreshing views of Swedenborg, Kant, Hegel, or Schopenhauer that impacted the scientific revolution; the controversial views of later philosophers, such as Nietzsche, Peirce, James, Bergson, Husserl, or Whitehead; or the musings of contemporary philosophers of science, one profound presumption permeates all: the rules not only frame the reality, they condition its experience. This too is an insight worth retaining in our pursuit of scientific alterations. vi) Medical Practice No sector of professional activity has been more tightly constrained over history by its internally and externally imposed rules and regulations than that of medical practice and generalized health care. Throughout its subdivisions of clinical diagnosis, hospitalization, counseling, pharmacology, social work, insurance, and public health, evolution of standard practice has been paced as much by the inertia of the prevailing controls as by the accumulation of new empirical experience and the development of superior technologies and facilities. The conservatism of this march forward is understandable, perhaps even commendable, given the intolerable personal, collective, and professional risks attending any false steps in modification of treatment protocols, substances, or equipment, predicating that the medical regulation business is a very major component of the entire health care panorama.

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But major changes drive forward nonetheless. Especially relevant here is the contemporary explosion of individual and public interest in and demand for the so-called alternative, complementary, naturopathic, and integrative healing and preventive techniques, which are forcing the deeply vested allopathic component into phenomenological terrains in which it has much less training and experience. The rule changes that must inevitably emerge from this cultural pressure have been, and will continue to be vigorously argued and, to a considerable degree, will parallel those challenging the basic sciences, as well.(23)

References
1. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (2005). The PEAR proposition. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 19(2), 195245. 2. Jung, C. G. (1973). Synchronicity: An acausal connecting principle. In The Collected Works of C. G. Jung (Vol. 8, p. 15). Princeton, NJ: Bollingen. 3. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientic Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, p. 10. 4. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (1986). On the quantum mechanics of consciousness with application to anomalous phenomena. Foundations of Physics, 16(8), 721772. 5. Heisenberg, W. (1958). Physics and Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, Harper Torchbooks, p. 81. 6. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (2001). A modular model of mind/matter manifestations (M5). Journal of Scientic Exploration, 15(3), 299329. 7. Jahn, R. G. (2002). M*: Vector representation of the subliminal seed regime of M5. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 16(3), 341357. 8. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (2004). Sensors, lters, and the Source of reality. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 18(4), 547570. 9. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (1997). Science of the subjective. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 11(2), 201224. 10. Nelson, R. D., Bradish, G. J., Dobyns, Y. H., Dunne, B. J., & Jahn, R. G. (1996). FieldREG anomalies in group situations. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 10(1), 111141. 11. Nelson, R. D., Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., Dobyns, Y. H., & Bradish, G. J. (1998). FieldREG II: Consciousness eld effects: Replications and explorations. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 12(3), 425454. 12. Dunne, B. J. (1998). Gender differences in human/machine anomalies. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 12(1), 355. 13. Jahn, R. G. (1993). The complementarity of consciousness. (Proceedings of the L. E. Rhine Centenary Conference on Cultivating Consciousness for Enhancing Human Potential, Wellness, and Healing, Durham, NC, November 810, 1991.) In Rao, K. R. (Ed.), Cultivating Consciousness: Enhancing Human Potential, Wellness, and Healing (pp. 111121). London: Praeger. 14. Jahn, R., Dunne, B., Bradish, G., Dobyns, Y., Lettieri, A., Nelson, R., Mischo, J., Boller, E., Bo sch, H., Vaitl, D., Houtkooper, J., & Walter, B. (2000). Mind/Machine Interaction Consortium: PortREG replication experiments. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 14(4), 499555. 15. Jahn, R. G., & Dunne, B. J. (1987). Margins of Reality: The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 16. Einstein, A. Quoted in: Heisenberg, W. (1958). Physics and Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, Harper Torchbooks, p. 63. 17. Ellis, G. F. R. (2005). Physics and the real world. Physics Today, 7, 4954. 18. Atmanspacher, H., & Jahn, R. G. (2003). Problems of reproducibility in complex mind-matter systems. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 17(2), 243270. 19. Dossey, L. (1999). Reinventing Medicine: Beyond Mind-Body to a New Era of Healing. Harper San Francisco.

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20. Dossey, L. (2006). The Extraordinary Healing Power of Ordinary Things: Fourteen Natural Steps to Health and Happiness. New York: Harmony/Random House. 21. Jahn, R. G. (1996). Information, consciousness, and health. Alternative Therapies, 2(3), 3238. 22. Jahn, R. G. (1995). Out of this aboriginal sensible muchness . . .: Consciousness, information, and human health. (Transcript of 10th Annual Gardner Murphy Memorial Lecture, New York, April 19, 1994.) Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 89(4), 301312. 23. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing (2007). SPECIAL ISSUE: The Pertinence of the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory to the Pursuit of Global Health. May/June, 3(3). 24. Dunne, B. J. (1997). Subjectivity and intuition in the scientic method. In Davis-Floyd, R., and Sven Arvidson, P. (Eds.), Intuition, The Inside Story: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 121128). New York: Routledge. 25. Ouspensky, P. D. (1981). Tertium Organum. New York: Random House (Vintage Books), p. 194. 26. Sheehan, D. (Ed). (2006). Frontiers of Time: RetrocausationExperiment and Theory. AIP Conference Proceedings, 87th Meeting of the AAAS Pacic Division, University of San Diego, June. 27. Dunne, B. J., & Jahn, R. G. (2005). Consciousness, information, and living systems. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Biology, 51(7), 703714. 28. Jahn, R. G., Dunne, B. J., & Nelson, R. D. (1987). Engineering anomalies research. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 1(1), 2150. 29. Mishlove, J. (1975). The Roots of Consciousness. New York: Random House. 30. Milne, A. A. (1926). Winne-the-Pooh. New York: E. P. Dutton. 31. Capp, A. (193477). Lil Abner. New York: United Features Syndicate. 32. Wikipedia Contributors. (2007). Pauli effect. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 July 2007, 10:15 UTC. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?titlePauli_effect&oldid 143469735. Accessed 9 July 2007. 33. Evans, H. (2005). The SLI Effect. London: Frome. 34. Roll, W. G. (1974). The Poltergeist. New York: Signet. 35. Dossey, L. (1997). Be Careful What You Pray For . . . You Just May Get It. Harper San Francisco. 36. Lowell, J. R. (1904). The Complete Writings of James Russell Lowell. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 7. 37. The Bible. King James Version. Mark 2:27. 38. Ibid. John 8:7. 39. Ibid. Matthew 5:3839. 40. Ibid. John 13:34. 41. Ibid. Luke 5:3738. 42. Ibid. Matthew 5:18. 43. Ibid. Matthew 22:21.

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 179192, 2008

0892-3310/08

RESEARCH

Thematic Analysis of Research Mediums Experiences of Discarnate Communication


ADAM J. ROCK
Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia e-mail: rock@deakin.edu.au

JULIE BEISCHEL
The Windbridge Institute for Applied Research in Human Potential, Tucson, Arizona

GARY E. SCHWARTZ
The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

AbstractMediums claim to be able to report accurate and specific information about the deceased loved ones (termed discarnates) of living people (termed sitters) even without any prior knowledge about the sitters or the discarnates and in the complete absence of any sensory feedback. Despite recent experimental research investigating this phenomenon (e.g., Beischel & Schwartz, 2007a), no systematic qualitative studies have been conducted. Consequently, eight research mediums were asked to describe in as much detail as possible how they personally experience receiving communication from a discarnate, as part of a comprehensive nine-step subject screening procedure. Thematic analysis revealed seven comprehensive constituent themes that were used to formulate a fundamental structural definition. Keywords: research mediumsdiscarnate communicationphenomenology thematic analysis

Introduction A growing public interest in the phenomenon of mediumship is clearly evident in the current rise of this topic in various aspects of popular culture. Numerous books, television shows, and movies featuring mediumsthose who experience regular communication with the deceasedhave moved from the obscure realm of the occult to the recognizable mainstream. The conventional scientific community has only just begun to recognize mediumship as a topic worth investigating when, in fact, the scientific study of mediums is over a century old. 179

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Several comprehensive reviews of the history of mediumship methods (Beischel & Schwartz, 2007b; Burdick & Kelly, 1977; Fontana, 2005; Schouten, 1994; Scott, 1972) and findings (Braude, 2003; Fontana, 2005; Gauld, 1983) are available. In addition, several recent single-blind (Robertson & Roy, 2001; Schwartz et al., 2001; Schwartz & Russek, 2001), double-blind (Roy & Robertson, 2001, 2004; Schwartz et al., 2002), and triple-blind (Beischel & Schwartz, 2007a) studies producing positive results have been published. Also, one double-blind study that failed to obtain positive results (OKeeffe & Wiseman, 2005) was published, but the protocol contained numerous methodological flaws (discussed in Beischel & Schwartz, 2007a,b). These contemporary studies generally replicate and extend the observations of early mediumship research: certain mediums can report accurate and specific information about the deceased loved ones (termed discarnates) of living people (termed sitters1) even without any prior knowledge about the sitters or the discarnates and in the complete absence of any sensory feedback. Moreover, the information reported by these mediums cannot be explained as a result of fraud or cold reading (a set of techniques used by psychic entertainers in which visual and auditory cues from the sitter are used to fabricate accurate readings) on the part of the mediums or rater bias on the part of the sitters (Braude, 2003; Fontana, 2005; Gauld, 1983). The current state of mediumship findings may provide evidence for anomalous information reception by certain mediums but the studies do not directly address which parapsychological mechanisms are involved in that reception. In and of themselves, the data cannot distinguish among hypotheses such as (a) the survival of consciousness (i.e., the continued existence, separate from the body, of an individual's consciousness or personality after physical death), (b) super-psi (i.e., the retrieval of information through clairvoyance, precognition, and/or telepathy with the living, also called super-ESP; reviewed in Braude, 2003, and Fontana, 2005), and (c) the psychic reservoir hypothesis (i.e., that all information since the beginning of time is stored somehow and somewhere in the universe and mediums are accessing that cosmic store rather than communicating with the deceased; reviewed in Fontana, 2005). The continued evaluation of the mediumship process is important for numerous reasons. First, the topic of the survival of consciousness is an issue of vital interest to the public. In addition, an understanding of the mediumship process may aid in determining which mechanisms may be at work during the processing of non-local, non-sensory information. For instance, if a medium's experience of communication ostensibly received from a discarnate during a mediumship reading is phenomenologically different from her experience of information received during a psychic telepathy reading for a living person (as has been anecdotally noted), that may lend more support to the survival hypothesis than to the super-psi or psychic reservoir theories; thus, further analysis is required2. Finally, survival and mediumship studies provide unique evidence for an issue central to consciousness science: the relationship

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between the mind/consciousness and the brain. That is, is consciousness (a) a product of the brain as theorized by materialist cognitive and neuroscientists such as Francis Crick and Christof Koch (e.g., Crick & Koch, 2003) or is consciousness (b) mediated, transmitted, transformed, guided, arbitrated, or canalized (Forman, 1998) by the brain as hypothesized by such scientists as Max Plank and William James? (This second theory is discussed, for example, by Clarke, 1995.) Previous mediumship research has been primarily proof-orientated; that is, it has been concerned with demonstrating a specific effect (e.g., anomalous information reception) in a laboratory setting. However, by delimiting ones scope to proof-oriented research, one might be neglecting important phenomenological processes underlying anomalous information reception. Phenomenology refers to the study of one's experience or perception of happenings, events, occurrences, and so forth (Reber & Reber, 2001). Consequently, phenomenology is subjective and, thus, internal, personal, not available for public scrutiny (Reber & Reber, 2001: 720). As a qualitative methodology, phenomenology addresses how human consciousness forms what we understand of the world. It is the study of (ology) what appears to us (phenomena, [as opposed to noumenathings in themselves]) (Fischer, 1998: 114). The phenomenological researcher, thus, engages in process-orientated research investigating the way things are experienced by the experiencer, and . . . how events are integrated into a dynamic, meaningful experience (Hanson & Klimo, 1998: 286). Previous research has used phenomenological analysis to investigate, for example, the experience of meditation (Gifford-May & Thompson, 1994), being unconditionally loved (Matsu-Pissot, 1998), and shamanic journeying (Rock, 2006). However, to date and to the best of our knowledge, there has been no published systematic qualitative research addressing modern-day mediums' phenomenology pertaining to anomalous information reception. Nonetheless, it is important to acknowledge that numerousarguably unsystematicqualitative studies were conducted during the first half of the twentieth century3. The resulting publications often included descriptions of individual mediums or readings (e.g., Newton, 1938; Saltmarsh, 1929; Thomas, 1928) and reports about groups of mediums (e.g., Assailly, 1963; Carington, 1939). It is perhaps noteworthy that these early studies tended to neglect mental mediumship in favor of physical mediumship (e.g., Besterman, 1932) and mediums in trance states (e.g., Carington, 1939; Thomas, 1928). This is consistent with Fontanas (2003) assertion that mediumship has gone through various developmental phases: Initially it was rappings, table turning and ouija boards, then came more sophisticated physical phenomena, after which the focus shifted to trance work, then to automatic writing, and then to mental mediumship and channeling (p. 16)4. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to use the principles of phenomenological methodology to systematically investigate modern-day mental mediums' experiences of purported communication with discarnates. The subset

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of research mediums who participated in this study remain conscious and aware during readings and their abilities to report accurate and specific information have been repeatedly demonstrated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Thus, the sample of participants in this study is not representative of claimant mediums in general or of the extensively observed historical trance and physical mediums, but rather of modern-day, American, mental mediums5 whose abilities have been documented.

Methods Participants The participants in this study ranged in age from 41 to 57 (M 46.25, SEM 2.17, median 44, SD 6.14) and included seven females and one male. Participants were recruited from all over the United States by word of mouth and through the research program's website (veritas.arizona.edu).

Materials and Procedure Before participating in research with the VERITAS Research Program at the University of Arizona, prospective research mediums were screened over several months using a unique and intensive nine-step screening and testing procedure. The nine screening steps consisted of the following items: Step 1: Written questionnaire. Initially, each prospective research medium completed a brief written questionnaire about factors including family history, medical history, culture, education, personal experiences, and training. Step 2: Personality/psychological tests. Prospective research mediums completed four standard personality tests: the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Tellegen Absorption Scale, and the Openness to Spiritual Beliefs and Experiences Scale. Step 3: Phone interview (with a research medium). The prospective research medium participated in a phone interview in which s/he discusses his/her mediumship history, process, and goals with a current research medium. Step 4: Phone interview (with a VERITAS investigator). A second interview took place with a researcher about the prospective research mediums' experiences and any factors that affect discarnate communication. Step 5: Two blinded e-mail and two blinded phone readings. The test-reading portion of the screening process was completed to ensure that each prospective research medium was able to report relatively specific, accurate, consistent, and scorable information under various experimental conditions. The test readings also ensured that a prospective research medium was able to convey accurate information while following specific experimental instructions. This step

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established whether a prospective medium had the skills to function as a research medium. Step 6: Mediumship research training. Prospective research mediums were required to read The Afterlife Experiments (Schwartz with Simon, 2002) and complete a take-home examination about the book. The purpose was to educate prospective research mediums about the early history of the research conducted by the VERITAS Research Program, some of the key research questions, and the implications of evidence for the survival of consciousness after death. It is noteworthy that this step did not indoctrinate prospective research mediums with regards to the kinds of responses the present study aimed to collect. That is, the Schwartz with Simon (2002) work does not discuss the subjective experiences of mediums; it focuses on their ability to obtain quantifiable information such as names, historical factors, personal descriptions, and so on. The mediums' knowledge of basic research design and findings does not impinge on the question of their personal experiences or what takes place when they engage in mediumship. Step 7: Human research subjects training. Prospective research mediums completed a portion of the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI)'s online Course in the Protection of Human Research Subjects to gain an awareness of and appreciation for the legal and ethical constraints of doing research in a university setting. Step 8: Grief training. To acquire some basic understanding of the psychological aspects of the grieving process that each sitter is experiencing, prospective research mediums were required to read one of several published texts describing the grief process and to write a brief summary and a description of what s/he found most interesting and helpful about it. Step 9: Autobiographical statement. The final screening step involved writing a short autobiographical statement for distribution to the VERITAS Research Program investigators and for publication on the VERITAS Research Program website (the latter only upon the medium's written request). This statement could include descriptions of how long the prospective research medium has been experiencing communication with discarnates, how s/he experiences the information, the part of the country where s/he is located, and any comments about her/his mediumship. In addition, this statement could include information about the prospective research medium's age, family, hobbies, clients, goals, publications, etc. Upon successful completion of the nine steps, the medium was termed an Integrative Research Medium (IRM). The term integrative was used to indicate how the mediums integrate spirituality and science: the spirituality of their personalities and practices with the science of controlled laboratory methodologies and experiments. Each IRM agreed to donate a minimum four hours per month to assist in various aspects of the research and to uphold a code of spiritual ethics as well as to embrace a strong commitment to the values of scientific mediumship research.6

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Thematic Analysis of Original Protocols As part of the detailed 11-item written questionnaire (Step 1), each prospective research medium provided his/her answer to the following question: Please describe, in as much detail as possible, how you personally experience receiving communication from a discarnate. How do you receive the information (hear, see, feel)? Describe each of your five senses during a reading. The original protocols of the eight mediums who have completed all nine steps and become IRMs to date constituted the data that were analyzed using the principles of a phenomenological research methodology originally developed by Giorgi (1975) and subsequently expanded on by, for example, Colaizzi (1978) and Elite (1998) (as cited in West, 1998). Standard phenomenological inquiry stipulates that a real-time, face-to-face dialogue between researcher and research participant is the most effective method of eliciting the essential aspects of an experience (e.g., Giorgi, 2000). However, due to the considerable geographical distances separating prospective IRMs and the researchers, we opted to collect data via an electronic survey (i.e., a text file provided and returned by email). Consequently, in a strict technical sense, the present study did not use a phenomenological methodology but rather used the principles of phenomenological methodology (e.g., Elite, 1998; West, 1998) to thematically analyze qualitative data concerning the IRMs' experience of communication with discarnates. In accordance with standard phenomenological inquiry (e.g., Elite, 1998; Matsu-Pissot, 1998; West, 1998), our analysis consisted of the following procedural steps: 1. Each original protocol was read and reread in order to develop an understanding of the subjective experience associated with communication with a discarnate. 2. The salient statements, phrases, or sentences were extracted within each original protocol. 3. The extracted signicant statements with the same meaning were integrated and translated into constituent themes where we translated the participant's words in a way that remained true to the underlying essence of the experience itself without severing any connection with the original protocol (Elite, 1998: 312). This allowed us to formulate comprehensive themes for each participant (i.e., IRM). 4. The constituent themes were subsequently examined across original protocols. Those constituent themes judged to have the same meaning were pooled into comprehensive constituent themes. 5. A fundamental structural denition was then formulated by integrating comprehensive constituent themes into a final definition paragraph (Matsu-Pissot, 1998: 325). This definition provides a succinct description of the essential constituents of the experience.

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6. Each of the participants were contacted via email and invited to provide feedback and verification with regards to the comprehensive constituent themes.

Results and Discussion Comprehensive constituent themes The analyses revealed seven comprehensive constituent themes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Multi-modal sensory impressions pertaining to the discarnate. Visual images of the discarnate in the medium's mind's eye. Hearing information from the discarnate in the medium's mind's ear. Feeling discarnates' ailments/cause of death. Experience of fragrances associated with the discarnate prior to his or her bodily death. 6. Alteration of affect. 7. Empathy.

1. Multi-modal sensory impressions pertaining to the discarnate. Typically, the term modal or modality refers to a sensory system and is used to specify the sense intended, e.g., visual modality, kinaesthetic modality (Reber & Reber, 2001: 440). In contrast, we are using the term to denote whether an experience is visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, or tactile irrespective of whether physical stimuli are present. All IRMs stated that the experience of communication with a discarnate is not restricted to any single modality. That is, the experience is multi-modal in the sense that anomalous information is received via a minimum of two modalities. For example, one IRM stated that visual, auditory, and tactile modalities tended to be functional during a typical discarnate reading:
During a reading, I receive information in many different ways; I see images, pictures, scenes, what the person looks like, I sometimes hear words, names, initials etc., or I feel the energy of the spirit and sense their personality.

2. Visual images of the discarnate in the medium's mind's eye. The visual images reported in the present study did not appear to originate from the medium's sensory apparatus. That is to say, the visual system was purportedly not involved in the production of these visual images and, thus, the images may be considered mental representations pertaining to either a nonpresent object or event (Solso, 2001: 292) or a present but subconscious event, rather than a present object or event in the external world. Consequently, one may conclude that these visual images are not retinal images, that is, the (approximate)

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point-by-point picture of an object cast on the retina when light is refracted by the eye's optic system (Reber & Reber, 2001: 341), but are instead mental images. As one IRM stated:
I do not visually see discarnates, although I do see images in my mind's eye and can describe [the discarnate] from that.

Another IRM referred to seeing images in the mind's eye as spiritual vision:
I visually see them write their names in the air or on the wall or floor and, to get my attention, they might drop objects such as cigarettes, which I see through spiritual vision.

3. Hearing information from the discarnate in the medium's mind's ear. Consistent with the previous theme, IRMs' conventional sensory pathways do not appear to be invoked when auditory information is received. Thus, the information is perceived as an auditory mental image rather than an auditory sensory impression referentially linked to a stimulus in the external world. For instance, one IRM succinctly stated:
I hear by thought but not auditory.

Another IRM's account emphasized that the auditory mental images tended to consist of names:
I can hear in my own head voice the beginnings of names, sometimes whole names, sometimes the sound is in my ear or vibrates in my throat chakra (feels guttural).

Furthermore, one IRM suggested an ability to distinguish between auditory mental images associated with his/her internal monologue versus those associated with discarnate communication. The IRM stressed that the latter were bereft of personal meaning:
I am able to hear them in my mind when they are talking to me. I know these are not my words for they have no meaning to me.

4. Feeling discarnates' ailments/cause of death. During a reading, it would seem that the discarnate's primary objective is to provide information that reveals his/her (i.e., the discarnate's) identity to the IRM and, thus, the sitter. The identification process is often facilitated by the IRM receiving information pertaining to the discarnate's experience of passing. For example, one IRM suggested that bodily sensations experienced during communication readings often corresponded to pain or sickness experienced by the discarnate prior to bodily death:
I feel their pain or sickness or death occurring at the time; for example, I might receive a headache from a discarnate with a brain tumor.

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Similarly, another IRM stated that he or she could feel both the cause of death and the actual dying process:
I can feel the cause of how this person died: cancer, illness, accident, shot, etc., and what their passing was like.

5. Experience of fragrances associated with the discarnate prior to his or her bodily death. The IRMs tended to perceive the characteristics exemplified by discarnates prior to their bodily death. Thus, it might be argued that the discarnate's self-sense remained bound-up with its prior corporeal existence. One IRM described the spirit in terms of various personal attributes:
I can smell the spirit. If they liked to smoke cigars, I can smell the cigar, their cologne, a special fragrance they may have enjoyed, a certain flower, etc.

Another IRM remarked that


I pick up smells associated with them; for example, I smell cancer, blood, hospitals, perfume, cigarettes, and the like.

6. Alteration of affect. IRMs tended to report a change in mood during communication with a discarnate. Some IRMs experienced a shift between positive and negative emotions. Alterations in affect appeared to be associated with a variety of functions (e.g., communicating messages to sitters, communicating the discarnate's prior corporeal experiences to the IRM to aid the IRM's identification of the discarnate). One IRM suggested that alterations in affect may be positive or negative depending on the message that the discarnate is attempting to communicate to the sitter:
A warmth can take over me when they are sending their love to a loved one or a coolness to let me know they are around.

7. Empathy. This comprehensive constituent theme underscores that a medium is, quite literally, an entity that performs the function of allowing a discarnate to express itself to a sitter or loved one. Indeed, all IRMs reported an ability to empathize with discarnates. Empathy tends to be exemplified by the IRM adopting the behavioral predispositions, personality traits, and idiosyncrasies of the discarnate:
I can also take on mannerisms of them. Some call it shadowing. The spirit may be nervous and I will feel the need to pace the floors then finding out the spirit [used] to pace the floors. I will use their tone of voice when they are being direct. At times it will be the tone and their words together that they [used] to say when they were alive.

Fundamental Structural Definition The fundamental structural definition that may be extrapolated from these comprehensive constituent themes is this: the essential aspects of the medium's

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communication with a discarnate were (1) the functioning of multiple modalities, (2) visual and (3) auditory mental images pertaining to the discarnate, (4) feeling the discarnate's ailments or cause of death, (5) smelling fragrances associated with the discarnate prior to his or her bodily death, (6) alterations of affect, and (7) empathy. These themes are in line with historical qualitative observations of mediums' experiences. For example, in a study of the information reported by five mediums published in 1963, Alain Assailly writes: I believe we can distinguish between mental images and verbal thoughts. The mental images appear in various forms: . . . as visual translations of mental images; olfactory translations; [and] tactile translations (Assailly, 1963: 366). Participants' feedback and verification As previously stated, the eight participants were contacted via email and invited to provide feedback and verification with regards to the comprehensive constituent themes. All IRMs stated that the comprehensive constituent themes captured the essential aspects of communication with a discarnate. For example, one IRM remarked: Perfect! This is how I feel about your Comprehensive Constituent Themes. I like how you listed each and then described what you meant. Great job! Similarly, another IRM stated, I verify the seven comprehensive themes that you have listed. I believe you have covered the most common ways a medium experiences communication with a discarnate. Methodological Shortcomings and Suggestions for Future Research It is arguable that the present study's sample is too limited to capture the varieties of mediumistic experiences corresponding to the different levels of mediumistic trance and is, thus, not representative of all mediums. It is noteworthy, however, that while the sample size is small, the sample is highly select. As previously stated, the IRMs were carefully screened and tested. That is to say, the IRMs in this study are not a group of individuals claiming to be mediums, but rather a unique group of people who have documented mediumship skills and regularly participate in controlled research. In addition, as the trend continues to shift away from the trance and physical mediumship of the early twentieth century and toward mental mediumship (Fontana, 2003) in which the mediums remain fully conscious and aware, this small but select sample may indeed be more representative of American mediums in general than not. Consequently, the collective experiences of these modern-day mental mediums are worthy of analysis and reporting. Due to the often substantial physical distances separating IRMs' residences and the research institution, the present study collected data using an electronic questionnaire. As previously stated, however, standard phenomenological practice considers a synchronous, face-to-face conversation between researcher and participant to be the most effective method of eliciting the essential components of an experience (e.g., Giorgi, 2000). Indeed, unstructured face-to-face

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interviews may have elicited other important constituents of the IRMs' experience of communication with discarnates. Another inherent limitation of the methodology used in the present study was that it did not constitute a controlled evaluation of mediums' phenomenology during communication with a discarnate. For example, the present study did not control for the duration of time lapsed between the medium's last discarnate communication reading and the completion of the questionnaire. It is arguable that by collecting data directly after mediums' readings, incomplete self-reports due to memory loss may be minimized. Furthermore, the present study's methodology could not control for the environmental settings where the discarnate communication readings occurred or mediums' mental sets prior to the readings. Consequently, all of the caveats associated with drawing conclusions from data collected using non-experimental methodology apply. Future research may wish to use a 53-item retrospective phenomenological assessment instrument referred to as Pekala's (1991) Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) to quantify the intensity and pattern of phenomenological elements (e.g., visual mental imagery, altered experience, rationality, positive affect, volitional control) experienced by a medium whilst communicating with a discarnate. That is to say, the PCI would allow one to operationalize the state of consciousness experienced by a medium during anomalous information reception. Furthermore, future research might use the PCI to quantify the intensity and pattern of phenomenological elements experienced by mediums during discarnate communication readings compared to psychic telepathy readings for the living. This may address whether the underlying phenomenological processes associated with simple psi (i.e., psychic telepathy) are quantitatively different from discarnate communication. Conclusion The present study identified seven essential aspects of contemporary research mediums' experiences during discarnate communication. In contrast to previous research which has been proof-orientated and, thus, concerned with replicating an anomalous information reception effect, the present study constitutes an initial step towards isolating the phenomenological processes underlying discarnate communication readings. A detailed understanding of these processes may, in turn, assist researchers with regards to determining the source of the purportedly non-local, non-sensory information mediums receive. That is to say, the phenomenological elements underpinning discarnate communication readings might include the medium's sense of whether the discarnate is imaginal (i.e., a projection of the medium's mental set) or exosomatic (i.e., independent of the medium's mind-body complex), and whether or not discarnate communication is experienced as arising by the same mechanisms as does telepathic information for the living.

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This research was supported by Peter Hayes. References


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25. Pekala, R. J. (1991). Quantifying Consciousness: An Empirical Approach. New York: Plenum Press. 26. Reber, A., & Reber, E. (2001). The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (3rd ed.). London: Penguin. 27. Robertson, T. J., & Roy, A. E. (2001). A preliminary study of the acceptance by non-recipients of mediums statement to recipients. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 91106. 28. Rock, A. (2006). Phenomenological analysis of experimentally induced visual mental imagery associated with shamanic journeying to the lower world. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 25, 4555. 29. Roy, A. E., & Robertson, T. J. (2001). A double-blind procedure for assessing the relevance of a mediums statements to a recipient. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 161174. 30. Roy, A. E., & Robertson, T. J. (2004). Results of the application of the Robertson-Roy protocol to a series of experiments with mediums and participants. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68, 1834. 31. Saltmarsh, H. F. (1929). Report on the investigation of some sittings with Mrs. Warren Elliott. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 39, 47184. 32. Schouten, S. A. (1994). An overview of quantitatively evaluated studies with mediums and psychics. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 88, 221254. 33. Schwartz, G. E. (with Simon, W. L.). (2002). The Afterlife Experiments: Breakthrough Scientic Evidence of Life After Death. New York: Pocket Books (division of Simon and Schuster). 34. Schwartz, G. E. R., & Russek, L. G. S. (2001). Evidence of anomalous information retrieval between two mediums: telepathy, network memory resonance, and continuance of consciousness. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 257275. 35. Schwartz, G. E. R., Russek, L. G. S., & Barentsen, C. (2002). Accuracy and replicability of anomalous information retrieval: replication and extension. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 66, 144156. 36. Schwartz, G. E. R., Russek, L. G. S., Nelson, L. A., & Barentsen, C. (2001). Accuracy and replicability of anomalous after-death communication across highly skilled mediums. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 125. 37. Scott, C. (1972). On the evaluation of verbal material in parapsychology: A discussion of Dr. Pratts monograph. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 7990. 38. Sher, Rev. F. (1981). Spiritualism and Mediumship Studies. Lily Dale, USA: National Association of Spiritualist Churches. 39. Solso, R. (2001). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 40. Thomas, C. D. (1928). The modus operandi of trance communication according to descriptions received through Mrs. Osborne Leonard. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 38, 49100. 41. West, T. (1998). The experience of being with a dying person. In Valle, R. (ed.), Phenomenological Inquiry in Psychology. New York: Plenum Press.

Notes
1

Mediums performing readings with proxy sitters provide information for (and sometimes about) living people who are not present at the reading. Consequently, sitter would be more completely defined as a living person who requested a reading from a medium and who has a desire to receive information about one or more deceased people with whom s/he had an emotionally close relationship, irrespective of whether or not s/he is present for or hears the reading as it takes place. Conversely, a proxy sitter is a living person who is present for the reading, but is not the person for whom the information reported during a reading is intended. A proxy sitter may or may not have knowledge about the absent sitter or the deceased persons contacted during the reading. An early example of the recognition of the importance of mediums'

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experiences can be found in an Editorial Note introducing a paper titled The modus operandi of trance communication according to descriptions received through Mrs. Osborne Leonard by C. Drayton Thomas in a 1928 issue of Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, in which the editor states: Most of our papers concerned with mediumistic communications deal mainly with the question of the sources of such of the impressions received by mediums and automatists as appear to be beyond their reach in the normal state. The modus operandi now under discussion has no direct bearing on this question. Indirectly, however, it may throw much light on it, and in any case it is obviously a line of enquiry which those interested in psychical research are bound to pursue (p. 49). Schouten (1994) states: The first extensive studies of verbal statements of mediums appeared about 100 years ago in the publications of the British and American psychical research societies. These studies were purely descriptive. Hundreds of pages were devoted to transcripts of readings of mediums and discussions of interpretations and the validity of the mediums' statements . . .. The subjective estimation of the significance of data became less acceptable and was gradually replaced by the application of quantitative and statistical evaluations (pp. 222223). The modern shift toward mental mediumship is also apparent in the larger prospective medium subject pool: of close to 300 mediums from around the United States who had volunteered to participate in research, the vast majority do not experience trance states during their practices. Mental mediumship occurs in a conscious and focused waking state (Buhrman, 1997: 13). In contrast, trance mediumship occurs in a sleep-like state and involves amnesia (Sher, 1981: 108). Mediumship can also include physical phenomena such as independent voices, paranormal lights, apports (objects that inexplicably appear), the levitation or movement of objects, ectoplasm, and raps on walls or tables (Fontana, 2005: 244). The screening of research mediums no longer takes place at the University of Arizona. Similar screening procedures, under the direction of Dr. Julie Beischel, now take place at the Windbridge Institute for Applied Research in Human Potential (www.windbridge.org).

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 227232, 2008

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Scalar Wave Effects according to Tesla[3] and Far Range Transponder[4] by K. Meyl
DIETRICH KHLKE
Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering Furtwangen University, Germany, Robert-Gerwig-Platz 1, D-78120 Furtwangen, Germany e-mail: kuehlke@hs-furtwangen.de

AbstractIn the recent past a hypothetical waveform, longitudinal electric or magnetic waves, shortly denoted electric scalar waves or simply scalar waves, is discussed. To give a theoretical proof of the existence of such longitudinal electric waves K. Meyl starts with an approach that he calls a new and dual field approach(3,4) and that should be more general than Maxwells equations. In the following commentary we discuss the cogency of the theoretical considerations presented in Meyls two articles(3,4) in order to answer the question of whether this approach really gives an indication of the existence of longitudinal electric waves. It is shown that this new and dual field approach actually consists of the very special relations describing plane transverse electromagnetic waves. The Fundamental Field Equation presented in Meyls articles also does not have any solution in the form of longitudinal electric waves. A general weakness of the two articles is that Meyl does not present any solutions or a clue related to possible solutions of the partial differential equations he presents. Thus, for example, the discussion following the Fundamental Field Equation (key words: A possible world equation, quantization of the field) lacks any foundation. The model Meyl starts from describes the propagation of electromagnetic fields through media with special properties and does not include any sources responsible for the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Hence, the equations he obtained do not describe the near field behavior of electromagnetic waves. The consequence is that the properties he ascribed to the near field are also without any foundation. Keywords: Near field as a vortex fieldvortex model of the scalar waves phenomenologyantenna noise caused by Lorentz contraction of vortices and vortex works as a frequency converter

1. Introduction Plane electromagnetic waves traveling in free space are transverse, i.e., electric and magnetic field are perpendicular to the direction of propagation, as is well known as a result of Maxwells equations. 227

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In the recent past a hypothetical waveform is discussed, especially in the alternative scientific community. It is called longitudinal electric or magnetic waves, sometimes shortly denoted as electric scalar waves or simply scalar waves. The direction of the electric or magnetic field of scalar waves, as distinct from transverse waves, should be parallel to the direction of propagation. Various unusual properties are ascribed to those longitudinal electric waves. They are expected to propagate with superluminal velocity, to cause dangerous electromagnetic pollution, e.g., of mobile phone radiation, and to cause various positive effects in medicine. The newest version is that those longitudinal electric waves are considered to be the physical basis for far range transponders.(3,4) But up to now any experimental evidence for the existence of such scalar waves has not been given. A strong indication of the existence of longitudinal electric waves in free space would be a theoretically substantiated deduction. K. Meyl has attempted to give such a theoretical proof in a vast number of publications (cf. his web page and references given therein(1)). A critical review(2) of the theoretical part of some of those publications has shown that there was no indication of the existence of scalar waves. Recently two further publications have been appeared.(3,4) Instead of Maxwells equation an approach was used that was called the new and dual field approach. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the cogency of the theoretical considerations presented in Meyls articles(3,4) in order to answer the question of whether this approach really gives an indication of the existence of longitudinal electric waves. 2. Meyls New and Dual Field Approach To give a theoretical proof of the existence of longitudinal electric waves Meyl starts with a new approach.(3,4) The so-called new and dual field approach consists of two equations according, to Meyl,(3,4) going back to M. Faraday(3, p. 83;4, p. 257, eqs. 2.1 and 2.3). E v3B 1 H v 3 D 2 Equations 1 and 2 should be more general than Maxwells equations and comprise them. Equation 1 describes the electric field E induced in a conductor moving with velocity v in a magnetic flux density B, as Meyl discussed it by the example of the unipolar generator. Equation 2 is introduced according to the rules of some duality, which, however, is not explained. It should be emphasized that v denotes the velocity of a moving conductor, hence, with speed less than the speed of light. From Equations 1 and 2 it is evident that E is perpendicular to both v and B, and H is perpendicular to v and D. Inserting Equation 2 into Equation 1 and using the constitutive relations for the electric displacement D, D eE 3

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with e e0 er, l l0 lr, we deduce the equation ! 2 jvj 5 E 1 2 0 c p where c 1/ el denotes the speed of light. By Equation 5 the Equations 1 and 3 are only consistent if the magnitude of the velocity vector introduced in Equations 1 and 2 equals the speed of light, contradicting the original meaning of v in Equations 1 and 2. And if we assume jvj c, then Equations 1 and 2 are just the relations required by Maxwells equations for plane electromagnetic waves (see, e.g., Jackson(5)), that is, E Ect 6 rn B Bct 6 rn 6 where n denotes the unit vector of the propagation. As is evident from Equations 1 and 2, with v cn those waves are transverse, i.e., the field vectors E and B are perpendicular to the direction of propagation n, and in addition, electric and magnetic fields are mutually perpendicular. Hence, this new and dual field approach actually consists of the very special relations describing plane transverse electromagnetic waves! In order to derive Maxwells equations from Equations 1 and 2 it is assumed for incomprehensible reasons in Meyls articles(3,4) that E and B depend on timevarying position coordinates r(t) rather than on time and position (see equations 3.6 and 3.7 in Meyl(3,4)). This inadmissible assumption enables Meyl to apply the relations dB dE v gradE 7 v gradB dt dt v dr/dt, in order to obtain the equations curl E dB/dt v div B, curl H dD/dt j (see equations 3.8 and 3.9 in Meyl(3,4)). Those look like Maxwells equations; however, they contain ordinary time derivatives instead of partial time derivatives, as needed for Maxwells equation. These shortcomings do not surprise us; since Equations 1 and 2 describe the special case of plane transverse electromagnetic waves given in Equation 6, it is impossible to deduce Maxwells equations from Equations 1 and 2. In addition, it is noticeable that in Meyls articles ordinary and partial time derivatives are mixed up frequently (for example, in equations 2.2, 3.8, 3.9, 3.14, and 3.16 and in the wave equation 4.6 in Meyl(3,4)). 3. Meyls Fundamental Field Equation Summarizing, we have seen that the new and dual field approach in Meyls articles cannot give proof of the existence of longitudinal electric or longitudinal

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magnetic waves. So there is no need for further discussions about the other statements in his articles. Even so, we want to take a closer look at the fundamental field equation and possible world equation in his works. There one assumes additionally that div B 6 0 (cf. equation 3.15 with equation 3.10 in Meyl(3,4)), i.e., the magnetic field is not free of sources (magnetic charges or monopoles). This is not new (consequences of this assumption have been discussed before, for example in Jackson(5)). However, up to now there is no experimental evidence of the existence of magnetic monopoles. Meyl calls the term v div B the potential vortex, despite the fact that div B describes the source density of the vector field B and there is no relation to any potential and vortex. From Maxwells equations generalized in this way Meyl derives in his articles(3,4) an equation that he calls the fundamental field equation (see equation 4.5 in Meyl(3,4)).   @2E 1 1 @E 1 E c2 curl curl E 8 2 @t s1 s2 @ t s1 s2 with s1 e/r, r is the electric conductivity and s2 is the magnetic counterpart to s1. To prove that this equation describes longitudinal electric waves we use a trial solution of longitudinal plane waves, E Ect 6 rn 9

where we now assume that E is parallel to n. Inserting Equation 9 into Equation 8 with curlE(ct 6 rn) 6n 3 dE(s)/ds 6d/ds(n 3 E(s)) 0, where s ct 6 rn, we get   @2E 1 1 @E 1 E0 10 @ t2 s1 s2 @ t s1 s2 The solutions of Equation 10 are exponentially decaying functions, i.e., there are no wave solutions in contradiction to the trial solution Equation 9. Consequently, Equation 8 does not give any evidence of longitudinal plane electric waves, and there is nothing fundamental in Equation 8. It should be noted that Meyl does not give in his articles(3,4) any hint of solutions of the partial differential equations he presents. It seems that he believes that special solutions can be ascribed to the individual differential operator terms of partial differential equations. He ascribed the 1st term on the left-hand side and the term on the right-hand side in Equation 8 to electromagnetic waves, the 2nd term to an eddy current, the 3rd term to a potential vortex and the 4th to Ohms law (see equation 4.5 in Meyl(3,4)). Such an interpretation is definitely not valid. Crucial to the properties of the electromagnetic field described by this and the other differential equations presented are their solutions. Thus, the discussions after equation 4.5 in Meyls articles(3,4) (key words: A possible world equation, quantization of the field) are without any foundation; they are pure speculations.

Scalar Wave Effects and Far Range Transponder 4. Meyls General Wave Equation In the equation v2 grad div B c2 curl curl B d2 B dt 2

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11

(see equation 4.9 of Meyl(3,4)), Meyl calls it the general wave equation in his articles), Meyl ascribes c2 curl curl B to a transverse wave propagating with speed c, v2 grad div B to a longitudinal wave propagating with velocity v and d2B/dt 2 as wave velocity of propagation. His interpretation of this differential equation reads: The wave equation (equation 4.9) can be divided into longitudinal and transverse wave parts, which however can propagate with different velocity(3,4). Such an interpretation is definitely not valid. Again it should be emphasized that the solution of this partial differential equation is crucial to whether there are longitudinal waves or not. Again, we have no clue on explicit solutions of this equation, not even of the existence of such solutions. Some final remarks: 1. On a first glance the change of the meaning of the velocity v is stumping. In Equations 1 and 2 (Meyl equations 2.1 and 2.3(3,4)), v was the velocity of a moving conductor; in Equation 7 the velocity along a not more closely defined trajectory r(t) (equations 3.6 and 3.7 in Meyl(3,4)); and in Equation 11 (equation 4.9 of Meyl(3,4)), an arbitrary phase velocity of longitudinal waves. 2. As mentioned before, Meyl does not present any solution or a clue of a possible solution of Equation 11 (equation 4.9 in Meyl(3,4)). Hence, the discussion of properties of the far and near field that follows equation 4.9 in Meyls articles is also without any foundation. 3. This applies in particular to the near field. The model Meyl started from describes the propagation of electromagnetic fields through media with special properties. He did not include any sources responsible for the emission of electromagnetic radiation, like oscillating charges, currents or dipoles, etc. Hence, the equations he obtained do not describe radiation processes and thus the near field behavior of electromagnetic waves is not included. The consequence is that the properties he ascribed to the near field (key words: Near field as a vortex field, vortex model of the scalar waves, antenna noise caused by Lorentz contraction of vortices and vortex works as a frequency converter) are nothing but highly fanciful speculations. The rsum is that Meyls articles do not deliver any clue for the existence of longitudinal electric waves in free space. This comment should be concluded with a citation of Meyls interpretation for a longitudinal wave (chapter 4 in Meyl(3), p. 86 and in Meyl(4), p. 268): Completely different is the case for the longitudinal wave. Here the propagation takes place in the direction of an

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oscillating field pointer, so that the phase velocity permanently is changing and merely an average group velocity can be given for the propagation.

References
1. Available at: http://www.k-meyl.de. 2. Bruhn, G. W. (2001). On the existence of K. Meyls scalar waves. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 15, 206210. 3. Meyl, K. (2007). Far range transponder, eld-physical basis for electrically coupled bidirectional far range transponders. In Proceedings of the 1st RFID Eurasia Conference, Istanbul, September 56, 2007. ISBN 978-975-01566-0-1. 4. Meyl, K. (2006). Scalar wave effects according to Tesla. In International Scientic and Professional Meeting, The Life and Work of Nikola Tesla, June 2829, 2006, Zagreb, Croatia. Published in Annu. Croat. Acad. Eng. ISSN 1332-3482. 5. Jackson, J. D. (1999). Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Wiley.

Journal of Scientic Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 233243, 2008

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How to Reject Any Scientific Manuscript


DIETER GERNERT
Technische Universitaet Muenchen Arcisstrasse 21, D-80333 Muenchen, Germany e-mail: t4141ax@mail.lrz-muenchen.de

AbstractAfter a short overview of arguments pro and contra peer reviews, examples of gross misjudgement are compiled, followed by an attempt to identify some frequent, recurrent patterns of unjustified rejection of scientific manuscripts. A few specific questions are studied in more detail: the claim for still more precise and comprehensive definitions, the right way of handling parallel theories, and the frequent misuse of the term pseudoscience. Finally, practical rules to improve refereeing and basic rights of authors are proposed, together with a word of encouragement for future authors. Keywords: Peer reviewscases of misjudgementpatterns of unjustified rejectionmisuse of the term pseudoscienceproposals to improve refereeing

1. The Controversy about Peer Reviews The controversy about peer review has a long tradition. Here it can be presupposed that the reader is familiar with the basic facts and frequent arguments. The present text will focus only on the refereeing of scientific papers submitted for publication in a journal, or for presentation at a congress, workshop, etc.; the assessment of research proposals is beyond our scope. After a brief summary of arguments pro and contra peer reviewing, examples of unjustified or unfair rejection of papers are compiled, and to the extent possible, an attempt will be made to identify recurrent patterns. The main purposes of this study are to encourage authors who may be victims of unfair treatment and to supply diagnostic tools to those editors and publishers who want to guarantee the quality of refereeing within their domain of responsibility. To avoid any misunderstanding, thousands of referees worldwide are doing a fine job, year after year, and on a voluntary (unpaid) basis. The following unfriendly examples are taken from reliable printed sources and from the 233

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immediate experience of scientists personally known to the author (marginally, a few items are reported from the authors own experience). The arguments pro are simple: peer reviews have to exclude papers of poor quality and mere nonsense, safeguard the usual scientific standards,  return manuscripts to the author(s) for correction of minor flaws, and  prevent overloading of information channels and a flood of useless material.
 

The list of arguments contra is by far longer; the principal objections to peer review are that
     

Refereeing is slow and delays publication. The claimed validity of the procedure is not guaranteed. Acceptance or rejection is biased; it is influenced by the referees personal interests, preferences, and worldview. Innovative concepts are at risk of being suppressed; texts which stick to the current opinion have a superior chance of being accepted. The chance to publish is placed under the control of small minorities (elites). A reviewer can obtain an unfair advantage by becoming informed about novel concepts, research strategies, or empirical findings earlier than do other researchers.

The well-known term Matthew effect (Robert K. Merton) characterizes the recurrent pattern that those authors who already have published a handsome number of articles will have a greater chance to get a new paper accepted than an unknown author would have, even if the quality is comparable (they who have will still be given more). A similar bias is evoked by the authors affiliation. (Also, prizes are more likely to be awarded to senior scientists, even if the work has been done by younger researchers.) Two extreme positions have been articulated. Based upon his empirical research, Armstrong (1982) formulated what he called the authors formula, a set of rules that authors should use to increase the likelihood and speed of acceptance of their manuscripts. Authors should (1) not pick an important problem, (2) not challenge existing beliefs, (3) not obtain surprising results, (4) not use simple methods, (5) not provide full disclosure, and (6) not write clearly, explains Armstrong. Taschner (2007) even opposes the illusion that papers written by researchers are really read by those colleagues who keep the power of important decisions. In my view, the situationat least in some disciplinesis much more miserable: often no longer anything is read, but, in the best case, good friends among the gatekeepers are asked by phone or email whether the author really is suitable.

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It is a well known fact that many ideas and theories are not attributed to the first inventors, because originally they were rejected, then forgotten, and later on they were to be discovered anew by other people. In these cases, it is not the pioneers who are quoted and rewarded for their accomplishment, but later inventors and imitators (Fischer, 2007: 5). The Indian astrophysicist Chandrasekhar, with his theory of stellar development, is an example. After having encountered heavy resistance from established scientists, the young researcher did not publish his theory and turned to other branches of physics. More than twenty years later the theory was developed again by others (Wali, 1990: chap. 6). Chandrasekhar was finally awarded the physics Nobel prize in 1983 for other achievements. Turning now from natural science to humanities, we must inevitably regard what became known as Sokals hoax. In 1996, Alan Sokal, professor of physics at New York University, concocted a deliberately nonsensical and parodic text entitled Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity. This was sent to a journal dedicated to cultural studies and run by a renowned universityand printed, without any doubtful question from the editors side. Sokal himself ascribed his quick success to the fact that his text had been in perfect conformity with the editors ideological preconception, and he revealed his conscious hoax in a subsequent text published by another journal (Sokal, 1996; for an overview, including further developments, see also Sokal & Bricmont, 1998). In 1921 the chemist William C. Bray discovered a chemical reaction with periodic oscillations, but his finding simply was not believed. In 1951 an article, written by P. B. Belousov, on a similar observation was rejected; the editor declared that the reported results were simply impossible. Finally, the discovery was accepted about the year 1970now it is generally known as the BelousovZhabotinski reactionbut only after a suitable theory had been developed (see Bauer, 1992: 23, with further examples). In 2005, the Nobel Prize for medicine was awarded to Robin Warren and Barry Marshall for their (re-)discovery of the bacterium which finally was named helicobacter pylori; in contrast to earlier chance observers, Warren and Marshall had elucidated its medical significance. But initially they encountered a rather hesitant and reluctant acceptance, and when they wanted to publish their findings, their earliest articles were rejected as incredible; even accepted papers were significantly delayed (Marshall, 2006: 245). Nowadays infection with H. pylori is held responsible for the majority of all stomach ulcers. For the realm of economics, Gans and Shepherd (1994) compiled material on classic articles by leading economists which originally had been rejected. In an experimental study, Peters and Ceci (1982) selected 12 already-published research articles by investigators from prestigious American psychology departments. After slightly altering the 12 articles and changing the authors names and

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their affiliations, Peters and Ceci re-submitted the manuscripts to the journals which had originally refereed and published them 18 to 32 months earlier. Only three of the re-submissions were detected, and eight of the nine other were rejected. The two experimenters argue that the reviewers bias against less prestigious institutions accounted for the eight rejections, because the authors affiliations had been changed from renowned universities to fictitious obscure places. (For further material on reconstructive studies see Frhlich [2003]; further examples and analyses can be found in Fischer [2004, 2007], Hook [2002], and Horobin [1990]). Now its time to present the record-holder (with the greatest number of unjustified rejections of one paper, to the authors best knowledge). The biologist Lynn Margulis developed a fundamentally new theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells (cells which divide by classical mitosis). As she remembers in conversations with a biographer, nevertheless the paper was rejected by about fifteen scientific journals (Brockman, 1995: 135). Currently, her contribution is recognized as a landmark and a key to the understanding of the genesis of organelles. Finally, the article was accepted and printed under the name Lynn Sagan (Sagan, 1967)sometimes marrying can proceed faster than publishing. 3. Elementary Tricks to Justify Rejection To try to make some sense of this, the simpler tricks will be listed here, and the more sophisticated ones, which require some discussion, will follow in the next section. The following list is certainly incomplete. 1. How sloppy reading can be helpful: Henry H. Bauer (2002: 270) reports One of my early papers in electrochemistry was turned down because I suggested that a certain parameter had a certain value and the referee refused to believe that possible; he overlooked that I had cited the value from the published work of a highly respected researcher, work that never before had been contradicted. In another case, a referee remarked Sometimes Delta is spelt in capital letters, sometimes not. It had been explained in the onset that Delta and delta stood for and din a typescript before the era of modern word processing. 2. Blank ignorance or bold claim: An author was undeservedly named the creator of a new mathematics. The true story is that he only had proposed to apply graph grammars for a specific purpose. Indeed, graph grammars have existed since 1969; with about five mouse clicks the referee would have found this fact, together with a special bibliography (Drewes, 2007) comprising about 1000 entries (already in 2005) and displaying also the various fields of application. 3. Something is missing in the beginning: It is criticized that some old stuff, e.g., a particular episode from the history of the field, has not been addressed. 4. An article can always be criticized for some extensions, conclusions, or applications missing in the conclusions. Reviewing a paper on the

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teaching methodology (didactics) of a specific discipline, a referee criticized that no new curriculum for that subject had been expounded. 5. It is objected that references are incomplete. This can apply both to things that are well known as well as to very obscure references. One may guess that one of the missing titles is related to the referee, and another one to his best friend. And, evidently, the principle of uncited classics is not generally knownin quoting the famous E mc2 it is not required to quote Einsteins original paper. As an illustration, the mentioning of the Matthew effect (Section 1) is left undocumented here. 6. Taboos in unexpected places: There are not only taboo words, but also taboo authors (as critically reported by Clauser [2002: 7174]), whom one had better not quote in order to get papers accepted; names are not disclosed here in order not to reinforce the ugly chorus. Once an argument for rejection was the fact that a book quoted stemmed from an unknown writer and was published in a little townin the referees view it could not be excluded that the book was distributed by a printers shop naming itself publisher. 7. Ultima ratio regum: This Latin phrasethe kings ultimate argument was engraved on cannon some centuries ago. Indeed, if a referee has only a few feeble arguments for rejection, or wants to hide a fundamental opposition against the contentsthen the ultimate weapon, the big cannon, comes in: This paper has flaws with respect to English style and grammar. Sometimes this may even happen when the text had been edited by a native speaker. And why not return it for corrections? 4. Advanced Tricks and Boundary Cases 4.1. The Struggle about Definitions No matter whether only established terms are used or some new terms are adequately introduced in a manuscript, there will always be a chance for criticism: one or another denition is claimed to be either missing, not clear enough, deviating from the usual habit, or a minimal definition which is not sufficiently elaborate. So some remarks on definitions in scientific texts may be appropriate. It is generally accepted (and meanwhile rather trite) that from the very onset the notions must be clear and that there must be a consensus about the meaning of terms. But, in our present context, this issue can be seen from a different perspective; there are at least some specific arguments against an undifferentiated use of such objections: In any definition, the deniens again contains terms for which a definition could be requested, and so on ad innitum; every system of notions includes fundamental notions which can not be reduced to underlying simpler notions.  In many cases, it is possible to find a divergent definition and to highlight this as the generally compulsory one.


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An observation can be regularly made in discussions after a lecture presented in a conference or workshop: someone demands a definition just to attack; if no concrete arguments against the statements made in the lecture are available, then at least a fog grenade can be thrown to spread an atmosphere of scepticism in the audience.  Authors who consciously use a divergent terminology will jeopardize the acceptance of their proposals or findings.

4.2. Fads, Nostalgia, and Wrong Perspective Even in mathematics, where nobody would suppose it could occur, a strange fad may emerge, time and again, for a short-lived existence, and this can be used by referees: for example, this paper does not sufficiently consider catastrophe theory (or fractal theory, chaos theory, fuzzy logic, etc.); nevertheless, about a year later, the next buzzword can be in. Just the highly innovative proposals are at risk of being viewed under an obsoleteand hence wrongperspective. Repeatedly we find a tendency to stick to traditional concepts, simply based on emotion, such that we can speak about nostalgia in science (this holds equally for authors and reviewers). In applications of mathematics, the recurrent pattern of nostalgia mathematics can be illustrated by the inclination to avoid complex number (e.g., by a separate handling of real and imaginary partsmore sophisticated examples and the inconvenience of this way of proceeding are outside the present scope of this paper). At any rate, one should be cautious of comments stating that the same could be done by simpler mathematics. Further samples of a wrong perspective and its outcome may be the demand for details of a special microphysical effect in an article on macroscopic phenomena (when there is not any known connection between both), and  the insistence on special episodes from the history of science in a case where the real topic is the correct interpretation of recent empirical findings.


4.3. Parallel Theories and the Argument of the Simpler Description An example of the fruitful coexistence of two equivalent theories is given by the Heisenberg representation and the Schrdinger representation in the early years of quantum theory. Fortunately both formulations were created nearly simultaneously, such that neither of them could take over the role of a dominating theory. In our modern view they are unitarily equivalent, i.e., there is a one-to-one translation from one to the other. In the present context, we have to scrutinize the frequently used argument that something could be easily done without the proposed new concepts and that the empirical material could as well be handled in the traditional style. Leaving

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aside the rare case of two equivalent and simultaneous theories, we propose the notion of a parallel theory to denote a new scientific framework which describes just the same empirically verified facts as are contained in already-existing theories. The notion of a parallel theory (rather than alternative theory or something like that) is deliberately chosen in order to avoid any bias in favour of one of the candidates. A candidate for a new parallel theory must possess the following qualifying features: General requirement: The usual properties of a scientific theory must be guaranteed, e.g., internal consistency.  Continuity of terms: To the extent possible, established terms should be used, and furthermore, this use should maintain the traditional meanings of the terms.  Empirical correctness: The theory must be compatible with the empirical data.  Explanatory power: There must be at least one class of empirical facts which can be explained only through the new theory, or in which the new theory replaces a totally unsatisfying and preliminary older explanation or interpretation with a clearer one.


Now we are in the position to formulate a criterion under which a proposed parallel theory will be legitimate and meaningful. The decisive criterion is its explanatory surplus, which may be restricted to a specific class of empirical phenomena. Under this condition it is counterproductive to argue that the older theory suffices. It must be kept in mind that the new theory may turn out as significant for a broader class of phenomena which are not being discussed at the moment or which will be detected in the future; those who reject a novel theory may be rejecting a pathway to new discoveries. Authors carry the burden of proof for the alleged explanatory surplus of their proposals. Closely related herewith is the argument that a simpler description would be possible. Rather often, such objections sail under the flag of Ockhams Razor, a methodological principle due to the mediaeval philosopher William of Ockham. But in reality Ockhams principle is very frequently quoted in a sense incompatible with the original text and intention: Ockham mainly opposed an unjustified creation of new terms in philosophy. In modern times, two principal versions are circulating: The principle of parsimony comes close to the original version by demanding cautious discretion before introducing new terms.  The principle of simplicity aims at explanations, reasons, theories, etc., which should be as simple as possible.


It is clear that modern science requires a functional, sufficiently differentiated system of terms. But, on the other hand, the referees should stop the authors

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from indulging in an unbridled creation of new terms, which may be motivated, e.g., by mere ignorance of the usual standard or by vanity (show vocabulary). The principle of simplicity requires a more detailed analysis (Bunge, 1963; Gernert, 2007). Very briefly, some principal aspects can be summarized as follows: A precise measure of simplicity cannot be generally defined; rather, it would depend on the underlying means of description and on the context of the analysis.  Simplicity cannot be the exclusive guiding principle for research, but it stands in competition with other partial goals, like exactness; if simplicity were the only criterion, than thousands of nonlinear formulas in science would be in danger of being replaced by simpler linearized versions.  There is no objective and formalized procedure for deciding which of two competing explanations for the same empirical facts is to be regarded as the simpler.  A subjective bias can never be excluded: what is compatible with somebodys own pre-existing worldview will be considered simple, clear, logical, and evident, whereas what contradicts that worldview will quickly be rejected as an unnecessarily complex explanation or a senseless new hypothesis.


4.4. PseudoscienceAn Intricate Notion and its Ambivalent Use The demarcation between science and pseudoscience is not merely a problem of armchair philosophy: it is of vital social and political relevance (Lakatos, 1998: 20). Indeed, this problem of demarcation is one of the two hard problems within the philosophy of science, paralleled only by the problem of formulating a generally valid theory by induction from empirical data. So here no global overview can be given (nor is it planned to join the debate on fundamental questions); rather, the problem will be viewed mainly with regard to the aspects of refereeing. Also, some lesser-known facets will be addressed. The terms pseudoscience and pseudoscientific are invariably defamatory and derogatory (Hansson, 1996: 169). So Hanson makes no attempt to formulate explicit definitions of these notions. Also, three comprehensive encyclopedias, otherwise very reliable, circumvent this issue by simply omitting these key words. The supposed experts on this, the philosophers of science, in their honest moments will admit that no satisfactory definition of pseudoscience exists (Bauer, 2001: ix). As Hansson (1996: 173) explains, it is not careless experiments that are thus denigrated, but deviant doctrines. Reported results which are too contradictory with regard to established knowledge are rejected, even if they were obtained methodically (Bauer, 1992: 58, 136). A demarcation is not possible by majority opinion, and even Poppers falsifiability criterion is not helpful here (Lakatos, 1998). There is no general

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agreement about scientific method. A great many phenomena or interpretations, controversially debated in earlier times, were accepted later on (meteorites, continental drift, ball lightning, reverse transcriptase; for further examples see Bauer [1992: 2324]); some frontier sciences have been eventually converted into reliable textbook science. Turning now to the referees practical activities, first of all we must state that there are masses of intellectual trash and junk science (Bauer, 2001)an argument for the necessity of refereeing. Everybody who works in related institutions knows the trouble with unsolicited visitors and written material. There are characteristic patterns which justify a quick rejection, e.g.: proposals for squaring the circle (which show that the true problem has not been understood),  attempts to prove Fermats Last Theorem (generally a first step into a proof technique, the futility in the general case of which was demonstrated some decades ago),  a gross denial of the heliocentric system, or of Earths shape as a spheroid, etc.


In such cases a rejection must be permitted without a need for further justification. A practical tool to simplify and to speed up working is a list published by John Baez (2007)even if it looks funny at a first sight (like a quiz in which scores are given), it really sums up a lot of practical experience. In this context, two brief warning remarks may be adequate. Some amount of animosity, and the readiness to rashly use pejorative terms, are revealed by the fact that even in mathematics, where nobody would suppose it, two (then) newly developing branches of mathematics were placed into the neighbourhood of pseudoscience by mathematicians: catastrophe theory and chaos theory (Sussmann, 1978; Steffen, 1994). The second warning concerns a non-criterion. It is not necessarily a symptom of wrong science when a group of scientists builds up an organizational and communication structure of its own. Clauser (2002) gives an impressive account on the situation within the quantum physics community (about the early 1980s), characterized by Clauser as forbidden thinking. A minority of physicists advocating an experimental inquiry of quantum theory felt urged to publish an underground newspaper (under the inconspicuous title Epistemological Letters), the circulation of which was limited to the members of a quantum-subculture. Eventually, the banned experimental teststhe pioneering work was the experiment by Alain Aspect and his teamled to the modern state of the art with the undisputed role of quantum communication and quantum cryptography. To sum up, apart from the clear extreme cases, a rejection should be supported by concrete reasons and should not be based upon or orbiting around one single, frequently misused word.

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This tentative summary compiles some practical advice, both for editors and for authors. First of all, refereeing is necessary, in spite of all critical reservations; the positive reasons given in Section 1 cannot be questioned. Specifically, each reviewer should take care that no private terminology will be printed where the established one would suffice (new terms are admissible only for real innovations) and that parallel theories will be accepted only if they are justified by a demonstrable explanatory surplus (Section 4.3). There is no guarantee for the detection of fakes and frauds. No referee can repeat experiments, nor check lengthy mathematical derivations; nevertheless, nonsense like the claimed non-existence of gravitation (Sokals hoax, Section 2) should be intercepted. Some of the weak spots expounded here can be partially alleviated. A first, well-known piece of advice is to keep the authors (and their affiliations) in anonymity, although in some cases, the reviewer can identify the author through favourite topics, phrases, quotations, and the like. The following rules should be observed in order to safeguard the basic rights of authors: 1. If a rejection is based upon the poor quality of a paper, or its nonconformity with the scope of the journal, then the paper should be returned rather quickly (within a few weeks). 2. The same holds if there are only some errors which can be easily corrected (e.g., wrong years for historic events) or if the argument refers to English grammar and style, with a chance to submit a revised version. 3. Pacta sunt servanda: If a manuscript has been returned with detailed hints for corrections, and if the revised version meets these requirements, than the editor should have no chance to take refuge behind formal regulations (We never accept a third revised versionit really happened). 4. In cases of a referees manifest errorbeyond any question of subjectivity, worldview, and interpretation (see the examples in Section 3, numbers 1 and 2)the author should have the right to address the editor or publisher, with the expectation that he will receive an answer in due time. This paper ends with an encouragement to future authors. The present author knows a small number of concrete cases in which a really valuable and innovative paper collects dust in a cellar or attic because its author, after rejections, shrinks back, through sheer frustration, from submitting it elsewhere. The material compiled here may entail sufficient motivation to submit a rejected manuscript (after corrections) once more at another place.

References
Armstrong, J. S. (1982). Barriers to scientic contributions: The authors formula. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 197199.

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Baez, J. (2007). The Crackpot Index. A simple method for rating potentially revolutionary contributions to physics. Available at: http://www.math.ucr.edu/home/baez/crackpot.html. Accessed September 2007. Bauer, H. H. (1992). Scientic Literacy and the Myth of the Scientic Method. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Bauer, H. H. (2001). Science or Pseudoscience. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Bauer, H. H. (2002). Whats an editor to do? Journal of Scientic Exploration, 16, 265273. Brockman, J. (1995). The Third Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster. Bunge, M. (1963). The Myth of Simplicity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Clauser, J. F. (2002). Early history of Bells theorem. In Bertlmann, R. A., & Zeilinger, A. (Eds.), Quantum [Un]speakable. From Bell to Quantum Information (pp. 6198). Berlin, Germany: Springer. Drewes, F. (2007). Graph grammar bibliography. Available at: http://www.cs.umu.se/;drews/gragra/. Accessed September 2007. Fischer, K. (2004). Soziale und kognitive Aspekte des Peer Review-Verfahrens. In Fischer, K., & Parthey, H. (Eds.), Evaluation Wissenschaftlicher Institutionen. Wissenschaftsforschung Jahrbuch 2003 (pp. 2362). Berlin, Germany: Gesellschaft fu r Wissenschaftsforschung e.V. Fischer, K. (2007). Fehlfunktionen der Wissenschaft. Erwa genWissenEthik, 18(1), 316. Fro hlich, G. (2003). Anonyme Kritik: Peer review auf dem Pru fstand der Wissenschaftsforschung. MedizinBibliothekInformation, 3(2), 3339. Gans, J. S., & Shepherd, G. B. (1994). How are the mighty fallen: Rejected classic articles by leading economists. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 165179. Gernert, D. (2007). Ockhams Razor and its improper use. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 21, 135 140. Hansson, S. O. (1996). Dening pseudo-science. Philosophia Naturalis, 33, 169176. Hook, E. B. (Ed.) (2002). Prematurity in Scientic Discovery. On Resistance and Neglect. Berkeley: University of California Press. Horobin, D. F. (1990). The philosophical basis of peer review and the suppression of innovation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(10), 14381441. Lakatos, I. (1998). Science and pseudoscience. In Curd, M., & Cover, A. (Eds.), Philosophy of Science (pp. 2026). New York: Norton. Marshall, B. J. (2006). Helicobacter connections [Autobiography]. In Grandin, K. (Ed.), Les Prix NobelThe Nobel Prizes 2005 (pp. 238245). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. Peters, D. P., & Ceci, S. J. (1982). Peer review practices of psychological journals: The fate of published articles, submitted again. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 187195. Sagan, L. (1967). On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 14, 225274. Sokal, A. (1996). A physicist experiments with cultural studies. Lingua Franca, May 1996, 6264. Sokal, A., & Bricmont, J. (1998). Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals Abuse of Science. New York: Picador. [French original (1997): Impostures Intellectuelles. Paris: Editions Odile Jacob.] ffentlichkeit. Mitteilungen Steffen, K. (1994). Chaos, Fraktale und das Bild der Mathematik in der O der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung, 1, 2540. Sussmann, H. J. (1978). On some self-immunization mechanisms of applied mathematics: The case of catastrophe theory. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 6, 6384. Taschner, R. (2007). Erosion von Wissenschaft. Erwa genWissenEthik, 18(1), 5859. Wali, K. C. (1990). Chandra: A Biography of S. Chandrasekhar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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BOOK REVIEWS
The Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological Investigations by Stephen E. Braude. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007, 227 pp. $22.50 (cloth). ISBN-13: 978-0-226-07152-7. In this book Stephen Braude describes several cases that he has investigated and reflects on some issues raised by his investigations. Some of the cases appear to be genuinely anomalous, such as that of Katie, the Gold Leaf Lady (Chapter 1); and those of Ted Serios, who could apparently produce images on photographic film (Chapter 6); and Gina, Braudes wife, who could ostensibly predict the outcomes of sports events through the use of astrology (Chapter 8). Other cases clearly have mundane explanations, such as that of the policeman who mistakenly thought that he could transfer images from photographs onto other objects (Chapter 5). Some remain ambiguous but serve to illustrate problems associated with this type of research (Chapters 3 and 4). The remaining two chapters are concerned with the history of the study of macro-psychokinesis, particularly that of D. D. Home and Eusapia Palladino (Chapter 2) and synchronicity (Chapter 7). Perhaps the most striking case is that of Katie, on whose face and other parts of the body gold-colored foil appears spontaneously. The foil sometimes covers fairly large areas of her body and is often uncomfortable, accompanied by a burning or itching feeling and sometimes leaving behind reddened skin when its removed (p. 7). Upon examination, the foil has turned out to be brass similar in structure to that used for commercial purposes. Braude describes witnessing and photographing the manifestation of this foil and discusses various aspects of this case as well as methodological and substantive issues that it raises. On the face of it, this appears to be either a case of apportation (if the foil were simply to have been moved from another location in space and time to Katies body) or materialization (if the foil came into physical existence at the time of manifestation). Less striking, but perhaps more instructive, is the chapter about astrology because it challenges the manner in which we think about the structure of reality. There is little evidence that astrology actually works, yet it seems to work for Gina. Braude mentions an incident that stood out for him in which Gina recommended to a soccer coach that he play his reserve goalkeeper for two games. What is interesting is that in those two games, it is not that the reserve goaltender played well, but that the other team could not hit the net. Ostensibly, had the coach played the regular goaltender, the other teams would not have had the same difficulty. If this really were an anomalous occurrence, then it suggests that events, such as the presence of one or another person, can have non-local effects that bypass ordinary causal pathways. 245

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Of course, much of what Braude says hinges on the credibility of the data that he presents. And what data there are, vary in type and amount. There is some reasonable documentation for the case of Katie; only Braudes informal observations of Ginas forecasting; and some mixture of formal and informal evidence for the others. This is not a book in which readers will find carefully laid out proofs for the existence of anomalies. But then, that is not the purpose of this book. As I see it, among others, there are two types of scientific books that one can write about weird things. The purpose of one type is to show that weird things happen. And there are lots of that type of book on the market. The second type of book begins where the first type leaves offacknowledging that weird things sometimes happen, what are the parameters affecting their occurrence and issues raised by their presence? It is to this second category that Braudes book belongs. In the course of discussing some of the cases he has investigated, Braude addresses a number of issues such as the role of attributions on the part of mediums in facilitating the phenomena that they produce, the effects on phenomena of the manner in which participants are treated in case studies of anomalies, and the problem of determining the source of causality if psychokinetic effects occur. The book is written using a conversational writing style, often in narrative form, whereby the reader gets drawn into the confidence of the author. I think that the style works well in this case. This is an easy book to read. However, I would have liked it if it had been a bit more tightly organized. For example, I thought that the reader could have been better set up for which cases were considered to involve anomalous events and which were not. Also, some of the issues raised could have been better worked into the text rather than remaining as digressions (e.g., pp. 2223). And occasionally the language becomes a little too colloquial for my taste (e.g., p. 96). I found the arguments presented by Braude in this book to be sound overall and concurred with many of the points that he raises. For example, his characterization of the manner in which some skeptics mindlessly object to information that does not concur with their opinions is right on the mark. The only serious problem I had was with his philosophical analysis of the reason why synchronicity, which he thinks does occur, cannot result from meaningful connections between events in nature isolated from any psyche but must necessarily involve the perspective of an agent for whom such connections are meaningful events. I follow his philosophical arguments but feel that they in turn can be eroded with a more penetrating analysis of our suppositions about what nature is like. After all, to the extent that astrology could describe the occurrence of meaningfully congruent events independent of any psyche, we have an example in the astrology chapter of just such connections. To my mind, it is possible that meaning really is part of the essential fabric of reality. Overall, Braude carries the discussion about the nature of consciousness and reality in light of the occurrence of anomalous events into deeper waters than

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those usually entered, thereby giving the reader an opportunity to consider matters at a greater level of complexity. I liked this book. And it was fun to read. Others might also find it worthwhile.
S IMANTS BARUS Department of Psychology Kings University College at The University of Western Ontario

The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth: A Sociological Account by Jeremy Northcote, Imprint Academic, 2007. pp. 237 (paper). $29.90. ISBN 978 184540 0712. This book analyzes debates regarding anomalous topics in order to show how knowledge is constructed in Western society. Author Northcote states, In particular, I want to make transparent the politics of truth surrounding the paranormal subjectthat is, the discursive processes involved in defining the validity and value of paranormal ideas in Western society . . . (page 6). A basic assumption is that sociologists can write about issues regarding paranormal claims without passing judgment regarding the validity of these claims. Northcotes exploration of paranormal issues explores a wide variety of sources but draws heavily on the work of David Hess (1993) and interviews with parapsychologist-turned-skeptic Susan Blackmore. Northcote defines the paranormal as a category that denotes a range of alleged phenomena judged to be unexplained or inexplicable in terms of normal scientific understanding (page 13). He also draws from UFO literature, sociology of science literature, skeptical writings, histories of the paranormal debate, the New Age movement, writings of occult practitioners, and Christians writing about the paranormal. After he defines The Paranormal, further chapters are titled: A History of the Struggle, Players in the Contemporary Debate, Becoming a Participant, The Discursive Basis of Conflict, Strategic Action within the Debate, and Conclusion: The Possibility of Strategic Action. The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth covers similar ground as did Collins and Pinch (1982) and McClenon (1984) but this book has less of a sociology of science perspective and more of a post-structuralist orientationsimilar to that of anthropologist David Hess (1993). Northcote writes, I am essentially stating that the disputes that take place over the paranormal are more political in character rather than scientificthat is, matters of ideology rather than of evidence. Further, I contend that such political processes are not guided by aliens, demons, or psychiatric tendencies, but by sociological processes of truth construction (this perspective constituting my particular ontological bias in this

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study) (page 10). The paranormal debate is political because it challenges the boundaries between legitimate and illegitimate knowledge that lie at the heart of our modern society (page 11). Researchers advocating belief in a particular anomalous phenomenon might argue that Northcotes ontological bias, ignores the tendency for scientific truth to be uncovered through empirical research. But, over the years, sociologists have noted that the conflicts between proponents of various anomalous claims and their critics have not been resolved and that there has been little progress toward resolution. Sociologists suggest that the rhetorical and political nature of science prevents resolution. Although Northcotes post-modernist discussions take abstract forms, proponents of various positions could benefit from his thoughts. For example, he reviews Michael Foucaults tree of enunciative derivation, arguing that competing positions may share the same basic discourse consisting of general governing statements that put into operation rules of formation. Opposing positions differ at their summit, where each discursive formation is more delicately articulated, more clearly delimited and localized in its extension (page 81). Northcote uses this model to explain how scientific paranormal research may be regarded as a subversive branch of the same enunciative discursive base from which Skepticism is derivedboth positions valuing Rationalist ideals such as objectivity, logic and provability, but expressing them in different ways (page 82). Although such prose has an abstract quality, those familiar with the paranormal debatesthe typical interactions between believers and skepticswill recognize Northcotes understanding of common issues. This book reflects a basic social reality. It demonstrates scholarly and ethnographic competence. I provide a lengthy quote so that readers may judge the degree an individual reader might find this book of interest. Northcote seeks an understanding of the factors influencing proponents positions. He states:
My contention is that the manner in which individuals are influenced by these discursive processes, and the extent of that influence, largely determines the ideational position they initially take in the paranormal debate, the strength of their commitment to that position, and the changing nature of their involvement over time. In terms of the strength of their commitment, for example, the associations, or links, that participants make between various wider discourses and their paranormal-related position, can lead them to attach a much greater significance to that position than their paranormal ideas alone might seem to warrant. Discourses, then, tend to situate the paranormal debate within a wider matrix of ideas and influences, bringing all sorts of non-paranormal related issues (such as the basis of knowledge and awareness, social equality and personal identity) to bear on the debate. In this respect, a discursive approach allows us to incorporate various emic and etic explanations within a single, overall framework, thereby offering a much more comprehensive explanation of peoples involvement than explanations that rely on one or two processes alone (page 118).

I argue that, although there is value in exploring this line of thought, the relativistic position (advocated by Northcote and many others, including

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myself) is not fully comprehensive. Northcote is aware of this problem and notes that many of those investigating anomalous claims oppose his discursive perspective. For them, the truth of their position is reason enough for their initial and ongoing attraction (or resistance) to the paranormal, and it is by virtue of their special abilities, experiences and insights that they have come to see the truth, not because of the influence of various truth-defining discursive formations (p. 119). His analysis is actually a form of philosophizing based on sociological analysis. His observations ring true to the degree that they reflect social reality. I argue that this post-modernist paradigm limits the discourse. Post-modernism does not lead to testable hypotheses and predictions about the future of parapsychology, for example. Analysis merely implies that major issues will not be resolved. It is unclear how the conclusions within this book might be evaluated. Northcote states:
. . . the paranormal debate, although held by participants to ideally be a rational dialogue over the nature of reality, is in fact a dispute that is primarily discursive in nature. In particular, I have argued that the dispute appears to center on underlying discursive structures that have produced (or at least exaggerated) certain paradigmatic dichotomies as a means of defining a noble Self against a demonized Other. This otherness . . .. is not simply a means of defining in-group identity, but is a distinction that is deeply discursive in naturecentering on epistemological, ideological and ontological notions concerning the value and place of virtues such as discipline, spirituality and dutifulness in the proper functioning of society and the cosmos as a whole (pages 1456).

This may be the case, but how are we to evaluate the degree that this is true? Sociologists quantify variables and evaluate change over time. The histories of scientific revolutions reveal that many scientific issues have been resolved. Successful scientific revolutions occur when revolutionary scientific organizations experience rapid, often exponential, membership growth. Successful scientific movements attract private, academic, and governmental funding. These movements gain rhetorical and political power through their capacity to (1) replicate basic experiments supporting their fundamental paradigm (2) develop innovative experimental procedures that attract new proponents and resources (3) create a growing body of knowledge resulting in increasing coverage by introductory textbooks. Although science is a rhetorical and political process, it is possible to evaluate the interaction between research results and that process. Fields such as parapsycholology constitute special situationswhich I term deviant science. They depend on lay publics for financial support rather than academic and governmental institutions. Deviant sciences gain longevity beyond that of unsuccessful scientific revolutions but do not experience the exponential growth associated with successful scientific paradigms. We can quantify the success of parapsychology by monitoring changes in membership in the fields major scientific organization, the Parapsychological Association. Membership was 205 in 1970, 279 in 1980, 306 in 1983, 275 in

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1986, 246 in 1992, 251 in 1999, and 254 in 2001 (McClenon, et al., 2003). These numbers indicate gradual growth followed by decline. This pattern does not reflect that of a successful scientific revolution. A content analysis of introductory psychology textbooks results in parallel conclusions. Introductory psychology textbook authors, over many decades, provided limited (not increasing) coverage of parapsychology and tended to focus on the fields failures rather than its successes (McClenon, et al., 2003). Parapsychologys longevity, non-scientific financial support, stagnant organizational membership, and shoddy treatment in introductory textbooks suggest that future claims of experimental replicability will be evaluated skeptically. Some parapsychologists argue that psychic phenomena have qualities that thwart scientific evaluation. Yet individual paranormal experiences seem to occur in all societies and eras. The appendix of The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth provides results of a 2001 Gallup Poll of Paranormal Beliefs. Among this random sample of USA respondents, 54% believe in psychic or spiritual healing, 50% believe in ESP or extrasensory perception, 42% believe that houses can be haunted, 41% believe that people on this earth are sometimes possessed by the devil. Surveys of paranormal belief, over time, reveal fluxbut also a basic stability. We might hypothesize that people in all societies, and in all eras, experience paranormal episodes and these perceptions provide foundations for folk beliefs in spirits, souls, life after death, and magical abilities. I argue that post-modernist sociological paradigms have few practical applications. Better orientations are available. Darwins theory of evolution, for example, provides testable hypotheses regarding why people believe in anomalous phenomena (McClenon, 2002). Spiritual healing over the past hundreds of thousands of years has provided survival benefits to those with genotypes allowing them to respond to ritual suggestion. Such genotypes, allowing hypnotic suggestion and dissociation, seem linked to the propensity for anomalous experience (many studies show correlations between these variables and hypnotic capacity has been shown to have genetic basis). This leads to testable hypotheses. We should find that all societies contain people who are more open to ritual suggestion and spiritual healing. We should find that such people more often experience apparitions, paranormal dreams, waking extrasensory perception, out-of-body and near death experience, psychokinesis, and synchronistic events. We can predict that these people will tend to believe in the spirits, souls, life after death, and magical abilitiesbeliefs useful to spiritual healing. This line of thinking can be evaluated within scientific paradigms leading to advances in psychotherapy. The Paranormal and the Politics of Truth is required reading for anyone who desires to use a post-modernist perspective to analyze conflicts at the borderlines of science. This book illustrates how social scientists can contribute to the sociology of knowledge. But greater contributions are possible. Social scientists, working within scientific, rather than philosophical, paradigms, can shed light on the ways that humans evolved due to their capacity to benefit from ritual

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processes. Although the political nature of sciences makes it difficult to resolve certain issues regarding anomalous claims, alternate paradigms are available. JAMES MCCLENON 216 Robert Street Chesapeake, VA 23322 References
Collins, H., & Pinch T. (1982). Frames of Meaning: The Social Construction of Extraordinary Science, London: Routlege & Kegan Paul. Hess, D. (1993). Science in the New Age: The Paranormal, its Defenders and Debunkers, and American Culture. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. McClenon, J. (1984). Deviant Science: The Case of Parapsychology, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. McClenon, J. (2002). Wondrous Healing: Shamanism, Human Evolution, and the Origin of Religion, DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. McClenon, J. (2005). The Ritual Healing Theory: Hypotheses for Psychical Research, Pp. 337360 in Parapsychology in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on the Future of Psychical Research, Michael A. Thalbourne and Lance Storm, editors, Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company. McClenon, J., Roig, M. Smith, M. D., & Gerrier G. (2003). The Coverage of Parapsychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: 19902002, Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 203, 167179.

Opening to the Infinite: The Art and Science of Nonlocal Awareness by Stephan A. Schwartz. Buda, TX: Nemoseen Media, 2007. 418 pp. $24.95 (paper). ISBN 978-0-9768536-1-9. Opening to the Innite is the latest book in a series by Stephan Schwartz that looks at how the ostensible psychic (psi) ability of remote viewing (RV) may be put to practical use in real-world applications. It does not just passively illustrate RV applications, however; it is also a useful applications manual in itself. Following an introduction to the terminology used in parapsychology and RV research in Chapter 1, Schwartz does two important things in Chapters 2 and 3: He outlines why RV is important, and he shows why RV deserves serious study, respectively. The reasons Schwartz lists for why RV can be important to the general public are practical: it can allow them to find hidden resources, it may help them gamble or trade on the stock market, and it may assist in national security (p. 27). The reason that RV is important for science, as Schwartz illustrates (pp. 3033), is that it seems to pose a serious challenge to the materialistic approach to the mind. RV, and ESP in general, suggests that individuals are able to gather sensory information about persons, objects, or places that are distant (or nonlocal) in space-time, beyond the range of the bodys sensory-motor system. This conflicts greatly with traditional materialism, which assumes that sensory information is only locally attainable through the bodys five known sensory modes, and the common response to this conflict by

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many mainstream scientists has been to either dismiss the phenomena that give rise to it, or simply ignore it. In the face of impressive statistical evidence for RV, and thus for ESP (Utts, 1996, 1999), it would seem that to uphold such ignorance would be to prevent the advancement of knowledge in thinking about the possible relationship between mind and matter. Schwartz shows why RV deserves serious study through an illustration of a notable 1977 experiment that was designed to test the spatial and environmental limits of RV (Puthoff et al., 1981: 5157), an experiment that he was instrumental in getting off the ground. A preliminary hypothesis proposed by the Russian physiologist Leonid Vasiliev in the early 1960s offered the idea that the information transfer process in ESP may involve some aspect of the electromagnetic spectrum that might act as a transmitter (pp. 4245). The mostly likely candidate seemed to be the extremely low frequency (ELF) waves found in the frequency range between 3 Hz and 3 kHz, given their high penetrability, low attenuation with distance, and information carrying capability (albeit with a low bit rate). The possible involvement of ELF in ESP was also considered by other researchers (Kogan, 1968; Persinger, 1979) with various pros and cons, but a way to resolve the issue would not come about until an experimental test of the hypothesis could be made. Schwartz had hoped to conduct such a test by carrying out an RV experiment using a deep-dive submersible to see if RV subjects were still able to give accurate impressions of the target while being several hundred feet below the surface of the ocean, a medium that is able to effectively block out ELF waves with depth. He had first tried to interest the United States Navy in the experiment in 1972 while serving as the Special Assistant for Research and Analysis to the Chief of Naval Operations, only to be told that it would have no potential applications for them. The opportunity only arose after he had left the service, when he discussed the idea again with a former Deputy Director of Navy Labs in 1976. This former director was now heading the Institute for Marine and Coastal Studies at the University of California, and he knew that a Canadian ocean research corporation was looking to test their new submersible, the Taurus, in the waters surrounding the Institutes research facility off the coast of Los Angeles. He discussed the idea with the Taurus owners, and they allowed it to be used for the RV trials over the course of three days. At that time, various U.S. military intelligence agencies were funding a covert series of RV studies being conducted at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). The two physicists heading the SRI series, Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ (1976), had just published a detailed paper describing the early part of the series in the prominent engineering journal Proceedings of the IEEE. Schwartzs attention was drawn to their paper by an acquaintance he had in the Central Intelligence Agency, and he immediately looked to collaborate with them on the submersible experiment. Participating as the RV subjects were photographer Hella Hammid and painter Ingo Swann, both of whom had demonstrated impressive RV abilities in the SRI studies (Puthoff & Targ, 1976; Targ & Puthoff,

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1977). Accompanied by SRI researcher Edwin May, Hammid and Swann were each individually taken several hundred feet down into the Pacific Ocean in the Taurus and asked to describe the geographical locations where Puthoff and Targ were located, approximately 500 miles away. Once their verbal mentation was recorded on audiotape, May broke open a sealed envelope containing a list of six geographical locations, one of which had been randomly selected by computer as the target location where Puthoff and Targ had gone. Hammid and Swann were then asked to select the location they thought was the target based on their impressions, and they both correctly did so, a result that has a combined probability of .028. The fact that both Hammid and Swann had demonstrated successful RV at sufficient seawater depths to attenuate ELF waves seemed to provide evidence against the hypothesis that ELF is a part of the ESP mechanism. This suggests that something more complex may be involved, and that serious study is warranted in order to determine what that something may be. The book quickly goes from illustration to application in Chapter 4 as Schwartz begins to outline a basic working procedure that may allow readers to explore RV for themselves. Unlike the many commercialized RV training programs that one may see in public forums, the procedure that Schwartz offers is very simple, easy to follow, and sensible. He likens the RV experience to being an eyewitness (p. 68), in that information from many different sensory levels may be received, and that one can at times have the sense of almost experiencing the target directly. He emphasizes that readers should proceed at their own pace in a relaxed, informal manner, taking breaks when it is felt necessary to regain focus. He also warns against things that may potentially be psi-inhibitive, such as the desire to directly analyze the incoming information in order to directly identify the target or otherwise draw conclusions about it, a process sometimes known as analytical overlay (p. 73). This is a good point, as others who have written about RV (Targ, 2004: 5859, 71; Targ & Harary, 1985: 211213) have also argued that such a tendency to analyze can potentially diminish RV quality, leading more to mental noise than anything. Schwartz notes that this tendency can also be provoked if an interviewer working with the viewer asks leading or specific questions about the targets details (p. 74), and he cautions against allowing this to slip into the session. In Chapter 5, Schwartz details a technique that he has personally used to help develop the ability to focus on an RV target, and that technique is meditation. He briefly summarizes some of the research on meditation (pp. 7881), noting that a relaxation effect often occurs in the body and that a deep stillness or silence can occur that may open a person more toward experiences of transcendence. Something that Schwartz doesnt specifically mention is that some experimental evidence suggests that meditative states are ESP-conducive (Braud, 1975; Honorton, 1977: 438442), perhaps because relaxation and sensory reduction seem to be ESP-conducive states. In Chapter 6, Schwartz discusses some possible geophysical correlates to psi that one may take into account when scheduling an RV session. He specifically

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notes the negative correlation between ESP performance and geomagnetic field activity found by Persinger (1989), and also Spottiswoodes (1997a) finding that the effect size in various ESP experiments tends to maximize at around 13:30 hours Local Sidereal Time (LST, a time often used by astronomers that is measured by the position of the stars in the sky overhead relative to the motion of the Earth). Spottiswoode (1997b) later found that the negative correlation between ESP and geomagnetic activity was also maximized around this same hour, hinting at a possible link to this factor. However, a second analysis of the effect size correlation with LST by Sturrock and Spottiswoode (2007) with a larger ESP dataset found that this correlation, though still apparent, had reduced in statistical significance, and the possibility remains that the correlation may be artifactual. This second analysis also produced statistical evidence suggesting a possible lunar modulation effect on ESP performance, which, if replicated, could add another factor that one may take into account. Schwartz also directs readers to useful Internet websites where they can easily determine the LST and current level of geomagnetic activity in their local area. Schwartz discusses two target factors in Chapter 7 that one may take into account in creating a target pool for RV sessions. The first factor relates to May et al.s (1994, 2000) finding that the quality of ESP performance is positively correlated with the change in the amount of Shannon entropy across the target image, analogous to the way sensory systems appear to be more sensitive to changes in the intensity of a stimulus rather than the absolute magnitude of the stimulus itself. The second factor is what Schwartz calls numinosity, a form of intentioned awareness or coherence. A crucial aspect of a target that gives it numinosity is its emotional meaning for the viewer, which may allow them to relate to the target, and thus perceive it. Or in some cases, if the meaningful aspect is negative for the viewer, it may lead to target avoidance. Schwartz gives two examples of the latter. In one (pp. 125128), the RV subject was unable to describe the central aspects of the geographical target pumpkins and Halloween decorations found in a patch even though he was able to describe the area surrounding the patch. The subject reportedly had an ill episode after eating a whole pumpkin pie on Halloween night in his youth, causing him to form a negative association with pumpkins and the holiday. The other example comes from the childhood of George McMullen, who has contributed to efforts in psychic archaeology (Schwartz, 1978/2001, Ch. 46; see also my review, Williams, 2006). After he had predicted the drowning of a childhood friend, McMullen was taken to the local church and harshly reprimanded in public. The great effect this had on him has apparently made him unable to correctly describe religious objects or buildings when these are selected as ESP targets (pp. 129130). This meaningful aspect of psi can be seen most clearly in spontaneous cases of ESP and PK (Rhine, 1961), where the person, object, or place involved in the experience often has an emotional significance to the experient. Roll (2005) suggested that an object can have two aspects: it has a material aspect that defines it in space-time, making it local. It also has

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affective meaning attributed to it by others, and this may be the aspect of the object that is nonlocally perceived in ESP. The concept of numinosity, as presented in this chapter, seems akin to this. Schwartz gives another example of how a targets meaningful aspect may affect ones ability to describe it while discussing displacement in Chapter 8. In an RV trial conducted when she was a teenager, the late Elisabeth Targ had described a unique pair of sunglasses instead of the correct target. Her father Russell Targ contributed the glasses to the target pool (pp. 140143), and their significance may have allowed her to relate to them, leading to target displacement. Schwartz also mentions in this chapter the decline effect that sometimes occurs in ESP performance over time, and reminds readers again about the diminishing influence of analytical overlay. A discussion of the different variations on the RV theme that have been explored in laboratory studies is described by Schwartz in Chapter 9. These include geographical RV, precognitive RV, and coordinate RV. The latter derives from a successful set of studies in the SRI series, where RV subjects were able to describe a geographical target when only given their map coordinates (Targ & Puthoff, 1977: 2734). He ends the procedure section by giving some simple tips on RV analysis and feedback in Chapters 10 and 11, respectively. In Chapter 12, Schwartz introduces an RV method that has been particularly successful in practical application by him and other psi researchers. This method is associative RV (ARV), in which each of the objects in a target pool is associated with a given event outcome that is potentially realizable at some future time. The goal of the RV subject is to describe the one object in the pool that is associated with the outcome that will actually be realized. Schwartz illustrates the methods application value through example, describing an ARV session he conducted with Edwin May in which the subjects attempted to describe the object associated with the winner in an upcoming horse race. Prior to the race, the subjects gave their impressions, and these were combined by majority-vote to give a single collective impression on the likely winning horse. Bets were placed on this horse, and the payout was big. Targ and Harary (1985: 104105) give an account of a similar ARV session in which Elisabeth Targ also attempted to describe the object associated with the winner in a horse race, with successful results. Other successful ARV applications that Schwartz describes include two that attempted to predict futures on the commodities market. Puthoff (1985) had seven subjects attempt to predict the direction of the markets daily activity by describing the target that was associated with the market outcome for the next day. A commodities broker then made an actual monetary investment in the market on behalf of Puthoff and the subjects based on their collective prediction. Overall, the subjects had a 62.9% hit rate, and raised a total of $25,000 out of the successful investments for a school charity. Targ and Harary (1984: 189; Targ, 2004: 9091) had made a similar investment in silver futures based on market predictions made through ARV, which was quite profitable in

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the first phase of the study, but failed miserably in the second phase when miscommunication and competing personal interests had corrupted the procedure (Harary, 1992b). Targ et al. (1995) were later able to replicate this silver futures study with notable success, although no actual market investments were made. Gambling and investing are only two of the valuable ways in which ARV can be used. In Chapters 1315, Schwartz details another way that he has put to extensive use over the past several decades: searching for archaeological sites. This method of application builds upon an extensive case history of psychic archaeology, in which psychic information gathered through techniques such as automatic writing, dowsing, and psychometry (aka token object reading) was used by archaeologists and anthropologists to help guide them to the locations of hidden historical artifacts and sites. Schwartz (1978/2001) gives a detailed account of seven cases of psychic archaeology in his book The Secret Vaults of Time (see also my review, Williams, 2006), cases that laid the foundation for his own pursuits in a research effort dubbed Project Deep Quest. Schwartz describes the projects pilot expedition in Chapter 14, which was carried out in tandem with the submersible RV experiment described in Chapter 3. The objective of the expedition was to locate the wreckage of a ship lost in the waters off the coast of Los Angeles, and Schwartz asked Hella Hammid, Ingo Swann, and George McMullen to describe any RV impressions they had of something unknown there. Their responses regarding location were marked on nautical charts and combined by majority-vote into a collective impression of a target area that would be explored further by the expedition team. In addition, the three RV subjects offered descriptions of three main artifacts that would be found along the sea floor of the site: a steam-powered wench, a Y-shaped object with knobs on its ends, and a large granite slab. At first, the dives to the sea floor in the Taurus came up empty, and the search plan was revised to include a radio homing buoy to mark the target area, and one of the RV subjects (Swann) accompanying the expedition team in the descent to help guide them in locating the area. This revision proved to be fruitful, and the team first discovered the remains of the steam-powered wench that the subjects had described (pp. 191 192). Additional dives later uncovered the Y-shaped object and the granite slab, and all the objects dated to around the late 1800s, within the timeframe given by the psi subjects in their impressions (pp. 195197). In Chapter 15, Schwartz outlines the specific methodology developed by his long-time research organization, the Mobius Society, for using RV as a supplemental tool in the search for archaeological sites (Schwartz, 1982), coupled with conventional detection methods such as satellite imaging, radar and sonar scans, and proton precession magnetometry for verification. Each step in the methodology is illustrated by specific examples from Schwartzs various psychic archaeological expeditions to give the reader an idea of how each one is implemented. Included are examples from the search for Cleopatras palace and the tomb of Alexander the Great in Alexandria, Egypt (Schwartz, 1983), and the

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discovery of the American brig Leander off of Beaks Cay in the Great Bahama Banks (Schwartz & De Mattei, 1989). Despite the claims made by Harary (1990, 1992a) that the Leander had been a random chance find stumbled upon in an area around Beaks Cay that was a possible ships graveyard, raising some controversy as to whether or not the discovery had been the result of psychic guidance (Schwartz gives calculations of the probability that chance had factored into the Leander discovery on pp. 256257 as a counterargument; see also Schwartz and De Matteis [1990] response to Harary), the methodology as it was applied by Schwartz in the Leander and other expeditions seems to nonetheless offer the potential for applying RV in a way that may be of use to other disciplines. In the remaining chapters of the book, Schwartz reviews other practical applications of ESP to crime detection, business decisions, locating geological resources, and medical diagnosis. He also provides a brief review of dream ESP studies and how RV may play into dreams. In Chapter 23, he addresses an important issue that may potentially shed light on the reason why analytical overlay seems to diminish ESP: the difference between left brain and right brain thinking. Cerebral lateralization studies suggest that the brains left hemisphere is functionally associated with language and analytical thinking, whereas the right hemisphere is associated with visuospatial processing and non-analytical thinking (Carlson, 1992: 448449; Schneider & Tarshis, 1995, Ch. 18). There is also some evidence to suggest that ESP, and psi in general, is largely associated with the right hemisphere (e.g., Braud, 1975; Broughton, 1976; Ehrenwald, 1977; Roll, 2006; Roll et al., 2002). In trying to analyze ESP impressions as in analytical overlay, one may perhaps spontaneously shift to left brain thinking, taking the mental focus away from the ESP domain of the right brain. Schwartz illustrates the apparent difference between left and right brain thinking in two RV subjects who participated in his Leander expedition: fiction author Michael Crichton, and intuitive psychiatrist Judith Orloff. He notes that both seemed to use different modes of thinking, depending on the task at hand. They seemed to use the free-flow of right brain thinking while gathering RV impressions, and then switched to the analytical detail of left brain thinking when trying to interpret their impressions afterward (pp. 337338). As mentioned, Opening to the Innite is not just another book in a series by Schwartz that describes psychic archaeological applications; it is also an applications manual. Like other books written about RV (Targ, 2004; Targ & Harary, 1985), it offers an easy to follow, yet seemingly effective approach to using RV, unlike most of the commercial RV training programs, which tend to make the RV process seem more complicated than it really is, perhaps for the sake of selling it as high-priced classes. For people desiring to learn how to possibly improve their own psychic skills through RV, reading this book could possibly save them a lot of money in the end. By showing how RV may be applied in archaeology, Schwartz also subtly shows how psychic abilities may be useful in gaining possible insight about the past, a value most clearly

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demonstrated in The Secret Vaults of Time (Schwartz, 1978/2001). In that sense, the present book would instead be another by Schwartz that only adds to the argument that the human mind is able to reach farther across space-time than previously thought. That alone may have great value in the long run. BRYAN J. WILLIAMS University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico bwilliams74@hotmail.com

References
Braud, W. G. (1975). Psi-conducive states. Journal of Communication, 25, 142152. Broughton, R. S. (1976). Possible brain laterality effects on ESP performance. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 48, 384399. Carlson, N. R. (1992). Foundations of Physiological Psychology (2nd ed.). Allyn and Bacon. Ehrenwald, J. (1977). Psi phenomena and brain research. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology (pp. 716729). Van Nostrand Reinhold. Harary, K. (1990). On The Discovery of an American Brig. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 84, 275281. Harary, K. (1992a). Response to reply of Schwartz and De Mattei to On the Discovery of an American Brig. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86, 257290. Harary, K. (1992b). The goose that laid the silver eggs: A criticism of psi and silver futures forecasting. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86, 375409. Honorton, C. (1977). Psi and internal attention states. In Wolman, B. B. (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology (pp. 435472). Van Nostrand Reinhold. Kogan, I. M. (1968). Information theory analysis of telepathic communication experiments. Radio Engineering, 23, 122130. May, E. C., Spottiswoode, S. J. P., & Faith, L. V. (2000). The correlation of the gradient of Shannon entropy and anomalous cognition: Toward an AC sensory system. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 14, 5372. May, E. C., Spottiswoode, S. J. P., & James, C. L. (1994). Shannon entropy: A possible intrinsic target property. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 285302. Persinger, M. A. (1979). ELF eld mediation in spontaneous psi events: Direct information transfer or conditioned elicitation? In Tart, C. T., Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R. (Eds.), Mind at Large: IEEE Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception (pp. 190204). New York: Praeger. Persinger, M. A. (1989). Psi phenomena and temporal lobe activity: The geomagnetic factor. In Henkel, L. A., & Berger, R. E. (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1988 (pp. 121156). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Puthoff, H. E. (1985). ARV (associational remote viewing) applications. In White, R. A., & Solfvin, J. (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1984 (pp. 121122). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Puthoff, H. E., & Targ, R. (1976). A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research. Proceedings of the IEEE, 64, 329354. Puthoff, H. E., Targ, R., & May, E. C. (1981). Experimental psi research: Implications for physics. In Jahn, R. G. (Ed.), The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World (pp. 3786). AAAS Selected Symposium 57. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Rhine, L. E. (1961). Hidden Channels of the Mind. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc, Roll, W. G. (2005). Psi and the long body. In: Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 48th Annual Convention (pp. 149161). Petaluma, CA: Parapsychological Association. Roll, W. G. (2006). The Janus face of the mind. Paper presented at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientic Exploration, Orem, UT, June 10. Roll, W. G., Persinger, M. A., Webster, D. L., Tiller, S. G., & Cook, C. M. (2002). Neurobehavioral and neurometabolic (SPECT) correlates of paranormal information: Involvement of the right

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hemisphere and its sensitivity to weak complex magnetic elds. International Journal of Neuroscience, 112, 197224. Schneider, A. M., & Tarshis, B. (1995). Elements of Physiological Psychology. McGraw-Hill. Schwartz, S. A. (1978/2001). The Secret Vaults of Time: Psychic Archeology and the Quest for Mans Beginnings. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. Schwartz, S. A. (1982). Preliminary report on a prototype applied parapsychological methodology for utilization in archaeology, with a case report. In Roll, W. G., Morris, R. L., & White, R. A. (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1981 (pp. 2527). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Schwartz, S. A. (1983). The Alexandria Project. New York: Delacorte Press. Schwartz, S. A., & De Mattei, R. (1989). The discovery of an American brig: Fieldwork involving applied archaeological remote viewing. In Henkel, L. A., & Berger, R. E., (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1988 (pp. 7378). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Schwartz, S. A., & De Mattei, R. J. (1990). Response to Harary. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 84, 283295. Spottiswoode, S. J. P. (1997a). Apparent association between effect size in anomalous cognition experiments and local sidereal time. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 11, 109122. Spottiswoode, S. J. P. (1997b). Geomagnetic uctuations and free-response anomalous cognition: A new understanding. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 312. Sturrock, P. A., & Spottiswoode, S. J. P. (2007). Time-series spectrum analysis of performance in free response anomalous cognition. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 21, 4766. Targ, R. (2004). Limitless Mind: A Guide to Remote Viewing and Transformation of Consciousness. Novato, CA: New World Library. Targ, R., & Harary, K. (1985). The Mind Race: Understanding and Using Psychic Abilities. Ballantine Books. Targ, R., Katra, J., Brown, D., & Wiegand, W. (1995). Viewing the future: A pilot study with an errordetecting protocol. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 9, 367380. Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. E. (1977). Mind-Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Ability. New York: Delacorte Press/Eleanor Friede. Utts, J. (1996). An assessment of the evidence for psychic functioning. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 10, 330. Utts, J. (1999). The signicance of statistics in mind-matter research. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 13, 615638. Williams, B. J. (2006). Review of The Secret Vaults of Time by Stephan A. Schwartz. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 20, 444456.

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Psi in the Sky: A New Approach to UFO and Psi Phenomena, by Keith L. Partain. Xlibris, 2001. 165 pp. $20.99. ISBN1401028705. In this book, psi investigator Keith Partain attempts to forge a new paradigm to explain psi and UFO occurrences. He uses selective pieces of the new research emerging in physics and biology, combined with les mainstream ideas. He has some interesting theories, which deserve to be explored further and perhaps expanded. Unfortunately, Partain is a poor writer, and his book is difficult to read and understand. This stems partly from a weakness for heaping up jargon into impressive strings and butchering basic grammar. But, the problem runs deeper than that. Partain uses technical lingo without explaining either the terms or the ideas, and this makes it nearly impossible to evaluate his opinions or the original research. He is also disorganized, skipping through topics without connecting them. Nevertheless, for the reader prepared to wade through his prose, Partain offers some innovative notions. His fundamental theses are two: first, that psi is a natural human trait; and second, that UFOs are psi manifestations, which interact with humans energy fields. He considers psi to be a naturally evolved trait in humans, though unevenly expressed and perhaps vestigial since the development of language. By exploring the idea that UFOs and beings are separate consciousnesses, whose psi interacts with our own, he confronts the popular skeptical notion that the human mind somehow manufactures these events. These are intriguing ideas that could be profitably explored by researchers. Regrettably, Partains attempts to marshal evidence for his theses are the weakest part of the book. His discussion of quantum physics and its inability to explain psi is really understandable only to the specialist. He does, however, make it clear that he prefers David Bohms idea of the implicate order over other theories. Partain locates the evolutionary base of psi in the Aquatic Ape theory, popularized by Elaine Morgan. Unfortunately, he simply accepts it wholesale. The Aquatic Ape theory is a very controversial theory of human evolution, and Partains use of it dilutes his argument. He then turns to the idea of the third eye as the locus of human psi. Though his reasoning is choppy and incomplete, he builds an interesting case for the pineal gland as the third eye, culling his ideas from British researcher Serena Roney-Dougal. Along the way he discusses the importance of theta brainwave states to psi activity. The second part of the book is largely devoted to UFOs. Partain tends to agree with well-known UFO researchers Jacques Vallee and John Keel that many UFOs are manifestations of beings, usually called fairies in European folklore, who have always been around and interacted with humans. Bravely, Partain discusses not only cases he has investigated, but also those which he

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experienced. Very few investigators do this, for fear of being branded biased or marginal. One of the most interesting cases he describes (of which he was also a part) concerned five people who experienced unseen harassment, psi and evil-looking manifestations at different times for fifteen years. Partain summed up the case by quoting W.B. Yeats to the effect that there are chains upon chains of beings able to take any form. They frequently haunt rivers. Partain, mapping his informants homes, discovered they all lived near the same creek at the time of their experiences. This marriage of folkloric knowledge with new research is very fertile ground that other investigators might find well worth pursuing. Partains discussion of ancient UFOs is rather muddled. He uses the same sources everyone must for these events, but no clear theory emerges from his treatment, save for agreement with Vallee that the ufological phenomenon is manipulating human consciousness. His discussion of more recent events, such as Kenneth Arnolds famous 1947 sighting, Uri Gellers psi manifestations, and Bob Pratts research on dangerous Brazilian UFOs, is quite scattered. He does propose some interesting geomagnetic correlations. The most interesting part of these discussions is Partains look at UFO experiences in light of the experiencers psi abilities. This leads him to a discussion of electromagnetism (EMR) in UFO and psi. He sketches a paradigm change that makes more sense of visitations and psi without positing EMR as the cause. He adamantly opposes the idea that psi is electromagnetic in nature. Rather, he says, we identify psi by its electromagnetic consequences, and mistake the result for the cause. The book ends with a discussion of humans as an emergent species. We are, he says, evolving into a more psi-sensitive species. This is a slow, ongoing process. The emergence of Homo hypnagogia will increase psi abilities, but not make us a race of gods. He presents this idea in a level-headed manner, though rather sketchily. This book is mainly useful for the interesting ideas the author floats. It is too poorly written to have influence in other venues. ALEXANDER IMICH Anomalous Phenomena Research Center New York City Alex020403@aol.com

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The Intention Experiment: Using Your Thoughts to Change Your Life and the World by Lynne McTaggart. New York: Free Press, 2007, 318 pp. $26 (hardcover). ISBN-13: 978-0-7432-7695-5. There has been considerable recent interest in the manner in which the mind can directly affect physical reality as witnessed by the popularity of books such as The Secret (Byrne, 2006) and Ask and It Is Given (Hicks & Hicks, 2004). The idea is that we just have to think of what we want and then it happens through the law of attraction. On the face of it, this is silly, and the silliness of it has been played up in reviews in the conventional media (e.g., Feschuk, 2007). Moreover, such beliefs are a constituent part of magical thinking which is regarded as a symptom of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). That is to say, only sick people think that their thinking has a direct effect on the physical world. The truth of the matter lies somewhere in between the giddy holus-bolus embracement of the law of attraction and the opinion that its acceptance is a sign of a mental disorder. And it is into this middle ground that Lynne McTaggart deftly inserts herself with The Intention Experiment. McTaggart starts with the notion that the participatory role of the observer in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics opened the door to more general speculations about the manner in which intention could affect physical events and then goes on to review evidence to support such speculations. Research concerning psychokinesis, healing, mind-body interaction, intercessory prayer, precognition, retroactive intention, the effects of geomagnetic fields, and other anomalies associated with consciousness has been included. Readers of this journal will find much that is familiar, including the work of Robert Jahn and Brenda Dunne, Roger Nelson, Hal Puthoff, Gary Schwartz, William Tiller, Dean Radin, Stanley Krippner, and Richard Blasband. There are older studies such as those of Cleve Backster in which he looked at the effects of intention on plants. And there are examples taken from outside the scientific literature, such as those from sports, used to illustrate the techniques that could be used to augment the effects of intention. However, as McTaggart says: What has not been tested is the extent of [the power of intention] in the cut and thrust of ordinary life (p. 199). Nonetheless, based on her summary of the available evidence, she extracts what appear to be the relevant variables and, in the penultimate chapters, provides guidelines for the practical use of intention. She concludes the book with an invitation to readers to participate in ongoing group experiments and directs them to her website. It is laudable that McTaggart, a journalist, has taken this subject matter seriously and written a thoughtful review of much of the relevant research. And, in trying to make sense of the subject matter, she occasionally displays considerable perceptiveness as she does, for example, with her handling of the contradictory data from the prayer studies. Overall, I liked this book. I found, however, that sometimes McTaggart would intermix the peripheral with the

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essential when describing scientific procedures, results, and theorizing, so that I had to interpret her accounts in a way that made sense to me. And I noticed a couple of errors, such as the conflation of theory with experiment when discussing Bells theorem, and the contention that only recently have scientists given up on the idea that the two sides of the brain work independently, something that had actually already gone out the window by 1980 (e.g., Ellenberg & Sperry, 1980; Yates, 1980). There is also noteworthy relevant research that is missing, such as the work of Jeffrey Schwartz concerning selfdirected neuroplasticity in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Schwartz & Begley, 2002). But these are minor glitches and do not detract substantially from the value of this book. I recommend The Intention Experiment for anyone who is looking for an even-handed introduction to the evidence for the anomalous role of intention in physical events.
S IMANTS BARUS Department of Psychology Kings University College at The University of Western Ontario

References
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. text revision). Washington, DC: Author. Byrne, R. (2006). The secret. New York: Atria Books. Ellenberg, L., & Sperry, R. W. (1980). Lateralized division of attention in the commissurotomized and intact brain. Neuropsychologia, 18, 411418. Feschuk, S. (2007, April 9). The secret revealed: Ask and it will be given. Macleans, p. 58. Hicks, E., & Hicks, J. (2004). Ask and it is given: Learning to manifest your desires. Carlsbad, California: Hay House. Schwartz, J. M., & Begley, S. (2002). The mind and the brain: Neuroplasticity and the power of mental force. New York: ReganBooks. Yates, F. E. (1980). Two minds about brain asymmetries. American Journal of Physiology, 238, R1R2.

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The Synchronized Universe: New Science of the Paranormal, by Claude Swanson. Colorado Springs, CO: Poseidia Press, 2003, x 1307 pp. $19.95 (over-size paper). ISBN 0-974S261-0-X. If one intensively works (for eighteen years) as a parapsychology test subject, one has ample opportunity to observe the existence of some interesting oddities about the multiple fields of paranormal research, oddities that seem to go unnoticed. For example, the accumulated literature of those fields is quite large, but it seems to specialize in selected aspects of the paranormal, with the result that a possible all-inclusive bigger-picture within which the aspects belong is missing. Another even more obvious example of such oddities is the prevailing absence of a descriptive A-to-Z encyclopedia of known and suspected paranormal faculties and abilities universally and historically experienced throughout our species. (Of course, it might also be noted that an encyclopedia detailing so-called normal faculties and abilities is also absent). The Synchronized Universe helpfully trends toward ameliorating these and other oddities. With its excellent overall presentation, elegant readability, and many relevant and informative graphics, this book configures fresh approaches and concepts that probably will have ultimate meaning to research of the paranormaland could possibly contribute much to a deeper understanding of consciousness itself. After its Introductory comments, the book is divided into thirteen Chapters, the first twelve of which discuss some 95 paranormal topics and aspects. These do not yet constitute an A-to-Z encyclopedia, but the overall sum is entirely suggestive of a fluctuating spectrum within universal human consciousness potentials quite capable of experientially downloading various types of actionable information not available within the so-called limits of the physical senses. The first twelve Chapters and their multitudinous topics depend on various examples of excellent modern research yielding positive resultsand even more importantly, on emphasizing that the topics discussed have deep, species-wide roots that enduringly transcend the various information limits of ever-changing societal frameworks. Said roots, therefore, exist as actual human generic consciousness faculties and potentials. Each Chapter concludes with (thank goodness) a brief, but quite impressive Summary that deservedly dignifies and humanizes this inherent consciousness-generic factorregardless of various mere tenuous social restrictions and confusions about it. All of the above having been said, the super-problem hanging over all of this books multitudinous topics is the nature of consciousness itselfand in mentioning this we encounter yet another oddity that not only plagues all of the paranormal fields, but also even so-called normal existence as well. In 1980, Seymour Mauskopf and Michael R. McVaugh published a rather excellent science-oriented book about the Origins of Experimental Psychical Research which they entitled The Elusive Science. In 1994, one of the worlds great physicists, Roger Penrose, published his Shadows of the Mind, subtitled A

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Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. So, as it might seem, it can be noticed, in a kind of amusing closed-loop circular way, that (1) the contexts of the Elusive science have been scientifically pursued via (2) the contexts of Science within which the missing science of consciousness has been and is still missing. And thus, smilingly perhaps, we come to Chapter 13 of The Synchronized Universe that is somewhat humbly entitled The Beginnings of a Theory. After discussing the shortcomings of the present scientific model, i.e., that it cannot explain the paranormal, and that science has no clue about what consciousness is, and that there is no adequate physical theory for it, it is pointed up (as others also have earlier) that there are large-scale coherent, resonate processes where trillions of molecules in the body are in communication with one another. This brings up a new possibility. Maybe the body is a macroscopic quantum system, with a set of coherent quantum states. Even so quantum mechanics, in its present form, does not have all the answers. The insertion of quantum contexts into the books discussions might at first paralyze the cognitive limits of many, but, with a little patient interest, one finds that the author gently walks the reader through his conceptualized new theory-model with great agility, accompanied by a quite fine, if not intuitive, selection of graphics that clearly aid in achieving a working threshold of comprehension. For example, attention is first drawn to research in which sensitive photomultiplier tubes were used to measure the biophoton light emitted by humans that amounted to between 50 and 220 photons per second. In this biophoton measuring, it was also found that certain individuals were able to consciously increase their photon output by as much as 67 percentas has been the case with certain energy healers, psychokinetic types, and in states of conscious Intention, etc. After outlining more evidence that there are deeper underlying forces that are NOT built into our conventional physical theories, the author again gently, and with a conciseness seldom encountered, begins to outline and detail The beginnings of a theory, tentatively embedded in the Synchronized Universe Model (SUM) principally based in the concept that all photons, electrons, and other particles are actually connected to one another. Then follow discussions and graphics of quantum, non-local hidden variables via which one is introduced, for example, to the Round-Trip photon; how electrons interact across great distances; photon pulses; mutual interaction of two massless electrons; quantum photon; the synchronizing principle; fourdimensional holography; radiation balance of past and future; brain holography; Time independence of ESP and PK; OBEs; the power of the phased array; parallel universes. Finally, there is an all too brief summary of what has been discussed, after which are provided 24 pages of rather high-class references. The Synchronized Universe Model makes no claim to be a rigorous theory (the math is not presented), but is intended more as a demonstration that it may be possible to extend current physics so as to begin accounting for paranormal phenomena, and to present some ideas that might be helpful in this important

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and evolving process. Technical quantum readers will recognize that this theorymodel is consistent with the fundamental quantum concepts advanced, such as in the earlier work of J. A. Wheeler and R. P. Feynman (1945); David Bohm (1951); Bells theorem (1964); and the work of more contemporary researchers, such as T. H Boyer; B. Haish; A. Rueda; H. E.Puthoff; etc. The authors website can be found at www.synchronizeuniverse.com. INGO SWANN New York City www.biomindsuperpowers.com

The God Theory: Universes, Zero-Point Fields and Whats Behind It All, by Bernard Haisch. San Francisco: Weiser Books, 2006, 157 pp. (hardcover). ISBN-10: 1-57863-374-5. ISBN-13: 978-1-57863-374-6. Surely it is time for all of us scientists to consider returning to God? If reading that first line makes your blood boil, and you wonder how the Editor could possibly allow such a sentence to appear in what is, after all, the Journal of Scientific Exploration, well, you need to read Bernie Haischs excellent book. Your blood will quickly cool down, and you will become a happier person than you are at present. And you might even do better physics! A few years ago I attended, at an American Astronomical Society meeting, an invited lecture on Evolution and the fight against Intelligent Design. The talk ran over, so instead of a question period, we were invited to cluster round. I asked the speaker, why did you make no mention of quantum mechanics in your talk? The speaker replied, because I dont know boo about quantum mechanics. To me, that is todays problem in a nutshell. What is presented as science is not science at all; it is a bunch of engineering approximations that have produced our technological plenty, but that have also produced spurious explanations for things; explanations that ultimately are incorrect, useful though they may be in a limited sphere. How can you fight something with nothing? The something is the spiritual feeling of purpose in human consciousness that makes so many susceptible to religions; the nothing is half-baked pseudoscience parading as Laws of Nature. No wonder religion is winning! It does not have to continue so. The cure is for scientists to awaken to what real science is actually telling us. Bernie Haisch is an astronomer who has undergone such an awakening, and his thoughtful book can help you make that transition, if you have not done so already. I have known Haisch for quite some years, because for a while we were both astronomers working in exactly the same field, chromospheric ultraviolet

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emissions from cool stars. We are also both astronomers who have become deeply interested in fundamental physics, and who, despite our limitations, insist on probing physics as best we can. Much discussion of religion v. science today centers on the observed finetuning of the universe that allows human existence. This is supposed to prove something, which it does not. To some degree Haisch falls into this trap, particularly in mentioning more than once the Fred Hoyle prediction of a key nuclear level in carbon through noting his own existence. If the level were not there, there could be little carbon, hence no Hoyle. Ergo, the level exists. David Gross rightly points out that quantum chromodynamics is fixed, complete, and not tunable, and it just so happens that the level is there, Hoyle or no Hoyle. But that kind of argument is not the essence of Haischs case for God. Let me quote a single sentence from his book, which I have chosen because it so perfectly encapsulates my own understanding: It is not matter that creates an illusion of consciousness, but consciousness that creates an illusion of matter. That is correct physics: it is not controversial in the slightest degree that there is no reality; this has been demonstrated in both theory and experiment (Grblacher et al., Nature, 446, 871, 2007). And yet in how many physics classes today are students made aware of this most fundamental discovery? In all of my classes, I assure you; but I am confident that this is not common. The illusion of matter, which is to say the illusion of a really-existing world, is so strong, that I think most scientists are unable to overcome it. It took me decades to finally realize that this is not a joke, and that the universe is purely mental: that mind is fundamental; matter merely an illusionand that this is physics, not philosophy (or religion). And how, out of this, does God appear? Well, the only mind I know exists is my own. My choice is solipsism or God. A leap of faith is required, yesbut it is an easy leap indeed! Haisch, too, says his is a theory that looks promising, not scientific proof. Haisch vividly points out the bloody history of organized religion that makes so many scientists happy to be freed from it, and makes them loath to come back to God. Haischs early history is that of a Catholic seminarian; mine, that of a child raised in wishy-washy Protestantism, but never taking it seriously. You can read in the book what Haisch considers himself to be todayI would call it Unitarian. And as for me, I am now a theist. That is just an atheistbut without the a. All the difference in the universe! So what is the practical effect? Take evolution. Like Haisch, I utterly reject Intelligent Design. But my view of evolution is drastically different from the conventional, supposedly scientific, view. We know from quantum mechanics that our observations create the past, as demonstrated by the famous delayed-choice experiment. Again, this is established physics, not philosophy. So evolution is simply not an issue for me: it is entirely correct, but of course backward. What is the result? Why none, except spiritually: the scientific investigation of the details of evolution must proceed apace! As with all of

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science! It is of immense valuebut do not abuse science by trying to use it to deny spirituality, which is in fact its source. Haisch brings out the idea of subtraction as how God created the universe; it is a nice idea. Read the book! (I recall wondering myself whether, perhaps, on our first appearance as homo sapiens, we were not all Ramanujans-cum-Mozarts, and that evolution had damped this in most of us for the survival of the species.) In his Introduction, Haisch says I have arrived at a personal worldview that offers a satisfying and hopeful explanation of realitya worldview that is not only possible, rational, and compatible with modern science, but compelling and capable of resolving some of the most intransigent moral issues facing us today. It embodies a way out of our global dilemma and so I offer it for your consideration. I endorse this offer. I am still personally uncomfortable mentioning God. When I made the transition (2004) I composed Great omniscient Spirit (GoS), to keep my notion pure, and free of the historical, often vicious, God. But I am coming to think that this is a mistake; that we scientists should be in the lead of the battle to reclaim God from the wrong-headed. You will enjoy Bernard Haischs occasional dry humor, and I think that you will be struck by the happy reasonableness of his proposal. I would like, please, every scientist, to give consideration to how much better off we would be, individually and collectively, if the God Theory could become, once again, just as it was for Newton, the working hypothesis of modern science. It beats hell out of reductionism! RICHARD CONN HENRY Professor of Physics and Astronomy The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore henry@jhu.edu

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The Chaos Point: The World at the Crossroads, by Ervin Laszlo. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co., Inc., 2006, 175 pp. Paper: $16.95. This is an inspirational book, a call for action, and a basis for hope. We have entered a window of opportunity that the author brilliantly illustrates using the concepts of chaos theory. Dr. Ervin Laszlo is a unique scientist who founded systems philosophy and general evolution theory. But he is also the founder and president of the Club of Budapest, an informal association of highly creative people who use their insight to enhance awareness of global problems and human opportunities. The book starts with a Chinese proverb that warns, If we do not change direction, we are likely to end up exactly where we are headed. The author then summarizes the problems the world is now facing and their causes. He emphasizes that we are at a critical juncture in history. We now face a decisionwindow. We are headed on a path towards global breakdown where societies will experience accelerating terrorism, crime, wars, intolerance and an inhospitable biosphere for human life. Thus, there will either be a global breakdown of civilization or a breakthrough to a better future for our children and us. The author points out that we cant use linear extrapolations of existing trends to predict the future. Humans, human society and the planet are all non-linear systemslike the weather. To understand how such complex non-linear systems develop, he believes that we need to use modern system theory. This involves the application of chaos theory to help us understand future options. Chaos theory shows us that the evolution of a complex non-linear system always involves alternating between periods of stability and instability, between order and chaos. When you reach the chaos point the present state of the system breaks down and a split or bifurcation occurs. The entire system is launched irrevocably on a new trajectory. Data indicates that human civilization and the planet are now approaching a chaos point as the world becomes ecologically, socially and economically unsustainable. Since the 1960s the process taking us to the chaos point has been acceleratingthere is no going backthe bifurcation point is comingsome predict around the end of 2012. However, there is great opportunity at such times as now. In periods of relative stability, the system tends to dampen our change. But that is not true in the period just prior to reaching the chaos point. Although chaotic systems are linked to past actions, the future is open during the window of time just before we reach the chaos point. As the system reaches the limits of its stability, chaos theory shows that the smallest push or fluctuation can impel the system to develop into a new and different trajectory. Because of this super sensitivity in the system even a small fluctuation produce large-scale effects. This is the legendary butterfly effect. As the saying goes, a butterfly flaps its wings in San Francisco and a storm is produced in Beijing. Thus, this time in history

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presents a window of unprecedented freedom, for those who are consciously aware, to become midwives for a new world that is struggling to be born. Chaos and system theory discloses that the transformation of society follows a recognizable pattern of major phases. In society, fundamental change is triggered by technological innovations that destabilize the established structures and institutions. Although technology can be powerful and sophisticated, it remains a tool. Its utility depends on how it is used and that is determined by the wisdom we possess. The author emphasizes that society is culturally and not genetically coded. We can mutate our culture whereas we cannot change our gene pool. Such a change of culture can be willfully launched and consciously oriented to create a new civilization. This process depends upon the evolution of our own consciousness. A more evolved consciousness stimulates new thinking, which in turn is the key to the emergence of a new civilization. This is why the Club of Budapest is dedicated to the proposition that only by changing ourselves can we change our world. This evolution represents a precondition for our collective survival. It is supported by two key conclusions that come out of both physics and consciousness research: interconnectiveness permeates the universe, and thoughts/intentions have the power to affect the physical world. As Jonas Salk stated: Our future evolution will not be decided by the survival of the strongest but by the survival of the wisest. Dr. Lazlo has written a book that is a call to action for all those who can see the problems that humanity will face in the near future. Now is not the time for despair, or for optimism or pessimism. It is a time for action! As Dr. Lazlo states: We live at a time when we have unprecedented powerand hence unprecedented responsibilityto decide our destiny. A critical mass of people in society must take an active role. That means you and me, and others around us. WILLIAM C. GOUGH Foundation for Mind-Being Research 442 Knoll Drive, Los Altos, CA 94024 billgough@fmbr.org www.fmbr.org

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1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus by Charles C. Mann. Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. xii 1 465 pp. $30.00 (hardcover). ISBN 1-40004006-X. A 1992 Columbian-quincentennial issue of the Annals of the Association of American Geographers (which carried a review by this writer: Jett & Wood, 1992) inspired science journalist Charles C. Mann to examine what the New World and its cultures were like on the eve of Christopher Columbuss 1492 Bahamian landfall and earlier. The fact that the title and dust jacket of Manns book bear a distinct resemblance to those of Gavin Menziess (2002) flawed but phenomenally popular 1421 (see Jett, 2003) is certainly not fortuitous, but the two books have little in common other than the same century of interest. Manns aim is to showcase recently developed evidence and ideas concerning the origins, nature, and demise of pre-Columbian Native American societies, evidence that challenges conventional views, including those featuring 1) a circa-13,000-years-ago initial entry of humans into the Western Hemisphere; 2) historians very low estimates for pre-1492 American Indian populations; 3) the notion of Amerinds having had minimal impacts on ecosystems and landscapes; and 4) the perception that New World cultures were relatively unchanging and their peoples uninnovative. To illustrate the achievements and impacts of New World societies, the author leads off with an example of a pre-Columbian anthropogenic landscape, i.e., one that has been thoroughly reconfigured by human activity. The instance presented is one once studied by University of Wisconsin geographer William Dennevan: eastern Bolivias Beni savanna, a seasonally flooded region where people constructed a vast network of canals, mounds, and causeways, transforming into a mega-waffle, for human purposes, a naturally flat expanse the size of Illinois plus Indiana. Like Sumer in Mesopotamia, says Mann, the Western Hemispheres Mesoamerica and South America were hearths for a Neolithic Revolution that spread farming and its attendant cultural elaborations far and wide. In Mesoamerica, civilization began with the Olmec people of Mexicos Gulf Coast, who invented writing systems, developed wide trade networks, tracked the visible planets, created a 365-day calendar, wrote books of history on bark paper, and invented a zero sign. (Actually, writing, the calendar, and the zero have cogently been attributed to introduction by sea from Asia; see, inter alia, D. B. Kelley, 1996; D. H. Kelley, 1960; Xu, 2003.) Mann discusses other, later remarkable pre-Columbian New World civilizations, including the Andess Tiwanaku and Wari cultures and Mesoamericas Maya. The books Part One is entitled Numbers from Nowhere? As a lead-in to a discussion on demography and disease, Mann provides a description of English/Delaware Indian relations in the Massachusetts Bay Colony of the 1600s, giving a much more nuanced analysis than the Thanksgiving story heard in elementary schools. He underlines the role that unintentionally introduced

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Old World infectious diseasesto which the natives were not immune (see Jett, 2004)played in the twilight of Delaware Indian power. Although the fact of disastrous impacts of such diseases throughout the hemisphere had long been recognized, according to Mann it was the anthropologist Henry Dobyns who, owing to his research in Peruvian colonial archives, in 1966 made widely known to his colleagues the magnitude of the demographic, social, and economic catastrophes attributable to these foreign maladies. In 1491, the Inka ruled the worlds largest empire, a domain larger than that of Chinas Ming emperors or of the Ottoman Turks. Inka success is attributable, in part, to the realms possession of a great variety of ecozones. Inka hegemony expanded mostly by gradual co-option of local rulers via inducements and threats rather than through military conquest. The institution of community work obligations was established, and the state sent labor forces hither and yon, feeding them while away from home. The state controlled all resources, production, and social welfare. Communities were often relocated, to promote homogeneity throughout the empire. In short, this was a kind of socialist planned state. But in 1531, the conquistador Francisco Pizarro, with but 168 men, took over the entire empire. Although the Spaniards had the advantage of horses, armor, swords, and firearms, the main reason for the weakness of Inka resistance was smallpox, which had reached Peru six years earlier and therefore far ahead of the Spanish advance; by the end of the following three years, perhaps half of the native population had died. Further, because smallpox had already killed the Inka (ruler), a civil war between his two sons had sapped the stability of the state, and subject peoples rose in revolt. Smallpox had inadvertently been introduced into native Hispaniola in 1518, whence it had spread to Cuba. (Most Spaniards coming to the Caribbean region were immune, having had the disease in childhood back home in Spain.) From Cuba, the malady was carried to Veracruz, Mexico, by a slave, and it then diffused to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitln (todays Mexico City). The disease spread like wildfire, ahead of Spanish contact, reaching Panama and then Peru, where there were epidemics in 1525, 1533, 1558, and 1565; ultimately, the Inka Empires population was reduced by perhaps 90 percent. Smallpox and other diseases killed not only directly but also because they debilitated the labor force, leading to neglect of crops, food-preparation, and child-care, thus engendering starvation. Dobyns estimated that in the hemisphere as a whole, 95 percent of the human population succumbed. Earlier estimates of the pre-Columbian New Worlds population size, based on colonial records, had fallen short by a factor of nearly twenty, concluded Dobyns. Physiologist Sherburne F. Cook and historian Woodrow W. Borah had come to a similar conclusion in the 1950s, but Dobynss exposition caught anthropologists attention (although many disputed his conclusions, at least initially). Numerous examples of decimation by disease can be forwarded, and Mann presents several. In what was to become the U.S. Southeast, for example, microbes probably introduced by hogs brought along on the explorer Hernando

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De Sotos 15391542 expedition led to demographic collapse and the destruction of native civilization throughout the region. Turning to Mexico, the author perorates on the complexity and subtlety of Mexica (Aztec) religion, philosophy, poetry, and art, and speculates on how, had this culture survived, it might fruitfully have cross-fertilized with European ones. But instead, Mexica culture was shattered by Hernn Corts and his successors. In 1519, Corts made an alliance with the independent polity Tlaxcala to defeat an indecisive Mocutezoma (Montezuma) and to seize his capital of Tenochtitln, a city larger (and cleaner) than any European one. Although the Mexica counterattacked and killed three-quarters of the Spaniards, the Iberian survivors immediately secured alliances with vassal states yearning for independence. Then, smallpox raged through the native population, killing a third of Tenochtitlns inhabitants and allowing the foreigners to retake the city in 1521. Over the years, epidemics repeatedly ravaged the Indians of the metropolis, until the population had been reduced to a mere three percent of its pre-1519 size. Such horrendous outcomes demand that blame be assigned, says Mann, and he provides a balanced discussion of that issue. The books Part Two is entitled Very Old Bones and deals with the origins of the Native Americans, many millennia before 1491. After reviewing the oncepopular pre-scientific Lost Tribes of Israel notion, he synopsizes long-standing professional resistance to the proposition that humans had been in the hemisphere more than a very few thousand years, a resistance originally led by the redoubtable early twentieth-century Smithsonian physical anthropologist Ale ka. Mann follows with a treatment of the 1933 identification of distinctive Hrdlic spear points near Clovis, New Mexico, which were in association with bones of extinct Pleistocene mammals and which came to be thought of as representing the hemispheres oldest, Paleoindian culture, dating to about 13,000 years ago. These peoples ancestors, suggested archaeologist C. Vance Haynes in 1964, must have entered Alaska from Siberia toward the end of Pleistocene, just before sea levelswhich had fallen during the Ice Age and were rising as glaciers meltedcut off communication between Siberia and Alaska; to get to the future United States, these hunters would have to have passed southward between the Cordilleran (Rocky Mountain) and Laurentide (Canadian Shield) ice sheets as the latter began melting back, opening an ice-free corridor. Since most of the large Pleistocene mammals they hunted soon disappeared, paleoecologist Paul S. Martin proposed that the Clovis hunters had extirpated the big game. Other researchers urgings that there were numbers of sites in the Americas that pre-dated Clovis were vigorously attacked by Haynes and company. Mann chronicles the unraveling of the Clovis-first hypotheses that had remained standard for three decades. He takes note of the tripartite-migration hypothesis forwarded in 1986 by linguist Joseph Greenberg, physical anthropologist Christy Turner, and geneticist Stephen Zeruga, which correlated alleged linguistic divisions, tooth types, and, to a lesser extent, genetics, to paint

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a picture of three separate Beringian movements from Asia into North America, the earliest of which seemed to correspond in time to the supposed entry of the Clovis people. The Clovis picture became increasingly problematic, as Clovis peoples dependence on big-game animals came to be questioned and as it came to appear that many large mammals had gone extinct prior to the appearance of Clovis. Even more seriously, geologists and others determined that the ice-free corridor probably was not yet open by the time of the inception of Clovis, or, even if it was, was filled with glacial-meltwater lakes and remained too cold and windy to sustain significant vegetation and animal life. Mann does not discuss the intriguing alternative theory recently developed by archaeologists Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford (2004) to the effect that Cloviss ancestors were Paleolithic Europeans who crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the Pleistocene ice floe that joined the two continents. Although a few bold archaeologists and cultural geographers had long asserted that they had unearthed artifacts of pre-Clovis age, strong resistance to these claims persisted until 1997, when the University of Kentuckys Thomas Dillehay flew a dozen experts, including Haynes, to the site his team had been excavating since 1977 at the non-Clovis Monte Verde site in southern Chile, convincing these experts with his field evidence that the remains were indeed as old as he claimed, some 12,800 years (with hints of earlier occupation at perhaps 32,000 years). Although a few scholars still have reservations, the imprimatur of the specialists led to general acceptance of the 12,800-year-old date, which is not only earlier than any ice-free corridor but is also thousands of miles from Beringia. The implication of this is that instead of walking overland from Asia, the early human immigrants more likely entered the hemisphere via a littoral route, using boats to move relatively quickly southward along the Pacific coastan idea that had been proposed as early as 1840 but whose modern version had been forwarded by archaeologist Knut Fladmark in 1979. Further, early skeletons found in the Americas (including that of Washington states Kennewick Man) resembled those of Australian Aborigines and the Ainu of Japan more than they did living American Indians, who are generalized Mongoloids, suggesting that a pre-Mongoloid population entered the New World from eastern Asia. Mann next turns to the antiquity, diversity, and complexity of the New Worlds civilizational centers: coastal Peru and Mesoamerica. Peru, he states, is yielding evidence of the earliest known urban societies in the hemisphere, notably in Perus Norte Chico, where numerous high and extensive temple mounds were erected beginning about 3200 B.C.a time at which, according to the author, Sumer in Mesopotamia was the only other urban civilization in the world. (The site of Caral now takes that date back another 300 or so years.) An aim of Part Three is to debunk the persistent myth that the pre-Columbian Americans were children of nature in a near-pristine paradise where the footprint of humans on the earth was exceedingly light. One cannot generalize about

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Indians impacts, since technological levels and population sizes varied so much from place to place; however, in many cases, They did not live lightly on the land but were superbly active land managers (p. 245). Mann discusses major native metropolises such as Guatemalas Tikal (circa 60,000 people) and Illinoiss Cahokia (about 15,000 people). He mentions the extensive use of environment-altering fire, as on the Great Plains and in the Eastern Woodlands, to drive game and to improve forage for it. And he reviews the history of eastern North American mound-building, from 3400-B.C. Louisianas patterned earthworks through the great earthen pyramids of Mississippian culture with its vast areas devoted to the raising of maize. Rather than being unbroken forest in which a handful of Indian hunters flitted like shadows, the East became a mosaic of fields, managed wild nut-tree stands, and fragments of woods for game habitat, dotted with settlements, some quite sizable. The scenario of forestclearing for fuelwood and for maize fields leading to accelerated runoff and floods (with the extra shove of an earthquake and a riverine tsunami) followed by civil wars doing Cahokia in receives attention. The Maya modified the Yucatecan landscape to their initial advantage by covering salty swamp-bottom sediments to improve water quality; by creating raised agricultural fields and hillside terraces; and by building reservoirs and canals. This did not lead to a permanent harmonious cultural ecology, however. As population grew, its support became increasingly dependent on these facilities. Over time, erosion of cleared land plus hurricane-rain destruction of agricultural terraces let to the silting up of reservoirs; sedimentation and weed growth choked irrigation canals and ditches. Century-long warfare ensued between Tikal (Mutal) and Calakmul (Kaan)Calakmul being the largest Mayan city state, with a population of some 575,000. Calakmul won, and sacked Tikal. However, in 675, Tikal reasserted itself and defeated Calakmul. Calakmuls destruction was the opening event in the Classic lowland Maya collapse. Between A.D. 800 and 830, most of the main Mayan dynasties fell. City after city winked out; the last long-count calendric inscription known displays the date 909. There was severe drought at the time of the collapse, but southerly wetter areas declined while northerly drier ones thrived, perhaps by concentrating on trading for food. The southern rulers seem to have neglected pragmatic administration in favor of pursuit of kingly glory. Post-Classic basreliefs feature religion, commerce, and war, but not kings, who had previously figured prominently in art. Mann then turns to Amazonia. Traditionally, botanists have perceived the equatorial rainforest as undisturbed. Retired Smithsonian archaeologist Betty J. Meggers has long perceived the regions poor soils along with periodic megaNio droughts as confining the sustainable agricultural possibilities to swidden (slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation) and to have prevented the development of dense populations and complex societies. The elaborate pre-Columbian culture that existed on Maraj Island at the mouth of the Amazon was not indigenous, thinks Meggers, but was an import from the Andes, one which

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declined over time owing to the constraints of the natural environment. A younger archaeologist, the Field Museums Anna Roosevelt, has a completely (and hostilely) opposing view: that Maraj was densely populated by intensive cultivators and that Marajoa culture was indigenous and rather complex (although not reaching the state level of organization). The Marajoas constructed extensive public works and improved their physical environment. (Roosevelt has told me that she has considered the possibility that the demise of Maraj culture could have been triggered not by an unforgiving environment but by the introduction of Old World disease to the island by castaways from Africa.) At Caverna da Pedra Pintada in Amazonian Brazil, Roosevelt found a humanoccupation site that she dated at circa 13,000 B.P.contemporaneous with but quite unlike North Americas Paleoindian Clovis culture. Here, too, she found pottery that she dated to circa 6000 B.C., which would make it the oldest yet identified in the Americas. She presumes it to be a local invention, not an introduction. (She and Meggers differ wildly on their interpretations of the reliability of each others dating, especially of ceramic traditions.) By 4000 years ago, crop-raising characterized Amazonia. The historically almost ubiquitous practice there of shifting cultivation has long been assumed to go far back into antiquity. In this system, a patch of forest is cleared, the slash is burned, and crops are raised for a few years on the basis of the fertile ash, until soil fertility declines to the point at which the field is abandoned and a new patch of forest cleared. However, the American Museum of Natural History anthropologist Robert Carneiro and, more recently, geographer Denevan, have argued that shifting cultivation was too laborious to be practical previous to the postColumbian introduction of the steel ax, and that Amazonian farming depended, instead, on permanent plantations of tree crops, amidst which were grown field crops such as manioc. (As they do not observe, however, the stone ax, though having only one-twentieth of the steel axs efficiency, can easily be used to kill trees by girdling, which would allow in enough sunlight for crop growth; even without a great deal of ash, soil fertility might be adequate to allow cropping for a year or two.) Nearly 12 percent of the non-flooded Amazon forest vegetation is estimated to be anthropogenic, with a much larger percentage formerly managed to favor economic species. Despite the low fertility of soils away from waterways, there exist, mostly on river-bluff tops, extensive areas of fertile terra preta do Indio, dark, organic-rich soils containing numerous potsherds. It is believed that these soils were humancreated in the sense that amendments of refuse such as weeds, palm fronds, garbage, night soil, and bones were made, as was earth from termite mounds. The soil is rich in charcoal particles, to which organics adhere, preventing the latter from being washed away. It is hypothesized that the natives deliberately incompletely burned slash in order to produce this beneficial charcoal, which they stirred into the soil. The bluff-top sites would have been above floods but would have given the inhabitants access to the resources of both river and upland.

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There is reason to believe that the terra preta system may have originated among Arawak-speakers from the south and west and to have accompanied Arawakan migrations into the central and lower Amazon country, with these incursions driving the Tupians already there toward the north and east. Terra preta could have supported dense sedentary populations, and some sites show evidence of elaborate causeways, canals, defensive ditches, and so forth. Thus, these peoples were transforming their habitat to their own ends, not merely adaptively adjusting themselves to itan illustration of the theme that far from being passive players in a quasi-wilderness, many Native American groups were highly active actors who radically transformed nature. The arrival of, and the colonization by, Europeans in and after 1492 drastically altered the cultural-ecological picture as it had existed in 1491. There were disruptive invasions of alien species from the Old World; top predators were widely extirpated, leading to explosions of prey populations; the decimation of the Indians was like the removal of a keystone species in an ecosystem and led to the return of wild vegetation and game animals to areas that had once been densely populated and intensively managed. This resurgence of the wild led Euro-Americans to the false impression that before 1492 much of America had been an unbroken Eden. Manns final chapter touches upon the Native American legacy in contemporary U.S. culture, including the libertarian ideas that characterized many of the Indian nations of eastern North America and which likely influenced American democracy. There are four appendices: A) on what name(s) to apply to pre-1492 American indigenes; B) on the Andean khipu (record-keeping tally strings); C) on whether syphilis originated in the New World; and D) on calendrical mathematics. Being a work with much geographical content, 1491 has gained considerable attention from the geographical fraternity, including from a number of the scholars that Mann cites. Geographers and anthropologists discuss the books ideas in Journal of the Southwest (Lovell et al., 2004), and seven geographers comment and Mann replies in The Geographical Review (Geographical Review Forum, 2006). (I have avoided studying these discussions while composing my own, independent review.) I consider Mann to have done a generally excellent job in conveying, for the educated public, many of the drastically changed or changing ideas about the pre-1492 natives of the New World and in describing the work of the geographers, anthropologists, archaeologists, and other scholars that has led to these dramatic reappraisals. He does well in discussing developments concerning early, probably waterborne entry into the hemisphere, the much-higherthan-previously-thought population sizes, and the enormous impacts that Indians had on ecosystems and landscapes. However, he omits to discuss the exploding knowledge concerning mobility of many pre-Columbian peoples, particularly via open sea. Not only was there regular sailing-raft traffic, trade, and cultural

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diffusion between Northwest South America and West Mexico (e.g., Haslett, 2006), but evidence of major, perhaps transformative inputs across the oceans from the Old World now seems to be irrefutable (see Jett, 2007)although this is a matter that has yet to be absorbed within the ranks of anthropologists. The fact of transoceanic traffic raises major questions regarding what Mann assumes were independent inventions by the natives of the New World. STEPHEN C. JETT Professor Emeritus of Geography and of Textiles and Clothing University of California, Davis scjett@hotmail.com References
Bradley, B., & Stanford, D. (2004). The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: A possible Palaeolithic route to the New World. World Archaeology, 34(4): 459478. Geographical Review Forum. (2006). Reections on Charles C. Manns 1491. Geographical Review 96(3): 478513. Haslett, J. (2006). Voyage of the Manteo: The Education of a Modern-Day Explorer. New York: St. Martins Press. Jett, S. C. (2003). Review of 1421: The Year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 7, 369377. Jett, S. C. (2004) No plague in the land? Infectious diseases and their implications for the preColumbian-transoceanic-contacts controversy. Migration & Diffusion An International Journal, 5(9), 631. Jett, S. C. (2007). Review of Columbus Was Last: From 200,000 B.C. to 1492, a Heretical History of Who Was First by Patrick Huyghe. Journal of Scientic Exploration, 20, 639649. Jett, S. C., & Wood, J. S. (1992). Review of Seeds of Change: A Quincentenial Commemoration by Herman J. Viola & Carolyn Margolis (Eds.). Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82, 566568. Kelley, D. B. (1995). Possible evidence of contact between China and Mexico in ancient times. NEARA Journal, 3(1 & 2): 1631. Kelley, D. H. (1960). Calendar animals and deities. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 16, 317337. Lovell, W. G., Dobyns, H. F., Denevan, W. M., Woods, W. I., & Mann, C. C. (2004). 1491: In search of Native America. Journal of the Southwest, 46, 441461. Menzies, G. (2004). 1421: The Year China Discovered America. William Morrow. Xu, H. M. (2003). New evidence for pre-Columbian transpacic contact between China and Mesoamerica. Ancient American 8(50), 2025.

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ARTICLES OF INTEREST
Dissociation in Britain during the late nineteenth century: The Society for Psychical Research, 18821900, by Carlos S. Alvarado. (2002). Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3, 933. Available in http://www.parapsych.org/PDF/ Alvarado_JTD_Volume_3_2002.pdf. Automatism and the emergence of dynamic psychiatry, by Adam Crabtree. (2003). Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 39, 5170. The modern historiography of psychology and psychiatry has a small but growing literature in which it is argued that parapsychology, instead of being an obstacle to the development of a science of the mind, was in fact influential in those developments. The writings of Henri F. Ellenberger, Pascal Le Malfan, and Rgina Plas are examples of this. The two articles noted here are further examples of this modern literature. Carlos S. Alvarado discusses the work of nineteeenth-century members of the London-based Society for Psychical Research (SPR), such as Frederic W. H. Myers (18431901) and Edmund Gurney (18471888). According to Alvarado: Certainly it is clear that there was much opposition to some of the aspects of the SPR work . . . . But regardless of controversies, the SPR and psychical research in general contributed many facts (cases) and concepts to the development of nineteenth-century ideas of the subconscious mind and the process of dissociation . . . . (p. 28). In his paper Adam Crabtree documents the influence of Pierre Janet (1859 1947) and Myers on the current physiological conceptions of the concept of automatism. He wrote in the abstract: Frederic Myers and Pierre Janet developed psychological frameworks for understanding these phenomena, positing hidden centers of intelligence at work in the individual, outside ordinary awareness . . .. Their attempts to unify this psychological framework with the existing physiological one failed. Nevertheless, their work played a crucial role in paving the way for what Ellenberger called dynamic psychiatry, which accepts the reality of an unconscious dynamic of the psyche. Crabtree shows that Myerss work was embedded in psychical research, and he argues further for the influence of Myers on Janet. cr. NANCY L. ZINGRONE Assistant Professor of Research in Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science University of Virginia Health System nlz5p@virginia.edu

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Bigfoot Anatomy, by Marguerite Holloway; Scientic American, Volume 297, Number 6, Dec, 2007. (INSIGHTS, Cryptozoology): 5052. The first scientific paper addressing the evidence for the Sasquatch (or Bigfoot) as an extant mammal was published by the late physical anthropologist Grover Krantz in 1971. Despite his early lead, less than a handful of scientists have pursued a research agenda involving the scrutiny of evidence supporting the existence of the Sasquatch in North America. Of these, Jeff Meldrum has become especially visible because of his qualifications as a professor of anatomy at Idaho State University and his repeated attempts to explain why he finds the evidence so compelling. Professor of jurisprudence Cass Sunstein recently described why scientists who persist in their attempts to attract attention to a minority scientific viewpoint, scientists such as Jeff Meldrum, may be perceived as dissidents by scientific colleagues. But, Sunstein notes, rather than being contrarians, a discloser reveals information that he actually holds and [d]issenters who are disclosers, then, are to be prized. The Scientic American article gives examples of why Jeff Meldrum is less prized as a discloser and more criticized as a dissident. The article lists among his critics a scientist who is mortally certain that the Sasquatch does not exist. It is increasingly apparent to a handful of scientists that such critics may eventually have to review the basis for their certainty as evidence for the Sasquatch as extant continues to accrue. Ironically, their unawareness of such evidence may be partly the result of scientific gatekeepers in the peer review process (themselves perhaps also mortally certain that the Sasquatch does not exist) who have rejected papers submitted to illustrate such evidence and assist with its interpretation. The prolonged process of the discovery of the Sasquatch appears increasingly to be characterized by scientific resistance, perhaps based on the enormity and widespread implications of the discovery. The Scientic American article is a revealing snapshot documenting the progressor lack thereofin the discovery process. cr. JOHN BINDERNAGEL Courtenay, British Columbia, Canada johnb@island.net

References
Krantz, G. S. (1971). Sasquatch handprints. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, 5(2):145 151. Sunstein, Cass R. (2003). Why Societies Need Dissent. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

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John Bindernagel is the author of The Discovery of the Sasquatch: Reconciling culture, history, and science in the discovery process, which will appear in 2008.

Spirits and Ghosts, by Leander Petzoldt, in Medieval Folklore, C. Lindahl, J. McNamara, and J. Lindow, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Can the following be taken as evidence of crop formations several hundred years ago, better than and well beyond, chronologically, the putative pranks of Doug and Dave? [Crop] spirits are known by numerous personifying names and are said to take various human and animal forms: . . . all of which are invoked to frighten children and keep them from trampling the ripe grain. One of the most interesting forms is the Bilwis, which has undergone many transformations in medieval literature and subsequent folk belief. [ . . . ] [S]ince the sixteenth century . . . , especially in northeast Germany, the Bilwis has been conceived of as a grain spirit bringing wealth; yet this latest manifestation of the Bilwis has its harmful side, the Bilwis-cutter, who is blamed for the unexplained patterns that are formed among the rows of standing grain. [ . . . ] The Bilwis is one of the strangest and most mysterious beings in all of folklore; . . . it serves to explain the eerie appearance of turned-down rows of plants in cornfields. cr. GORDON STRASENBURGH North Bend, Oregon

Gnawing Away at The Foundations Of Modern Cosmology Disney, Michael, Modern Cosmology: Science or Folktale? American Scientist. 95:383, 2007. Modern cosmology was birthed by two accidental discoveries: (1) The redshifts of astronomical bodies (now customarily taken to be measures of distance); and (2) The microwave background (customarily assumed to be proof of a hot birth for the universe). Thus was born the Big Bang paradigm, which has successfully accounted for some but not all cosmological observations. However, to account for all observations, cosmologists have had to create heroic and insubstantial notions; e.g., dark matter and dark energy. At present, the most fashionable cosmological model requires 18 parameters. Of these, only 13 are supported by observations.

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All in all, author Disney asserts that, at best, modern cosmology has only very flimsy observational support. Disney elaborates by describing how cosmology is really a five- tiered edifice; that is, five separate theories built atop one another.


  

Tier #1. The ground floor is the expansion theory, based upon the assumption that redshifts are measures of velocity. [This theory has been under heavy bombardment by H. Arp. (See Science Frontiers #138.) Tier #2. The theory that very early in its history the universe suddenly inflated immensely. Inflation is vital to help cosmologists explain the horizon and flatness problems created by the Big Bang. [Inflation was a truly miraculous event! The kind that scientists like to avoid.] Tier #3. The dark-matter theory needed to hold the galaxies together. [See the next article.] Tier #4. The hypothesis that some sort of seed existed from which the universe sprang. [This was one of those singularities forbidden in physics.] Tier #5. Top-floor is that mysterious dark energy required to explain the recently discovered acceleration of the (assumed) cosmic expansion. [See second article following.]

While not a house-of-cards, modern cosmology is threatened by several holes in the dike of scienceto mix metaphors. The Galactic Glue Is Missing Schilling, Govert; Dark Riddles, Scientic American, 297:32, November 2007. A team led by A. Mahdavi and H. Hoekstra (University of Victoria, British Columbia) wrote in the October 20, 2007, issue of the Astrophysical Journal that observations indicate that dark matter and the visible galaxies are not really physically associated with each other. In other words, the dark matter that has been postulated to provide the gravitational glue that holds galaxies together does not do this. The dark matter (Tier #3) paradigm is therefore flawed. Dark Energy Slows Down! Shiga, David; Supernova Blow to Dark Energy Studies, New Scientist, p. 14, October 13, 2007. The dark energy hypothesis exists because supernovas are not behaving as cosmologists have long believed. Supernovas are supposed to go through roughly identical life cycles everywhere in the universe thus providing cosmologists with standard candles with which they can estimate the distances of supernovas by their apparent brightness as seen through terrestrial telescopes. Such distance measurements seem to indicate that the rate of the expansion of the universe is increasing; i.e., accelerating. Why should this be? Didnt the

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power of the Big Bang provide the only expansion force that sent matterlight and darkflying outward into the void? Dark energy had to by invented to explain this acceleration. But A. Howell et al (University of Toronto) now have observations that suggest that supernovas actually vary in brightness and therefore make poor standard candles. Dark energy (Tier #5) may not exist at all because our supernova yardstick is faulty! For the above three articles: cr. WILLIAM CORLISS Sourcebook Project science-frontiers.com

Readers are encouraged to submit for possible inclusion here titles of articles in preferably peer reviewed journals (typically, which do not focus on topics about anomalies) that are relevant to issues addressed in JSE. A short commentary should accompany. The articles may be in any language, but the title should be translated into English and the commentary should be in English.

Erratum: In the review of The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in issue 21.4, Fleischmann was spelled Fleischman. The error was on the part of the Journal not the author.