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In today’s modern world, it is primary need for Petrol, Diesel & various petrochemical products. It is difficult to think of life without petrochemical products. These products reaches passing through refineries & petrochemical plants after various processes. It means, the process industries becomes the primary requirements. These process industries (e.g. Refineries, cracker plants, hydrocarbon product processing) use Heat exchanger .Heat exchanger is good transferring heat one liquid to other liquid at various temperatures. Heat exchanger is used to contain a multiple thing including air, water, chemicals, and fuel. They are used in paper and pulp, energy, food, chemical industries. Heat exchanger is designed with great care because rapture of a Heat exchanger means an explosion which may cause loss of life and property.

INTRODUCTION:-

Definition of heat exchanger:-

Thermal System of heat exchanger
The purpose of a heat exchanger is to transfer energy from one fluid to another. Many different types of heat exchangers exist to accommodate different fluid properties. One of the simplest designs is the concentric tube heat exchanger used for heat exchange between two liquids. A device used for transferring or exchanging heat energy between two fluids is known as Heat Exchanger. This heat exchange can be exchange heat either by direct or indirect method:-

In the direct methods heat transfer between two fluids takes place without mixing. Two fluids are separated by a metallic or non-metallic surface, through which heat transfer takes place generally perpendicular to flow direction.

Effectiveness of heat exchanger:-

(T Effectiveness =
Where, to = ti = Ti =

to − ti
i

−ti

) = Inlet temp. diff . of hot & cold fluid

Cold fluid temp. range

Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature Hot fluid inlet temperature

Define Heat Duty Of Heat Exchanger:Heat duty of a heat exchanger is defined as the heat that is transferred from hot fluid to cold fluid per unit time.

Define Capacity Ratio of Heat Exchanger:Ti − To Temp. range of hot fluid = t − t Temp. range of Cold fluid o i R=

Where, to ti Ti To

= = = =

Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature Hot fluid inlet temperature Hot fluid outlet temperature

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
Heat exchangers can be classified by different methods –

Function: Process function such as re - boiler, condenser, cooler, heat recovery, steam generators etc. Design of heat exchangers is done based on a internationally acclaimed codes like ‘ASME’ Section VIII (American Mechanical Engineers, New York) and ‘TEMA’ standards (Tubular Manufacturers Association INC. New York) number of Society of Exchanger

Following types of heat exchangers are commonly manufactured:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. FIXED TUBE-SHEET HEAT EXCHANGERS FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER U-TUBE HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER PLATE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER:-

The wide range of heat exchangers falls in this class. It consists of number of parallel tubes enclosed in a relatively close fittings cylindrical shell. One fluid flows inside the tube and is called the tube side fluid and the other flows outside the tube in the shell called as shell side fluid.

Flow paths: Co-currents, counter current cross flow etc
The function of the steam generator is to transfer the heat from the reactor cooling system to the secondary side of the tubes, which contain feed water. As the

The Shell and Tube is the most common type of heat exchanger used in the process. chemical industries. it picks up heat and eventually gets converted to steam. shell tube heat exchangers offer a large heat transfer area and provide high heat transfer efficiency. it contains a number of parallel utubes inside a shell.feed water passes the tube. petroleum. Due to their design.  DESIGN PARAMETERS OF HEAT EXCHANGER:- . Shell Tube heat exchangers are used when a process requires large amounts of fluid to be heated or cooled.

 TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER COLUMMS:- From the above introduction. As they at lower pressures. the thickness required to withstand the pressure is less & can be achieved with normal plate rolling mills.  SINGLE WALL VESSEL:- These are the vessel made of carbon-manganese steel or alloy steels having single wall. . This type of vessel is preferred in industries as it is easier to manufacture & cheaper in cost. the technology used for manufacturing is opting for Multiwall vessel. which in turn raises the requirement of very high thickness.  MULTIWALL VESSEL:- Fertilizer plants use the vessels like Ammonia converter Baskets. It is difficult to roll such a high thickness & weld as pressure joint. it is becomes transparent that Reactors are required for refineries & process industries. These vessels generally work as lower pressure & temperatures. There are various types of pressure vessel defined based on type of construction & manufacturing methods. In such cases. These vessels are working at very high pressure and temperature.

be sure that it will withstand working and testing stresses. or thermal cycling. high-strength pressure vessel materials. Include an inner liner (or bladder vessel) made of one of these hydrogen-resistant materials. Use lower-strength vessel materials such as type 304. Have the Deputy Associate Director for Mechanical Engineering approve any manned-area Heat exchanger design that is based on a safety factor of less than 3. If you cannot avoid using a brittle material for the body of a manned-area pressure vessel. or other materials recommended by a recognized expert in the field or through a peer review. High-pressure hydrogen gas drastically degrades the ductility of highly stressed. 321.9 of this document and is approved by the division leader. Design any vessel or system containing hazardous materials such that the contained fluid leak rate will not pose a hazard to personnel or the environment. shock. When designing such a liner. stainless steel. oxygen-free copper.  Material Selection Select materials that remain ductile throughout the working temperature range of the vessel. Consider positively . 316. phosphor bronze. 347. of the following methods: 1. DESIGN CRITERIA Use a safety factor of 4 based on the known or calculated failure pressure of the Heat exchanger or ultimate strength of the material when designing for involves detrimental conditions. your Department Head must sign the ESN. 2. This problem can be solved using either one. corrosion. or both. such as vibration. beryllium copper. Never use a safety factor less than 4 when designing a vessel for mannedarea operation unless the design conforms to the ASME code or to the requirements listed in Section 4. Select materials that are compatible with the liquid or gas to be contained in the vessel. Beware of hydrogen embrittlement. 2024 or 6061 aluminum alloy.

ultrasonic. explosive. toxic. or bar stock is usually available in these smaller diameters. Adjust the design and the allowable stresses to compensate for environmental conditions such as vibration. and extreme thermal operating conditions. and magnetic particle inspection. undetected. A plan should be prepared for vessels with thinner wall thick nesses wherever radioactive. Seamless tubing or pipe. cycling. (50 mm) that are to be operated in a manned area. Specify inspection by appropriate nondestructive detection methods. These vessels should be periodically monitored using appropriate nondestructive inspection techniques to assure that previously undetectable. temperature fluctuation. Contact the subject-matter expert for assistance. or flammable materials are involved. such as radiographic. high-pressure vessel. (50 mm). Maximum permissible defects should be based on the capability of the vessel material to resist crack growth under the specified operating conditions. (0. Contact the subject-matter expert for assistance with properly specifying ultrasonic inspection.  Design Considerations Specify that all purchase-fabrication welding be done by certified ASME welders in accordance with the approved ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This is most critical when vessel material elongation or fracture toughness is relatively low. Avoid stress concentrations. consider the following: .  When specifying welding of Heat exchanger components. shock. corrosion. when designing a high-strength. Provide means for periodic verification that the vent path is open to the atmosphere. Prepare a Fracture Control Plan for all gas-pressure vessels with wall thickness over 2 in. Specify appropriate ultrasonic inspection of all manned-area pressure vessels with wall thickness over 2 in.15 m) in diameter.venting the liner/body interspace so that any hydrogen that penetrates the liner cannot subject the high-strength vessel body to high-pressure hydrogen. 1 Avoid longitudinal welds in vessels less than 6 in. and detected cracks are not approaching critical size. dye penetrant.

Including the reduced properties of the heat-affected zone when calculating the overall strength of the vessel. because a weld might not penetrate to the full thickness of the parent material. Table UW-12). Design all barricades for remote-operation pressure systems in accordance with the requirements in TEMA Code. Consulting with a welding or materials expert when planning to weld a vessel that will contain a high-pressure hydrogen gas. because welding normally anneals the material in this zone.  Comparison of two different Heat Exchanger . Including realistic joint efficiencies in calculations (see Ref. 1. because welding reduces resistance of some materials to hydrogen embrittlement.Checking a weld cross-section for toughness. because a weld might be brittle and welding might embrittle the material in the heat-affected zone.

 Design of Heat exchanger as Per TEMA:- .

.

psi. inch. supporting structure & connecting Piping.6 P P= SEt R + 0. tube Maintenance openings. (Further info.6t IN TERMS OF INSIDE When thickness does not exceed one half of the inside radius. R = inside radius of the shell course under consideration. THE SYMBOLS USED IN FOLLOWING FORMULAS ARE BELOW t = minimum required thickness of shell. Closing Head. CONSTRUCTION :- HEAT EXCHANGER Heat exchanger consist of various elements like Cylindrical Shell. C. THICKNESS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELL IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS OR (CIRCUMFERENTIAL JOINTS) . various instrument & process nozzles. OR SE − 0.A=corrosion allowance DESIGN OF SHELL UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE THICKNESS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELL DIMENSIONS OR (LONGITUDINAL JOINTS) (CODE REF. S = maximum allowable stress value. or P does not exceed 0. See UG 23) E = joint efficiency.385 SE the following formula shall apply. ASME sec VIII Div 1. P = internal design pressure. psi . inch. A. UG 27) t= PR + C.

When thickness does not exceed one half of the inside radius. they are joined various welding methods like SMAW.4 P OR P= 2SEt R + 0. There are limitations on plate width while rolling & handling at Factory.4t  OF HEAT EXCHANGER: CYLINDRICAL SHELL:- MANUFACTURING SEQUENCES The cylindrical enclosure resisting pressure which called as Shell. This geometrically a cylinder undergoing circumfercial stress. 2SE + 0. A. GMAW.25 SE. or P does not exceed 1. These shell are manufactured by various ways like Plate Rolling Forged shell Plate rolling requires plate to be rolled from Steel plant. the following formula shall be apply: t= PR + C. After rolling various shells of different widths. This type of shells provides smooth grain structure due to forming method of manufacturing. 1) PLATE 2) ROLLING . The plates undergo controlled temperature treatment & are tested to the requirements of Heat Exchanger. GTAW. These plates are then rolled to form cylinders which are used to generate vessel wall. The manufacturing sequences are brief in diagrammatic. This allows higher length of Heat exchanger & fulfills process requirements. SAW. This width restriction calls for Heat Exchanger to be made in segments. Another method is used for very critical vessels working at very high pressure & temperatures.

. There various aspects for selection of type head like volume inside head & space available above vessel at site. this type of head consists of profile generated by two different circles having Crown radius & Knuckle radius. Generally these types of heads are used for low thick vessel. SEAM WELD 5) SHELL TYPES OF HEAD/ DISH ENDS:1) TORISPHERICAL HEAD:As shown.3) LONG SEAM WELD 4) CIR.

2. This inlet nozzle provides at the top of the heat exchanger &it has withstood high fluid Pressure. 3) DISH END SIDE INLET NOZZLE:This nozzle is providing on the top dish of Heat exchanger for the fluid inlet before Heat exchange reaction taken place in Heat exchanger. FLANGE -PIPE TYPE FLANGE-PIPE WITH PAD REINFORCEMENT LONG WELD NECK TYPE SELF REINFORCED NOZZLE SELF REINFORCED NOZZLE:This is the most widely used construction of high thick vessel & reactors. 3. This also consists of connection a flange. . This type of construction allows variation of pressure & temperature. 2) SHELL SIDE OUTLET NOZZLE:This nozzle serves the purpose of taking fluid outlet in to the Heat exchanger. The calculation for nozzle reinforcement is carried out as per ug-37 of ASME section VIII. 4) DISH END SIDE OUTLET NOZZLE:This nozzle is providing on the bottom dish of Heat exchanger for the fluid outlet after Heat exchange reaction taken place in Heat exchanger.This nozzle serves the purpose of taking fluid entering in to the Heat exchanger. In this type of construction. 4. TYPES OF NOZZLE CONSTRUCTION:1. This also consists of connection a flange. This outer nozzle provides at the bottom of the shell side in heat exchanger &it has withstood high fluid Pressure. This nozzle is almost same size as inlet & requires elbow type construction for connecting pipes. The area shown as hatched is providing required reinforcement & the lip allows 100% radiography test can only be achieved using such type of nozzles. the nozzle opening is made from forged material machined to suit the shape required for reinforcement of nozzle cutout.

SELF REINFORCED NOZZLE Method of Manufacturing Baffles and Tube sheet TYPES OF PITCH IN TUBE SHEET:1. Rotated Triangular pitch 3. Square pitch 4. Triangular Pitch 2. Rotated square pitch .

. The plate contains a series of apertures in the form of a pattern for receiving heat exchanger tubes. The dies contain sleeves and opposed reaming rods which form lips on the apertures during stamping of the plate. Lips can also be formed on the outer edge of the plate and the edge of a central passage during stamping.A helical baffle for shell and tube type heat exchangers is fabricated by stamp forming a plate in the form of a partial circular section into a helical section between opposed. mating helically-shaped faces of two forming dies. The lips prevent the helical plate from twisting or returning to a flat configuration. The leading and trailing edge of the helical plates are then joined such as by rivetting or welding into a continuous helical baffle with sets of heat exchanger tube apertures aligned along a common axis.

 FABRICATION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING HEAT EXCHANGER:Purchase material as per requirements Material received Material identification & inspection Plate cutting layout (PCL) Marking of Plate (With the help of 345 rules ) Cutting of Plate WEP (Weld Edge Preparation) Edge breaking Rolling & re-rolling Long seam set-up & inspection after and before welding D’end inspection Circular seam set-up & inspection after welding (Shell to shell or D’end to shell or Cone to shell set up) Inspection and testing Nozzle marking and punching Nozzle set-up inspection before and after welding Assembly Final dimension checking and surface finishing Heat treatment Hydro test and other helium test etc. Final inspection and painting .

 SHELL plate marking:- When we want to marking of shell plate at that time the given method are used for marking and find out the shell plate length. which is used for cutting. A 5 3 900 B C 4 .14 Length of shell = as per drawing Thickness of shell = as per drawing 3 4 5 rule (paithagoras rules):As per 345 rule marking is done with as per given sequence First of all select plate. After cleaning the plate whitener or chalk will be spray on plate than after light pointer punch will be used for marking. which is.14) Length of the shell plate = mean dia of shell X 3. Shell length and its diameter is given in drawing but their shell plate length is not given in drawing. After selection of plate clean plate dust. removed either mechanically or chemically. rust. oil. grease and other foreign particle. To find out the shell plate length first of all find out their mean Dia with the help of given equation. Mean dia = outside diameter + inside diameter 2 Now this mean dia is calculate with π (3.

Because end portion of the plate cannot be rolled it is observed that when rolling. . cm. inch are taken as per requirements 3 number taken in width or length side.  WELD EDGE PREPARATION (wep):- After cutting the plate edge preparation is required to joining the two edge of plate in long seam of shell and in circumferential joint also edge preparation is required. cm or inch but always opposite side of number three means draw a line of BC (4). To edge braking the sheet first of all we made template of the required radius. Edge preparation is necessary to get good quality joint. And then draw AC (5) numbers line in length to width direction and mark a point on 3 numbers line then draw a line center point and intersection of 3 & 5 that line is perfectly right angle (900) through the length. And edge breaking is done with the help of power press. • Edge breaking Edge breaking is done before rolling procedure.  Cutting of plate :- After marking the plate properly check the marking is ok or not if marking is ok then cut the plate as per facilities available in industries Oxy-acetylene cutting Plasma cutting machine CNC gas cutting machine In plasma and CNC gas cutting machine we speedily work done with good quality with minimum machining requirement as per comparatively oxy-acetylene cutting work. the strength of edge prepared joint is comparatively higher than without edge prepared joint. So edge preparation is necessary in 5 mm or higher thickness.In 345 rule 3 Number related in mm.cutting allowances are comparatively lower in plasma and cnc machines. Here draw line in width sideline AB (3). Due to edge preparation we get good penetration. Number 4 is also taken on length or width in mm. the end portion is left unrolled and ovality in shell shape is observed.because without edge breaking we not get required radius at the two rolling side edge of the shell.

long seam set-up can be done in two ways. . Rolling :- In rolling procedure 3 roll shell rolling machine is used rolling procedure is done in two ways (hot rolling. Multiple segmented When dia of the shell became to large at that time shell made in number of petals at that time two or more long seam are present in shell. Long seam is welding is process of joining of two ends of rolled plate to form a complete shell. Single segmented A single plate is rolled completely to form a shell. cold rolling) depending on the following parameters Thickness of the plate Width of the plate Strength of the plate Dia of the roller After rolling process when we not get required radius at that time Re-rolling process is done to get perfect circularity.  Long seam set-up and inspection after and before welding:- Long seam set-up is done after rolling of plate for long seam welding. In this case only one welding seam will be there.

Recheck the circumference at both the ends & at center. Ensure offset within tolerance. Check the screw. Offer the set-up for inspection. Measure the outside circumference at both the ends and at center. Ensure proper root gap & root face. Put run in .Welding M/C Shell Boom Traverse Boom Column Tank rotator Welding Manipulator Long Seam Welding Set-up Circular Seam Welding Shell Column SAW Head Tank rotator Welding Manipulator Boom Set-up for circular seam welding between two shells Procedure Check weld edge preparation as per drg.run out plates & PTC as per job requirement. Wire wheel 50-mm area around seam.  WELDING PROCEDURE:- .

In GTAW process DCEN polarity is used because electrodes are non consumable. Shielded metal arc welding (smaw) Submerged arc welding (saw) Gas tungsten arc welding (gtaw) Gas metal arc welding (gmaw) Flux cored arc welding (fcaw) Shielded metal arc welding is manual welding process it is also known as manual metal arc welding (mmaw). And get good quality of joint. But generally arc-welding process is most popular in industries due to their advantages. And welding is carried out in inert atmosphere of helium or argon to protect weld metal from environmental oxygen and nitrogen. During welding flux is automatically feed from hopper. When job is heavy or thickness of job is high at that time submerged arc welding process is used for get good quality of weld. In this welding process bare metal electrodes are used electrodes are generally copper coated. In this welding process flux coated electrodes are used. Measure the length of the shell if length is higher than required length then trim the extra length of shell. In GTAW process non-consumable tungsten electrodes are used in this welding process after arc striking welding is carried out as a gas welding process. To eliminate or reduce distortion appropriate jigs and fixture used. Inspection after welding In after welding inspection measure outer dia of the shell. which is used to join similar or dissimilar metals At this time number of welding processes available in industries. The popular arc welding process in industries are given below. Quality of the joint appearance of the weld is also check during after weld inspection.Welding is a process. When job is small or complicated at that time MMAW welding process is very useful. . In heavy engineering division SAW process is widely used. Submerged arc welding is an automatic welding process. Circularity of the shell if shell is not completely circular then remove ovality with the help of spider.

270 ) (Keep offset as per the Circumference Difference. Match the end of shell to shell or shell to d’end Keep Root Gap as per Requirement Check the root gap between shell and d’end with the help of filler gauge Lock Four Orientation ( 0 .) Check Total Length After check root gap between shell and d’end and final length tack the joint After set-up completion set-up issue for inspection  Inspection and testing:- After completion job will be carried out in various inspection and testing (testing including destructive and non-destructive) In inspection including Visual inspection Dimensional inspection And in testing method destructive and non-destructive method includes Destructive method .Procedure of circ/seam set-up Align shell on Tank Rotators Keep both the Shells on the shell tank Rotator. 180. 90.

Used for fitting safety valve and devices. . APPLICATION Used for inlet or outlet connection. Bend test Tensile test Impact test Etc. Used for man way. TYPES OF NOZZLE:RADIAL NOZZLE OFFSET NOZZLE TANGENTIAL NOZZLE ANGULAR NOZZLE RADIAL NOZZLE: A nozzle. Radiography testing Ultrasonic testing Magnetic particle testing Liquid penetrant examination Helium leak test Etc.  NOZZLES:- Assembly of pipe or forging to flange is called nozzle. which is perpendicular to base of the shell or dished end lies on the orientation line is called radial nozzle.(always take 18 to 24 inch. Non destructive testing The method of testing in which that piece will be not break or bend that is known as non-destructive testing. For vent connection.The method in which test piece will be broken or bend is done that is known as destructive testing.) Hand hole.

ANGULAR NOZZLE: A nozzle. which is at an angle from the reference line. is called as angular nozzle. which is similar to radial nozzle but offset from orientation line. is called tangential nozzle. TANGENTIAL NOZZLE: A nozzle.OFFSET NOZZLE: A nozzle. which is on any tangential line of the shell. . is called as offset nozzle.

DEVELOPMENT FOR ANGULAR NOZZLE . The reinforcement pad is made ready for the set-up The reinforcement pad is mounted on nozzle cut out area The nozzle is checked for the ovality if found it is removed Then the nozzle is taken to the cut out and set-up begins The orientation of the nozzle is checked The elevation of the center is matched The orientation.First mark the orientation of nozzle on shell or dished end. The marked line is punched The cut out on shell or d’end is made with the help of any cutting machine. The cut out area is machined for welding and to get required surface roughness. elevation and level of the nozzle is rechecked Than tack weld is done Inspector checks these set-ups before full welding if the entire dimension is ready than full welding are done. The elevation is marked and the radius of the nozzle is measured and marked on the shell.

Tube to tube sheet welding is used to ensure the required strength as well as the leak tightness of the joint between T#TS The reliability of T#TS joint is very much essential to ensure the safety of the equipments. Tube sheets are made from plate or forging by machining. . boring. The holes are normally to the tubes plates. parallel to each other and circular with smooth internal surface. Holes are set in tube sheet as per pitch. TUBES There are two types of tubes Seam tube welded tube TUBESHEET It is the end plate of the shell on which tubes are welded in heat exchanger or any other heat transferring equipments. Tube to tube sheet welding:- Tube to tube sheet welding Is performed to join the tube sheet in shell & tube type HE. drilling as per design requirement.

the parameters are controlled by an automatic machine. and provides the required arc characteristics. when used. . the AWS terminology for this process is GTAW. as well as the filler metal. which uses a non – consumable tungsten electrode shilded with inert gas. by using the Semi-Automatic welding The difference between manual and automatic welding equipment is the welding time orientation i.e. The arc is installed between the tip of the electrode and work to melt the metal being welded.Tubes Tube sheet Pitch Distance between centers of the adjacent holes. Basic components are common to all GTAW steups: Torch with water cool non consumable electrode Welding power source with high frequency unit Shielding gas A water – cool welding torch is used when cooling from the inert Gas shield is inadequate. however. The shielding gas protects the electrode and the molten weld pool from atmospheric contamination. WELDING PROCESS Semi-Automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding The welding performed for the joining of U –tubes to tube sheets is a GTAW process. This process is also called as non –consumable electrode welding or TIG welding.

It allows excellent control of root pass weld penetration. If necessary the shell of vessel is strengthened by stiffeners located on the shell area surrounding the saddle.Application of GTAW. It produces superior quality welds. . It can be used to weld almost all material. The location of the saddle support should be such that the distance from the tangent line to the centerline of the saddle should be less than the radius of the vessels.6 mm dia.6 mm dia (Er N-Ni Cr3) Polarity – EN Volts – 8 – 10 volts Peak current (A) – 100A – 120A Back current – 25 A – 35 A Travel speed – 140 mm/min Flow rate – 12 LPM Welding position – clockwise Torch tilt angle – 30’  SADDLE SUPPORTS:- Horizontal cylindrical vessels are supported on saddles. Welding parameters Welding machine – Fronius Mw2600 Welding process – GTAW Shielding Gas – Argon Purging Gas – Argon Electrode – ECWCe2 1. It is free of spatter. For large thin wall vessels or vessels under vacuum. generally free of defects. It can produce inexpensive autogeneous welds at high speed. including dissimilar metal joints. it is necessary to provide ring supports. It allows the heat source and the filler metal additions to be controlled indepedently. These are placed as two positions. It can use relatively inexpensive power supply and allows the precise control of the welding variables. Consumable – SniCr20nb 0. which occurs with other arc welding process.

Application of a developer draws out the entrapped . five are widely used for the examination of pressure vessels and tanks by certified pressure vessel inspectors. * MT Magnetic Particle Test. VT. erosion. When the penetrant is removed from the surface. the first three are often referred to as surface examination methods and the last two as volumetric methods. * PT Liquid Penetrant Test. They are subjected to longitudinal bending moments and local shear stresses due to the weight of the vessel. Table II of PUB 8-1. The obvious requirements for a meaningful visual examination are a clean surface and good illumination. For these reasons. In contrast.5 summarizes the main features of these five methods. * RT Gamma and X-ray Radiography. # PLATE TYPE # RING TYPE  METHODS :- NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION Of the various conventional and advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods. The names and acronyms of these common five methods are: * VT Visual Examination. and * UT Ultrasonic Test. PT and MT can detect only those discontinuities and defects that are open to the surface or are very near the surface.  VISUAL EXAMINATION (VT) :- A visual examination is easy to conduct and can cover a large area in a short time. RT and UT can detect conditions that are located within the part. some of it remains entrapped in the discontinuities.Horizontal vessels resting on saddle supports behave as beams. It is very useful for assessing the general condition of the equipment and for detecting some specific problems such as severe instances of corrosion. and hydrogen blistering.  LIQUID PENETRANT TEST (PT) :- This method depends on allowing a specially formulated liquid (penetrant) to seep into an open discontinuity and then detecting the entrapped liquid by a developing agent.

voids.cobalt-60. and geometry and size of the defect. Therefore.. The PT method is independent of the type and composition of the metal alloy so it can be used for the examination of austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous alloys where the magnetic particle test is not applicable. cracks with tightly closed surfaces are much more difficult to detect than open voids. examining for defects in corners and near or in welds must be performed with extra care. . material. The ferromagnetic material requirement basically limits the applicability of MT to carbon and low-alloy steels. However. MT has some capability for detecting subsurface defects. RT is effective in showing defect dimensions on a plane normal to the beam direction but determination of the depth dimension and location requires specialized techniques. Another precaution is that MT is most sensitive to discontinuities.penetrant and magnifies the discontinuity. there is no easy way to determine the limiting depth of sensitivity since it is highly dependent on magnetizing current. field application of RT requires careful implementation to prevent health hazards. the prod technique is widely used. The particles can also be treated to fluoresce under black light. Applying fine particles of a ferromagnetic material to the surface reveals the perturbations of the magnetic lines. These options lead to variations such as the wet fluorescent magnetic particle test (WFMT). defects located in an area of a abrupt dimensional change are difficult to detect due to the superimposed density difference. and discontinuities decrease the attenuation of the X-ray and produce greater exposure on the film (darker areas on the negative film).  RADIOGRAPHY (RT) :- The basic principle of radiographic examination of metallic objects is the same as in any other form of radiography such as medical radiography. A very crude approximation would be a depth no more than 1.  MAGNETIC PARTICLE TEST (MT) :- This method depends on the fact that discontinuities in or near the surface perturb magnetic flux lines induced into a ferromagnetic material. Also. Because RT depends on density differences. The essential feature of PT is that the discontinuity must be open.) Holes.5 mm to 3 mm (1/16 in to 1/8 in). which means a clean.etc. And basic useful industrial radiography in use two type of sourse:x-ray gamma ray(Iridium-192. which are. undisturbed surface. For a component such as a pressure vessel where access is generally limited to one surface at a time. Chemicals which fluoresce under black (ultraviolet) light can be added to the penetrant to aid the detect ability and visibility of the developed indications. A very important precaution in performing MT is that corners and surface irregularities also perturb the magnetic field. Since ionizing radiation is involved. The particles can be either a dry powder or a wet suspension in a liquid. oriented transverse to the magnetic flux lines and this characteristic needs to be taken into account in determining the procedure for inducing the magnetic field. The magnetic field is produced in the region around and between the prods (contact probes) by an electric current (either AC or DC) flowing between the prods.

Very short signal pulses are induced into the material and waves reflected back from discontinuities are detected during the receive mode. Ensure safe and reliable performance during the operational life.  HELIUM LEAK TESTS:- The aim is have a heat exchanger with very high leak tight integrity. The distinctive aspect of UT for the inspection of metallic parts is that the waves are mechanical. distortion or leakage. The transmitting and detection can be done with one transducer or with two separate transducers (the tandem technique). * Transducer system to convert the electrical signal into mechanical vibrations and vice versa and to inject the vibrations into and extract them from the material. Recommended for pressure vessel operating under pressure ensures the strength of weld joints and material. Ensure the nozzle flange joint. The hydrostatic test procedure shall be generally as per specification. Since wave velocity is constant for a specific material. The test temperature shall be sufficiently above the Nil ductility transition temperature. UT in its basic form does not produce a permanent record of the examination. The helium leak test procedures used shall be of heighest achievable overall sensitivity. processing and displaying the return signal. Integrated leakage rates for gaske5ted joints only may be permitted to exceed 10 -6 cc/sec provided the total leakage rates through the gasketed joints is within 10 -4 cc / sec. so the test equipment requires three basic components. capable of detecting very small integrated and also local leakage rates as give below: Integrated leakage rates equal to or exceeding 10 -6 cc / sec shall not be acceptable. Unlike radiography.  HYDROSTATIC TESTS:- The heat exchanger shall be subjected to and shall withstand without damage. more recent versions of UT equipment include automated operation and electronic recording of the signals. However. * Electronic system for amplifying.5 times the design pressure. the transit time between the initial pulse and the back reflection is a measure of the travel distance and the thickness. the hydrostatic test pressure for the specified time as per ASME code section 3 NB. Ultrasonic techniques can also be used for the detection and measurement of general material loss such as by corrosion and erosion. Test the strength of the vessel at 1. To ensure the integrity of the vessel and system operation under pressure. . Local leakage rates equal to or exceeding 10 -7 cc / sec shall also not be acceptable. * Electronic system for generating electrical signal.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) The fundamental principles of ultrasonic testing of metallic materials are similar to radar and related methods of using electromagnetic and acoustic waves for detection of foreign objects.

Heat treatment Introduction During fabrication material under goes different process such as welding.. rolling. To relieve internal stresses set up during cold-working casting welding and hot working operations. To improve machinability To change grain size To improve mechanical properties  FINAL INSPECTION AND PAINTING:- After hydro test final inspection is done because some defects may be occur during hydro test After final inspection job is released for painting Painting is done as per customer requirement as per nature of service condition After painting job is not directly lift by crane suitable wooden and other packing is required for eliminate scratches and other defects on completed job.  Assembly:- Assembly means join two or more parts for get final job. The part is joined for get final assembly is known as sub-assemblies the sub-assemblies are finally made in various shops and complete with inspection and checking. Heat treatment may be define as an operation involving the heating of solid metals to definite temperature followed by cooling at suitable rates in order to obtain certain physical properties which are associated with change in the nature from size and distribution of the micro-constituents. the responsible designer or Responsible Individual must verify that the equipment is not pressurized . The area should be covered by the specific instruction in radiographic testing.  Handling:- Before handling a war reserve vessel in a manned area. welding or other processes should not performed nearby where liquid penetrate test is performed because acetone and cotton waste are inflammable material. Make proper arrangement for the fresh air while working in the confined space because acetone is immediately evaporate and cause of suffocation. SAFETY DURING TESTING: - Display red bulb at the enter point where RT is performing. Heat treatment is to achieve one or more of the following objective. Only permitted person should perform the radiographic testing. To remove this type of residual stresses heat treatment is to be carried out. machining etc. in this type of process stresses is developed in material and remains as a residual stress. Grinding. Due to this phenomena bearing capacity of material is reduced. Testing area should be covered by the thick wall in RT. RT should be far away from the place where people are working.

container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure and temperature different from the ambient pressure. Identification of the person responsible for the charge pressure and the method for confirming it must be included in the ESN. A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. some vessels designed and constructed between 1934 and 1956 may have used the rules in the API-ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases. Written tests and practical experience are required for certification. CSA B51 in Canada and other international standards very usuful code of heat exchanger is TEMA and API Generally  Heat Exchanger Design Codes:Most of the pressure or storage vessels in service in the United States will have been designed and constructed in accordance with one of the following two design codes:s The ASME Code. but is able to obtain the necessary contract services. rigid.0 of this document for details) or have the charge pressure reduced to an acceptable level before transport to LLNL. Trained inspectors qualified for each code can only perform vessels certification. or Section VIII of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (PED). the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) in North America. A Heat exchanger is a closed. Because of that. technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". If the vessel or assembly cannot be approved for manned-area operation. it must be enclosed in a containment vessel (see Section 5. Certification of the charged pressure from the supplier is normally required. Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS).at over its room temperature MAWP. This code was discontinued in 1956. . the compliance office is not equipped for this task. Heta exchangers are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature. Usually. In addition. In the industrial sector. or The API Standard 620 or the American Petroleum Institute Code which provides rules for lower pressure vessels not covered by the ASME Code.