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 A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes and is suited for a higher –pressure application.g. It is difficult to think of life without petrochemical products. As its name implies this type of heat exchangers consist of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with the bundle of tubes inside it one fuel runs through the tubes and the flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer the between the two fuels.  Definition of heat exchanger:- .    In today’s modern world.1) TITLE OF PROJECT:TO STUDY SHELL TO TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER 2) OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:“A drum used to transfer or exchange heat is known as heat exchanger”. These process industries (e. Diesel & various petrochemical products. Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanges design most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries in other chemical process. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle may be and may be composed by several types of tubes plain longitudinally finned etc. Refineries. energy. It means. food. the process industries becomes the primary requirements. Heat exchanger is designed with great care because rapture of a Heat exchanger means an explosion which may cause loss of life and property. hydrocarbon product processing) use Heat exchanger . They are used in paper and pulp. chemicals. water. These products reaches passing through refineries & petrochemical plants after various processes. it is primary need for Petrol. In a thermal power plant the primary purpose of is a to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as a steam condenset). Surface condenses is the commonly used term for a water cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power station.Heat exchanger is good transferring heat one liquid to other liquid at various temperatures. chemical industries. cracker plants. and fuel. Heat exchanger is used to contain a multiple thing including air. So that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.

One of the simplest designs is the concentric tube heat exchanger used for heat exchange between two liquids. Effectiveness of heat exchanger:- Effectiveness = Where. range = Inlet temp. diff . of hot & cold fluid = = = Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature Hot fluid inlet temperature Define Heat Duty Of Heat Exchanger:Heat duty of a heat exchanger is defined as the heat that is transferred from hot fluid to cold fluid per unit time. rangeof Cold fluid R= Where. range of hot fluid  t o  t i Temp. Many different types of heat exchangers exist to accommodate different fluid properties.Thermal System of heat exchanger The purpose of a heat exchanger is to transfer energy from one fluid to another. through which heat transfer takes place generally perpendicular to flow direction. to ti = Ti To  = Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature = Hot fluid inlet temperature = Hot fluid outlet temperature TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS . Define Capacity Ratio of Heat Exchanger:Ti  To Temp. A device used for transferring or exchanging heat energy between two fluids is known as Heat Exchanger. to ti Ti T to  ti i ti  Cold fluid temp. Two fluids are separated by a metallic or non-metallic surface. This heat exchange can be exchange heat either by direct or indirect method:In the direct methods heat transfer between two fluids takes place without mixing.

which contain feed water. cooler. condenser. counter current cross flow etc The function of the steam generator is to transfer the heat from the reactor cooling system to the secondary side of the tubes.boiler. steam generators etc. 2. it . New York) and ‘TEMA’ standards (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association INC. heat recovery. Flow paths: Co-currents. It consists of number of parallel tubes enclosed in a relatively close fittings cylindrical shell. 7. 6. As the feed water passes the tube. 3. 5. Heat exchangers can be classified by different methods – Function: Process function such as re . 8. One fluid flows inside the tube and is called the tube side fluid and the other flows outside the tube in the shell called as shell side fluid. Design of heat exchangers is done based on a number of internationally acclaimed codes like ‘ASME’ Section VIII (American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 4. New York)  Following types of heat exchangers are commonly manufactured:1. FIXED TUBE-SHEET HEAT EXCHANGERS FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER U-TUBE HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER PLATE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER The wide range of heat exchangers falls in this class.

petroleum. shell tube heat exchangers offer a large heat transfer area and provide high heat transfer efficiency. Due to their design. The Shell and Tube is the most common type of heat exchanger used in the process. Shell Tube heat exchangers are used when a process requires large amounts of fluid to be heated or cooled.picks up heat and eventually gets converted to steam. chemical industries. it contains a number of parallel utubes inside a shell.  DESIGN PARAMETERS OF HEAT EXCHANGER:- .

These vessels generally work as lower pressure & temperatures. There are various types of pressure vessel defined based on type of construction & manufacturing methods. rings. These vessels are manufactured based on simple principle of shrinkage with of help of temperature variation. It should be noted that now-a-days. The lower diameter ring is inserted within red hot outer ring & allowed to cool to normal temperature. Clad vessels are manufactured out of clad plates. the outer ring shrinks & fits with inner rings. In this method. The reactors which process corrosive fluids are handled in Stainless steel environment. These vessels are working at very high pressure and temperature. the thickness required to withstand the pressure is less & can be achieved with normal plate rolling mills. & therefore these vessels are called as Multiwall vessel.  SINGLE WALL VESSEL:- These are the vessel made of carbon-manganese steel or alloy steels having single wall.  CLAD VESSELS & OVERLAYED VESSELS:- These vessels are specially designed for corrosive services. TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER COLUMMS:- From the above introduction. These multiwall vessels are now replaced by use of special alloy steel having chromium & Vanadium. This type of vessel is preferred in industries as it is easier to manufacture & cheaper in cost.e. which in turn raises the requirement of very high thickness. the shell are made with small thickness in form of rings in such a way that these rings can fit within another with close tolerances. In such cases. It is difficult to roll such a high thickness & weld as pressure joint. The thickness of alloy steel plate is much higher than SS plate because of the strength is given by outer Alloy steel & corrosion resistance is provided by SS inner layer. As the temperature goes down. Finally the higher thickness is achieved with multiwall. clad plates are the plate having Alloy steel plate & Stainless plate rolled together at higher temperature which allows bonding. The outer ring is heated which allows expansion of that ring to higher diameter. As they at lower pressures. .  MULTIWALL VESSEL:- Fertilizer plants use the vessels like Ammonia converter Baskets. it is becomes transparent that Reactors are required for refineries & process industries. Generally there are more than 3 to 4 Vessel wall i. such vessel are obsolete due to difficult manufacturing & lot of heat treatment involved with very high accuracy. the technology used for manufacturing is opting for Multiwall vessel. Elaborating little more.

With the phase changes usually occurring on the shell side boiler in steam engine locomotive are typically large. Our project made by help organizational help of supervisor internet for refresh matter. 3) OPERATIONAL METHODOLOGY OF “SHELL TO TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER”:  Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanges design most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries in other chemical process.phase heat exchanger. Two phase heat exchanger can be used to heat exchanger liquid to boil it into a gas (vapor) some times called a boiler or cooled a vapor to condense it into a liquid (called condenser). This type of heat exchanger consist of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tube inside it one fluids runs through the tubes and the other fluids flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.phase or single . California USA in 1995.The manufacturing sequences are similar like single wall vessel with a difference of extra care during rolling of clad plate having SS buffed surface inside. Additional reference: Book of thermal engineering & panchal C. Heat exchanger is suited in higher application in industries. B & embert analysis of Exxon crude-oil-slip–stream enclosing data proc of fouling mitigation of industrial heat exchanger equipment. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle and may be composed by a several types of tubes.      . Another option for such corrosive services is carrying out Stainless Steel overlay inside the Allo y steel shell after rolling to required diameter. On the other hand. Two type of heat exchanger in shell and tube heat exchanger one phase (liquid or gas) on each side can be called one . thermal power station and oil and gas refineries. plain longitudinally finned etc. It’s used in large chemical processes. In the large power plants with steam – driven turbines. this much cheaper than Clad Vessels. This is more time consuming method as it requires generation of a complete layer of SS inside shell. San Luis Obispo. Overlayed vessels are now-a-days preferred much over clad vessel by Modern Process Licensors like IFP. shell – and – tube surface condenser are used to condense the exhaust steam exiting the turbine into condensate water which is recycle back to me turned into steam in the steam generator. usually cylindrically shell and tube heat exchanger.

Plate marking operation done and edge breaking and pre-punching operation done. Now is welding is carried out & tube insertion log attach sliding saddle has been done by welding and then job is going to in blasting and then job is go to painting and then job is ready.  A drum used to transform or exchange heat is known as heat exchanger. planning and organization ISO standerd and ASME code welding to other documentary work has been done in production in Akshar engineering works. Then as per drawing nozzle set up tube sheet marking (in a plant and drilling as per drawing.        Methodology for heat exchanger is as below Plate identification & material identification. Then its set up is done with shell (the groove of tube sheet and shell is made earlier). Groove is made on plat as per drawing then the plate is to be rolled on rolling machine as per requirement. Then one & different shell made it & jointed through smaw and saw welding and creating the c seam welding. material selection. 3) THE EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION FROM THE STUDY: Our project guide Haresh sir guided how to make a heat exchanger. He gives the information about fabrication sequences. In thermal power plants the primary purpose of airs to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water ( referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.   Other information we are collecting on internet and other reference book as a thermal engineering material logy. . Use organization help of supervisor or internet references. Shell & tube heat exchanger widely used in industry both for cooling & heating large scale industrial processes. So we would include whole fabrication sequences in the Akshar engineering works. Then plate rolled and welds tacking then welding done on roll plate this is called shell.


MTR SA 210 GR A1 16 QTY. Baroda. SA 516 GR 70 MTR 2 QTY. 7) PLANNER:AS PLANNED BY SUPARVISOR AND COORDINATORS & GUIDE HELP 8) PROBLEMS ENVISAGED IN CARRYING OUT THE PROJECT. TUBE OD 31. TUBE OD 31. LUG PLATE 80 * 90 * 10THK. MTR SA 106 GR B 1 QTY.2 QTY.35 THK * 496. SHELL 219 OD * 7 THK * 470 L.8 * 6.8 * 6. SA 516 gr 70. SA 516 gr 70 meter 2 QTY. TUBE SHEET 230 OD * 10 THK.35 THK * 35. PLATE 190 * 100 * 10 SA 515 GR 70 2 QTY. MTR SA 210 GR A1 2 QTY. FISICAS LAB 6) LABS/EQUIPMENT’S:          Computers centre.Series 1 5 10 15 20 5) PLACES/LABS/EQUIPMENT’S & TOOLS REQUIRED & PLANNING OF ARRANGEMENTS: Place:1) Akshar engineering works savli.35 THK * 60 L. TUBE OD 31. PLATE 190 * 130 * 10 SA 515 GR 70 2 QTY. IF ANY NIL . PLATE 80 OD *10 THK. 2) WORKSHOPE.8 * 6. library. MTR SA 210 GR A1 2 QTY.

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