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Further Biblical Hebrew

Gorgias Handbooks

11

The Gorgias Handbooks series provides students and scholars with
necessary tools.

Further Biblical Hebrew

Explanations and Exercises

Fiona Blumfield

9

34
2009

Gorgias Press LLC, 180 Centennial Ave., Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
www.gorgiaspress.com
Copyright © 2009 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright
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retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the
prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.
2009

‫ܚ‬

9

ISBN 978-1-59333-948-7

ISSN 1935-6838

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication
Data
Blumfield, Fiona Eve.
Further biblical Hebrew : explanations and
exercises / Fiona Blumfield. -- 1st Gorgias
Press ed.
p. cm. -- (Gorgias handbooks ; v. 11)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Hebrew language--Textbooks for foreign
speakers--English. 2. Hebrew
language--Grammar--Textbooks. 3. Hebrew
language--Grammar--Problems, exercises, etc. 4.
Bible O.T.--Language, style. I. Title.
PJ4567.3.B58 2009
492.4'82421--dc22
2009031615
Printed in the United States of America

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents.....................................................................................................v
Foreword .................................................................................................................ix
Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................xi
Abbreviations ........................................................................................................xiii
Part One: The Verb in Biblical Hebrew ............................................................15
Niphal.............................................................................................................15
Spot the Niphal.............................................................................................15
The relation between verbs lamed-’aleph and verbs lamed-hey ...........33
The relation between verbs ‫ ע"ו‬and ‫ ע"ע‬................................................41
Uses of Niphal ..............................................................................................43
Views of medieval scholars on use of Niphal..........................................52
Piel ..................................................................................................................68
Spot the Piel ..................................................................................................68
Uses of Piel....................................................................................................77
Views of medieval scholars on use of Piel ...............................................85
Polel, Polal, Hithpolel ..................................................................................92
Hiphil............................................................................................................101
Try to recognise Hiphil verbs...................................................................101
Uses of Hiphil .............................................................................................109
a): Hiphil stems which express the obtaining or receiving of a
concrete or abstract quality. ................................................................111
b): Stems which express in Hiphil the entering into a certain
condition and being in that condition...............................................112
c): Stems which express action in some particular direction. .............113
Views of medieval scholars on use of Hiphil.........................................115
Hithpael........................................................................................................126
Spot the Hithpael........................................................................................126
Uses of Hithpael .........................................................................................131
Exercise: identify the Hithpael verbs in the following biblical
verses; discuss their form and use. (see explanatory notes at the
end). ........................................................................................................135
Views of medieval scholars on use of Hithpael.....................................138
the theory of the qal passive .....................................................................148
I: Supposed perfects of Pual...................................................................149
II: Apparent Hophal imperfects..............................................................152
III:Apparent Pual participle forms without preformative mem. ........154
v

vi

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

IV: Views of medieval scholars on the Qal Passive...............................155
Glossary of rabbinic Hebrew grammatical terminology ......................157
Brief biographical sketches of medieval scholars..................................158
Part Two: The Infinitives in Biblical Hebrew................................................163
Infinitive Absolute......................................................................................163
Infinitive Construct....................................................................................188
Exercise: identify the Infinitive Construct forms in the following
biblical verses; discuss their form and use........................................189
View of Medieval Scholars on the Form and Use of Infinitive
Absolute and Infinitive Construct .....................................................206
Part Three: Syntax ...............................................................................................221
final or purpose clauses .............................................................................221
The biblical origins of rabbinic Hebrew words for expressing
purpose...................................................................................................231
Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully
pointed biblical Hebrew. .....................................................................235
Antithesis in Biblical Hebrew ...................................................................237
Study the following biblical verses and analyse the various methods
used to express antithesis and/or contrast; explanatory notes
are provided with each verse. .............................................................237
Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully
pointed biblical Hebrew. .....................................................................246
causal and explicative clauses....................................................................248
Exercise: study the following biblical verses and discuss/analyse
the various methods of formulating causal and explicative
clauses in biblical Hebrew. See explanatory notes at the end of
the exercise. ...........................................................................................248
Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully
pointed biblical Hebrew. .....................................................................257
Questions and answers in biblical hebrew..............................................259
Exercise: spot the ‘hey interrogative’ in the following biblical verses
and deduce the rules for the pointing of the ‘hey interrogative’;
explanatory notes are found at the end.............................................259
Study the following biblical verses and discuss the formation of
interrogative sentences in biblical Hebrew.......................................264
Study the following biblical verses and consider how answers to
questions are formulated in biblical Hebrew. ..................................268
Exercise: translate the following English interrogative sentences
into fully pointed biblical Hebrew; suggested translations will be
found at the end....................................................................................273

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii

Part Four: Use of Tenses in Biblical Hebrew .................................................275
Use Of Perfect/Qatal ................................................................................276
Exercise: in the following biblical verses, discuss/analyse uses of
the Perfect/Qatal..................................................................................276
Use of Imperfect/Yiqtol ...........................................................................284
Exercise: in the following biblical verses discuss/analyse use of
Imperfect/Yiqtol ..................................................................................284
Views of medieval scholars on use of perfect and imperfect..............296
the use of participles in biblical hebrew..................................................310
Exercise: identify the participle forms in the following biblical
verses and discuss their use and function.; explanatory notes are
added. .....................................................................................................310
The form and use of the jussive in biblical hebrew ..............................314
Exercise: identify the Jussive in the following biblical verses and
analyse/discuss its function; explanatory notes are added.............314
Part Five: Poetic Hebrew/Elevated Style........................................................319
Introductory remarks .................................................................................319
A summary outline of the grammatical features of ‘elevated style’. ...320
Energic Nun and Unassimilated Engergic Nun (See GK 58 i, k, l;
WHG pp 130-131) ...............................................................................322
Exercise: in the following biblical verses, identify the verbal
suffixes with Energic Nun, both contracted and uncontracted.;
explanatory notes are found at the end.............................................323
Rare forms of pronominal suffixes of the verb and noun...................325
Exercise; in the following biblical verses, identify the rare forms
‫ ֵמוֹ‬,‫ ָמוֹ‬,‫ מוֹ‬of the pronominal suffixes of the verb (with the
perf. imperf. and imperat.); explanatory notes are added. .............326
Exercise: in the following biblical verses, identify the rare forms
‫ ֵמוֹ‬,‫ ָמוֹ‬,‫ מוֹ‬of the pronominal suffixes with the noun..................329
Explanatory notes are added. ...................................................................329
Ḥireq compaginis........................................................................................331
Exercise: in the following biblical verses, spot the Ḥireq
Compaginis in nouns, adjectives and participles. note also the
instances where a preposition is inserted between the cstr. state
and its genitive; explanatory notes are added...................................332
Paragogic nun..............................................................................................336
Exercise: study the occurrence of Paragogic Nun in the following
biblical verses, noting its occurrence with and without the
pause, in both prose and poetic texts; explanatory notes are
added. .....................................................................................................336
A grammatical overview of the song of the sea ....................................339

.............................................................................352 Exodus 15:16........................................353 Exodus 15:17.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................345 Exodus 15:6............................................................................................342 Exodus 15:4.........................361   .................................................................................................................................................................................349 Exodus 15:13..............349 Exodus 15:11...........................................................................350 Exodus 15:14.............346 Exodus 15:7............................................................................................................................................................................339 Exodus 15:1..........................347 Exodus 15:8........................................................................................348 Exodus 15:9...........................................................................viii FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW (exodus 15:1-18) ..............................................................................357 Index...........................................................................................................................348 Exodus 15:10.....................................................................................349 Exodus 15:12..............................................................................................344 Exodus 15:5......................................................................................339 Exodus 15:2........................................................................................354 Bibliography .......................................................................................351 Exodus 15:15.................................................................................................................

Jouon/Muraoka etc. This book aims to help students make the transition from the basic grammar books to the comprehensive reference grammar books (Gesenius-Kautzsch. Constant reference is made in this book not only to recent works of Grammar. ix . with the aim of encouraging students to consult the reference grammar books and lexicons for themselves. Pratico/Van Pelt. Accordingly. but full translations and explanations are provided. but the “answers/explanations” are always presented. Extensive “exercise” sections are presented based on biblical verses. and the grammatical explanations are fully referenced to the modern grammar books. this book features numerous examples of actual Biblical verses. or at the end of the section. either together with the exercise. Weingreen etc. Kelley. but also to the grammatical comments of the medieval Jewish exegetes. see Bibliography) and to the Biblical Hebrew lexicons (BDB etc) and thereby facilitate a more advanced analysis of Biblical texts. there are many issues of Biblical interpretation for which a deeper understanding of Biblical Hebrew grammar is required than is possible to gain from the study of only a basic grammar book.g. this enables students to use the book for self-study.FOREWORD This book arose from the requirement to deliver lectures in Biblical Hebrew Grammar to second and third year College students who had already completed a first year course in Biblical Hebrew Grammar using one of the basic textbooks which are available (e. see Bibliography). The comments of the medieval exegetes are presented in the original Rabbinic Hebrew. for the grammatical insights of these medieval scholars and the modern grammarians often differ from each other only in terminology rather than in substance. with no artificial Biblical Hebrew.

often at the expense of more idiomatic English.x FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW It is to be noted that this book is not offered in any manner as a comprehensive grammar book. ed. Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler. 2000. issues of syntax and features of ‘elevated style’. such as: uses of verbal patterns and infinitive forms. incorporating a small study of the “Song of the Sea” (Exodus 15) from a grammatical perspective. Since a central feature of this book are the numerous citations of biblical verses to illustrate points of grammar. Horev Publishing House. so far as is possible. but rather as a tool to facilitate a more advanced analysis of Biblical Hebrew and to include material not completely covered in the basic grammar books. The published Bible translations consulted were: The Jerusalem Bible. The Jewish Study Bible. but no one published translation has been exclusively relied upn. Koren Publishers Jerusalem Ltd. Fiona Blumfield July 2008 . The Keter Crown Bible. English translations to the verses have in all cases been provided. Jewish Publication Society Tanakh translation. The English text revised and edited by Harold Fisch. Accordingly. 2004. with a view to enabling the student better to grasp the points of grammar under discussion. Sole Distributors. OUP. 2004. the priority has been the plain and literal meaning of the verse. Feldheim Publishers. Introduction by Raphael Jospe. Constant reference has been made to the Bible translations cited below.

Azriel Yoffey. and my daughters Penina and Shoshana. which ultimately became the basis for this book. who taught me Midrash and Medieval Jewish Exegesis. whose skills and devotion to the task were phenomenal. Katie Stott Ph. to him belongs much of the credit for all my achievements. without whose expertise and help so willingly given. Cambridge University. Chris Dillon. University College London. Dr Ada Rapoport-Albert. Head of Dept. and who first asked me to deliver lectures in Advanced Biblical Hebrew Grammar. This book is dedicated to the fond memory of my very dear father. Gorgias Press. emeritus Principal of Jews’ College. Manny.D. My long-enduring husband. the publication of this book would not have been possible. May he rest in peace. Faculty Information Support Officer for Arts and Humanities and Laws. Production & Acquisitions Editor. who happily tolerated the many hours I devoted to this project. who supervised my PhD thesis and who was always willing to give his learned advice on matters relating to this book. of Hebrew and Jewish Studies. xi . son of Rabbi Israel Jacob Yoffey of Manchester. Professor Geoffrey Khan. England. Faculty of Oriental Studies.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe considerable gratitude to the following individuals: Rabbi Dr Irving Jacobs. who first taught me the Hebrew alphabet and who so greatly encouraged me in Hebrew Studies over the years. University College London. London University. who gave me the valued opportunity to continue lecturing in Advanced Biblical Hebrew Grammar at UCL after the degree programmes at Jews’ College/London School of Jewish Studies were discontinued.

.

Chron Deut def.ABBREVIATIONS adj. Lev lit.pl.sg. art. imperf. cstr. adjective adverb apocopated (shortened) Before Christian Era common plural common singular construct (state) Chronicles Deuteronomy definite article Exodus feminine feminine plural feminine singular Genesis hapaxlegomenon (a form attested only once in the Hebrew Bible) hey interrogative imperative imperfect infinitive absolute infinitive construct Leviticus literally masculine masculine plural xiii . abs. inf. Gen hapax hey int. BCE c. apoc.sg. inf. f. masc.pl. adv. cstr. m.pl. f. Exod fem. c. imperat.

m. perhaps c. 1st cent. n. vav conjunctive vav consec. FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW masculine singular noun feminine noun masculine Numbers participle perfect Peshitta (Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible. preposition Ps Psalms Sam Samuel LXX Septuagint sf. n. perf. vav consecutive Vulg Vulgate (Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible made by the Church father Jerome c. BCE) pl.f. Numb part. Pesh.) .xiv m. 400 ce.sg. plural prep. Suffix vav conj.

with no witness. a sheep or any beast to guard. The student will find that the Niphal verbs occur in a logical order. The subsequent two sections. progressing from the regular through the various types of irregular formations. 1 Exodus 22:9 . The student may consult the verb tables in any reliable Biblical Hebrew grammar book. ‫ ֶשׂה‬-‫שׁוֹר אוֹ‬-‫ ֵר ֵעהוּ ֲחמוֹר אוֹ‬-‫יִ ֵתּן ִאישׁ ֶאל‬-‫ִכּי‬ ‫ ֵאין ר ֶֹאה‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW (Morphology and Uses of Biblical Hebrew Verbal Patterns) NIPHAL Spot the Niphal Study the following biblical verses. 15 . “the relation of verbs ‫ ל"א‬to verbs ‫”ל"ה‬ and “the relation of verbs ‫ ע"ע‬to verbs ‫ ”ע"ו‬are of relevance to the analysis of a few verbs in this section. an ox. and it dies or is injured or taken captive.‫נִ ְשׁ ָבּה‬-‫נִ ְשׁ ַבּר אוֹ‬-‫וּמת אוֹ‬ ֵ If a man gives his fellow a donkey.‫ ִל ְשׁמֹר‬-‫ ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬-‫וְ ָכל‬. Explanatory notes are found at the end of the section. PARSE and TRANSLATE all the NIPHAL verbs.

king of Israel. 3 Genesis 42:19 ‫ם־כּ ִנ֣ים ַא ֶ֔תּם ֲא ִח ֶיכ֣ם ֶא ָ֔חד יֵ ָא ֵ ֖סר ְבּ ֵב֣ית ִמ ְשׁ ַמ ְר ֶכ֑ם וְ ַא ֶתּ ֙ם ְל ֣כוּ‬ ֵ ‫ִא‬ ‫יכם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫ָה ִ֔ביאוּ ֶ ֖שׁ ֶבר ַר ֲע ֥בוֹן ָבּ ֵתּ‬ If you are honest. that is the ninth year of Hosea. ‘we have been saved’. and say. upon which My Name is called. 4 II Kings 18:10 ‫ת־תּ ַשׁע‬ ֵ֗ ַ‫ת־שׁשׁ ְל ִחזְ ִק ָיּ֑ה ִ ֣היא ְשׁנ‬ ֖ ֵ ַ‫ַוֽ יִּ ְל ְכּ ֻ ֗ד ָה ִמ ְק ֵצ ֙ה ָשׁ ֹ֣לשׁ ָשׁ ִ֔נים ִבּ ְשׁנ‬ ֵ֙ ‫ְל‬ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ֶ ֣מ ֶלְך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל נִ ְל ְכּ ָ ֖דה שׁ ְֹמ ֽרוֹן׃‬ They captured it after three years. 5 Jeremiah 7:10 ‫א־שׁ ִ ֣מי ָע ֔ ָליו וַ ֲא ַמ ְר ֶ ֖תּם‬ ְ ‫שׁר נִ ְק ָר‬ ֣ ֶ ‫אתם וַ ֲע ַמ ְד ֶ ֣תּם ְל ָפ ֗ ַני ַבּ ַ ֤בּיִ ת ַהזֶּ ֙ה ֲא‬ ֶ֞ ‫וּב‬ ָ ‫תּוֹע ֖בוֹת ָה ֵ ֽא ֶלּה׃‬ ֵ ‫ל־ה‬ ַ ‫נִ ַ ֑צּ ְלנוּ ְל ַ ֣מ ַען ֲע ֔שׂוֹת ֵ ֥את ָכּ‬ And will you come and stand before Me in this Temple. for you are strangers and sojourners with me.16 2 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Leviticus 25:23 ‫תוֹשׁ ִ ֛בים ַא ֶ ֖תּם‬ ָ ְ‫י־לי ָה ָ ֑א ֶרץ ִ ֽכּי־גֵ ִ ֧רים ו‬ ֖ ִ ‫וְ ָה ָ֗א ֶרץ ֤ל ֹא ִת ָמּ ֵכ ֙ר ִל ְצ ִמ ֻ֔תת ִכּ‬ ‫ִע ָמּ ִ ֽדי׃‬ The land shall not be sold in perpetuity. in order that you may do all these abominations? . let one of your brothers be imprisoned in the house of your confinement and you go and bring grain for the hunger of your households. Samaria was captured. in the sixth year of Hezekiah. for the land is mine.

’ 7 Isaiah 40:4 ‫ישׁוֹר וְ ָה ְר ָכ ִ ֖סים‬ ֔ ‫ל־הר וְ גִ ְב ָ ֖עה יִ ְשׁ ָ ֑פּלוּ וְ ָה ָי֤ה ֶ ֽה ָעק ֹ֙ב ְל ִמ‬ ֥ ַ ‫יא יִ נָּ ֵ֔שׂא וְ ָכ‬ ֙ ֶ‫ָכּל־גּ‬ ‫ְל ִב ְק ָ ֽעה׃‬ Every valley will be raised and every mountain and hill will be made low. 8 Genesis 12:7 ‫ת־ה ָ ֣א ֶרץ ַה ֑זּ ֹאת וַ ִיּ ֶ֤בן ָשׁ ֙ם‬ ָ ‫אמר ְַלז ְר ֲע ָ֔ך ֶא ֵ ֖תּן ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־א ְב ָ ֔רם וַ ֕יּ‬ ַ ‫וַ יֵּ ָ ֤רא יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶא‬ ֖ ָ ‫ִמזְ ֵ֔בּ ַח׀ ַל‬ ‫יהוה ַהנִּ ְר ֶ ֥אה ֵא ָ ֽליו׃‬ The Lord appeared to Abraham and said. ‘I will give this land to your seed’. from man to beast to creeping things and the birds of the air. and he built there an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him.7 ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ ֣יּ‬7 ‫ל־ל ֽבּוֹ׃‬ ִ ‫ת־ה ָא ָ ֖דם ָבּ ָ ֑א ֶרץ וַ יִּ ְת ַע ֵצּ֖ב ֶא‬ ָ ֽ ‫י־ע ָ ֥שׂה ֶא‬ ָ ‫הוה ִ ֽכּ‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וַ יִּ ָנּ ֶ֣חם י‬ ָ֗ ְ‫י‬ ‫אתי ֵמ ַעל֙ ְפּ ֵנ֣י ֽ ָה ֲא ָד ָ֔מה ֽ ֵמ ָא ָד ֙ם‬ ֙ ִ ‫ר־בּ ָ ֙ר‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ָא ָ ֤דם ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ָ ‫הוה ֶא ְמ ֶ֨חה ֶא‬ ֣ ‫ד־ר ֶמשׂ וְ ַע‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ד־בּ ֵה ָ֔מה ַע‬ ְ ‫ַע‬ ‫יתם׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫ד־עוֹף ַה ָשּׁ ָ ֑מיִ ם ִ ֥כּי נִ ַ ֖ח ְמ ִתּי ִ ֥כּי ֲע ִשׂ‬ The Lord regretted that He had made man on the earth and He was grieved in His heart. and the Lord said. ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from upon the face of the earth. 9 Jeremiah 32:15 ‫וּכ ָר ִ ֖מים ָבּ ָ ֥א ֶרץ ַהזּֽ ֹאת׃‬ ְ ‫֣עוֹד יִ ָקּנ֥ וּ ָב ִ ֛תּים וְ ָשׂ ֥דוֹת‬ Houses and fields and vineyards will be bought again in this land.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 6 17 Genesis 6:6. for I regret that I made them. the uneven shall be a level and the rough places a plain. .

‘I happened to be on Mount Gilboa and Saul was leaning on his spear.‫וְ ֨ ַעל ִה ָשּׁנ֧ וֹת‬ ‫ֹלהים ַל ֲעשׂ ֹֽתוֹ׃‬ ֖ ִ ‫וּמ ַמ ֵ ֥הר ָה ֱא‬ ְ ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ֔ ‫ָה ֱא‬ As for the repetition of the dream to Pharoah twice.’ 13 Psalm 109:14 ‫ל־תּ ָ ֽמּח׃‬ ִ ‫הו֑ה וְ ַח ַ ֥טּאת ִ֝א ֗מּוֹ ַא‬ ָ ְ‫יִ זָּ ֵכ֤ר ֲע ֹ֣ון ֲ֭אב ָֹתיו ֶאל־י‬ May the iniquity of his fathers be remembered by the Lord and let not the sin of his mother be blotted out. 11 II Samuel 1:6 ‫יתי ְבּ ַ ֣הר ַהגִּ ְל ֔בֹּ ַע וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ָשׁ ֖אוּל‬ ֙ ִ ‫אמר ַה ַנּ ַ֣ער ַה ַמּ ִגּ֣יד ֗לוֹ נִ ְק ֤ר ֹא נִ ְק ֵ ֙ר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֜יּ‬ ֑ ִ‫ל־חנ‬ ֲ ‫נִ ְשׁ ָ ֣ען ַע‬ ‫וּב ֲע ֵ ֥לי ַה ָפּ ָר ִ ֖שׁים ִה ְד ִבּ ֻ ֽ קהוּ׃‬ ַ ‫יתוֹ וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ָה ֶ ֛ר ֶכב‬ The young man who was reporting to him said. and the chariots and the horsemen were pursuing him. ‘I have arranged the seven altars and I have offered up a bull and a ram on each altar.18 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 10 Genesis 41:32 ‫ל־פּ ְר ֖עֹה ַפּ ֲע ָ ֑מיִ ם ִ ֽכּי־נָ ֤כוֹן ַה ָדּ ָב ֙ר ֵמ ִ ֣עם‬ ַ ‫ ַה ֲח ֛לוֹם ֶא‬. .’ 12 Numbers 23:4 ‫ת־שׁ ְב ַ ֤עת ַ ֽה ִמּזְ ְבּח ֹ֙ת ָע ַ ֔ר ְכ ִתּי‬ ִ ‫אמר ֵא ֗ ָליו ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫־בּ ְל ָ ֑עם וַ ֣יּ‬ ִ ‫ֹלהים ֶאל‬ ֖ ִ ‫וַ יִּ ָ ֥קּר ֱא‬ ‫וָ ַ ֛א ַעל ָ ֥פּר וָ ַ ֖איִ ל ַבּ ִמּזְ ֵ ֽבּ ַח׃‬ G-d met Balaam and He said to him. it is because the thing is determined by G-d and G-d is hurrying to perform it.

17 I Kings 19:10 ‫ֽו ִָאוָּ ֵ ֤תר ֲאנִ ֙י ְל ַב ִ ֔דּי וַ יְ ַב ְק ֥שׁוּ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ְל ַק ְח ָ ֽתּהּ׃‬ I alone have remained and they seek to take my life.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 14 19 Jeremiah 6:8 ‫ימְך ְשׁ ָמ ָ֔מה ֶ ֖א ֶרץ ֥לוֹא‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ן־א ִשׂ‬ ֲ ‫ן־תּ ַ ֥ קע נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ִמ ֵ ֑מְּך ֶפּ‬ ֵ ‫וּשׁ ֔ ַל ִם ֶפּ‬ ָ ‫ִהוָּ ְס ִ ֙רי יְ ֣ר‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה׃‬ ָֽ Be chastened. 18 Deuteronomy 7:25 ‫יה ֙ם‬ ֶ ‫א־ת ְחמֹד֩ ֶ֨כּ ֶסף וְ זָ ָ ֤הב ֲע ֵל‬ ַ ֹ ‫יהם ִתּ ְשׂ ְר ֣פוּן ָבּ ֵ ֑אשׁ ֽל‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ֹלה‬ ֵ ‫ ֱא‬. 15 I Kings 12:6 ‫מה‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ת־פּנֵ ֙י ְשֹׁל‬ ְ ‫ר־הי֣ וּ ע ְֹמ ִ ֗דים ֶא‬ ָ ‫ים ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ֙ ִ‫ת־הזְּ ֵקנ‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֞ ַעץ ַה ֶ ֣מּ ֶלְך ְר ַח ְב ֗ ָעם ֶא‬ ‫ם־ה ֶזּ֖ה‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ָע‬ ֽ ָ ‫וֹע ִ֔צים ְל ָה ִ ֥שׁיב ֶא‬ ָ ֽ‫מר ֵ ֚איְך ַא ֶ ֣תּם נ‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ָא ִ֔ביו ִ ֽבּ ְהי ֹ֥תוֹ ַ ֖חי ֵלא‬ ‫ָדּ ָ ֽבר׃‬ And King Rehoboam took counsel with the Elders who had stood before his father while he was alive. a land not inhabited. O Jerusalem. saying. so that You may be feared. lest I make you a desolation. ‘how do you advise that I answer this people?’ 16 Psalm 130:4 ‫יחה ְ֝ל ַ֗מ ַען ִתּוָּ ֵ ֽרא׃‬ ֑ ָ ‫י־ע ְמָּך֥ ַה ְסּ ִל‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ For with You is forgiveness. lest my soul be alienated from you.‫ילי‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ְפּ ִס‬ ‫ֹלהיָך ֽהוּא׃‬ ֖ ֶ ‫הו֥ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫תוֹע ַ ֛בת י‬ ֲ ‫וְ ָל ַק ְח ָ ֣תּ ֔ ָלְך ֶ ֚פּן ִתּוָּ ֵ ֣ קשׁ ֔בּוֹ ִ ֧כּי‬ .

all the inhabitants of Canaan melted away. lest you be ensnared by it.333 19 I Kings 2:46 ‫מת וְ ַה ַמּ ְמ ָל ָ ֥כה‬ ֹ ֑ ָ‫ע־בּוֹ וַ יּ‬ ֖ ַ‫הוּ ֶבּן־יְ ֣הוֹיָ ָ ֔דע וַ יֵּ ֵ֕צא וַ יִּ ְפגּ‬ ֙ ָ֙‫ת־בּנָ י‬ ְ ‫וַ יְ ַצ֣ו ַה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך ֶא‬ ‫מה׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ד־שֹׁל‬ ְ ַ‫נָ ֖כוֹנָ ה ְבּי‬ And the king commanded Benaiah son of Jehoiada and he went out and struck him and he died. trembling seized them. O Israel. 20 I Kings 2:12 ‫אד׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ל־כּ ֵ ֖סּא ָדִּו֣ד ָא ִ ֑ביו וַ ִתּ ֥כֹּן ַמ ְל ֻכ ֖תוֹ ְמ‬ ִ ‫מה יָ ַ֕שׁב ַע‬ ֹ ֕ ‫וּשֹׁל‬ ְ And Solomon sat on the throne of David his father and his kingdom was firmly established.20 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW You shall burn the statues of their gods in fire. you shall not desire the silver or gold upon them and take it for yourself. for it is an abomination to the Lord your G-d. and the kingdom was established in the hand of Solomon. 22 Exodus 15:15 ‫מגוּ ֖כֹּל י ְֹשׁ ֵ ֥בי‬ ֹ ֕ ָ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ ָ ֑ר ַעד נ‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫מוֹאב י‬ ָ֔ ‫לּוּפ֣י ֱא ֔דוֹם ֵא ֵיל֣י‬ ֵ ‫ָ ֤אז נִ ְב ֲה ֙לוּ ַא‬ ‫ְכ ָנ ַֽען׃‬ Then the chiefs of Edom were terrified. 21 Amos 4:12 ‫ֹלהיָך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬ ֖ ֶ ‫את־א‬ ֱ ‫ִה ֥כּוֹן ִל ְק ַר‬ Prepare to meet your G-d. as for the leaders of Moab. .

24 Psalm 15:5 ‫יִמּוֹט‬ ֣ ‫ה־א ֶלּה ֖ל ֹא‬ ֑ ֵ ‫ַכּ ְס ֤פּוֹ לֹא־נָ ַ ֣תן ְבּנֶ ֶשׁ ְ֮ך וְ ֥שׁ ֹ ַחד ַעל־נָ ִ֗קי ֥ל ֹא ֫ ָל ָ ֥קח ֽע ֹ ֵשׂ‬ ‫עוֹלם׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ְל‬ He does not give his money on interest and he does not take a bribe against the innocent. 26 Joel 4:12 ‫וֹשׁ ָ ֑פט ִ ֣כּי ָ֗שׁם ֵא ֵ ֛שׁב ִל ְשׁ ֥ ֹפּט‬ ָ ‫ל־ע ֶמק יְ ֽה‬ ֖ ֵ ‫גּוֹים ֶא‬ ִ֔ ‫וֹרוּ וְ יַ ֲע ֣לוּ ַה‬ ֙ ‫יֵ ֙ע‬ ‫גּוֹי֖ם ִמ ָסּ ִ ֽביב׃‬ ִ ‫ל־ה‬ ַ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ֶא‬ Let the nations rouse themselves and go up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat. I roar from the groaning of my heart. he that does these things shall never be shaken. for there I will sit to judge all the nations from round about. 27 Genesis 17:26 ‫ְבּ ֙ ֶע ֶצ ֙ם ַהיּ֣ וֹם ַה ֶ֔זּה נִ ֖מּוֹל ַא ְב ָר ָ ֑הם וְ יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֵ ֖עאל ְבּנֽ וֹ׃‬ On this very day. my feet have not slipped. . Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised. 25 Psalm 38:9 ‫אד ָ֝שׁ ַ֗אגְ ִתּי ִ ֽמנַּ ֲה ַ ֥מת ִל ִ ֽבּי׃‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ד־מ‬ ְ ‫֣יתי ַע‬ ִ ‫וֹתי וְ נִ ְד ֵכּ‬ ִ ֣‫נְ פוּג‬ I am benumbed and crushed greatly.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 23 21 Psalm 17:5 ‫לוֹתיָך ַבּל־נָ ֥מוֹטוּ ְפ ָע ָ ֽמי׃‬ ֑ ֶ ְ‫מְך ֲ֭א ֻשׁ ַרי ְבּ ַמ ְעגּ‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ָתּ‬ My steps have held firmly to your tracks.

22 28 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Amos 9:9 ‫ת־בּ֣ית יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר‬ ֵ ‫ל־הגּוֹיִ ֖ם ֶא‬ ַ ‫וֹתי ְב ָ ֽכ‬ ִ ‫ֹכי ְמ ַצ ֶ ֔וּה וַ ֲהנִ ֥ע‬ ֙ ִ ‫י־ה ֵנּ֤ה ָ ֽאנ‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ַ ‫יִ ֙נּ‬ ‫וֹע ַבּ ְכּ ָב ָ ֔רה וְ ֽל ֹא־יִ ֥פּוֹל ְצ ֖רוֹר ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ For I am about to command and I will toss the House of Israel among all the nations. 31 Genesis 19:4 ‫ל־ה ַ֔בּיִ ת‬ ַ ‫ֶט ֶר ֮ם יִ ְשׁ ָכּב ֒וּ וְ ַאנְ ֵ֨שׁי ָה ֜ ִעיר ַאנְ ֵ ֤שׁי ְסד ֹ֙ם נָ ַ ֣סבּוּ ַע‬ They had not yet lain down when the men of the city. and no pebble falls to the ground. as grain is sifted in a sieve. and you shall feel a loathing at yourselves for all your evils which you have done. 30 Numbers 34:4 ‫וְ נָ ַ ֣סב ָל ֶכ ֩ם ַהגְּ ֨בוּל ִמ ֶ֜נּגֶ ב ְל ַמ ֲע ֵל֤ה ַע ְק ַר ִבּ ֙ים‬ And your border shall turn southward of the ascent of Akrabbim. the men of Sodom surrounded the house. 32 Psalm 97:5 ‫דּוֹנג ָ ֭נ ַמסּוּ‬ ַ֗ ‫ָה ִ ֗רים ַכּ‬ The mountains melted like wax. . 29 Ezekiel 20:43 ‫אתם ָ ֑בּם‬ ֖ ֶ ‫יכם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר נִ ְט ֵמ‬ ֶ֔ ‫וֹת‬ ֵ ‫ל־ע ִל ֣יל‬ ֲ ‫יכ ֙ם וְ ֵא ֙ת ָכּ‬ ֶ ‫ת־דּ ְר ֵכ‬ ַ ‫ם־שׁם ֶא‬ ָ֗ ‫וּזְ ַכ ְר ֶתּ‬ ֵ ‫ל־ר‬ ָ ‫יכם ְבּ ָכ‬ ֶ֔ ֵ‫וּנְ ֽקֹט ֶֹת ֙ם ִבּ ְפנ‬ ‫יתם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫עוֹת ֶיכ֖ם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֲע ִשׂ‬ And you will remember there all your ways and all your deeds with which you have been defiled.

34 Hosea 2:1 ‫ְ ֽו ָהיָ ה ִמ ְס ַ ֤פּר ְבּ ֵנֽי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל֙ ְכּ ֣חוֹל ַה ָ֔יּם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽל ֹא־יִ ַ ֖מּד וְ ֣ל ֹא יִ ָסּ ֵ ֑פר‬ And the number of the children of Israel shall be like the sand of the sea which may not be measured and may not be counted.. 35 Amos 5:24 . .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 33 23 II Samuel 6:22 ‫שׁר ָא ַ֔מ ְר ְתּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫הוֹת ֲא‬ ֙ ‫ם־ה ֲא ָמ‬ ֽ ָ ‫֥יתי ָשׁ ָ ֖פל ְבּ ֵע ָינ֑י וְ ִע‬ ִ ִ‫עוֹד ִמ ֔זּ ֹאת וְ ָהי‬ ֙ ‫וּנְ ַק ֹּ֤ל ִתי‬ ‫ִע ָ ֖מּם ִא ָכּ ֵ ֽב ָדה׃‬ And I will be yet more lightly esteemed than this. 36 Malachi 3:9 ‫ַבּ ְמּ ֵא ָר ֙ה ַא ֶ ֣תּם ֵנ ָֽא ִ ֔רים וְ א ִ ֹ֖תי ַא ֶ ֣תּם ק ְֹב ִ ֑עים ַהגּ֖ וֹי ֻכּ ֽלּוֹ׃‬ With the curse you are cursed and Me you are robbing. and with the maidservants of whom you spoke. 37 Psalm 18:27 ‫ם־ע ֵ ֗קּשׁ ִתּ ְת ַפּ ָ ֽתּל׃‬ ִ ֝ ‫ִעם־נָ ָ ֥בר ִתּ ְת ָבּ ָ ֑רר וְ ִע‬ With the pure You show Yourself pure and with the twisted You deal tortuously. and I will be lowly in my own eyes.‫יתן‬ ֽ ָ ‫וּצ ָד ָ ֖ קה ְכּ ַנ ַ֥חל ֵא‬ ְ ‫וְ יִ ַגּ֥ל ַכּ ַ ֖מּיִם ִמ ְשׁ ָ ֑פּט‬ But let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever-flowing torrent. with them I will be honoured. the whole nation.

I did not turn back. root ‫שׁבר‬ . . lit.24 38 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Leviticus 26:39 ‫ ַבּ ֲעו ֹ ֹ֥נת‬. ‫קּוּ ֽ ַבּ ֲעו ָֹ֔נם ְבּ ַא ְר ֖צֹת אֹיְ ֵב ֶיכ֑ם וְ ַ ֛אף‬ ֙ ‫יִמּ‬ ַ֙ ‫ וְ ַהנִּ ְשׁ ָא ִ ֣רים ָבּ ֶ֗כם‬. “he/it was broken”.sg. they changed like a deceitful bow. they preach. 3 m. Explanatory notes for spot the Niphal 1 Exodus 22:9 ‫ נִ ְשׁ ַבּר‬Niphal perf. ‫יִמּקּוּ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ֲאב ָ ֹ֖תם ִא ָ ֥תּם‬ And those who are left among you will rot away in their iniquity in the lands of your enemies and even in the iniquities of their fathers with them they will rot away. reproaches do not depart. 39 Isaiah 50:5 ‫יתי ָא ֖חוֹר ֥ל ֹא נְ סוּגֽ ִֹתי׃‬ ִ ‫אזֶ ן וְ ָאנ ִ ֹ֖כי ֣ל ֹא ָמ ִ ֑ר‬ ֹ ֔ ‫ח־לי‬ ֣ ִ ‫ֲאד ָֹנ֤י יְ הוִ ֙ה ָפּ ַ ֽת‬ The Lord G-d has opened for me an ear and I did not rebel. 41 Micah 2:6 ‫יפוּן ֽל ֹא־יַ ִ ֣טּפוּ ָל ֵ֔א ֶלּה ֥ל ֹא יִ ַ ֖סּג ְכּ ִל ֽמּוֹת׃‬ ֑ ‫ל־תּ ִ ֖טּפוּ יַ ִטּ‬ ַ ‫ַא‬ ‘Do not preach’. they shall not preach to these. 40 Psalm 78:57 ‫בוֹתם ֶ֝נ ְה ְפּ ֗כוּ ְכּ  ֶ ֣ק ֶשׁת ְר ִמ ָיּֽה׃‬ ֑ ָ ‫ֽ יִּבגְּ דוּ ַכּ ֲא‬ ְ ‫וַ יִּ ֣סֹּגוּ ַו‬ They turned back and acted treacherously.

“we have been saved”. “he/it was taken captive”. “she/it was captured”.sg.sg. according to rules of verbs pe-guttural in Niphal. exterminate > ‫ ְצ ִמיתוּת‬n. = completion.sg. Note compensatory lengthening of ḥireq to tsere under prefix yod due to absence of dagesh in the ’aleph (first root letter). have the same ‫ נִ ַצּ ְלנוּ‬Niphal perf. ‫“ = ִל ְצ ִמיתוּת‬in perpetuity” Genesis 42:19 (Joseph to his brothers) ‫ יֵ ָא ֵסר‬Niphal imperf. 3 m. m. “it/she will be sold”. 3 f. 3 m. .sg. 3 f. and part. 2 ‫נִ ְשׁ ֶבּה‬ according to the Leviticus 25:23 (Jubilee Year) ‫ ִת ָמּ ֵכר‬Niphal imperf. 1 c. finality only in phrase.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 25 The participle would have qamets under the beth: ‫נִ ְשׁ ָבּר‬ ‫ נִ ְשׁ ָבּה‬Niphal perf. root ‫אסר‬. 3 ‫ ַל ְצּ ִמיתוּת‬. ‫ל"א‬ the Niphal perf. The participle would have segol under the beth: rules of verbs ‫ל"ה‬. “it has been called” Note that in verbs form. lit. Root ‫נצל‬. root ‫לכד‬. 5 Jeremiah 7:10 ‫ נִ ְק ָרא‬Niphal perf. root ‫מכר‬.sg.pl. “he will be bound/imprisoned”. root ‫שׁבה‬. 3 m. ‫ = ָצ ַמת‬put an end to.sg. 4 II Kings 18:10 ‫ נִ ְל ְכּ ָדה‬Niphal perf.f.

regretted. 3 m. “it will be lifted up”. 3 m.sg. + definite article. 1 c. steep. 1 c.sg.sg.” ‫נִ ַח ְמ ִתּי‬ Niphal perf. 3 m. .sg. “and he repented. Niphal perf. notice the ‘virtual doubling’ of the middle root letter in the Piel.26 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Note the assimilation of the nun (first root letter) into the tsadi (second root letter) according to the rules of verbs ‫פ"נ‬. 3 m. + vav consec. root ‫נשׂא‬. hilly.7 ‫וַ יִּ נָּ ֶחם‬ Niphal imperf. is ‫יֵ ָר ֶאה‬ Niphal participle m. 3 m. is ‫( נִ ַח ְמ ִתּי‬contracted from ‫)נִ נְ ַח ְמ ִתּי‬. ‫ ְר ָכ ִסים‬rough places.sg.sg. The Piel perf. is ‫( נִ ַחם‬contracted from ‫( )נִ נְ ַחם‬Amos 7:3 + 4 t) > pausal: ‫נִ ָחם‬ Niphal perf. “I repented.sg. 6 Genesis 6:6. since it is a guttural). + vav consec. ‫ָעקֹב‬ adj.” Be careful not to confuse Niphal perfect and Piel perfect of the root ‫נחם‬. 8 Genesis 12:7 ‫וַ יֵּ ָרא‬ Niphal apocopated imperf. is also ‫( נִ ַחם‬no contraction having taken place. 7 Isaiah 40:4 ‫יִ נָּ ֵשׂא‬ Niphal imperf.sg. ‫ראה‬. “and he appeared” root ‫ראה‬ ‫ַהנִּ ְר ֶאה‬ The long form of the Niphal imperf.

11 II Samuel 1:6 (The Amalekite to David on the death of Saul and Jonathan at Mount Gilboa). “being repeated”. “I happened to be.” root ‫כון‬.” root ‫קרה‬. ‫יִ ָקּנוּ‬ 10 Genesis 41:32 ‫ִה ָשּׁנוֹת‬ Niphal infinitive construct. determined. with waw consec. 1 c. ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫נִ ְק ֵר‬ Niphal perf.” root ‫קנה‬.g. jussive ‫יָ קֹם‬. ‫קרא‬.” root ‫זכר‬. “and he met. e. “it will be remembered.. 3 m. The tendency to retract the tone from the final syllable is even stronger after waw consec. see below. ‫נָ כוֹן‬ Niphal participle m. 12 Numbers 23:4 ‫וַ יִּ ָקּר‬ Niphal apocopated imperf.sg. ‫נִ ְקרֹא‬ Niphal infinitive absolute. root ‫שׁנה‬.” 13 Psalm 109:14 ‫יִ זָּ ֵכר‬ Niphal imperf. ‫קרה‬.—. See GK 49d: “When a shortening of the imperfect form is possible—it takes effect. ‫יָ קוּם‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 9 27 Jeremiah 32:15 Niphal imperf. See also GK 75 nn-rr.” e.sg. “established. 3 m.sg. in Hiphil ‫( וַ יַּ ְק ֵטל‬53n). . “they will be bought.sg.” On the relation between verbs ‫ ל"א‬and verbs ‫ל"ה‬. as a rule—after waw consec. 3 m. than in the jussive. The longer form would be ‫יִ ָקּ ֶרה‬.g. ‫ וַ יָּ ָקם‬and he arose.pl.

root ‫יעץ‬ 16 Psalm 130:4 ‫ִתּוָּ ֵרא‬ 17 Niphal imperf. apocop. ‫ ֵתּ ַקע‬. ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬ ָ Niphal participle f. root ‫ירא‬. I Kings 2:46 ‫נָ כוֹנָ ה‬ Niphal perf.” root ‫ישׁב‬.” root ‫יקשׁ‬. “and he took counsel.sg. alienated > Qal imperf. “it was established. “inhabited. + vav consec.sg. 3 f.sg. “and I have remained. 3 f. “let yourself be chastened. 2 m.sg. 3 f.sg.sg. “consult together.” root ‫יסר‬. 3 m.pl. “you will be ensnared. from ‫“ ִתּ ָמּ ֶחה‬it/she will be wiped out” root ‫מחה‬. 14 Jeremiah 6:8 ‫ִהוָּ ְס ִרי‬ Niphal imperative f.28 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ִתּ ָמּח‬ Niphal imperf.” root ‫יתר‬. . I Kings 19:10 ‫וָ ִאוָּ ֵתר‬ Niphal imperf. 18 Deuteronomy 7:25 ‫ִתּוָּ ֵקשׁ‬ 19 Niphal imperf.sg.” root ‫כון‬. 2 m. “you will be feared”.sg.” root ‫נוֹע ִצים‬ ָ Niphal part. m. ‫ = יקע‬be dislocated. (See Gen 32:26) 15 I Kings 12:6 ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ַעץ‬ ‫יעץ‬ Niphal imperf. exchange counsel”.sg. 1 c.

PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 20 I Kings 2:12 ‫וַ ִתּ ֥כֹּן‬ ‫כון‬. 1 c. 24 Psalm 15:5 ‫יִמּוֹט‬ 25 Niphal imperf. For use of imperf.sg.” root ‫מוג‬.sg.pl. 1 c. “he will (not) be shaken. “to express actions etc which continued throughout a longer or shorter period. ‫מגוּ‬ ֹ ֕ ָ‫נ‬ Niphal perf. . ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫י‬ “(trembling) has taken hold of them. 3 m. ‫מְך‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ָתּ‬ Note use of Infinitive Absolute instead of inflected form. see GK 58g and Part Five of this book. + sf. + vav consec.sg. “they melted away. 3 f. “(they) tottered. For rare forms of the pronominal suffixes of the verb. “prepare. slipped.” see GK 107b. Exodus 15:15 ‫נִ ְב ֲהלוּ‬ Niphal perf.sg. “I am crushed. 23 Psalm 17:5 ‫נָ מוֹטוּ‬ Niphal perf. “they were terrified.” root ‫מוט‬.” root ‫בהל‬.” root ‫דכה‬. “I am benumbed. 21 Niphal imperf.” root ‫כון‬.” root ‫פוג‬.” root Amos 4:12 ‫ִהכּוֹן‬ 22 29 Niphal imperative m. ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫נִ ְד ֵכּ‬ Niphal perf.sg. “and it was established.אחז‬Qal imperf.” root ‫ . 3 pl. in the sphere of pasttime.” root ‫מוט‬. Psalm 38:9 ‫וֹתי‬ ִ ֣‫נְ פוּג‬ Niphal perf. 3 pl. 3 m.

3 m. + vav consec.sg.pl. “and it will turn. instead of the long vowel under the preformative. they take a short vowel with Dagesh forte in the following consonant. “he was circumcised. sieved.” See Psalm 95:10 for Qal of this root: ‫“ ַא ְר ָ֘בּ ִ ֤עים ָשׁ ֨ ָנה ׀ ָ֘א ֤קוּט ְבּ ֗דוֹר‬for forty years I felt a loathing at the generation. as ‫יח‬ ַ ִ‫ ֵהנ‬to cause to rest. 3 m.” 30 Numbers 34:4 ‫ וְ נָ ַסב‬Niphal perf.” root ‫סבב‬. pebble Ezekiel 20:43 ‫אתם‬ ֶ ‫נִ ְט ֵמ‬ ‫טמא‬. 2 m.pl. “it is tossed about. by which. . but ‫יח‬ ַ ִ‫( ִהנּ‬imperfect ‫יח‬ ַ ִ‫—)יַ נּ‬to set down.” root ‫נוע‬. ‫נּוֹע‬ ַ ִ‫י‬ Note the Hiphil of the same root ‫נוע‬: ‫ְצרוֹר‬ 29 ‫עוֹתי‬ ִ ִ‫“ וַ ֲהנ‬I will toss about.30 26 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Joel 4:12 ‫יֵ עוֹרוּ‬ 27 Niphal imperf. + vav consec. 2 m. “let them rouse themselves.m.sg. “and you shall feel a loathing at yourselves.g.” root ‫מול‬. shake.” n. Genesis 17:26 Niphal perf. 3 m. 3 m.” root ‫“ = קוט‬feel a loathing. Niphal perf.” root ‫עור‬. this variety is frequently found even along with ֵ the ordinary form. e. “you have defiled yourselves. See GK 72ee: “In common with verbs ‫ ע"ע‬verbs ‫ ע"ו‬sometimes have in Niphal and Hiphil the quasi-Aramaic formation.)יָ ִסית‬sometimes with a difference of meaning.” root ‫וּנְ ֽקֹט ֶֹת ֙ם‬ Niphal perf.sg. imperfect ‫( יַ ִסּית‬also ‫ה ִסית‬. ‫—.” ‫נִ מּוֹל‬ 28 Amos 9:9 Niphal imperf. ‫ ִה ִסּית‬to incite.pl.

“it will be measured.” root ‫גלל‬. cohortative 1 c. “let it roll.” root ‫סבב‬ .” root ‫מסס‬. pausal.” (BDB p 450. permanent. . (compare Niphal participle of ‫)נְ ַס ִבּים > סבב‬. “cursed.sg.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 31 Genesis 19:4 ‫נָ ַסבּוּ‬ 32 Niphal perf. + vav conjunct. 35 Amos 5:24 ‫ וְ יִ גַּ ל‬Niphal imperf. 3 m.sg.sg. “I will be honoured. 1 c. ever-flowing. 3 pl. 3 m. “it will be counted.sg. 3 m. ‫ יִ ָסּ ֵפר‬Niphal imperf.sg. ‫)יתן‬.” ‫קלל‬. wax II Samuel 6:22 (David dancing before the Ark as it was brought into Jerusalem) ‫וּנְ ַק ֹּ֤ל ִתי‬ Niphal perf. = “perennial.” ‫מדד‬. + vav consec. “they melted. 3 pl. ‫נָ ַמסּוּ‬ ‫דּוֹנַ ג‬ 33 31 n.” ‫ספר‬.” root ‫ארר‬.pl. “they surrounded. Psalm 97:5 Niphal perf.” ‫כבד‬ 34 Hosea 2:1 ‫יִמּד‬ ַ Niphal imperf.m. ‫ ִא ָכּ ֵב ָדה‬Niphal imperf. ‫יתן‬ ָ ‫ ֵא‬adj. 36 Malachi 3:9 (rebuking the people for not bringing the tithes and heave offerings) ‫נֵ ָא ִרים‬ Niphal participle m. “and I will be lightly esteemed.

32 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 37 Psalm 18:27 ‫נָ ָבר‬ Niphal participle m. “I turned myself back.” root ‫סוג‬. (‫יִמּקּוּ‬ ָ pausal). “they changed.” ‫מקק‬. perverted.pl. deceit.” root ‫הפך‬. “they will rot. 38 Leviticus 26:39 ‫ַהנִּ ְשׁ ָא ִרים‬ ‫יִמּקּוּ‬ ַ Niphal part. 39 Isaiah 50:5 ‫נְ סוּגֽ ִֹתי‬ 40 Niphal perf. 3 m.” ‫שׁאר‬.” Hithpael: “show oneself pure. “and they turned back. 1 c.sg. treachery Micah 2:6 ‫ יִ ַסּג‬See below for discussion of this form in “The relation between verbs ‫ ע"ע‬and verbs ‫ע"ו‬. 3 m. Amos 9:13: ‫ים ָע ִ֔סיס‬ ֙ ‫וְ ִה ִ ֤טּיפוּ ֶ ֽה ָה ִר‬ .pl. ‫ ָפּ ַתל‬twist. + vav consec.” root ‫“ = ָבּ ַרר‬purify. “the pure.pl.g. ‫ְר ִמיָּ ה‬ n. 3 pl. Psalm 78:57 ‫וַ יִּ ֣סֹּגוּ‬ Niphal imperf.” ‫ ִע ֵקּשׁ‬adj. twisted. m.” ‫“ = נָ ַטף‬drop.” > Niphal: “purify oneself. “those remaining.f. Niphal imperf. select. e.sg. drip” > Hiphil: 1): “drip”.” root ‫סוג‬. 41 ‫נֶ ְה ְפּכוּ‬ Niphal perf.

‫ ֶא ְר ָפּ ֙א‬is Qal imperf.” The relation between verbs lamed-’aleph and verbs lamed-hey “The close relation existing between verbs ‫ ל"א‬and ‫ ל"ה‬is shown in Hebrew by the fact that the verbs of one class often borrow forms from the other. p 155). Chomsky. ‫ = ָר ָפא‬heal.g. Mikhlol. Examples: I: ‫ = ָר ָפה‬sink.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 33 “and the mountains shall drip sweet wine” 2): “preach” e.” (GK 75 nn). a) Hosea 14:5 ‫וּב ָ֔תם‬ ָ ‫ֶא ְר ָפּ ֙א ְמ ֣שׁ‬ “I will heal their backsliding.” . or borrow forms from one another.sg. ‫ָר ָפא‬ b) Jeremiah 3:22 ‫ֶא ְר ָ ֖פּה ְמשׁוּ ֽבֹ ֵת ֶיכ֑ם‬ “I will heal your backslidings. ed.” (Radak. relax.”. “The ‫ ל"א‬and ‫ ל"ה‬verbs are intimately related. and they frequently interchange. Study the following biblical verses and note the interchange of form and meaning between these two verbal roots. Amos 7:16: ‫ל־בּית יִ ְשׂ ָ ֽחק׃‬ ֥ ֵ ‫֤ל ֹא ִתנָּ ֵב ֙א ַעל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל וְ ֥ל ֹא ַת ִ ֖טּיף ַע‬ “Do not prophesy against Israel and do not preach against the House of Isaac. 1 c.

” ‫ ְר ָ ֥פא‬is Qal imperative m. heal its breaches. ‘peace. of the ‫ ל"ה‬root would be: ‫ ְר ֵפה‬. ‘O Lord. 3 m.34 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Note that ‫ ֶא ְר ָ ֖פּה‬is formed from the ‫ ל"ה‬root. d) Psalm 60:4 ‫י־מ ָטה׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫יה ִכ‬ ָ ‫ִה ְר ַ ֣ע ְשׁ ָתּה ֶ ֣א ֶרץ ְפּ ַצ ְמ ָ ֑תּהּ ְר ָ ֖פה ְשׁ ָב ֶ ֣ר‬ “You have caused the land to quake. and the meaning is according to the ‫ ל"א‬verb. please heal her’. peace’. f) Jeremiah 8:11 ‫מר ָשׁ ֣לוֹם ׀ ָשׁ ֑לוֹם וְ ֵ ֖אין ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬ ֹ ֖ ‫מּי ַעל־נְ ַק ֔ ָלּה ֵלא‬ ֙ ִ ‫ת־ע‬ ַ ‫ת־שׁ ֶבר ַבּ‬ ֤ ֶ ‫וַ יְ ַר ֞פּוּ ֶא‬ .ָ but has the meaning of the ‫ל"א‬ root. + vav consec.pl.from the ‫ ל"ה‬root.ָ Qal imperf. root: ‫ ָר ָפא‬. ‫ר ָפה‬.ָ but has kept the ‫ ל"א‬vowels. ‫ ָר ָפא‬. ‫ר ָפה‬.ָ would be: ‫ ֶא ְר ֶפּה‬. ‫“ = ָר ָפא‬heal”. for it totters.sg. c) Numbers 12:13 ‫מר ֵ֕אל ָנ֛א ְר ָ ֥פא ָנ֖א ָ ֽלהּ׃‬ ֹ ֑ ‫הו֖ה ֵלא‬ ָ ְ‫וַ יִּ ְצ ַע֣ק מ ֶֹ֔שׁה ֶאל־י‬ “Moses cried out to the Lord saying. ‫ר ָפא‬. The vowels of the Qal imperative m. You have split it open. . but there is no peace.” ‫ ְר ָ ֖פה‬is formed from the ‫ ל"ה‬root. ‫ר ָפה‬. and has kept the ‫ ל"א‬vowels. e) Jeremiah 6:14 ‫מר ָשׁ ֣לוֹם ׀ ָשׁ ֑לוֹם וְ ֵ ֖אין ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬ ֹ ֖ ‫מּי ַעל־נְ ַק ֔ ָלּה ֵלא‬ ֙ ִ ‫ת־שׁ ֶבר ַע‬ ֤ ֶ ‫ַוֽ יְ ַר ְפּ ֞אוּ ֶא‬ “They healed the breach of My people lightly saying.” ‫ ַוֽ יְ ַר ְפּ ֞אוּ‬is Piel imperf.sg.

but the form ‫ ְמ ַר ֡ ֵפּא‬in this verse entirely follows the analogy of the ‫ ל"א‬verbs. ‫ר ָפה‬. ‫ְמ ַר ֡ ֵפּא‬ (Piel part. ‘let this man be put to death now. (The Piel ‫ ְמ ַר ֡ ֵפּא‬would = “heal”). ַ ִ‫ = ִהנּ‬lay. but there is no peace.” ‫נוּח‬ ַ > Hiphil A: ‫יח‬ ַ ִ‫ = ֵהנ‬cause to rest. ‫ר ָפא‬.” ‫וַ יְ ַר ֞פּוּ‬ has the meaning of the ‫ ל"א‬root. m. peace’. weakening the hands of) the soldiers who remain in this city’”.ָ but in the context of this verse has the meaning of the Piel of the ‫ ל"ה‬root. enfeeble. but the form is entirely of a ‫ ל"ה‬character. leave.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 35 “They healed the breach of the daughter of My people lightly saying.ָ i. h) Ecclesiastes 10:4 ‫֖יח‬ ַ ‫ל־תּ ַנּ֑ח ִ ֣כּי ַמ ְר ֔ ֵפּא יַ ִנּ‬ ַ ‫קוֹמָך֖ ַא‬ ְ ‫מּוֹשׁל֙ ַתּ ֲע ֶל֣ה ָע ֔ ֶליָך ְמ‬ ֵ ‫וּח ַה‬ ַ ‫ם־ר‬ ֤ ‫ִא‬ ‫דוֹלים‬ ֽ ִ ְ‫ֲח ָט ִ ֥אים גּ‬ “If the spirit of the ruler rises up against you. do not leave your place. dishearten”.e. The form of the Piel participle of the ‫ ל"ה‬root would be ‫ ְמ ַר ֶפּה‬.) is formed from the ‫ ל"א‬root. let remain. for a healing (?) allays (?) great offences. “let drop. set down. Hiphil B: ‫יח‬ . because he is disheartening (lit. g) Jeremiah 38:4 ‫ל־כּן‬ ֵ֡ ‫י־ע‬ ַ ‫ה ִ ֽכּ‬ ֒ ֶ‫ת־ה ִ ֣אישׁ ַהזּ‬ ָ ‫וּמת נָ ֮א ֶא‬ ַ ֣‫ל־ה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך י‬ ַ ‫אמ ֨רוּ ַה ָשּׂ ִ ֜רים ֶא‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬ ְ ‫ֽה‬ ‫וּא־מ ַר ֡ ֵפּא ֶאת־יְ ֵדי֩ ַאנְ ֵ֨שׁי ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ֜מה ַ ֽהנִּ ְשׁ ָא ִ ֣רים ׀ ָבּ ִ ֣עיר ַה ֗זּ ֹאת‬ “And the officers said to the king.sg. ‘peace. with no ’aleph. weaken. let alone. “heal” (see e).

restrain. withhold (BDB p 476) Compare the following two biblical verses: a) Genesis 8:2 ‫ן־ה ָשּׁ ָ ֽמיִם׃‬ ַ ‫רוּ ַמ ְעיְ ֹ֣נת ְתּ ֔הוֹם ֽו ֲַא ֻר ֖בֹּת ַה ָשּׁ ָ ֑מיִ ם וַ יִּ ָכּ ֵ ֥לא ַה ֶגּ ֶ֖שׁם ִמ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ָ ֽסּ ְכ‬ .” as in Jeremiah 38:4 ְ (see above. ‫“ = ְמ ַר ֶפּה‬let drop. “leave her alone”. cure. Ibn Ezra suggests that ‫ מרפא‬should be taken as a Piel participle from the ‫ ל"ה‬root. Accordingly. where ‫ ְמ ַר ֡ ֵפּא‬has the meaning of ‫מ ַר ֶפּה‬.” However. g). weaken etc. as in ‫ ְמ ַר ֡ ֵפּא‬in Jeremiah 38:4.” Explanation of Ibn Ezra ‫ ַמ ְר ֵפּא‬appears to be a masculine noun = “healing. ‫רפה‬.36 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Ibn Ezra’s comment on Ecclesiastes 10:4 ‫ ָלהּ‬-‫פּוֹעל ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד ֶשׁ ִמּ ֶמּנּוּ ַה ְר ֵפּה‬ ַ ‫ויותר נָ כוֹן היות מרפא‬ (‫)מ"ב ד כ"ז‬ (‫והאל"ף במקום ה"א כאל"ף )ירמיהו לח ד‬ ‫וּא־מ ַר ֡ ֵפּא ֶאת־יְ ֵדי֩ ַאנְ ֵ֨שׁי ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ֜מה‬ ְ ‫ֽה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra’s comment It is more correct to understand (the noun) ‫ ַמ ְר ֔ ֵפּא‬as a Piel participle of the same root as ‫ ַה ְר ֵפּה‬in II Kings 4:27.e. “He is weakening the hands of the soldiers. at an end. i. this understanding makes little sense in the context of this verse. finished etc (BDB p 477) ‫ = ָכּלָ א‬shut up. The ’aleph in ‫ מרפא‬is in place of hey. II: ‫ = ָכּלָ ה‬be complete.

3 m. The ‫ ל"א‬Qal imperf. ‫ = ָק ָרה‬encounter. ‫כלה‬.sg. . befall.sg. ְ III: ‫( ָק ָרא‬II) = encounter. befall (BDB p 896) (not to be confused with ‫( ָק ָרא‬I) = call.” ‫וַ יִּ ָכּ ֵ ֥לא‬ Niphal imperf. root ‫ָכּ ָלא‬ b) Genesis 23:6 ‫ת־ק ְב ֛רוֹ ֽל ֹא־יִ ְכ ֶ ֥לה ִמ ְמּך‬ ִ ‫ִ ֣אישׁ ִמ ֶ֔מּנּוּ ֶא‬ “No man of us shall withhold/keep back from you his burial place. but it has the meaning of the ‫ ל"א‬root. 3 m. read). Compare the verbal forms from these roots in the following biblical verses: a) Exodus 3:18 ‫ים נִ ְק ָ ֣רה ָע ֔ ֵלינוּ‬ ֙ ִ‫ֹלהי ָ ֽה ִע ְב ִריּ‬ ֤ ֵ ‫הוה ֱא‬ ָ֞ ְ‫י‬ “The Lord G-d of the Hebrews has met with us. ‫ ָכּ ָלא‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 37 “And the springs of the deep and the sluices of the heavens were shut up and the rain was withheld from the heavens. 3 m.sg. of the ‫ ל"ה‬root. meet. root ‫ ָק ָרה‬. In this form.” ‫יִכ ֶ ֥לה‬ ְ has the form of the Qal imperf. proclaim. root ‫( ָק ָרא‬II). + vav consec. b) Exodus 5:3 ‫ֹלהי ָה ִע ְב ִ ֖רים נִ ְק ָ ֣רא ָע ֵל֑ינוּ‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ֱא‬ “The Lord of the Hebrews has met with us. 3 m.” ‫ נִ ְק ָ ֣רה‬is Niphal perf.” ‫ נִ ְק ָ ֣רא‬is Niphal perf. would be ‫יִכ ָלא‬.sg. the vowels of verbs ‫ ל"א‬and ‫ ל"ה‬do not differ.

‫ל" ה‬ a) I Samuel 6:10 ‫רוֹת ָע ֔לוֹת וַ יַּ ַא ְס ֖רוּם ָבּ ֲעגָ ָל֑ה‬ ֙ ‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֤שׂוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁ ֙ים ֵ֔כּן וַ יִּ ְק ֗חוּ ְשׁ ֵ ֤תּי ָפ‬ ‫יהם ָכּ ֥לוּ ַב ָ ֽבּיִת׃‬ ֖ ֶ ֵ‫ת־בּנ‬ ְ ‫וְ ֶא‬ “And the men did so and they took two nursing cows and tied them to the wagon. 3 m. and you will prophesy with them. root ‫ ָק ָרה‬. and you will be turned into another man. . 3 m.‫ וַ יִּ ָ ֥קּר‬is Niphal apocopated imperf. d) II Samuel 18:9 ‫וַ יִּ ָקּ ֵר ֙א ַא ְב ָשׁ ֔לוֹם ִל ְפ ֵנ֖י ַע ְב ֵ ֣די ָדִו֑ד‬ “And Absalom chanced to meet the servants of David.sg. and shut up their calves in the house.” b) I Samuel 10:6 ‫ית ִע ָ ֑מּם וְ נֶ ְה ַפּ ְכ ָ ֖תּ ְל ִ ֥אישׁ ַא ֵ ֽחר׃‬ ָ ‫הוה וְ ִה ְתנַ ִ ֖בּ‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וּח׀ י‬ ַ ‫וְ ָצ ְל ָ ֤חה ָע ֶ ֙ל ֙יָך ֣ר‬ “The spirit of the Lord will rush upon you.38 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW c) Numbers 23:4 ‫ל־בּ ְל ָ ֑עם‬ ִ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬ ֖ ִ ‫וַ יִּ ָ ֥קּר ֱא‬ “G-d encountered Balaam”. ‫ָק ָרא‬ (II) with same meaning as ‫ָק ָרה‬ Further examples and exercise In the following biblical verses. identify ‫ ל"א‬verbs which are of a character. + vav consec.” ‫ וַ יִּ ָקּ ֵר ֙א‬is Niphal imperf. Explanatory notes are found at the end of the section. + vav consec.sg.

at an end” whereas ‫“ = )ל"א( ָכּ ָלא‬shut up. saying that this Temple will be like Shiloh. a) I Samuel 6:10 ‫ ָכּלוּ‬Qal perf. ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ֑ ֵ ‫ ַה ֛זּ ֹאת ֶתּ ֱח ַ ֖רב ֵמ ֵ ֣אין‬. of ‫ ָכּ ָלא‬would be ‫) ָכּ ְלאוּ‬ . 3 pl.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW c) 39 Jeremiah 26:9 ‫ ָה ִ ֥עיר‬. withhold” (Qal perf. ‫ים‬ ֩ ‫ל־ה ָע֣ם ַהנִּ ְמ ְצ ִא‬ ָ ‫וּב ְמ ֣לוֹאת ַהיָּ ִ ֣מים ָה ֵ֗א ֶלּה ָע ָ ֣שׂה ַה ֶ֡מּ ֶלְך ְל ָכ‬ ִ ָ ‫ירה ְל ִמ ָגּ֧דוֹל וְ ַע‬ ֜ ָ ‫ַה ִבּ‬ ‫יָמים‬ ֑ ִ ‫ד־ק ָ ֛טן ִמ ְשׁ ֶ ֖תּה ִשׁ ְב ַע֣ת‬ “And when these days were completed. 3 pl. restrain.‫מר ְכּ ִשׁלוֹ֙ יִ ְֽהיֶ ֙ה ַה ַ ֣בּיִ ת ַה ֶ֔זּה ְו‬ ֹ ֗ ‫הוה ֵלא‬ ָ֜ ְ‫ית ְב ֵשׁם־י‬ ָ ‫דּוּע׀ נִ ֵ֨בּ‬ ַ ‫ ַמ‬. ‫כּ ָלה‬.ָ However. ‫“ = )ל"ה( ָכּ ָלה‬be complete. the king made a seven-day banquet for all the people present in Shushan the capital. from great to small!” Explanatory notes for ‫ ל"א‬and ‫ ל"ה‬Verbs. “Why have you prophesied in the name of the Lord. go to the jugs.” Lamentations 4:1 ‫יוּע֣ם זָ ָ֔הב יִ ְשׁ ֶנ֖א ַה ֶכּ ֶ֣תם ַה ֑טּוֹב‬ ַ ‫יכ ֙ה‬ ָ ‫ֵא‬ “How is the gold become dim! how is the most fine gold changed!” f) Esther 1:5 ‫שׁוּשׁן‬ ַ ‫ ְבּ‬. and this city shall be destroyed. without an inhabitant?” d) Ruth 2:9 ‫ל־ה ֵכּ ֔ ִלים‬ ַ ‫וְ ָצ ִ֗מת וְ ָה ַל ְכ ְ֙תּ ֶא‬ e) “If you become thirsty.

the meaning is of the ‫ ל"א‬verb ‫נבא‬.” the Hithpael perf. cstr. of the stative ‫ ל"א‬verb. and one would expect ָ ‫“ ִה ְתנַ ֵבּ‬you have prophesied. ‫נבה‬. it would be written ‫יִ ְשׁנָ א‬ with qamets Esther 1:5 ‫וּב ְמ ֣לוֹאת‬ ִ (see GK 74h) has the meaning of the Qal inf. 2 m. e) Lamentations 4:1 ‫“ יִ ְשׁנֶ א‬it is changed” is Qal imperf. ‫“ = ָמ ֵלא‬be full” and one would expect ‫וּב ְמלֹא‬.40 b) FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW I Samuel 10:6 ‫ית‬ ָ ‫ וְ ִה ְתנַ ִ ֖בּ‬Hithpael perf. it follows the analogy of inf.sg. ִ Instead. f) ‫ל"א‬ verb. ‫“ ָמ ָצא‬who are found”. to be ‫את‬ c) Jeremiah 26:9 ‫ית‬ ָ ‫נִ ֵ֨בּ‬ is Piel perf. and one would expect ‫( וְ ָצ ָמאת‬like ‫) ָמ ָצאת‬. . like ‫גְּ לוֹת‬ (‫)גָּ ָלה‬. but with the vowels and meaning of the ‫ ל"ה‬verb ‫= ָשׁנָ ה‬ “change”.sg. of verbs ‫ל"ה‬.pl. written with ’aleph as third root letter. 2 m. 3 m.” d) ‫את‬ ָ ‫נִ ֵבּ‬ “you have Ruth 2:9 ‫ וְ ָצ ִ֗מת‬has the meaning of the ‫ ל"א‬stative verb ‫“ = ָצ ֵמא‬be thirsty”.sg. One would expect prophesied. Instead. it follows the analogy of verbs ‫ ל"ה‬like ‫“ גָּ ִלית‬you have uncovered”. cstr. ‫ים‬ ֩ ‫ ַהנִּ ְמ ְצ ִא‬Niphal participle m. However. If it were a true under the nun.

If.—.‫ דכא‬. analyse the verbs ‫ע"ו‬ which follow the analogy of verbs ‫ ע"ע‬and the verbs ‫ ע"ע‬which follow the analogy of verbs ‫ע"ו‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 41 According to the rules of verbs ‫ל"א‬. In the following biblical verses. and verbs ‫ ע"ו‬were expanded by lengthening the medial vowel.‫ דכך‬all mean “beat. however. ‫ דוך‬. Hence. e. The relation between verbs ‫ ע"ו‬and ‫ע"ע‬ See GK 72dd: “The verbs ‫ ע"ו‬are primarily related to the verbs ‫ע"ע‬. the two stronger letters ‫ דך‬constitute the monosyllabic root. many triliteral stems in these groups of verbs really point to a biliteral base. the verb were ‫ל"ה‬. so that it is especially necessary in analyzing them to pay attention to the differences between the inflexion of the two classes. beat in pieces” and thus. The sheva under the tsadi plus the retention of the ’aleph gives us a hybrid formation. Several forms are exactly the same in both.” This resemblance of verbs ‫ ע"ו‬to verbs ‫ ע"ע‬is due partially at least to biliteral roots having been expanded to triliterals in both groups. These root syllables are easily distinguished when the stem has a feeble consonant (‫ )ע"ו‬or the same consonant in second and third place (‫)ע"ע‬.g. That is to say.‫ דכה‬. which were also originally biliteral. For example. we would have ‫ נִ ְמ ִצים‬with elision of hey. we would expect ‫ַהנִּ ְמ ָצ ִאים‬ (qamets under tsadi). verbs ‫ ע"ו‬sometimes have forms which follow the analogy of verbs ‫—ע"ע‬. 1 Micah 2:6 ‫יפוּן ֽל ֹא־יַ ִ ֣טּפוּ ָל ֵ֔א ֶלּה ֥ל ֹא יִ ַ ֖סּג ְכּ ִל ֽמּוֹת׃‬ ֑ ‫ל־תּ ִ ֖טּפוּ יַ ִטּ‬ ַ ‫ַא‬ . Owing to this close relation. verbs ‫ ע"ע‬were expanded to triliterals by doubling the second radical. imperfect Qal and Hiphil with waw consecutive.

” ‫וְ ִה ֣בּוֹז ׀ ִתּ ֑בּוֹז‬ Apparently Niphal inf. Nahum 2:3: ‫קוּם ֽבֹּ ְק ִ֔קים‬ the emptiers have emptied them”.sg. plunder” (BDB p 102). abs. backslide” (Niphal imperf. 3 f. ‫בּוּק‬.” ‫ִה ֧בּוֹק ׀ ִתּ ֛בּוֹק‬ Apparently Niphal inf.g. + Niphal imperf.” ‫יִ ַ ֖סּג‬ Apparently. Clearly.sg. . for the Lord has spoken this word.g. the root ‫ בּוּז‬means “despise” which does not fit this context. The ‫ ע"ע‬root ‫ בּקק‬is ֙ ‫“ ִ ֤כּי ְב ָק‬for much better attested (BDB p 132) e.‫“ = ָבּזַ ז‬spoil. the root ‫ סגג‬is otherwise unattested and according to meaning. though the noun forms in Nahum 2:11 clearly derive from the‫ ע"ו‬root: ‫בּוּ ָ ֥ קה‬ ‫וּמ ֻב ָלּ ָ ֑ קה‬ ְ ‫וּמבוּ ָ ֖ קה‬ ְ “emptiness and void and waste”. ‫)יִ סּוֹג‬ e. they shall not preach to these. drip > Hiphil: = drip (Amos 9:13).sg. However. the root letters are ‫“ = סוּג‬move away. Isaiah 24:1: ‫א ֶרץ‬ ֖ ָ ‫הו֛ה בּוֹ ֵ ֥ קק ָה‬ ָ ְ‫ִה ֵנּ֧ה י‬ “Behold the Lord is emptying the land.e. ‫סגג‬. reproaches do not depart. 3 m.42 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “‘Do not preach’. 2 ‫נָ ַטף‬ = drop. they preach. + Niphal imperf. the intended meaning is that of the ‫ ע"ע‬root. 3 f.g. preach (Amos Isaiah 24:3 ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֥בר ַה ֶזּֽה׃‬ ַ ‫הוה ִדּ ֶ ֖בּר ֶא‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ִה ֧בּוֹק ִתּ ֛בּוֹק ָה ָ ֖א ֶרץ וְ ִה ֣בּוֹז ִתּ ֑בּוֹז ִ ֣כּי י‬ “The land will become utterly emptied and utterly despoiled. ‫בּוּז‬. Psalm 78:57: ‫בוֹתם‬ ֑ ָ ‫ַכּ ֲא‬ ‫ֽ יִּבגְּ דוּ‬ ְ ‫וַ יִּ ֣סֹּגוּ ַו‬ “they drew back and betrayed like their fathers. However. Niphal imperf. However.” Note also: 7:16). abs. the root ‫ בּוּק‬is not attested for any verbal form.

(see Bibliography). Numbers 22:25 ‫ל־ה ִ֔קּיר‬ ַ ‫הוה וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵח ֙ץ ֶא‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ת־מ ְל ַ ֣אְך י‬ ַ ‫וַ ֵ֨תּ ֶרא ָה ָא ֜תוֹן ֶא‬ “The ass saw the angel of the Lord and pressed herself against the wall” ‫נִ ְס ַתּר‬ hide oneself e. Exodus 23:21 ‫וּשׁ ַ ֥מע ְבּק ֹ֖לוֹ‬ ְ ‫ִה ָ ֧שּׁ ֶמר ִמ ָפּ ָנ֛יו‬ “Pay heed to him and listen to his voice” ‫נִ ְל ַחץ‬ thrust oneself (against) e.g.g. i: Reflexive of Qal ‫נִ ְשׁ ַמר‬ take heed to oneself e.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 43 Uses of Niphal The following summary of the uses of the Niphal conjugation is based on the analyses of modern grammarians. I Kings 17:3 ‫֥ית ְלָּך֖ ֵ ֑ק ְד ָמה וְ נִ ְס ַתּ ְר ָ֙תּ ְבּ ַנ ַ֣חל ְכּ ִ ֔רית‬ ָ ‫וּפ ִנ‬ ָ ‫ֵלְ֣ך ִמ ֶ֔זּה‬ “Go from here and turn eastward and hide yourself by the Wadi Cherith” (compare passive/resultative use in Genesis 4:14: ‫וּמ ָפּ ֶנ֖יָך ֶא ָסּ ֵ ֑תר‬ ִ ‫ֵה ֩ן גֵּ ַ ֨ר ְשׁ ָתּ א ִֹ֜תי ַהיּ֗ וֹם ֵמ ַעל֙ ְפּ ֵנ֣י ֽ ָה ֲא ָד ָ֔מה‬ “Behold You have driven me out this day from the face of the ground and from Your face I shall be hidden”) .g.

e.44 ‫נִ גְ ַאל‬ FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW redeem oneself e. or anyone of his own flesh of his family shall redeem him.g. he and his children with him shall go free in the Jublilee year”) Within the “reflexive” category. I will relieve Myself of My adversaries and avenge Myself of My enemies” e.g. if he prospers.g. Leviticus 25:49 ‫שׁ ַפּח ְ֖תּוֹ יִגְאָלֶ ֑ נּוּ ֽאוֹ־ה ִּ֥שִׂיגָה‬ ְ ‫ִשׁאֵ ֧ ר ְבּשׂ ָ֛רוֹ מִ ִמּ‬ ְ ּ ‫דּ ֹד ֙וֹ יִגְאָ ֶ֔לנּוּ אֽוֹ־מ‬-‫ֹד ֹ֞דוֹ ֤אוֹ בֶן‬-‫או‬ ‫י ָ֖דוֹ ְונִגְאָ ֽל׃‬ “or his uncle or his uncle’s son shall redeem him. Lamentations 1:8: ‫ם־היא נֶ ֶאנְ ָ ֖חה וַ ָ ֥תּ ָשׁב ָא ֽחוֹר׃‬ ֥ ִ ַ‫גּ‬ “She also sighs (bemoans herself) and turns backwards” .he may redeem himself” (compare passive use in Leviticus 25:54: ‫וּב ָנ֥יו ִע ֽמּוֹ׃‬ ָ ‫ם־ל ֹא יִ גָּ ֵ ֖אל ְבּ ֵ ֑א ֶלּה וְ יָ ָצ ֙א ִבּ ְשׁ ַנ֣ת ַהיּ ֵֹ֔בל ֖הוּא‬ ֥ ‫וְ ִא‬ “If he will not be redeemed in any of those ways. or. Isaiah 1:24 ‫֚הוֹי ֶאנָּ ֵ ֣חם ִמ ָצּ ַ ֔רי וְ ִאנָּ ְק ָ ֖מה ֵמאוֹיְ ָ ֽבי׃‬ “Ah. Niphal is used to express emotions which react upon the mind.

my son” ii: Reciprocal or mutual action ‫נִ ְד ְבּרוּ‬ they spoke to one another e. that is. e. my son” or: “Allow/suffer yourself to be warned. Malachi 3:16: ‫ת־ר ֵ ֑עהוּ‬ ֵ ‫הו֖ה ִ ֣אישׁ ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫ָ ֧אז נִ ְד ְבּ ֛רוּ יִ ְר ֵ ֥אי י‬ “Then those that fear the Lord spoke to one another ‫נִ ְשׁ ַפּט‬ go to law with one another e.g. or. the use of Niphal to express actions which the subject allows to happen to himself. Ecclesiastes 12:12 ‫ְבּ ִנ֣י ִהזָּ ֵ ֑הר‬ “Be warned.g.g. to have an effect upon himself. I Samuel 12:7 ‫הוה‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ל־צ ְד ֣קוֹת י‬ ִ ‫הו֑ה ֵ ֚את ָכּ‬ ָ ְ‫וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ִ ֽה ְתיַ ְצּ ֛בוּ וְ ִא ָשּׁ ְפ ָ ֥טה ִא ְתּ ֶכ֖ם ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י י‬ . I let Myself be found to those who did not seek Me” A passive rendering of such Niphals is possible: e.g. Isaiah 65:1 ‫שׁנִ י‬ ֑ ֻ ‫֖אתי ְל ֣ל ֹא ִב ְק‬ ִ ‫תּי ְל ֣לוֹא ָשׁ ָ֔אלוּ נִ ְמ ֵצ‬ ֙ ִ ‫נִ ְד ַ ֙ר ְשׁ‬ “I let Myself be inquired of to those who did not ask.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 45 Also within the “reflexive” category is the Tolerative Niphal.

every man against his fellow. city with city and kingdom with kingdom” ‫נוֹכח‬ ַ reason together .g. I Kings 12:6 ‫מה‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ת־פּנֵ ֙י ְשֹׁל‬ ְ ‫ר־הי֣ וּ ע ְֹמ ִ ֗דים ֶא‬ ָ ‫ים ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ֙ ִ‫ת־הזְּ ֵקנ‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֞ ַעץ ַה ֶ ֣מּ ֶלְך ְר ַח ְב ֗ ָעם ֶא‬ ‫ָא ִ֔ביו‬ “King Rehoboam took counsel with the elders who had served his father Solomon” ‫נוֹעד‬ ַ meet each other e.46 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “Now stand still that I may plead with you (enter into controversy) before the Lord concerning all the righteous acts of the Lord” (the passive use of ‫ ָשׁ ַפט‬is restricted to Psalms e. Isaiah 19:2 ‫ישׁ־בּ ָא ִ ֖חיו וְ ִ ֣אישׁ ְבּ ֵר ֵ ֑עהוּ ִ ֣עיר ְבּ ֔ ִעיר ַמ ְמ ָל ָ ֖כה ְבּ ַמ ְמ ָל ָ ֽכה׃‬ ְ ‫וְ נִ ְל ֲח ֥מוּ ִא‬ “They shall war with each other.g. Exodus 25:22 ‫ם וְ ִד ַבּ ְר ִ֨תּי ִא ְתּ ָ֜ך ֵמ ַ ֣על ַה ַכּ ֗ ֹפּ ֶרת ִמ ֵבּ ֙ין ְשׁ ֵנ֣י ַה ְכּ ֻר ִ֔בים‬ ֒ ‫נוֹע ְד ִ ֣תּי ְל ָ֮ך ָשׁ‬ ַ ְ‫ו‬ “There I will meet with you and I will speak with you from above the mercy-seat from between the two cherubim” ‫נִ ְל ַחם‬ fight with one another e. 37:33.g. 109:7) ‫נוֹעץ‬ ַ consult each other.g. take counsel of e.

says the Lord. ‘If your sins are like crimson they will become white as snow. ‫נוֹלד‬ ַ be born e.g. ‫נִ גְ ַאל‬ be redeemed e. Genesis 4:14 see above reflexive use of ‫ נִ ְס ַתּר‬compared with passive use.g. Isaiah 1:18 ‫שּׁ ֶלג יַ ְל ִ֔בּינו‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ים ַכּ‬ ֙ ִ‫הו֑ה ִאם־יִ ְֽהי֨ וּ ֲח ָט ֵא ֶיכ֤ם ַכּ ָשּׁנ‬ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֣ ַ ֹ ‫כוּ־נ֛א וְ נִ ָוּ ְֽכ ָ ֖חה י‬ ָ ‫ְל‬ ֖ ָ ‫ִאם־יַ ְא ִ ֥דּימוּ ַכ‬ ‫תּוֹלע ַכּ ֶ ֥צּ ֶמר יִ ְהיֽ וּ׃‬ “‘Come now and let us reason together’.g. Ecclesiastes 7:1 ‫שּׁ ֶמן ֑טוֹב וְ י֣ וֹם ַה ָ֔מּוֶ ת ִמיּ֖ וֹם ִהוָּ ְל ֽדוֹ׃‬ ֣ ֶ ‫֥טוֹב ֵ ֖שׁם ִמ‬ “A good name is better than fragrant oil and the day of death than the day of birth (being born)” ‫נִ ְק ַבּר‬ be buried .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 47 e. if they are red like the scarletworm they will become like wool. Leviticus 25:54 see above – reflexive use of ‫ נִ גְ ַאל‬compared with passive use.’” iii: Passive of Qal ‫נִ ְס ַתּר‬ be hidden e.g.

Jonah 1:4 ‫וְ ָ ֣ה ֳאנִ ָ֔יּה ִח ְשּׁ ָ ֖בה ְל ִה ָשּׁ ֵ ֽבר׃‬ “and the ship was in danger of breaking up (being broken)” iv: Passive of Piel and Hiphil In cases where Qal is intransitive in meaning.g.” The Niphal participle. or is not used. rather than the Qal (‫“ = ָכּ ֵבד‬be heavy. Genesis 34:19 ‫א־א ַ ֤חר ַהנַּ֙ ַע ֙ר ַל ֲע ֣שׂוֹת ַה ָדּ ָ֔בר ִ ֥כּי ָח ֵ ֖פץ ְבּ ַ ֽבת־יַ ֲע ֑קֹב וְ ֣הוּא נִ ְכ ָ֔בּד ִמ ֖כֹּל‬ ֵ ֹ ‫וְ ֽל‬ ‫ֵ ֥בּית ָא ִ ֽביו׃‬ “And the youth did not delay in doing the thing. For Piel of ‫כבד‬. ‫ת־א ִ ֖ביָך‬ ָ ‫ַכּ ֵ ֥בּד ֶא‬ . is the passive of the Piel (‫“ = ִכּ ֵבּד‬honour”).48 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW e. respected”. be in honour”).g.g. see Exodus 20:12: ‫מָּך‬ ֑ ֶ ‫ת־א‬ ִ ‫וְ ֶא‬ “Honour your father and your mother”. Deuteronomy 10:6 ‫ָ ֣שׁם ֵ ֤מת ַא ֲה ֙ר ֹן וַ יִּ ָקּ ֵב֣ר ָ֔שׁם‬ “Aaron died there and was buried there” ‫נִ ְשׁ ַבּר‬ be broken e. he was the most respected in his father’s house. e. for he wanted Jacob’s daughter. ‫“ נִ ְכ ָ֔בּד‬honoured. Niphal also appears as the passive of Piel and Hiphil.

but in some cases the Niphal is used. ‫“ = ִה ְכ ִחיד‬destroy”. Exodus 6:3 ‫הוה ֥ל ֹא‬ ֔ ָ ְ‫וּשׁ ִ ֣מי י‬ ְ ‫ל־א ְב ָר ָ ֛הם ֶאל־יִ ְצ ָ ֥חק וְ ֶ ֽאל־יַ ֲע ֖קֹב ְבּ ֵ ֣אל ַשׁ ָ ֑דּי‬ ַ ‫וָ ֵא ָ ֗רא ֶא‬ :‫נוֹד ְע ִתּי ָל ֶ ֽהם‬ ַ֖ “I appeared to Abraham. Exodus 9:15 ‫ת־ע ְמָּך֖ ַבּ ָ ֑דּ ֶבר וַ ִתּ ָכּ ֵ ֖חד‬ ַ ‫אוֹתָך֛ וְ ֶ ֽא‬ ְ ‫ִ ֤כּי ַע ָתּ ֙ה ָשׁ ַל ְ֣ח ִתּי ֶאת־יָ ִ ֔די וָ ַ ֥אְך‬ ‫ן־ה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ָ ‫ִמ‬ “For now I could have stretched forth My hand and smitten you and your people with pestilence and you would have been effaced from the earth”. ‫)ידע‬ . 2 f. Piel and Hiphil.” e.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 49 e. 1 c. The Niphal imperf.sg.g. In these verbs the subject causes the action to happen to himself—. but only in Niphal. see Exodus 23:23: ‫" וְ ִה ְכ ַח ְד ִ ֽתּיו׃‬and I will destroy him.g. but I did not make Myself known to them by My name ” (‫נוֹד ְע ִתּי‬ ֖ ַ is Niphal perf.g. Ruth 3:3 ‫ֹּלתוֹ ֶל ֱא ֥כֹל וְ ִל ְשׁ ֽתּוֹת׃‬ ֖ ‫ל־תּוָּ ְד ִ ֣עי ָל ִ֔אישׁ ַ ֥עד ַכּ‬ ִ ‫ַא‬ “But do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking” (‫ ִתּוָּ ְד ִ ֣עי‬is Niphal imperf. ‫ וַ ִתּ ָכּ ֵ ֖חד‬is the passive of the Hiphil. ‫)ידע‬ e. ‫ ָכּ ַחד‬is never found in Qal.sg.” v: Causative/reflexive See Waltke/O’Connor p 390: “The causative-reflexive scheme in Hebrew is usually Hithpael. For the Hiphil. Isaac and Jacob as El Shaddai. + vav consec.

He suggests that if one assumes that Biblical Hebrew lacked the distinction passive/reflexive. 1991. which occur both as reflexive of Qal and as passive of Qal (sections I and III). when the process works in the reverse direction. be redeemed”. the sinners will have a change of heart).g. when a wild ass is born a man” (i. p 145: “The usual development in Hebrew is from verb to noun. Denominatives are rare in Niphal. Studia Semitica Neerlandica. ‫ יִ ָלּ ֵ ֑בב‬is a HAPAXLEGOMENON (occurs only once in the Bible) derived from the masculine noun ‫“ = ֵל ָבב‬heart”. 1993. Van Gorcum. it would account for the fact that various nuances occur in ONE verb root. ‫“ = נִ גְ ַאל‬redeem oneself. Note on passive/reflexive distinction Note the work of P A Siebesma: “The Function of Niphal in Biblical Hebrew”. be hidden”. Job 11:12 ‫וְ ִ ֣אישׁ ָ ֭נבוּב יִ ָלּ ֵ ֑בב וְ ַ ֥עיִ ר ֗ ֶפּ ֶרא ָא ָ ֥דם יִ וָּ ֵ ֽלד׃‬ “A hollow man will get understanding. . See the above examples: ‫“ = נִ ְס ַתּר‬hide oneself. Another example of both passive and reflexive nuances occurring in one verb root is in the root ‫אסף‬.50 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW vi: Denominatives See Davidson’s Introductory Hebrew Grammar.e. the verb is known as a ‘denominative’ (‘from the noun [Latin nomen]’) verb”. See the list in Waltke/O’Connor p 391. e. which occurs in a passive sense in Numbers 11:22. Continuum. but in a reflexive sense in Numbers 11:30.

and the floodgates of the sky broke open. (‫ וַ יֵּ ָא ֵ ֥סף‬Niphal imperf. 3 m. in the second month.g. on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst apart. pausal. ‫בקע‬. on the seventeenth day of the month. 3 pl.” ‫עוּ‬ ֙ ‫נִ ְב ְק‬ Niphal perf.sg.) Siebesma also states: “It is sometimes difficult to determine whether one should translate a Niphal reflexively.” e. + vav consec. 3 pl. passively or reciprocally. . Genesis 7:11 ‫ה־ע ָ ֥שׂר י֖ וֹם‬ ָ ‫ח ֶד ֙שׁ ַה ֵשּׁ ֔ ִני ְבּ ִשׁ ְב ָ ֽע‬ ֹ ֨ ‫שׁ־מ ֤אוֹת ָשׁנָ ֙ה ְל ַחיֵּ י־ ֔נ ֹ ַח ַבּ‬ ֵ ‫ִבּ ְשׁ ֨ ַנת ֵשׁ‬ ‫ל־מ ְעיְ נ ֹ֙ת ְתּ ֣הוֹם ַר ָ֔בּה וַ ֲא ֻר ֥בֹּת ַה ָשּׁ ַ ֖מיִ ם‬ ַ ‫עוּ ָ ֽכּ‬ ֙ ‫ַל ֑חֹ ֶדשׁ ַבּו ֹם ַה ֶ֗זּה נִ ְב ְק‬ ‫נִ ְפ ָ ֽתּחוּ׃‬ “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 51 ‫ל־דּ ֵג֥י ַה ָיּ֛ם יֵ ָא ֵ ֥סף‬ ְ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫וּמ ָצ֣א ָל ֶ ֑הם ִ ֣אם ֶ ֽא‬ ָ ‫וּב ָ ֛ קר יִ ָשּׁ ֵ ֥חט ָל ֶ ֖הם‬ ָ ‫ֲה ֧צ ֹאן‬ ‫וּמ ָ ֥צא ָל ֶ ֽהם׃‬ ָ ‫ָל ֶ ֖הם‬ “Could enough flocks and herds be slaughtered to suffice them? Or could all the fish of the sea be gathered for them to suffice them?” (‫ יֵ ָא ֵ ֥סף‬Niphal imperf. ‫נִ ְפ ָ ֽתּחוּ‬ Niphal perf. ‫פתח‬. reflexive use. passive use) Numbers 11:30 ‫ל־ה ַמּ ֲח ֶנ֑ה ֖הוּא וְ זִ ְק ֵנ֥י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬ ֽ ַ ‫וַ יֵּ ָא ֵ ֥סף מ ֶ ֹ֖שׁה ֶא‬ “And Moses withdrew into the camp together with the elders of Israel”. to a major extent it depends on semantic and theological interpretation.

depending on whether G-d opens doors (i. but the meaning is. “they opened”).52 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW These two Niphal verbs could be understood in either a passive or reflexive way. “they were opened”) or whether they open by themselves (i. Their comments are presented in the original rabbinic Hebrew.e. Waltke/O’Connor (p 383) suggest that these two Niphals are examples of the middle (which may be distinguished from the passive in that it is nonagent oriented. reversed: the object of the verb has become the subject of the middle verb. as well as brief biographical sketches of these scholars. A glossary of some of the Hebrew grammatical terms used by these scholars is found at the end of the section. in a sense. See Lambdin p 176 for explanation of the middle: “Unlike the incomplete passive construction.e. Students should study the biblical verses and compare the views of the medieval scholars with the views in modern grammar books. middle verbs are active in form. Niphal verbs in Hebrew often correspond to middle verbs in English: ‫נִ ְפ ַתּח ַה ַשּׁ ַער‬ “The gate opened” ‫נִ ְשׁ ַבּר ַה ְכּ ִלי‬ “The vessel broke” ‫נִ ְק ַבּץ ָה ָעם‬ “The people gathered”” Views of medieval scholars on use of Niphal This section presents the views of medieval scholars on the uses of the Niphal conjugation. together with translation and explanation. whereas the passive is agent oriented): “and all the springs of the great abyss burst open”. .

PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 1 53 Genesis 24:65 (Rebekah about to meet Isaac) ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫אתנוּ וַ ֥יּ‬ ֵ֔ ‫י־ה ִ ֤אישׁ ַה ָלּזֶ ֙ה ַהה ֵֹלְ֤ך ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶד ֙ה ִל ְק ָר‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ֗ ֶע ֶבד ִ ֽמ‬ ָ ‫אמר ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣תּ‬ ‫ָה ֶ ֖ע ֶבד ֣הוּא ֲאד ִֹנ֑י וַ ִתּ ַ ֥קּח ַה ָצּ ִ ֖עיף וַ ִתּ ְת ָ ֽכּס׃‬ She said to the servant.sg. yet Rashi compares two verbs which we term Niphal. Note that ‫ וַ ִתּ ְת ָ ֽכּס‬is Hithpael. ‫ ) ָכּ ָסה‬has a reflexive meaning.‫ְלשׁוֹן וַ ִתּ ְת ָפּ ֵעל‬ Translation of Rashi “And she covered herself. Explanation of Rashi Rashi points out that the verb ‫( וַ ִתּ ְת ָ ֽכּס‬apocopated Hithpael. pausal. Rashi’s comparison seems to be due to the fact that in Biblical Hebrew. like: “and she was buried” (Gen 35:8).“and (it) was broken” (I Sam 4:18).” This is Hithpael. 3 f. whereas ‫וַ ִתּ ָקּ ֵבר‬ ‫ וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵבר‬are passive in context. both the Niphal and the Hithpael can be used either in a reflexive or in a passive sense. Comment of Rashi on ‫וַ ִתּ ְת ָ ֽכּס‬ :‫ וַ ִתּ ָקּ ֵבר וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵבר‬:‫ כמו‬. 2 Genesis 25:21 ‫הוה‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וַ יֶּ ְע ַ֨תּר יִ ְצ ָ ֤חק ֽ ַליהוָ ֙ה ְל ֹ֣נ ַכח ִא ְשׁ ֔תּוֹ ִ ֥כּי ֲע ָק ָ ֖רה ִ ֑הוא וַ יֵּ ָ ֤ע ֶתר לוֹ֙ י‬ ‫וַ ַ ֖תּ ַהר ִר ְב ָ ֥ קה ִא ְשׁ ֽתּוֹ׃‬ .’ and she took the veil and covered herself. ‘He is my master. + vav consec. It is also noteworthy that ‫ וַ ִתּ ְת ָ ֽכּס‬is best understood as reflexive. although the passive use of Hithpael is rare in Biblical Hebrew. ‘Who is this man walking in the field towards us? The servant said.

‫ וְ ִא ְת ָר ָעמוּ‬. his wife. the rabbinic equivalent of the Hithpael. and Rebekah. conciliated and influenced by him. saying.‫ וְ ֵכן ַה ַתּ ְרגּוּם ְלשׁוֹן נפעל הוא‬.‫ְלשׁוֹן נִ ְפ ַעל הוּא‬ ‫ ולא‬. He let Himself be urged.‫לּוֹעז דקומפ"לישנ"ט שׂ"י ְב ַל ַעז‬ ֵ ‫אמר ַה‬ ַ ֹ ‫ וכן י‬.‫רוֹעם‬ ֵ .‫ ִה ְר ָבּה וְ ִה ְפ ִציר ִבּ ְת ִפ ָלּה‬:‫וַ יֶּ ְע ַ֨תּר‬ :‫לוֹ‬ Translation of Rashi He prayed much and urgently. to explain the Biblical Hebrew Niphal. and the Lord allowed Himself to be entreated. 3 Exodus 15:24 ‫מר ַמה־נִּ ְשׁ ֶ ֽתּה׃‬ ֹ ֖ ‫וַ יִּ ֹּ֧לנוּ ָה ָ ֛עם ַעל־מ ֶ ֹ֥שׁה ֵלּא‬ The people complained to Moses.54 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Isaac entreated the Lord on behalf of his wife.‫רוֹעם‬ ֵ ‫ ִמ ְת‬. ‫ע ֶתר‬ ֤ ָ ֵ‫ וַ יּ‬i. Note that Rashi uses the Nithpael.e. ‘What shall we drink?’ Comment of Rashi on ‫וַ יִּ ֹּ֧לנוּ‬ ‫ וכן דרך‬. conceived.‫לשון ְתּלוּנָ ה ְל ָה ֵסב ַה ִדּבּוּר ֶאל ָה ָא ָדם – ִמ ְתלוֹנֵ ן‬ ‫ ֵמ ֵסב‬. ‫נִ ְת ַפּ ֵצּר וְ נִ ְת ַפּיֵּ ס‬ ‫וְ נִ ְת ַפּ ָתּה‬.‫ָא ַמר לוֹנֵ ן‬ . Explanation of Rashi ֤ ָ ֵ‫“( וַ יּ‬He let Himself be enRashi points to the use of the Niphal ‫ע ֶתר‬ treated”) as the tolerative/reflexive of the Qal ‫“( וַ יֶּ ְע ַ֨תּר‬He entreated”). for she was barren. Comment of Rashi on ‫ וַ יֶּ ְע ַ֨תּר‬and ‫ע ֶתר‬ ֤ ָ ֵ‫וַ יּ‬ ‫ נִ ְת ַפּ ֵצּר וְ נִ ְת ַפּיֵּ ס וְ נִ ְת ַפּ ָתּה‬: ֙‫ וַ יֵּ ָ ֤ע ֶתר לוֹ‬.‫ַה ִדּבּוּר ֵא ָליו ְבּ ָא ְמרוֹ שׂ"י‬ .

Comment of Rashi on ‫יִ יָּ ֶ ֔רה‬ ‫ יָ ָרה ַבּיָּ ם‬:‫יֻ ְשׁ ַלְך ְל ַמ ָטּה ָל ָא ֶרץ ְכּמוֹ‬ . because “murmuring. ‫“ = נֶ ֱאנַ ח‬sigh. Numbers 14.” it refers back the action of murmuring to the subject. to refer back the action of murmuring to the subject. and similarly the Targum is a Niphal form: ‫( וְ ִא ְת ָר ָעמוּ‬The Ithpael form in Aramaic corresponds to the Hebrew Niphal).g. And in Old French it is “decomplaisant se.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 55 Translation of Rashi This is a Niphal form. e. Only Niphal and Hiphil. 16. when the ram’s horn sounds. whether beast or man. And such is the way of expressing “murmuring” (root ‫)לוּן‬.”(“himself”). (GK 51c). bemoan oneself”. ‫“ = לוּן‬murmur”. by saying “se. 17. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that ‫ )לוּן( וַ יִּ ֹּ֧לנוּ‬is a Niphal used in the reflexive sense. 4 Exodus 19:13 ‫ם־אישׁ ֣ל ֹא‬ ֖ ִ ‫ם־בּ ֵה ָ ֥מה ִא‬ ְ ‫י־ס ֤קוֹל יִ ָסּ ֵקל֙ אוֹ־יָ ֣ר ֹה יִ יָּ ֶ ֔רה ִא‬ ָ ‫א־ת ֨ ַגּע ֜בּוֹ ָ֗יד ִ ֽכּ‬ ִ ֹ‫ל‬ ‫יִ ְח ֶי֑ה ִבּ ְמשׁ ְֹ֙ך ַהיּ ֵֹ֔בל ֵ ֖ה ָמּה יַ ֲע ֥לוּ ָב ָ ֽהר׃‬ Let no hand touch it. they shall go up the mountain. for he shall certainly be stoned or thrown down. complaining” is a reflexive thought process. Only in: Exodus 15. Modern grammarians also suggest that the Niphal is frequently used to express emotions which react upon the mind. 16. 17. Joshua 9:18. he shall not live. thus one says ‫ ִמ ְתלוֹנֵ ן‬and ‫רוֹעם‬ ֵ ‫( ִמ ְת‬reflexive forms) and one does not say ‫ לוֹנֵ ן‬and ‫רוֹעם‬ ֵ .

‫“ יֻ ְשׁ ַלְך‬he shall be thrown. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫יִ יָּ ֶ ֔רה‬ ‫יה ִכּי ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט בעלי היו"ד ְל ִה ְת ַח ֵלּף בו"ו‬ ָ ‫עוֹת‬ ֶ ‫וּמ ַלּת יִ יָּ ֶרה ְמשׁוּנָ ה ֵמ ֵר‬ ִ ‫ֶבּ ָע ִתיד ִבּנְ יַ ן נִ ְפ ַעל כמו )בראשית מא לא( וְ ֽל ֹא־יִ וָּ ַ ֤דע ַה ָשּׂ ָב ֙ע )ירמיה‬ ‫אוּלי ָעשׂוּ כך ֶשׁלֹּא ִת ְת ָע ֵרב ִעם גִּ זְ ַרת ְל ַמ ַען‬ ַ . Perhaps ‫יִ יָּ ֶרה‬ (retains the yod) so that it is not confused with ‫( ִתּוָּ ֵרא‬Psalm 130:4) “You shall be feared. like: “He has thrown into the sea” (Exodus 15:4).‫לא יח( יִ ַסּ ְר ַ֙תּנִ ֙י ָו ִֽאוָּ ֵ֔סר‬ ‫ִתּוָּ ֵרא )תהלים קל ד( ִכּי האל"ף והה"א נָ ִחים בסוֹף המלה אין‬ .‫יהם ַבּ ִמּ ְב ָטא‬ ֶ ֵ‫ֶה ְפ ֵרשׁ ֵבּינ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The word ‫ יִ יָּ ֶרה‬behaves differently from other pe-yod verbs. Explanation of Rashi Rashi points to the passive meaning of the Niphal imperf. ‫( יִ יָּ ֶ ֔רה‬root ‫)יָ ָרה‬ by rendering it with the Hophal imperf. (see BDB p 434: ‫“ = יָ ָרה‬throw. . Rashi also points to the meaning of ‫ יָ ָרה‬in this context by comparing ‫יָ ָרה‬ in Exodus 15:4. because both ’aleph and hey are quiescent at the end of the word. shoot”). There is no difference between them in pronunciation. cast”. like ‫( יִ וָּ ַ ֤דע‬Gen 41:31) and ‫( ָו ִֽאוָּ ֵ֔סר‬Jerem. for the rule of pe-yod verbs is that the yod (first root letter) changes to vav in the Niphal imperf.” root letters ‫יָ ֵרא‬. 31:18).56 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation of Rashi He shall be thrown down to the ground.

‫מּוּח וַ ֲע ִליָּ ה‬ ַ ‫ִצ‬   ‫ִמָיּ֑ם‬ Translation of Rashi Understand this as the Targum does: the departure (the raising itself). (‫ )יִ יָּ ֶרה‬instead of converting the yod to vav as in ‫יִ וָּ ַ ֤דע‬ etc.‫ְכּ ַת ְרגּוּמוֹ ִא ְס ַתּ ָלּקוּת‬ ְ ‫לכתוב‬ ‫ שאין זה לשון ִסלּוּק אלא‬.‫וּל ִפי ֲעלוֹת ֶה ָענָ ן‬ ‫ף־אישׁ ע ָֹל֣ה‬ ֖ ִ ‫ה־עב ְק ַט ָנּ֥ה ְכּ ַכ‬ ֛ ָ ֵ‫ )מ"א יח מד( ִהנּ‬:‫ כמו‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 57 Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra points to the fact that the pe-yod verb ‫ יָ ָרה‬has retained the yod in the Niphal imperf. and at the place where the cloud settled. Qal) because this (the Qal) would not have expressed ‘departure’ (raising oneself) but ‘springing forth’ and ‘rising’.‫ וְ ָע ָלה ֶה ָענָ ן‬. Ibn Ezra suggests that this is to avoid confusion between the roots ‫יָ ָרה‬ (throw. like: I Kings 18:44: “Behold a little cloud like a man’s hand is rising (‫ )ע ָֹל֣ה‬from the sea. there the children of Israel would camp.” . like: Numbers 9:21: “and the cloud raised itself”. Comment of Rashi on ‫ֶ ֽה ָענָ ֙ן‬ ‫ֵה ָע ֹ֤לת‬ ‫יִתּ ֵכן‬ ָ ‫ וכן ) ְבּ ִמ ְד ַבּר ט כא( וְ נַ ֲע ָ ֧לה ֶ ֽה ָע ָנ֛ ן ולא‬. then the children of Israel would travel. shoot) and ‫( יָ ֵרא‬fear) since neither hey nor ’aleph are sounded at the end of a word. It would not have been correct to write ‫ ֲעלוֹת‬/‫( ָע ָלה‬i.e. 5 Numbers 9:17 ‫וּב ְמ ֗קוֹם‬ ִ ‫י־כן יִ ְס ֖עוּ ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל‬ ֵ֔ ‫א ֶהל וְ ַ ֣א ֲח ֵר‬ ֹ ֔ ‫וּל ֞ ִפי ֵה ָע ֹ֤לת ֶ ֽה ָענָ ֙ן ֵמ ַ ֣על ָה‬ ְ ָ ‫ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר יִ ְשׁ ָכּ‬ ‫ן־שׁ ֙ם ֶ ֽה ָע ָ֔נן ָ ֥שׁם יַ ֲחנ֖ וּ ְבּ ֵנ֥י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬ When the cloud raised itself from above the Tent.

in Numbers 9:21 (‫)וְ נַ ֲע ָלה‬. and they fell on their faces. “raising itself”. ‫( ֵה ָעלוֹת‬root ‫“ = ָע ָלה‬go up”). tsere/pataḥ + dagesh in middle root letter) ‫ ֵבּ ַרְך‬where the ḥireq has been lengthened to tsere (under the bet). pointing out that this must be understood in a reflexive sense. while understanding the Niphal imperative ‫ ֵה ָעלוּ‬in Numbers 16:24 as reflexive: “withdraw (raise yourselves) from the vicinity of Korah’s dwelling”. ‫לוּ ִמ ָסּ ִ֔ביב ְל ִמ ְשׁ ַכּן־ ֖קֹ ַרח‬ ֙ ‫ֵ ֽה ָע‬ 6 Numbers 17:10 ‫יהם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ֵ‫ל־פּנ‬ ְ ‫תּוְֹך ָה ֵע ָ ֣דה ַה ֔זּ ֹאת וַ ֲא ַכ ֶ ֥לּה א ָ ֹ֖תם ְכּ ָ ֑רגַ ע ַוֽ יִּ ְפּ ֖לוּ ַע‬ ֙ ‫ֵה ֗ר ֹמּוּ ִמ‬ ‘Get yourselves up from the midst of this congregation that I may destroy them in a moment’.‫שׁקל דגש‬ ַ ‫כמו ֵבּ ַרְך ֵבּ ַרְך ִמ‬ .‫ ולמעלה )טז כא( אומר ִה ָבּ ְדלוּ‬. just like the Niphal perf. In . cstr. because the reflexive indicates ‘departure’ and since the Cloud represents the Divine Presence.‫אומר ֵהר ֹמּוּ‬ Translation of Rashbam ‫ֵה ֗ר ֹמּוּ‬ is like ‫( ִהמֹּלוּ‬Jeremiah 4:4) but because of the resh (rejects dagesh) the ḥireq (under the hey) became tsere. Note. This may be compared to (the Piel form which usually has ḥireq. however.58 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Explanation of Rashi Rashi comments on the Niphal inf. like the raincloud in I Kings 18:44. that BDB (p 749) understands ‫( ֵה ָעלוֹת‬9:17) and ‫( נַ ֲע ָלה‬9:21) in a passive sense: “be taken up”. The Qal form of the verb ‫ ָע ָלה‬would indicate merely the ‘rising’ of an inanimate object.‫ ֶשׁ ַמּ ְשׁ ַמע ְל ִה ָבּ ֵדל יותר לפי ֶשׁ ְכּ ָבר יָ ָצא ַה ֶקּ ֶצף‬. the departure of the Cloud is a reflexive rather than a passive action. Comment of Rashbam on ‫ֵה ֗ר ֹמּוּ‬ ‫לאי‬ ֵ ‫כמו )ירמיה ד ד( ִהמֹּלוּ ַלײ ֲא ָבל בשביל הרי"ש נֶ הפך החירק‬ ‫ וכאן‬.

Comment of Rashi on ‫וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵח ֙ץ‬   . .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 59 Numbers 16:21. ‫( ָרמֹם‬see BDB p 942) = “be exalted”. The difficulty here is that ‫ ִהמֹּלוּ‬is Niphal imperative from the ‫ ע"ו‬root. and he struck it again. but ‫ ֵהר ֹמּוּ‬has dagesh in the third root letter (mem) and seems to be derived from a ‫ ע"ע‬root.‫ וַ ִתּ ְל ַחץ את ֲא ֵח ִרים – את רגל בלעם‬. ‫“( מוּל‬circumcise”) (analogous to ‫ ִהכּוֹנוּ‬from ‫)כּוּן‬. with lengthening of ḥireq to tsere under hey to compensate for lack of dagesh in the resh. Balaam’s foot. ‘separate urgently’ because the anger has already gone forth. meaning. and ‫ ֵהר ֹמּוּ‬may be explained as following this pattern. with dagesh in the first root letter. (The Qal form denotes that) she pressed something else – viz. 7 Numbers 22:25 ‫ת־רגֶ ל‬ ֥ ֶ ‫ל־ה ִ֔קּיר וַ ִתּ ְל ַ ֛חץ ֶא‬ ַ ‫הוה וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵח ֙ץ ֶא‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ת־מ ְל ַ ֣אְך י‬ ַ ‫וַ ֵ֨תּ ֶרא ָה ָא ֜תוֹן ֶא‬ ַ ‫ִבּ ְל ָ ֖עם ֶא‬ ‫ל־ה ִ ֑קּיר וַ ֹ֖יּ ֶסף ְל ַהכּ ָ ֹֽתהּ׃‬ The ass saw the angel of the Lord and pressed itself against the wall.‫וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵחץ ִהיא ַע ְצ ָמהּ‬ Translation of Rashi (The Niphal form here denotes that) she pressed herself. The regular Niphal imperative plural from a ‫ ע"ע‬root is on the pattern of ‫ ִה ַסּבּוּ‬. Explanation of Rashbam Rashbam compares ‫ ֵהר ֹמּוּ‬to ‫ ִהמֹּלוּ‬. and pressed Balaam’s foot against the wall. it states ‫‘( ִה ָבּ ְדלוּ‬separate yourselves’) but here (it states) ‫ ֵהר ֹמּוּ‬.

’ ֤ ֶ ‫ִמ‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫מּנִּ י‬ ‫א ֩ל נִ ְשׁ ַ֨אל‬ ֹ ‫נִ ְשׁ‬ ‫ְרשׁוּת ָשׁ ַאל ִמ ֶמּנִּ י‬ Translation of Rashi He asked permission from me. ‫“ = וַ ִתּ ְל ַחץ‬and she pressed” (Qal imperf. ‫“ = וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵחץ‬and she pressed herself” (Niphal imperf. That is. ‫נִ ְשׁאֹל‬. abs. Explanation of Rashi Rashi comments on the use of the Niphal perf. ‫ נִ ְשׁ ַאל‬which is preceded by Niphal inf. + vav consec. 8 I Samuel 20:6 ‫רוּץ‬ ֙ ‫א ֩ל נִ ְשׁ ַ֨אל ִמ ֶ ֤מּנִּ י ָדוִ ֙ד ָל‬ ֹ ‫ם־פּ ֥קֹד יִ ְפ ְק ֵ ֖דנִ י ָא ִ ֑ביָך וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָ֗תּ נִ ְשׁ‬ ָ ‫ִא‬ ֔ ‫ית־ל ֶ֣חם ִע‬ ֶ ‫ֵ ֽבּ‬ ‫ל־ה ִמּ ְשׁ ָפּ ָ ֽחה׃‬ ַ ‫ירוֹ ִ ֣כּי ֶז ַ֧בח ַהיָּ ִ ֛מים ָ ֖שׁם ְל ָכ‬ If your father misses me. He states that the Niphal here has the . since there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.60 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫וַ ִתּ ָלּ ֵח ֙ץ‬ ‫ִהיא ָל ֲח ָצה ַע ְצ ָמהּ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra She pressed herself. + vav consec. you shall say: ‘David asked leave of me to run to Bethlehem his town.).sg. Explanation of Rashi and Ibn Ezra Rashi and Ibn Ezra point out that the verb ‫“ = ָל ַחץ‬squeeze. and that the Niphal here is the reflexive of the Qal. press” is used in the Qal and the Niphal in this verse.). 3 m.

I let Myself be found. e. to those who did not ask.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 61 sense of “he asked (something) (for himself)”. with the addition of to oneself. like Hithpael and the Greek middle. expressing mutual action. that he should make two calves. to those who did not seek Me. 10 Isaiah 65:1 ‫שׁנִ י‬ ֑ ֻ ‫֖אתי ְל ֣ל ֹא ִב ְק‬ ִ ‫תּי ְל ֣לוֹא ָשׁ ָ֔אלוּ נִ ְמ ֵצ‬ ֙ ִ ‫נִ ְד ַ ֙ר ְשׁ‬ I let Myself be inquired of. . Nehemiah 13:6.).e. Compare GK 51e: “It (Niphal) has also.יָ ַעץ( וַ יִּ וָּ ַעץ‬imperf.g. ‫נִ ְשׁ ַאל‬ to ask (something) for oneself. 9 I Kings 12:28 ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ַע֣ץ ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וַ ַ֕יּ ַעשׂ ְשׁ ֵנ֖י ֶעגְ ֵל֣י זָ ָ ֑הב‬ The king took counsel and he made two golden calves. Comment of Radak on ‫וַ יִּ וָּ ַע֣ץ‬ ‫יּוֹע ִצים אוֹתוֹ ֶשׁיַּ ֲע ֶשׂה‬ ֲ ‫ימה ֲע ָצתוֹ ִעם ַה‬ ָ ‫יאְך יַ ֲע ֶשׂה וְ ִה ְס ִכּ‬ ַ ‫ָשׁ ַאל ֵע ָצה ֵה‬ . for oneself. the meaning of the active. + vav consec. 28. Explanation of Radak Radak comments on the Niphal ‫ . explaining that it is a reciprocal Niphal. 3 m.‫ְשׁנֵ י ֲעגָ ִלים‬ Translation of Radak He asked advice how he should make (them) and he came to an agreement with his advisers.sg. he asked permission. i.” This usage occurs in the OT three times: I Sam 20:6.

Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra points out that the Niphal perfect forms (‫אתי‬ ִ ‫ נִ ְמ ֵצ‬and ‫)נִ ְד ַר ְשׁ ִתּי‬ are Tolerative Niphals.‫שׁוּבת השם‬ ַ ‫הנה ְתּ‬ ִ ‫ִה ְמ ֵצ‬ . 11 Jeremiah 6:8 ‫ימְך ְשׁ ָמ ָ֔מה ֶ ֖א ֶרץ ֥לוֹא‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ן־א ִשׂ‬ ֲ ‫ן־תּ ַ ֥ קע נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ִמ ֵ ֑מְּך ֶפּ‬ ֵ ‫וּשׁ ֔ ַל ִם ֶפּ‬ ָ ‫ִהוָּ ְס ִ ֙רי יְ ֣ר‬ ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה׃‬ ָֽ Allow yourself to be chastened. for your fathers angered Me. lest my soul be alienated from you.62 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ֙ ִ ‫ נִ ְד ַ ֙ר ְשׁ‬and ‫֖אתי‬ ִ ‫נִ ְמ ֵצ‬ Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫תּי‬ ‫ ַה ַטּ ַעם‬.‫ כי אבותיכם ִה ְכ ִעיסוּנִ י ואני נִ ְד ַר ְשׁ ִתּי‬. and the meaning is. a land not inhabited. I caused Myself to be found in the distress (of) a people who did not ask that I should be found for them. . but I let Myself be inquired of. expressing an action which the subject allows to happen to himself. Comment of Rashi on ‫ִהוָּ ְס ִרי‬ ‫מוּסר‬ ָ ‫ַק ְבּ ִלי‬ Translation of Rashi Accept chastening.‫אתי ַע ְצ ִמי ַבּ ָצּ ָרה ְל ַעם לֹא ָשׁ ֲאלוּ ֶשׁ ֶא ָמּ ֵצא ָל ֶהם‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra This is G-d’s answer. O Jerusalem. lest I make you a desolation. (compare GK 51c).

‫וכי ִא ָדּ ֵרשׁ ָל ֶהם‬ . Note also ‫( ֵתּ ַקע‬Qal imperf. alienated”).sg. sg. but the ḥolem (is regular) on the pattern of ‫( ִהנָּ תֹן‬Niphal inf. Jeremiah 38:3). f.e. shall I indeed let Myself be inquired of/consulted by them? Comment of Radak on ‫ָל ֶ ֽהם‬ ‫ַה ִא ָדּ ֥ר ֹשׁ ִא ָדּ ֵ ֖רשׁ‬ ‫בחוֹלם והאל"ף ִבּ ְמקוֹם ה"א כי‬ ָ ‫ הראשון ָמקוֹר‬. because it is difficult to pronounce two heys consecutively (i.‫ישׁה היא ָל ֵתת ְשׁ ֵא ָל ָתם‬ ָ ‫וְ ִקבּוּל ַה ְדּ ִר‬ Translation of Radak The ’alephs (in ‫ ) ַה ִא ָדּ ֥ר ֹשׁ ִא ָדּ ֵ ֖רשׁ‬have ḥireq. and have placed the stumbling-block of their iniquity before their faces. but the ’aleph is in place of hey. abs. these men have brought up their idols upon their heart.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 63 Explanation of Rashi Rashi comments on ‫ ִהוָּ ְס ִרי‬. the first word ‫ ִא ָדּר ֹשׁ‬is inf. 12 Ezekiel 14:3 ‫וּמ ְכ ֣שׁוֹל ֲעו ָֹ֔נם‬ ִ ‫ל־ל ָ֔בּם‬ ִ ‫יה ֙ם ַע‬ ֶ ‫וּל‬ ֵ ‫ן־א ָ ֗דם ָה ֲאנָ ִ ֤שׁים ָה ֵ֙א ֶלּ ֙ה ֶה ֱע ֤לוּ גִ ֽלּ‬ ָ ‫ֶבּ‬ ֑ ֶ ֵ‫נָ ְתנ֖ וּ ֹ֣נ ַכח ְפּנ‬ ‫יהם ַה ִא ָדּ ֥ר ֹשׁ ִא ָדּ ֵ ֖רשׁ ָל ֶ ֽהם׃‬ Son of man. His comment suggests that he sees ‫ ִהוָּ ְס ִרי‬as a Tolerative Niphal. admonish”. Niphal imperative f. corrected” (see GK 51c). “let yourself be chastened. And note the other Niphal. root ‫“ = יָ ַסר‬discipline. The (prophet) says: ‘Shall I let Myself be inquired of by them? Since their heart . abs. Compare Gen 32:36. chasten. ‫ישׁב‬ “inhabited”). ‫“ = יקע‬be dislocated. ‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬ ָ (part. ‫) ַה ִה ָדּר ֹשׁ‬.‫האלפ"ן בחירק‬ ‫בחוֹלם ְבּ ֶשׁ ֶקל ִהנָּ תוֹן‬ ָ ‫ָכּ ֵבד על הלשון ִל ְקרֹא ְשׁנֵ י ההי"ן ְכּ ֶא ָחד והוא‬ ִ ‫ִתּנָּ ֵתן ואמר‬ ‫יהם לא ִא ָדּ ֵרשׁ‬ ֶ ‫לּוּל‬ ֵ ִ‫ ְל ַא ַחר ֶשׁ ִלּ ָבּם אל גּ‬.sg. (Niphal) with ḥolem. 3 f.

since they do not deserve the privilege of consulting Him. may be understood as Tolerative Niphal. 13 Amos 9:9 ‫ת־בּ֣ית יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר‬ ֵ ‫ל־הגּוֹיִ ֖ם ֶא‬ ַ ‫וֹתי ְב ָ ֽכ‬ ִ ‫ֹכי ְמ ַצ ֶ ֔וּה וַ ֲהנִ ֥ע‬ ֙ ִ ‫י־ה ֵנּ֤ה ָ ֽאנ‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ַ ‫יִ ֙נּ‬ ‫וֹע ַבּ ְכּ ָב ָ ֔רה וְ ֽל ֹא־יִ ֥פּוֹל ְצ ֖רוֹר ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ For I will command and I will shake the House of Israel among all the nations as (grain) is shaken in a sieve. Accepting their inquiry is to give in to their request. and no pebble will fall to the ground.’ Explanation of Radak Radak first comments on the form of the Niphal inf. abs. ‫ ִא ָדּר ֹשׁ‬. ַ ‫יִ ֙נּ‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫וֹע׀‬ . (‫ ) ִא ָדּ ֵרשׁ‬preceded by inf. which (expresses the idea of) “shaking.64 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW is to their idols. I will not let Myself be inquired of. ‫נוּע‬ ַ ) means “be shaken.). G-d’s question indicates clearly that He has a choice whether or not to allow the people to inquire of Him. The ’aleph is in place of the usual hey for ease of pronunciation. tossed” by another and it is not possible to read ‫נוּע‬ ַ ָ‫( י‬Qal imperf. abs.‫נוּע ֶשׁהוּא ָדּ ָבר ַהנָּ ע ֵמ ֵא ָליו‬ ַ ָ‫על יְ ֵדי ַא ֵחר וְ לֹא יִ ָתּ ֵכן ִל ְקרוֹת י‬ Translation of Rashi ‫נּוֹע‬ ַ ִ‫( י‬Niphal imperf. trembling etc” on its own. Radak then explains that the Niphal imperf. 38:3) is a regular Niphal inf. formation. abs. ‫( ִהנָּ תֹן‬Jerem. .

= sieve. totters” etc. and with what shall I bow myself to G-d on High? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings. = pebble.‫לאדוניו‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The word ‫ ִא ַכּף‬is a double-‘ayin verb (‫ ) ָכּ ַפף‬with the meaning of “bow myself”. ‫ ְצרוֹר‬n. ‫נּוֹע‬ ַ ִ‫= י‬ “be tossed about” (of corn in a sieve).PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 65 Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that the Qal imperf. ַ in its causative sense. Hence. as is the custom of one who brings a gift to his master.m. trembles. this is the passive use of the Niphal. occurs the Hiphil of ‫נוּע‬ ‫וֹתי‬ ִ ‫“ וַ ֲהנִ ֥ע‬and I will shake” (cause to tremble. with calves a year old? Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִא ַ ֖כּף‬ ‫וּמ ַלּת ִא ַכּף ִמ ָפּ ֳע ֵלי ַה ֶכּ ֶפל ְכּ ֶד ֶרְך ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ה ְכ ִמנְ ַהג ַה ֵמּ ִביא ִמנְ ָחה‬ ִ . Note also: ‫ ְכּ ָב ָרה‬n. Comment of Radak on ‫ִא ַכּף‬ ‫ָשׁ ְרשׁוֹ ָכּפוּף והוא ִמ ִבּנְ יַ ן נִ ְפ ַעל‬ . Note that in the same verse. quiver). whereas in Amos 9:9 is found the Niphal imperf. of ‫נוּע‬ ַ would mean “he quivers.f. 14 Micah 6:6 ‫עוֹלוֹת ַבּ ֲעגָ ִ ֖לים ְבּ ֵנ֥י‬ ֔ ‫אֹלהי ָמ ֑רוֹם ַה ֲא ַק ְדּ ֶ ֣מנּוּ ְב‬ ֣ ֵ ‫הוה ִא ַ ֖כּף ֵל‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ַבּ ָמּ ֙ה ֲא ַק ֵדּ֣ם י‬ ‫ָשׁ ָנֽה׃‬ With what shall I come before the Lord.

66 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation of Radak Its root is ‫ ָכּ ַפף‬and it is Niphal. is it to bow down his head like a bulrush. and straightens all the bowed. Explanation of Ibn Ezra and Radak They have informed us that ‫ ִא ַכּף‬is Niphal imperf. + hey interrogative. ‫“ = כּפף‬bend. bowed”. 1 c. be bent.pl. Psalm 145:14 ‫פוּפים׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫ל־ה ְכּ‬ ַ ‫ל־הנּ ְֹפ ִ ֑לים וְ ֝זוֹ ֵ ֗קף ְל ָכ‬ ַ ‫סוֹמְך ְי֭הוָ ה ְל ָכ‬ ֵ֣ The Lord supports all the fallen ones. Isaiah 58:5 ‫אשׁוֹ‬ ֗ ֹ ‫מן ר‬ ֹ ֜ ְ‫ֲה ָכ ֶ֗זה יִ ְֽהיֶ ֙ה ֣צוֹם ֶא ְב ָח ֵ ֔רהוּ י֛ וֹם ַענּ֥ וֹת ָא ָ ֖דם נַ ְפ ֑שׁוֹ ֲה ָל ֨כֹף ְכּ ַאג‬ ‫יהוֽה׃‬ ָ ‫א־צוֹם וְ י֥ וֹם ָר ֖צוֹן ַל‬ ֔ ‫יע ֲה ָלזֶ ֙ה ִתּ ְק ָר‬ ַ ‫וְ ַ ֤שׂק וָ ֵ֙א ֶפ ֙ר יַ ִ֔צּ‬ Is such the Fast that I have chosen? A day for a man to afflict his soul. cstr. ‫פוּפים‬ ֽ ִ ‫ ְכּ‬is Qal passive participle m.sg. bend down. 15 Lamentations 1:4 ‫֖יה‬ ָ ‫וֹמ ִ֔מין כּ ֲֹה ֶנ‬ ֵ ‫יה ֽשׁ‬ ָ֙ ‫ל־שׁ ָע ֶ ֙ר‬ ְ ‫מוֹעד ָכּ‬ ֵ ֔ ‫ַדּ ְר ֵ֨כי ִציּ֜ וֹן ֲא ֵב ֗לוֹת ִמ ְבּ ִ ֙לי ָבּ ֵ ֣אי‬ ָ ‫תוֹּלת‬ ֶ֥ ‫נֶ ֱאנָ ִ ֑חים ְבּ‬ ‫ר־להּ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫יה נוּג֖ וֹת וְ ִ ֥היא ַמ‬ . and to spread sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a Fast and an acceptable day to the Lord? ‫ ֲה ָל ֨כֹף‬is Qal inf. Note the well-known uses of ‫ כּפף‬in Psalm 145:14 and Isaiah 58:5.

Comment of Rashi on ‫נוּג֖ וֹת‬ ‫שׁוֹרשׁ ַבּ ֵתּ ָיבה ֶא ָלּא הגימ"ל ְל ַב ָדּהּ‬ ֶ ‫ְלשׁוֹן יָ גוֹן ואין‬ Translation of Rashi ‫נוּג֖ וֹת‬ is connected with the noun ‫“ =( יָ גוֹן‬grief. The masc. however. it pre-dated the discovery of the basic triconsonantal nature of the verbal stem. that Rashi (1040-1105 CE) hailed from medieval Christian France. a discovery attributed to Judah b. It is worth remembering. He seems not to understand fully the function of the weak letters. Despite the great merits of Menaḥem’s dictionary (known as Maḥberet Menaḥem). all her gates are desolate. Ḥayyūj (950-1000 CE) who wrote in Arabic.pl. that all the Jewish philological research written in Arabic. and she is embittered. Explanation of Rashi Rashi is commenting on ‫ נוּג֖ וֹת‬which we know to be Niphal participle f.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 67 The roads of Zion are mourning for lack of those coming for the festival. sorrow”). noun ‫“ = יָ גוֹן‬grief. her priests are sighing. For the Jews of Christian France had no access to Arabic and to all the philological research which had been written in Arabic by the Jews of medieval Spain. Rashi comments that the only root letter in the word ‫ נוּג֖ וֹת‬is gimmel. from the root ‫“ = יגה‬suffer”. and for his lexicographical studies he relied on the dictionary of Menaḥem ibn Saruq (910-970 CE) which was the first complete dictionary in Hebrew. who consistently wrote in Hebrew. her maidens are grieving. It was only through the work of Abraham ibn Ezra (1092-1167). . but the only root letter (visible) in the word is the gimmel. sorrow” is also derived from this root.

Hartwig 1926). The student may consult the verb tables in any reliable Biblical Hebrew grammar book. son of your enemy Saul. Explanatory notes are found at the end of the section. . 3 Genesis 12:4 ‫הוה‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֣לְך ַא ְב ָ ֗רם ַכּ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ִדּ ֶ ֤בּר ֵא ָל ֙יו י‬ Abram went as the Lord spoke to him. PIEL Spot the Piel Study the following biblical verses. 1 II Samuel 4:8 ‫איִ ְב ָ֔ך ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִבּ ֵ ֖קּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ֶ ֑שָׁך‬ ֹ ֽ ֙‫ן־שׁאוּל‬ ָ ‫ישׁ־בּ ֹ ֶשׁת ֶבּ‬ ֗ ‫ֽה־ר ֹאשׁ ִ ֽא‬ ֣ ‫ִה ֵנּ‬ Here is the head of Ish-boshet. Parse and translate all the Piel verbs. who sought your life. (see Sarna N M. 1964. Hirschfield.68 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW became available to the Jews of Christian Europe. 2 Numbers 6:11 (atonement by sacrifice for the involuntary defilement of the Nazirite by contact with a dead body) ‫את וְ ֶא ָ ֣חד ְלע ֔ ָֹלה וְ ִכ ֶפּ֣ר ָע ֔ ָליו ֵמ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָח ָ ֖טא‬ ֙ ‫וְ ָע ָ ֣שׂה ַהכּ ֵֹ֗הן ֶא ָ ֤חד ְל ַח ָטּ‬ ַ ‫ַע‬ ‫אשׁוֹ ַבּיּ֥ וֹם ַה ֽהוּא׃‬ ֖ ֹ ‫ל־ה ָנּ ֶ֑פשׁ וְ ִק ַ ֥דּשׁ ֶאת־ר‬ The priest shall make one for a sin-offering and one for a burnt-offering and he shall atone for him from that which he sinned over the (dead) soul and he shall sanctify his head on that day.

PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 4 69 Genesis 21:1 ‫הו֛ה ְל ָשׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִדּ ֵ ֽבּר׃‬ ָ ְ‫שׁר ָא ָ ֑מר וַ יַּ ַעשׂ י‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ת־שׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא‬ ָ ‫ַיהו֛ה ָפּ ַ ֥ קד ֶא‬ ָ ‫ֽו‬ The Lord remembered Sarah as He had said. save my soul! 7 Genesis 2:3 ‫יעי וַ יְ ַק ֵ ֖דּשׁ א ֹ֑תוֹ‬ ִ ֔ ‫ים ֶאת־י֣ וֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב‬ ֙ ‫ֹלה‬ ִ ‫וַ יְ ָ ֤ב ֶרְך ֱא‬ G-d blessed the seventh day and sanctified it. 9 I Kings 3:3 ‫וּמ ְק ִ ֽטיר׃‬ ַ ‫ַ ֚רק ַבּ ָבּ ֔מוֹת ֥הוּא ְמזַ ֵ ֖בּ ַח‬ . 8 Exodus 10:3 (Moses and Aaron to Pharoah in the name of G-d) ‫ד־מ ַ ֣תי ֵמ ַ֔אנְ ָתּ ֵל ָע ֹ֖נת ִמ ָפּ ָנ֑י ַשׁ ַ ֥לּח ַע ִ ֖מּי וְ ַי ַֽע ְב ֻ ֽדנִ י׃‬ ָ ‫ַע‬ Until when will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go that they may serve Me. O Lord. and the Lord did for Sarah as He had spoken. 5 Amos 2:14 ‫נוֹס ִמ ָ ֔קּל וְ ָח ָז֖ק לֹא־יְ ַא ֵ ֣מּץ כּ ֹ֑חוֹ וְ גִ ֖בּוֹר לֹא־יְ ַמ ֵ ֥לּט נַ ְפ ֽשׁוֹ׃‬ ֙ ‫וְ ָא ַ ֤בד ָמ‬ Escape will perish from the swift and the strong will not muster his strength and the mighty man will not deliver his life. 6 Psalm 116:4 ‫֝הוה ַמ ְלּ ָ ֥טה נַ ְפ ִ ֽשׁי׃‬ ֗ ָ ‫ָא ָנּ֥ה ְי‬ Please.

11 Isaiah 66:13 ‫וּשׁ ַל ִ֖ם ְתּנֻ ָ ֽחמוּ׃‬ ָ ‫וּב ֽיר‬ ִ ‫ֹכי ֲא ַנ ֶ֣ח ְמ ֶ֔כם‬ ֙ ִ ‫ְכּ ִ֕אישׁ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִא ֖מּוֹ ְתּנַ ֲח ֶ ֑מנּוּ ֵכּ֤ן ָ ֽאנ‬ Like a man whose mother consoles him. 12 Leviticus 13:44 ‫ַט ֵ ֧מּא יְ ַט ְמּ ֶ ֛אנּוּ ַהכּ ֵ ֹ֖הן‬ The priest shall surely declare him impure. son of Hammedata the Agagite and exalted him. 14 Exodus 3:22 ‫וּשׂ ָמ ֹ֑לת‬ ְ ‫וּכ ֵ ֥לי זָ ָ ֖הב‬ ְ ‫י־כ ֶ֛סף‬ ֶ ‫יתהּ ְכּ ֵל‬ ָ֔ ‫וּמגָּ ַ ֣רת ֵבּ‬ ִ ‫וְ ָשׁ ֲא ֨ ָלה ִא ָ ֤שּׁה ִמ ְשּׁ ֶכנְ ָתּ ֙הּ‬ ֶ ֵ‫ל־בּנ‬ ְ ‫וְ ַשׂ ְמ ֶ֗תּם ַע‬ ‫ת־מ ְצ ָ ֽריִם׃‬ ִ ‫יכם וְ נִ ַצּ ְל ֶ ֖תּם ֶא‬ ֶ֔ ‫ל־בּ ֹ֣נ ֵת‬ ְ ‫יכ ֙ם וְ ַע‬ . and in Jerusalem you will be consoled. 13 Esther 3:1 ‫ן־ה ְמּ ָ ֛ד ָתא‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ָ ֧מן ֶ ֽבּ‬ ָ ‫ַא ַ ֣חר ׀ ַה ְדּ ָב ִ ֣רים ָה ֵ֗א ֶלּה גִּ ַדּ ֩ל ַה ֶ֨מּ ֶלְך ֲא ַח ְשׁוֵ ֜רוֹשׁ ֶא‬ ‫ָה ֲאגָ ִ ֖גי ַוֽ יְ נַ ְשּׂ ֵ ֑אהוּ‬ After these things. so will I console you. King Ahasuerus promoted Haman.70 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Only on the high places did he (Solomon) offer sacrifices and offer incense. 10 Exodus 35:3 ‫א־ת ַב ֲע ֣רוּ ֵ֔אשׁ ְבּ ֖כֹל מ ְֹשׁ ֽבֹ ֵת ֶיכ֑ם ְבּי֖ וֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָ ֽבּת׃‬ ְ ֹ‫ל‬ You shall not kindle fire in all your dwelling places on the Sabbath day.

“also for your camels I will draw until they finish drinking”. 18 Genesis 42:25 ֒‫יה ֮ם ָבּר‬ ֶ ‫ת־כּ ֵל‬ ְ ‫יוֹסף וַ יְ ַמ ְל ֣אוּ ֶא‬ ֵ֗ ‫וַ יְ ַצ֣ו‬ Joseph commanded and they filled their vessels with grain. and you shall put them on your sons and daughters and you shall strip off (despoil) the Egyptians. 16 Exodus 24:15 ‫ת־ה ָ ֽהר׃‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ָ ֑הר וַ יְ ַ ֥כס ֶה ָע ָנ֖ ן ֶא‬ ָ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֥על מ ֶ ֹ֖שׁה ֶא‬ Moses ascended the mountain and the cloud covered the mountain. 19 Psalm 33:18-20 ‫ִה ֵנּ֤ה ֵע֣ין ְי֭הוָ ה ֶאל־יְ ֵר ָ ֑איו ַל ְֽמיַ ֲח ִ ֥לים ְל ַח ְס ֽדּוֹ׃ ְל ַה ִ ֣צּיל ִמ ָ ֣מּוֶ ת נַ ְפ ָ ֑שׁם‬ ָ֗ ‫וּ ְ֝ל ַח‬ ‫וּמגִ ֵנּ֣נוּ ֽהוּא׃‬ ָ ‫יהו֑ה ֶעזְ ֵ ֖רנוּ‬ ָ ‫יּוֹתם ָבּ ָר ָ ֽעב׃ ַ ֭נ ְפ ֵשׁנוּ ִח ְכּ ָ ֣תה ַ ֽל‬ .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 71 Every woman shall borrow from her neighbour and from the woman living in her house silver vessels and golden vessels and garments. 15 Malachi 3:1 ‫ה־ד ֶרְך ְל ָפ ָנ֑י‬ ֖ ֶ ָ‫וּפנּ‬ ִ ‫ִהנְ ִנ֤י שׁ ֵֹל ַח ַמ ְל ָא ִ֔כי‬ Behold I will send My messenger and he will clear a path before Me. 17 Genesis 24:19 ‫תּת׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ם־כּ ֖לּוּ ִל ְשׁ‬ ִ ‫אמר ַגּ֤ם ִלגְ ַמ ֶ ֙לּ ֙יָך ֶא ְשׁ ָ֔אב ַ ֥עד ִא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ְתּ ַכ֖ל ְל ַה ְשׁק ֹ֑תוֹ וַ ֗תּ‬ She finished giving him to drink and she said.

‫ וְ ִכ ֶבּס‬and he will wash (11 times. “and he will sanctify”. Ḥireq in first syllable and tsere in second syllable. + vav consec. to those who await His kindness. but an attenuation of tsere. our soul awaits the Lord. but He has not given me over to death.sg. m. is used mostly with the conjunctive accent and when -‫ִק ַטּל‬ loses the stress (before maqqef). ‫ ִכּ ֶפּר‬he expiated. and only rarely with a disjunctive accent. to rescue their soul from death. the pataḥ of which is not the primitive a.. a lighter form. Strong dagesh in middle root letter. 3 m. “He sought”. 20 Psalm 118:18 ‫יַ ֣סֹּר יִ ְסּ ַ ֣רנִּ י ָיּ֑הּ וְ ַ֝ל ָ֗מּוֶ ת ֣ל ֹא נְ ָת ָנֽנִ י׃‬ G-d has chastened me severely. ‫קדשׁ‬. Thus with a conjunctive accent we find ‫ ֵבּ ַרְך‬always. Regular formation. See JM 52c: “In three verbs we find the vowel ֶ ‫ ִדּ ֶבּר‬he spoke. ‫בקשׁ‬. These anomalies are difficult to explain.” ‫וְ ִק ַדּשׁ‬ Piel perf. He is our help and our shield. and to preserve them alive in famine. Explanatory notes for spot the Piel 1 II Samuel 4:8 ‫ִבּ ֵקּשׁ‬ Piel perf. but twice ‫)!וְ ִכ ֵבּס‬. The form ‫ ִק ַטּל‬.sg. with a weak disjunc- . Although ֵ is secondary. Note the pataḥ rather than tsere in the second syllable. “and he will atone”. 2 Numbers 6:11 ‫וְ ִכ ֶפּר‬ Piel perf. 3 m.72 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Behold the eye of the Lord is to those who fear Him. + vav consec.sg. sg. ‫ ִק ֵטּל‬is the proper form of Piel and also its pausal form. ‫כפר‬. One very often finds the form ‫ ִק ַטּל‬.Note the segol rather than tsere in the second syllable. See JM 52c:“Perfect 3rd pers. In pause one finds ‫ ִדּ ֵבּר‬and ‫ ִכּ ֵבּס‬. 3 m.

the pausal form (which does not occur) would have been ‫ ֵבּ ֵרְך‬. 3 m. ‫וַ יְ ַק ֵדּשׁ‬ Piel imperf. . Note compensatory lengthening of pataḥ to qamets under the vet due to absence of dagesh in resh (middle root letter).sg. ‫מלט‬. 3 m. “He will rescue. “he spoke”. “and he sanctified”. These are regular formations.sg.sg. 3 m. 3 m. “Save. ‫יְמ ֵלּט‬ ַ Piel imperf. deliver!” Genesis 2:3 ‫וַ יְ ָ ֤ב ֶרְך‬ Piel imperf. ‫מלט‬. Pausal form. 6 Psalm 116:4 ‫ַמ ְלּ ָטה‬ 7 Piel emphatic imperative m. 3 m. + vav consec. ‫דבר‬. “he spoke”. + vav consec.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 73 tive accent we find ‫ ֵבּ ַרְך‬twice and ‫ ֵבּ ֵרְך‬twice. See note above on 2.” 3 Genesis 12:4 ‫ִדּ ֶבּר‬ 4 Piel perf. ‫אמץ‬. “He will make firm. above on 2.sg.sg. “and he blessed”. deliver”. Note also the reduction of tsere to segol under the resh due to retraction of accent from final syllable to penultimate syllable after vav consec. strengthen”. ‫קדשׁ‬. 5 ‫דבר‬.sg.sg. ‫ברך‬. Genesis 21:1 ‫ִדּ ֵ ֽבּר׃‬ Piel perf. see note Amos 2:14 ‫יְ ַא ֵמּץ‬ Piel imperf. 3 m.

(tsere in second syllable). let go”. Note the “virtual doubling” of the ‘ayin (middle root letter). Note that the guttural (ḥet) requires the vowel pataḥ before it.pl.g. since gutturals usually take composite sheva instead of the simple vocal sheva. since the guttural does not admit dagesh. ‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬ Piel imperative m. ‫ ַדּ ֵבּר‬. 2 m. Note also the composite sheva (ḥatephpataḥ) under the ‘ayin. 2 m.sg.sg. 3 f. see: WHG pp 130-131: GK 58i-l).74 8 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Exodus 10:3 ‫ֵמ ַאנְ ָתּ‬ Piel perf. + suffix 3 m. Note that the guttural (ḥet) takes a furtive pataḥ after the full accented vowel. “You refuse”. 10 Exodus 35:3 ‫ )לֹא־( ְת ַב ֲע ֣רו‬Piel imperf. ‫שׁלח‬.sg. “You shall (not) kindle”. “Send away. but there is no compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel. 11 Isaiah 66:13 ‫ְתּנַ ֲח ֶמנּוּ‬ Piel imperf. “Sacrificing”. ‫נחם‬. Compare the regular Piel imperative m. ‫מאן‬.sg. Note “virtual doubling” of middle root letter (the guttural ḥet).sg. with energic nun. (for Energic Nun. ‫בער‬. e.sg. ‫זבח‬. Note compensatory lengthening of ḥireq to tsere under the mem due to absence of dagesh in the ’aleph (a guttural). . 9 I Kings 3:3 ‫ְמזַ ֵבּ ַח‬ Piel participle m. “She comforts him”. formation.

sg. + suffix 2 m.pl. However.sg. 13 Esther 3:1 ‫גִּ ַדּל‬ Piel perf. note that in theory. All perfects of lamed-hey verbs without afformatives end in ‫ָה‬. 3 m. ‫טמא‬. ‫ וַ יְ נַ ְשּׂ ֵאהוּ‬Piel imperf. 3 m. 2 m. (energic nun). 3 m. ‫יְ ַט ְמּ ֶאנּוּ‬ Piel imperf. rescued”. abs. lifted him up). 1 c. 14 Exodus 3:22 ‫וְ נִ ַצּ ְל ֶתּם‬ Piel perf. ‫וְ ִשׁ ַבּ ְר ֶתּם‬.sg. ‫נחם‬. Note that in this form the lamed-’aleph verb is patterned after the corresponding form of the strong verb. “He made great”. ‫ נִ ַצּ ְל ֶתּם‬could be Niphal perf. Note pataḥ as second vowel. 3 m. ‫נצל‬. lamed-’aleph verb.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ֲאנַ ֶח ְמ ֶכם‬ Piel imperf. with assimilation of the first root letter (nun) into the tsadi (‫ )נִ ַצּ ְל ֶתּם > נִ נְ ַצ ְל ֶתּם‬with the passive meaning. 12 Leviticus 13:44 ‫ַט ֵמּא‬ Piel inf. + sf. 2 m. “and he exalted him” (lit. 12:3).pl. ‫נשׂא‬.sg. “He shall declare him impure”. + vav consec. ‫פנה‬. 3 m. + vav consec.sg. Compare ‫> נִ נְ ַצ ְלנוּ‬ ‫ נִ ַצּ ְלנוּ‬in Jeremiah 7:10 (Spot the Niphal no 5). “and you shall despoil”. Note that in this form the pe-nun verb is patterned after the corresponding form of the strong verb. Deut.g. “and you shall be delivered. of ‫נצל‬. Note that in this form the lamed-’aleph verb is patterned after the corresponding form of the strong verb. + vav consec. + sf.sg. . “and he will make clear.sg. empty”. (e. 75 “I will comfort you”. Lamed-hey verb. 15 Malachi 3:1 ‫וּפנָּ ה‬ ִ Piel perf. Lamed-’aleph verb. 3 m.pl.

‫וַ יְ ַמ ְלאוּ‬ Piel imperf. Lamedhey.see Isaiah 5:2.sg. 3 c. since the absence of a strong vowel causes the strengthening to be less noticeable”. Pe-yod and ‘ayin guttural. “They (shall have) finished”. Compare ‫( וַ יְ ַקו‬root ‫)קוה‬. Note use of Biblical Hebrew “perfect” for the English “future perfect”. 3 m.“and he/it covered”. Note the composite sheva under the ḥet (middle root letter) instead of simple vocal .‫ ִכּלּוּ‬Piel perf. See GK 20 l-m for “The loss of the dagesh forte”—“Very frequently in certain consonants with sheva mobile. 3 f.76 16 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Exodus 24:15 ‫וַ יְ ַכס‬ Piel imperf. apocopated + vav consec. Gen. 18:19. Long form of imperf. All imperfects of lamed-hey verbs without afformatives end in ‫ ֶ◌ה‬. ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬. ‫כלה‬.sg. would be ‫( ְתּ ַכ ֶלּה‬see 16 above). 19 Psalm 33:18-20 ‫ַל ְמיַ ֲח ִלים‬ Piel participle m. bring to an end. finished” > in Piel = “complete. ‫( ָכּ ָלה‬Qal) = “be complete.pl. ‫צוה‬.). The longer form would be ‫ יְ ַצוֶּ ה‬See e. apocopated + vav consec.pl. ‫כלה‬. finish”. + vav consec. “and she finished”.g. The long form of Piel imperf. section on Polel etc. 18 Genesis 42:25 ‫ וַ יְ ַצו‬Piel imperf. Note absence of dagesh in lamed (middle root letter). + vav consec. apocopated 3 m. ‫יחל‬. Imperfects of lamed-hey verbs with hey as their final consonant often appear in apocopated (shortened) form after vav consec. at an end. Note that the middle root letter is consonantal vav (see below.pl. ‫כסה‬. “and they filled”. 17 Genesis 24:19 ‫וַ ְתּ ַכל‬ Piel imperf. 3 m. would be ‫יְכ ֶסּה‬ ַ .sg.

‫יסר‬. Pe- yod verb. e. + lamed prep.sg. 3 f. ‫חיה‬. 1 c. “it/she awaits”. in all stems of verbs lamed-hey is formed by substituting the old feminine ‫ ת‬for the final ‫ ה‬of the verb root and adding ‫ ָה‬the 3 f. ‫חכה‬. 3 f. “He has chastened me”. cstr. abs. ‫יּוֹתם‬ ָ֗ ‫וּ ְ֝ל ַח‬ Piel inf. It is a strengthening and repetition of the action. ‫= ִשׁ ֵבּר‬ “he broke in pieces”. Pe-guttural and lamed-hey.afformative. (see Bibliography). I: Intensive of Qal The Piel adds such ideas as: often. + sf.pl. Uses of Piel The following summary of the uses of Piel is based on the analyses of modern grammarians. ‫יסר‬. to the simple idea of the verb. this form is patterned after the form of a regular Piel participle. 3 m. Note that all inf. ‫ָשׁ ַבר‬ = “he broke”. Otherwise.sg. forms of lamed-hey verbs drop the final hey together with the preceding vowel and replace them with ‫ו ֹת‬. + suffix 3 m.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 77 sheva. 20 Psalm 118:18 ‫ יַ סֹּר‬Piel inf. “to preserve them alive. for a long time.sg. ‫יִ ְסּ ַרנִ י‬ Piel perf.g. ‘ayin-yod and lamed-hey. The perf.sg. cstr. much. II Kings 18:4 ‫ת־ה ֲא ֵשׁ ָ ֑רה‬ ֽ ָ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ֵצּ ֔בֹת וְ ָכ ַ ֖רת ֶא‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ָבּ ֗מוֹת וְ ִשׁ ַבּ ֙ר ֶא‬ ַ ‫֣הוּא ֵה ִ ֣סיר ֶא‬ .sg. ‫ִח ְכּ ָתה‬ Piel perf. let them live”.

g. no 2. ‫ָשׁ ַאל‬ = “he asked”. and may they seek from their ruins”. . so that the conjugation should more correctly be called Pi al—. (see GK 52a: “In the second syllable.”) See also above. ‫ָצ ַחק‬ = “he laughed”. ‫ִשׁ ֵאל‬ = “he begged” (only twice in Piel) e. jested”. Genesis 21:9 ‫ן־ה ָג֧ר ַה ִמּ ְצ ִ ֛רית ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ְל ָ ֥דה ְל ַא ְב ָר ָ ֖הם ְמ ַצ ֵ ֽחק׃‬ ָ ‫ת־בּ‬ ֶ ‫וַ ֵ֨תּ ֶרא ָשׂ ָ ֜רה ֶ ֽא‬ “Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian whom she had borne to Abraham mocking”. Explanatory Notes for Spot the Piel. Psalm 109:10 ‫יהם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫בוֹת‬ ֵ ‫וֹע יָ נ֣ וּעוּ ָב ָנ֣יו וְ ִשׁ ֵ ֑אלוּ וְ ָ֝ד ְר ֗שׁוּ ֵמ ָח ְר‬ ַ ֤‫וְ נ‬ “May his children constantly wander and beg. e. ‫ָס ַפר‬ ‫ִס ֵפּר‬ = “he counted”. e.g. related”. Exodus 10:2 ‫תּי ְבּ ִמ ְצ ַ ֔ריִם‬ ֙ ִ ‫ן־בּנְ ָ֗ך ֵ ֣את ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ִה ְת ַע ַ ֙לּ ְל‬ ִ ‫וּב‬ ֶ ‫וּל ַ֡מ ַען ְתּ ַס ֵפּר֩ ְבּ ָאזְ ֵ֨ני ִבנְ ָ֜ך‬ ְ “And in order that you may recount to your son and your grandson how I mocked Egypt”.g. = “he recounted. a has been retained in the majority of cases. shattered the pillars and cut down the asherah trees”. ‫ִצ ֵחק‬ = “he laughted repeatedly.78 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “He removed the high places.

ask repeatedly). Jouon/Muraoka further suggest that such Piels may have to do with the frequency of an action. King Ahasuerus promoted Haman” ‫( ָל ַמד‬Qal) = “he learned” ‫( ִל ַמּד‬Piel) = “he taught” The latter example is designated “causative” by Lambdin on the basis that the Qal is transitive. . 148) suggests that many socalled intensive Piels seem to be stylistic variants of the Qal. e. I Kings 11:15: ‫ת־ה ֲח ָל ִ ֑לים‬ slain”. but rather a pluralizing category. e. magnified” e.e. ‫( גָּ ַדל‬Qal) = “he grew up. II: Factitive/causative “Factitive” denotes the generation of a state or quality.g.g. notably Qal.g. ‫“ = ִצ ֵחק‬laugh repeatedly”. suggesting that some Piel verbs involve either multiple subַ ‫“ = ְל ַק ֵ ֖בּר ֶא‬to bury the jects or objects. ‫= ִשׁ ֵאל‬ “beg”(i. Lambdin (Lesson 40. became great” ‫( גִּ ַדּל‬Piel) = “he made great. should be defined still remainsone of the major challenges facing Hebrew and Semitic linguistics”. Esther 3:1: ‫ת־ה ָ ֧מן‬ ָ ‫ַא ַ ֣חר ַה ְדּ ָב ִ ֣רים ָה ֵ֗א ֶלּה גִּ ַדּ ֩ל ַה ֶ֨מּ ֶלְך ֲא ַח ְשׁוֵ ֜רוֹשׁ ֶא‬ “After these things. active or factitive meaning in the Piel.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 79 Jouon/Muraoka (52d) do not list an intensive category. A root which occurs in the Qal as an intransitive or stative verb may have a transitive. Jouon/Muraoka (52d) conclude as follows: “—the question how the function of Piel in relation to other conjugations.

(Note four Piel perfect forms in this verse: ‫ִתּ ֵ ֖קּן‬ ‫) ִל ַמּד וְ ִא ֵ ֣זּ ן וְ ִח ֵ ֔קּר‬ III: Declarative/estimative ‫נִ ָקּה‬ = “he declared innocent” ‫ִט ַהר‬ = “he declared clean” ‫ִט ֵמּא‬ = “he declared unclean” e. Ecclesiastes 12:9: ‫ת־ה ֔ ָעם וְ ִא ֵ ֣זּ ן וְ ִח ֵ ֔קּר ִתּ ֵ ֖קּן‬ ָ ‫ד־דּ ַע ֙ת ֶא‬ ֙ ַ ‫וְ י ֵֹ֕תר ֶשׁ ָה ָי֥ה ק ֶ ֹ֖ה ֶלת ָח ָ ֑כם ֗עוֹד ִל ַמּ‬ ‫ְמ ָשׁ ִ ֥לים ַה ְר ֵ ֽבּה׃‬ “And besides being wise. for the plague has been healed”.g. Leviticus 14:48 ‫ת־ה ַ֔בּיִ ת ִ ֥כּי נִ ְר ָ ֖פּא ַה ָנּֽ גַ ע׃‬ ַ ‫ֹהן ֶא‬ ֙ ֵ ‫וְ ִט ַ ֤הר ַהכּ‬ “The priest shall declare the house pure. Kohelet also taught the people knowledge and he tested and he sought out and he arranged many proverbs”. Exodus 34:7 ‫נ ֵ ֹ֥צר ֶ֙ח ֶס ֙ד ָל ֲא ָל ֔ ִפים נ ֵ ֹ֥שׂא ָע ֹ֛ון וָ ֶ ֖פ ַשׁע וְ ַח ָטּ ָ ֑אה וְ נַ ֵקּ ֙ה ֣ל ֹא יְ נַ ֶ ֔קּה‬ “Preserving kindness for thousands of generations. rebellion and sin.g. e. bearer of iniquity. e. who absolves (declares innocent) but not entirely”.g.80 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW e.g. Leviticus 13:8 ‫וְ ָר ָא ֙ה ַהכּ ֵֹ֔הן וְ ִה ֵנּ֛ה ָפּ ְשׂ ָ ֥תה ַה ִמּ ְס ַ ֖פּ ַחת ָבּ ֑עוֹר וְ ִט ְמּ ֥אוֹ ַהכּ ֵ ֹ֖הן ָצ ַ ֥ר ַעת ִ ֽהוא׃‬ .

and indeed. (GK 38b). as for the stork. extirpate ‫( זִ נֵּ ב‬from ‫)זָ נָ ב‬ rout the rear (of an army) (lit. Psalm 104:17 ‫יתהּ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫רוֹשׁים ֵבּ‬ ֥ ִ ‫ר־שׁם ִצ ֳפּ ִ ֣רים יְ ַק ֵנּ֑נוּ ֲ֝ח ִס ָ ֗ידה ְבּ‬ ֭ ָ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬ “For there the birds nest. and assuredly more primitive. and generally express a being occupied with the object expressed by the noun. ‫( ֵשׁ ֵרשׁ‬from ‫= )שׁ ֶֹרשׁ‬ root out. Denominatives “are frequently formed in this conjugation.” Further examples are: ‫ = ִקנֵּ ן‬make a nest (‫ = ֵקן‬nest) ‫ = ִע ַפּר‬throw dust (‫ = ָע ָפר‬dust) ‫ = ִענֵּ ן‬gather clouds (‫ = ָענָ ן‬cloud) e.) ָדּ ָבר‬to act as priest (‫ ִא ֵלּם . the fir-trees are her house. injure the tail) = . noun: ‫ ִדּ ֶבּר‬to speak (‫ ִכּ ֵהן .” V: Privative Piels The denominative Piel may express the taking away or injuring of the object denoted by the noun and this is termed a Privative Piel.g. See JM 52d: “The following examples are denominative in the sense that there lies behind each of them a related.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 81 “The priest shall look. the scab has spread on the skin.)כּ ֵֹהן‬to bind sheaves (‫) ֲא ֻל ָמּה‬. either to form or to make use of it”. it is tzara’at”. IV: Denominatives “Denominatives” are verbs derived from nouns. (GK 52h). The priest shall declare it impure.

he planted it with choice shoots”. 1 Genesis 24:56 (Eliezer to Laban. II Samuel 16:6 ‫ל־ע ְב ֵ ֖די ַה ֶ ֣מּ ֶלְך ָדִּו֑ד‬ ַ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ת־דּ ִ֔וד וְ ֶא‬ ָ ‫וַ יְ ַס ֵ ֤קּל ָ ֽבּ ֲא ָבנִ ֙ים ֶא‬ “He pelted David and all of King David’s servants with stones”. The root ‫ סקל‬occurs in both Qal and Piel in the sense of “stone. Gesenius (GK 52h) suggests that this is an example of a denominative although the noun from which it is derived is no longer found. and occurs also in Piel in the privative sense of “remove stones. Isaiah 5:2). Psalm 52:7 ‫וְ ֵ ֽשׁ ֶר ְשׁ ָ֙ך ֵמ ֶ ֖א ֶרץ ַח ִיּ֣ים‬ “And He will uproot you from the land of life”. clear away stones” (see below. ‫יח ַדּ ְר ִ ֑כּי ַשׁ ְלּ ֕חוּנִ י וְ ֵא ְל ָ ֖כה‬ ַ ‫ַיהו֖ה ִה ְצ ִ ֣ל‬ ָ ‫ל־תּ ַא ֲח ֣רוּ א ִֹ֔תי ֽו‬ ְ ‫אמר ֲא ֵל ֶה ֙ם ַא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ֽ ַלאד ִ ֹֽני׃‬ .82 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫( ִדּ ֵשּׁן‬from ‫) ֶדּ ֶשׁן‬ = ‫( ִח ֵטּא‬from ‫= ) ֵח ְטא‬ remove the ashes free from sin e. seeking a wife for Isaac). Exercise: identify the Piel verbs in the following biblical verses. discuss their form and use. II Samuel 16:6). and cleared it of stones. (see explanatory notes at the end).g. Isaiah 5:2 ‫הוּ שׂ ֵ ֹ֔רק‬ ֙ ‫ַוֽ יְ ַעזְּ ֵ ֣ קהוּ ַוֽ יְ ַס ְקּ ֗ ֵלהוּ וַ יִּ ָטּ ֙ ֵע‬ “He fenced it around. pelt with stones”(see below.

send me away and I will go to my master’. ‫אמר ַדּ ְבּ ֔רוּ ַאל־יִ ְת ַה ֵ ֥לּל ח ֵֹג֖ר ִכּ ְמ ַפ ֵ ֽתּ ַח׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ַיּ֤ ַען ֶ ֽמ ֶלְך־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל֙ וַ ֣יּ‬ . who was besieging Samaria and threatening Israel). 3 Numbers 33:4 ‫ל־בּ ֑כוֹר‬ ְ ‫הו֛ה ָבּ ֶ ֖הם ָכּ‬ ָ ְ‫וּמ ְצ ַ ֣ריִם ְמ ַק ְבּ ִ ֗רים ֵא ֩ת ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ִה ָ ֧כּה י‬ ִ The Egyptians were burying every firstborn. whom the Lord had killed among them. King of Aram. as the Lord has made my journey a success. because he desired Jacob’s daughter. ‫לוְֹך וַ יְ ַק ֔ ֵלּל‬ ֙ ‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֧לְך ָדִּו֛ד וַ ֲאנָ ָ ֖שׁיו ַבּ ָ ֑דּ ֶרְך וְ ִשׁ ְמ ֡ ִעי ה ֵֹלְך֩ ְבּ ֵ֨צ ַלע ָה ָ֜הר ְל ֻע ָמּ ֗תוֹ ָה‬ ‫וַ יְ ַס ֵ ֤קּל ָ ֽבּ ֲא ָבנִ ֙ים ְל ֻע ָמּ ֔תוֹ וְ ִע ַ ֖פּר ֶבּ ָע ָ ֽפר׃‬ David and his men continued on the way. ‘do not detain me. 4 II Samuel 16:13 (Shimei ben Gera. and he was the most important among his father’s entire household. 5 I Kings 20:11 (Ahab’s answer to Ben-Hadad. curses David. with Shimei walking along the side of the mountain opposite him. from a family of the House of Saul. 2 Genesis 34:19 ‫א־א ַ ֤חר ַהנַּ֙ ַע ֙ר ַל ֲע ֣שׂוֹת ַה ָדּ ָ֔בר ִ ֥כּי ָח ֵ ֖פץ ְבּ ַ ֽבת־יַ ֲע ֑קֹב וְ ֣הוּא נִ ְכ ָ֔בּד ִמ ֖כֹּל‬ ֵ ֹ ‫וְ ֽל‬ ‫ֵ ֥בּית ָא ִ ֽביו׃‬ The youth did not delay carrying out the thing. who had left Jerusalem during Absalom’s rebellion). he cursed and flung stones towards him and threw dirt as he went along.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 83 He said to them.

1 c. + vav consec. 2 m. factitive/causative. + sf. let go.sg.84 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW The King of Israel replied. ‫אחר‬. answer me: speak. 3 m. Contrast the “intensive” use of this root in Gen. ‫קבר‬. 3 Numbers 33:4 ‫ְמ ַק ְבּ ִרים‬ Piel participle m. 31:27. 32:5: ‫ד־ע ָתּה‬ contracted from ‫ וָ ֶא ֱא ַחר‬Qal imperf. 34:19 (below). Explanatory notes (for: identify the Piel verbs) 1 Genesis 24:56 ‫ְתּ ַא ֲחרוּ‬ Piel imperf. 32:27.pl. “Do not hinder me. away. Gen. set free”. but note the “pluralizing” category suggested by Jouon/Muraoka (52d). Used only once in Qal. whereby some Piel verbs involve either multiple subjects or objects. 2 Genesis 34:19 ‫ֵא ַחר‬ Piel perf. Perhaps “intensive” of Qal ‫ָק ַבר‬ = “he buried”. 5:1 etc. let he who girds on (his sword) not boast like he who takes it off’. “Intensive” of Qal ‫“= ָשׁ ַלח‬he sent”. dismiss. Piel has force of: “send off. Intensive of Qal. . ‘Speak. 4:23. 31:4.pl. ‫ַשׁ ְלּחוּנִ י‬ Piel imperat. ֽ ָ ‫“ וָ ֵא ַ ֖חר ַע‬and I delayed/tarried until now”. 30:25. (Gen.pl. ‫י־ח ַ ֥פ ְצ ִתּי ַצ ְדּ ֶ ֽ קךָּ ׃‬ ָ ‫יבנִ י ַ ֝דּ ֵ֗בּר ִ ֽכּ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫שׁ־מ ִ ֥לּין ֲה ִשׁ‬ ִ ֵ‫ִאם־י‬ If there are words. Exod.sg. cause me delay”.g. 6 Job 33:32 (Elihu speaking to Job. for I wish to vindicate you. ‫ וָ ֵא ַ ֖חר‬is see Gen. 42:4 etc). ‫אחר‬. hoping to show that Job is right). e. m.

5 I Kings 20:11 ‫ְמ ַפ ֵתּ ַח‬ Piel participle m. + vav consec. 2 m. Qal ‫“ = ָפּ ַתח‬he opened”. m. . however. ‫וְ ִע ַפּר‬ Piel perf. + vav conjunctive. Deut. cstr. = “word”. ‫פתח‬.sg. 3 m. V. 3 m.pl. treat as unimportant” > “curse” (Lambdin 148). 16:13. several instances of ‫“ = דבר‬speak” in Qal: Gen. ‫וַ יְ ַס ֵקּל‬ Denominative. Students should study the biblical verses and compare the views of the medieval scholars with the views in modern grammar books. as well as brief biographical sketches of these scholars. 27:7. loosen”. Views of medieval scholars on use of Piel This section presents the views of medieval scholars on the uses of the Piel conjugation. See also Gen. ‫ ַדּ ְבּרוּ‬Piel imperat.sg. A glossary of some of the Hebrew grammatical terms used by these scholars is found at the end of the section. 36:5. Hence. Denominative. The Piel is “intensive”: “free.sg. trivial”. Note. 6 Job 33:32 ָ‫ַצ ְדּ ֶקךּ‬ Piel inf. Declarative or Estimative Piel. “Declare righteous”. derived from ‫ ָדּ ָבר‬n. ‫צדק‬.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 4 85 II Samuel 16:13 ‫וַ יְ ַק ֵלּל‬ Piel imperf. 32:27. Numb. ‫דבר‬. Exod. 24:32. together with translation and explanation. Derived from ‫“ = ָע ָפר‬dust”. Their comments are presented in the original rabbinic Hebrew.m. Factitive use of the root ‫ָק ַלל‬ = “be light. 6:29. Piel ‫ ִדּ ֶבּר‬is denominative. + sf. in Piel = “make light of. IV. 5:1.sg. See: Uses of Piel.

to see if the waters were abated from the face of the ground. 2 Genesis 9:14 ‫ל־ה ָ ֑א ֶרץ וְ נִ ְר ֲא ָ ֥תה ַה ֶ ֖קּ ֶשׁת ֶבּ ָע ָנֽ ן׃‬ ָ ‫וְ ָה ָ֕יה ְבּ ֽ ַענְ ִ ֥ני ָע ָנ֖ ן ַע‬ And it will be that when I gather a cloud over the earth. 3 m.sg. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that ‫( וַ יְ ַשׁ ַ ֥לּח‬Piel imperf. i.e. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ָע ָנ֖ ן‬ ‫ְבּ ֽ ַענְ ִ ֥ני‬ ‫הראשׁון והיה ָראוּי ְל ִה ָדּגֵ שׁ ַבּ ֲעבוּר ֶשׁהוּא ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬ ִ ‫ַקל הנו"ן‬ (‫ְכּמוֹ ְבּ ַד ְבּ ִ ֣רי ִע ָ֔מְּך )שמות יט ט‬ . not just of ‘send’ (as in the Qal).86 1 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Genesis 8:8 ‫אוֹת ֲה ַ ֣ קלּוּ ַה ַ֔מּיִם ֵמ ַ ֖על ְפּ ֵנ֥י ֽ ָה ֲא ָד ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֙ ‫יּוֹנ֖ה ֵמ ִא ֑תּוֹ ִל ְר‬ ָ ‫ת־ה‬ ַ ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַ ֥לּח ֶא‬ He sent forth the dove from him. Comment of Rashi on ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַ ֥לּח‬ ‫לּוּח‬ ַ ‫ֵאין זֶ ה ְלשׁוֹן ְשׁ ִליחוּת ֶא ָלּא לשון ִשׁ‬ Translation of Rashi This does not mean (merely) ‘sending on an errand’ but ‘sending away’ ‘letting go’. + vav consec. the rainbow will be seen in the cloud. it expresses the idea. that is. but of ‘send away’. complete dismissal.) is an ‘intensive’ Piel.

19:9). and in that sense is analogous to ‫( ְבּ ַד ְבּ ִ ֣רי‬lit.” See also GK 201: pp 73-74: “Omission of the strengthening. or at least the loss of Dagesh Forte occurs: a) almost always at the end of a word b) very frequently in certain consonants with sheva mobile.(root ‫)דבר‬. Ibn Ezra notices the absence of this dagesh in the nun of ‫בּ ֽ ַענְ ִ ֥ני‬. ְ Ibn Ezra’s comment should be compared with GK 52d: “The dagesh forte—characteristic of the whole of Piel and Pual. The vocal character of the sheva under the littera dagessenda is sometimes in such cases expressly emphasized by its taking the form of a ḥaṭeph.—. as in ‫ ְבּ ַד ְבּ ִ ֣רי‬. 19:9) which is also Piel inf. cstr.. is often omitted when the middle radical has sheva under it. derived from the noun Genesis 21:9 ‫ן־ה ָג֧ר ַה ִמּ ְצ ִ ֛רית ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ְל ָ ֥דה ְל ַא ְב ָר ָ ֖הם ְמ ַצ ֵ ֽחק׃‬ ָ ‫ת־בּ‬ ֶ ‫וַ ֵ֨תּ ֶרא ָשׂ ָ ֜רה ֶ ֽא‬ . 3 ‫ְבּ ַענֲ נִ י‬ is a denominative.sg. 1 c. “in my speaking”) (Exod. root ‫ענן‬. “in my gathering a cloud”) which is a Piel infinitive construct form with suffix 1 c. but it ought to have dagesh because it is of the heavy conjugation (Piel). since the absence of a strong vowel causes the strengthening to be less noticeable c) in the gutturals Note also that the verb ‫“ = ָענָ ן‬cloud”. + sf. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra comments on ‫( ְבּ ֽ ַענְ ִ ֥ני‬lit.sg. like: ‫“ ְבּ ַד ְבּ ִ ֣רי ִע ָ֔מְּך‬when I speak with you” (Exod.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 87 Translation of Ibn Ezra The first nun (in ‫ ) ְבּ ֽ ַענְ ִ ֥ני‬is without dagesh. Piel normally has strong dagesh in the middle root letter.

2:14): “Let the young men arise and make sport before us”.(‫ ְל ַ ֥צ ֶחק ִ ֽבּי )בראשית לט יז‬:‫ימא‬ ָ ‫ כמו ְד ֵת‬. 17:17. Ishmael was quarrelling with Isaac about the inheritance. denoting: idolatrous behaviour or immoral behaviour or even murderous intentions. Gen. Comment of Rashi on ‫ְמ ַצ ֵ ֽחק‬ . 39:17): “to mock at me”. it is an intensification of the Qal.‫ד"א‬ ‫ישׂ ֲח ֖קוּ ְל ָפ ֵנ֑ינוּ )ש"ב ב‬ ַ ‫ יָ ֤קוּמוּ נָ ֙א ַהנְּ ָע ִ ֔רים ִ ֽו‬:‫ כמו‬. He shows how the meaning of the Piel here is not the simple Qal meaning of ‫“ = ָצ ַחק‬he laughed”. as it says (in reference to Potiphar’s wife.‫בוֹדה זָ ָרה‬ ָ ‫ְלשׁוֹן ֲע‬ . Another explanation is that it refers to immoral conduct. Explanation of Rashi Rashi is commenting on ‫( ְמ ַצ ֵחק‬Piel participle m. 4 Deuteronomy 24:5 ‫ל־דּ ָ ֑בר‬ ָ ‫ישׁ ִא ָ ֣שּׁה ֲח ָד ָ֔שׁה ֤ל ֹא יֵ ֵצ ֙א ַבּ ָצּ ָ֔בא וְ לֹא־יַ ֲע ֥בֹר ָע ָל֖יו ְל ָכ‬ ֙ ‫ִ ֽכּי־יִ ַ ֥קּח ִא‬ ‫ת־א ְשׁ ֥תּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר־ ָל ָ ֽ קח׃‬ ִ ‫נָ ִ֞קי יִ ְה ֶי֤ה ְל ֵביתוֹ֙ ָשׁ ָנ֣ה ֶא ָ֔חת וְ ִשׂ ַ ֖מּח ֶא‬ .(‫יד‬ Translation of Rashi ‫ְמ ַצ ֵחק‬ “mocking” means: worshipping idols.).88 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian.‫ לשון גִּ לּוּי ֲע ָריוֹת‬. as in: Gen. 18:13 etc.—‫הירוּשׁה‬ ָ ‫ ֶשׁ ָהיָ ה ֵמ ִריב עם יצחק על‬. as it is said (in reference to the Golden Calf. as (in the war between the House of Saul and the House of David. mocking. 32:6): “They rose up to make merry”.‫יחה‬ ָ ‫ לשון ְר ִצ‬.‫ד"א‬ . Rather. Exod. II Sam. Another explanation is that it refers to murder.sg.(‫ וַ יָּ ֻ ֖ קמוּ ְל ַצ ֵ ֽחק )שמות לב ז‬:‫ כמו ֶשׁנֶּ ֱא ַמר‬. whom she had borne to Abraham.

equivalent to Biblical Hebrew ‫את‬. and he shall not be assigned any task.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 89 If a man takes a new wife. The one who renders ‫“ וְ יֶ ְח ֵדּי ִעם ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬he shall rejoice with his wife” is in error. Explanation of Rashi Rashi has explained the causative meaning of ‫( וְ ִשׂ ַמּח‬Piel perf. . ‫“ וְ יֶ ְח ֵדּי ִעם ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬he shall be happy with his wife”. The correct rendering uses the Aramaic Aphel conjugation. all those who lagged behind you. which has a causative meaning: ‫“ וְ יַ ְח ֵדּי יָ ת ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬he ֵ shall make his wife happy” and the ‫יָ ת‬.‫ וְ ַת ְרגּוּמוֹ וְ יַ ְח ֵדּי יָ ת ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬. Comment of Rashi on ‫וְ ִשׂ ַ ֖מּח‬ ‫ וְ ַה ְמּ ַת ְרגֵּ ם וְ יֶ ְח ֵדּי ִעם‬. 3 m.‫יְ ַשׂ ַמּח את אשתו‬ ֶ . 5 Deuteronomy 25:18 ‫ל־הנֶּ ֱח ָשׁ ִ ֣לים ַ ֽא ַח ֶ ֔ריָך וְ ַא ָ ֖תּה ָע ֵי֣ ף וְ יָ ֵג ַ֑ע‬ ַ ‫ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ָ ֽק ְר ָ֜ך ַבּ ֶ ֗דּ ֶרְך וַ יְ זַ ֵנּ֤ב ְבּ ָ֙ך ָכּ‬ How he encountered you on the way and cut off your rear. Rashi refers to two different renderings in the Aramaic Targum.“and he shall make happy”). indicates the definite direct object. The incorrect rendering uses the Aramaic equivalent of the Qal to render ‫ וְ ִשׂ ַמּח‬and takes ‫ ֵאת‬in the sense of “with”. and you were tired and weary. he shall not go out in the army. He shall be free for his home one year and make the wife whom he took happy.‫טוֹעה הוא‬ Translation of Rashi ‫ וְ ִשׂ ַמּח‬means “he shall gladden his wife” and its correct Targum rendering is ‫וְ יַ ְח ֵדּי יָת ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬. + vav consec.sg. for this is not the (Aramaic) rendering of ‫( וְ ִשׂ ַמּח‬Piel) but of ‫( וְ ָשׂ ַמח‬Qal).‫ שאין זה ַת ְרגּוּם של וְ ִשׂ ַמּח אלא של וְ ָשׂ ַמח‬.‫ִא ְתּ ַתהּ‬ .

that is. those who were shattered behind you.‫ואם ָהיָ ה ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ַקּל‬ ִ .‫ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬ (‫ וְ ֵ ֽשׁ ֶר ְשׁ ָ֙ך ֵמ ֶ ֖א ֶרץ ַח ִיּ֣ים )תהלים נב ז‬:‫וכן‬ ֵ . derived from the noun ‫“ = זָ נָ ב‬tail”. If it was in the Qal.sg. Explanation of Ibn Ezra By stating ‫“ ָכּ ַרת זְ נָ ְבָך‬he has cut off your tail”.‫ ֶשׁלֹּא היה ָבּם כּ ַֹח ָל ֶל ֶכת‬. 3 m. he planted it with choice shoots. 6 Isaiah 5:2 ‫הוּ שׂ ֵ ֹ֔רק‬ ֙ ‫ַוֽ יְ ַעזְּ ֵ ֣ קהוּ ַוֽ יְ ַס ְקּ ֗ ֵלהוּ וַ יִּ ָטּ ֙ ֵע‬ He fenced it around.‫ והם ַהנֶּ ֱח ָשׁ ִלים ַא ֲח ֶריָך‬.‫ָכּ ַרת זְ נָ ְבָך‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra He cut off your tail. it would mean “heap up stones” and similarly.90 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫וַ יְ זַ ֵנּ֤ב‬ . Hence. and cleared it of stones. Psalm 52:7: “He will uproot you from the land of life”.) is a denominative/privative Piel. . and it means “he removed the stones”.‫יהיה ְל ַח ֵבּר האבנים‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra From the heavy conjugation (Piel). the Piel verb ‫ זִ נֵּ ב‬literally means “injure the tail” and by extension “rout the rear (of an army)”. The denominative Piel may express the taking away or injuring of the object denoted by the noun and this is termed a privative Piel. + vav consec.‫וטעמוֹ ֵה ִסיר ָה ֲא ָבנִ ים‬ ַ . who had no strength to go. Ibn Ezra is pointing out that ‫( וַ יְ זַ נֵּ ב‬Piel imperf. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ַוֽ יְ ַס ְקּ ֗ ֵלהוּ‬ ‫ אז‬.

derived from the noun ‫“ = שׁ ֶֹרשׁ‬root”. ‫“( וְ ָד ְרשׁוּ‬and let them seek”) has the same meaning as ‫ וְ ִשׁ ֵאלוּ‬..) “and he cleared it of stones”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 91 Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra explains that ‫( ַוֽ יְ ַס ְקּ ֗ ֵלהוּ‬Piel imperf.sg. 3 m. the Piel verb = “uproot”. like ‫ יְ ָשׁ ֲא ֛לוּ‬in II Sam.sg. “let them seek bread”. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra clarifies that ‫ וְ ִשׁ ֵאלוּ‬is a Piel verb. totter”. ‫ ֳח ָרבוֹת‬. n. because this is also a privative Piel. ‫ָח ְר ָבּה‬ pl. tremble.f. + sf. ‫נוּע‬ ַ = “quiver. the non-pausal form is ‫ ִשׁ ֲאלוּ‬. 20:18. It is in fact Piel perf. and may they seek from their ruins. is a privative Piel. + vav consec. hence. ruin” > Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫אלוּ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫וְ ִשׁ‬ ‫בּא ֵבל )ש"ב כ יח( וְ ָדרשׁו כמו וְ ִשׁ ֵאלו‬ ָ ‫יש ֲאלו‬ ָ ‫פּוֹעל ָכּ ֵבד כמו ָשאל‬ ַ ‫בקּשׁו ֶל ֶחם‬ ְ ְ‫ֶשׁי‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra ‫ וְ ִשׁ ֵאלוּ‬is a Piel. 3 pl. 7 Psalm 109:10 ‫יהם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫בוֹת‬ ֵ ‫וֹע יָ נ֣ וּעוּ ָב ָנ֣יו וְ ִשׁ ֵ ֑אלוּ וְ ָ֝ד ְר ֗שׁוּ ֵמ ָח ְר‬ ַ ֤‫וְ נ‬ May his children constantly wander and beg. (Note the suggestion in GK 52h that ‫ ִס ֵקּל‬is an example of a denominative although the noun from which it is derived is no longer found). Ibn Ezra points to the . + vav consec. pausal. = “waste. desolation. Ibn Ezra compares ‫( וְ ֵ ֽשׁ ֶר ְשׁ ָ֙ך‬Psalm 52:7) “and he will uproot you”. 3 m.

However. 20:18. the Piel of ‫ ָשׁ ַאל‬means “ask repeatedly. Hithpolel It is rare to find examples in Biblical Hebrew of ‘ayin vav verbs in Piel. Explanation of Rashi Rashi points out that the verb ‫( יְ ַק ֵנּ֑נוּ‬Piel imperf. in II Sam. the fir-trees are her house. the form ‫ וְ ִשׁ ֵאלוּ‬shows virtual doubling of the ’aleph. ask counsel”. In ֹ ֧ ‫ ָשׁ‬may be translated as “they shall surely ask” in II Sam. 20:18 ‫אל יְ ָשׁ ֲא ֛לוּ‬ the sense of “inquire carefully. ‫“( ִקנֵּ ן‬make a nest. since the ḥireq under the shin has not been lengthened to tsere (as in ‫“ = ֵמ ֵאן‬he refused”). where it is preceded by the Qal infinitive absolute ‫ ָשׁאוֹל‬.pl. ‫ יְ ָשׁ ֲא ֛לוּ‬shows compensatory lengthening of pataḥ to qamets under the shin to compensate for lack of strong dagesh in the middle root letter.‫לשׁוֹן ַקן ִצפּוֹר‬ Translation of Rashi The verb is connected with the noun. Note also that ‫ שׁאל‬is an ‘ayinguttural root and that the Piel imperf. Polal. because these conjugations are formed by doubling the middle .92 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW only other occurrence in the Old Testament of the Piel of ‫“ = ָשׁ ַאל‬ask”. however. in Psalm 109:10. a bird’s nest. Comment of Rashi on ‫יְ ַק ֵנּ֑נוּ‬ . pausal) is derived from the root ‫“ = ַקן‬nest”. beg”. Pual or Hithpael. nest”) is a denominative Piel. In Psalm 109:10. Polel. as for the stork. 3 m. Hence. 8 Psalm 104:17 ‫יתהּ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫רוֹשׁים ֵבּ‬ ֥ ִ ‫ר־שׁם ִצ ֳפּ ִ ֣רים יְ ַק ֵנּ֑נוּ ֲ֝ח ִס ָ ֗ידה ְבּ‬ ֭ ָ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬ For there the birds nest.

the medial vav has no status as a consonant. a few Piel formations from ‘ayin vav verbs can be found. ‫רוֹמם‬ ֵ = “raise”. In late Biblical Hebrew. we derive the forms: ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ (Polel instead of Piel) ‫קוֹמם‬ ַ (Polal instead of Pual) ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ ‫( ִה ְת‬Hithpolel instead of Hithpael) Typical Polel verbs are: ‫קוֹמם‬ ֵ = “raise up”. identify and parse verbs with a consonantal vav for their second radical (see GK 72gg). ‫ ִקיְּ מוּ‬Esther 9:27 etc.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 93 root letter (or by lengthening the preceding vowel). Consequently. (See explanatory notes at end of section) . kill”. on the analogy of verbs ‫ע"ו‬ with consonantal vav—e. “establish”. resulting in the following forms: POLEL POLAL HITHPOLEL e. ‫עוֹרר‬ ֵ = “arouse”. ‫כּוֹנֵ ן‬ = ‫שׁוֹבב‬ ֵ = “bring back. probably borrowed from Aramaic.g. however. It is only in the latest books that we begin to find a few secondary formations.— Exercise: In the following biblical verses. excluded by the nature of the verbs ‫ע"ו‬. restore”.g. from the root ‫קוּם‬. since. ‘ayin vav verbs repeat the third root letter. and with change of ‫ ו‬to ‫י‬. strictly speaking. 119:61. Pual and Hithpael is. it cannot be doubled. ‫ ִקיַּ ם‬Esther 9:31. however. the Piel ‫ ִעוֵּ ד‬to surround. only in ‫ ִעוְּ ֻדנִ י‬Ps. ‫מוֹתת‬ ֵ = “slay. See GK 72m: “The formation of the conjugations Piel.

and there was relief for Saul and he would feel better. and his face will not pale. thus says the Lord. and the spirit of evil would depart from him. c) Isaiah 29:22 ‫א־ע ָ ֤תּה‬ ַ ֹ ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָ ֑הם ֽל‬ ַ ‫ל־בּ֣ית ַי ֲֽע ֔קֹב ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָפּ ָ ֖דה ֶא‬ ֵ ‫ה־א ַ ֤מר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶא‬ ָ ֹ‫ָל ֵ֗כן ֽכּ‬ ‫יֵבוֹשׁ ַי ֲֽע ֔קֹב וְ ֥ל ֹא ַע ָ ֖תּה ָפּ ָנ֥יו יֶ ֱחָוֽרוּ׃‬ ֙ Therefore. d) Isaiah 42:11 ‫שׁב ֵק ָ ֑דר יָ ֨ר ֹ ֙נּוּ ֣י ֹ ְשׁ ֵבי ֶ֔ס ַלע ֵמ ֥ר ֹאשׁ ָה ִ ֖רים‬ ֣ ֵ ‫יִ ְשׂ ֤אוּ ִמ ְד ָבּ ֙ר וְ ָע ָ ֔ריו ֲח ֵצ ִ ֖רים ֵתּ‬ ‫יִ ְצָוֽחוּ׃‬ . David took the harp and played with his hand. to the House of Jacob: Jacob will not be ashamed now. b) I Samuel 16:23 ‫ת־ה ִכּנּ֖ וֹר וְ נִ ֵ ֣גּ ן ְבּיָ ֑דוֹ‬ ַ ‫ל־שׁ ֔אוּל וְ ָל ַ ֥ קח ָדִּו֛ד ֶא‬ ָ ‫ים ֶא‬ ֙ ‫ֹלה‬ ִ ‫־א‬ ֱ ‫וּח‬ ַ ‫וְ ָה ָ֗יה ִ ֽבּ ְהי֤ וֹת ֽר‬ ‫וּח ָה ָר ָ ֽעה׃‬ ַ ‫וְ ָרַ ֤וח ְל ָשׁאוּל֙ וְ ֣טוֹב ֔לוֹ וְ ָ ֥ס ָרה ֵמ ָע ָל֖יו ֥ר‬ And whenever the spirit of G-d was on Saul.94 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 1 Examples in Qal a) Numbers 20:3 ‫מר וְ ֥לוּ גָ ַו ְ֛ענוּ ִבּגְ ַו֥ע ַא ֵ ֖חינוּ ִל ְפ ֵנ֥י‬ ֹ ֔ ‫אמ ֣רוּ ֵלא‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ ָיּ ֶ֥ רב ָה ָ ֖עם ִעם־מ ֶ ֹ֑שׁה וַ יּ‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ The people quarreled with Moses and said. who redeemed Abraham. ‘If only we had perished in the perishing of our brothers before the Lord”.

e.sg. when our brothers perished. always in pl. Qal imperf. + vav conjunctive. cstr. settlement. 1 c pl ‫ = גָּ וַ ע‬expire. Qal imperf. pausal: ‫יֶ ֱחָוֽרוּ‬ d) Isaiah 42:11 ‫ = ָצוַ ח‬cry aloud. > Qal inf. ‫ = ָרוַ ח‬be wide. 3 pl. i. those who live on rocks will sing out. b) I Samuel 16:23 ‫וְ ָרוַ ח‬ c) Qal perf. (so too will) the open cities where Kedar dwells. they will cry from mountain peaks. ‫ > יֶ ֱחוַ ר‬pl. perish. village. “in the perishing of our brothers”.m. ‫גְּ וַ ע‬ ‫ִבּגְ ַו֥ע ַא ֵ ֖חינוּ‬ = lit. ‫( ֲח ֵצ ִרים‬BDB p 347) 2 Examples in Piel a) Genesis 49:33 ‫ל־ה ִמּ ָ ֑טּה וַ יִּ גְ ַו֖ע וַ יֵּ ָ ֥א ֶסף‬ ַ ‫ת־בּ ָ֔ניו וַ יֶּ ֱא ֥סֹף ַרגְ ָל֖יו ֶא‬ ָ ‫וַ יְ ַכ֤ל יַ ֲעק ֹ֙ב ְל ַצ ֹ֣וּת ֶא‬ ‫ל־ע ָ ֽמּיו׃‬ ַ ‫ֶא‬ Jacob finished instructing his sons and he gathered his feet to the bed and he expired and was gathered to his people. . pausal > ‫יִ ְצָוֽחוּ‬ ‫ ָח ֵצר‬n. Explanatory notes to examples in Qal: a) Numbers 20:3 ‫גָּ וַ ְענוּ‬ Qal perf. Isaiah 29:22 ‫ = ָחוַ ר‬be white. 3 m.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 95 The desert and its cities will raise (their voices in song).

from the palm of the unjust and ruthless. + lamed. ‫צוה‬. Explanatory notes to examples in Piel: a) Genesis 49:33 ‫ְל ַצוֹּת‬ Piel inf. e) Psalm 146:9 ‫עוֹדד וְ ֶ ֖ד ֶרְך ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים יְ ַעֵוּֽת׃‬ ֑ ֵ ְ‫הו֤ה ֘שׁ ֹ ֵ ֤מר ֶאת־גֵּ ִ ֗רים יָ ֣תוֹם וְ ַא ְל ָמ ָנ֣ה י‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ The Lord protects strangers. He relieves orphan and widow. cstr. I have not forgotten Your law. deliver me from the hand of the wicked one. d) Psalm 119:61 ‫ֶח ְב ֵל֣י ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים ִעוְּ ֻ ֑דנִ י ֽתּ ָוֹר ְת ָ֗ך ֣ל ֹא ָשׁ ָ ֽכ ְח ִתּי׃‬ The bands of the wicked have surrounded me. “to charge”.96 b) FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Isaiah 5:4 ‫֛יתי ַל ֲע ֥שׂוֹת ֲענָ ִ ֖בים‬ ִ ‫וּע ִקֵוּ‬ ַ ‫יתי ֑בּוֹ ַמ ֧דּ‬ ִ ‫עוֹד ְל ַכ ְר ִ֔מי וְ ֥ל ֹא ָע ִ ֖שׂ‬ ֙ ‫ה־לּ ֲע ֥שׂוֹת‬ ַ ‫ַמ‬ :‫וַ יַּ ַעשׂ ְבּ ֻא ִ ֽשׁים‬ What more could I have done to my vineyard that I have not done to it? Why did I hope to produce fine grapes but it brought forth stinking ones? c) Psalm 71:4 ‫חוֹמץ׃‬ ֵ ְ‫ֹלהי ַ ֭פּ ְלּ ֵטנִ י ִמַיּ֣ד ָר ָ ֑שׁע ִמ ַ ֖כּף ְמ ַעֵוּ֣ל ו‬ ַ֗ ‫ֱ ֽא‬ My G-d. but He makes crooked the way of the wicked. .

“acting wickedly”.sg. a sanctuary. Psalm 71:4 ‫ ְמ ַעוֵּ ל‬Piel part. ‫עול‬. . Lord.pl. “They have surrounded me”. which You have made O Lord. m. 3 c. 3 m. identify and parse Polel formations. ‫קוה‬. (see explanatory notes at end of section). “bend. a) Exodus 15:17 ‫הו֑ה ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬ ָ ְ‫ְתּ ִב ֵ֗אמוֹ וְ ִת ָטּ ֙ ֵעמוֹ֙ ְבּ ַ ֣הר נַ ֲח ָ ֽל ְת ָ֔ך ָמ ֧כוֹן ְל ִשׁ ְב ְתָּך֛ ָפּ ַ ֖ע ְל ָתּ י‬ ‫ֲאד ָֹנ֖י כּוֹנְ נ֥ וּ יָ ֶ ֽדיָך׃‬ You shall bring them and You shall plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance. “I hoped”. Note that the Polel of the same root ‫ עוּד‬occurs in Psalm 146:9 (see below). but with a different meaning (“restore. d) Psalm 119:61 ‫ ִעוְּ ֻדנִ י‬Piel perf. 1 sg.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW b) Isaiah 5:4 ‫יתי‬ ִ ֵ‫ִקוּ‬ c) 97 Piel perf. which Your hands have established. relieve”). ‫ ָעוַ ת‬. + sf. make crooked”. 1 c.sg.sg. ‫עוד‬. Exercise: In the following biblical verses. a fixed place for Your dwelling. e) Psalm 146:9 ‫יְ ַעוֵּ ת‬ Piel imperf.

for cramp has seized me.98 b) FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW II Samuel 1:9. So I stood over him and put him to death. while my soul is still within me’. ‘it shall be settled’ and of the citie of Judah.10 ‫ל־עוֹד נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי‬ ֥ ‫י־כ‬ ָ ‫מ ְת ֵ֔תנִ י ִ ֥כּי ֲא ָח ַז֖נִ י ַה ָשּׁ ָ ֑בץ ִ ֽכּ‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ד־נ֤א ָע ַ ֙לי וּ‬ ָ ‫אמר ֵא ֗ ַלי ֲע ָמ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ֹ ֤ ‫ִ ֽבּי׃ וָ ֶא ֱע‬ ‫מ ְת ֵ֔תהוּ ִ ֣כּי יָ ַ ֔ד ְע ִתּי ִ ֛כּי ֥ל ֹא ִי ְֽח ֶי֖ה ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי נִ ְפ ֑לוֹ‬ ֹ ֣ ‫מד ָע ָל ֙יו וַ ֲא‬ And he said to me. c) Isaiah 44:26 ‫תּוּשׁב‬ ָ֗ ‫ירוּשׁ ֜ ַל ִם‬ ָ ‫ֵמ ִק ֙ים ְדּ ַ ֣בר ַע ְב ֔דּוֹ וַ ֲע ַ ֥צת ַמ ְל ָא ָ ֖כיו יַ ְשׁ ִ ֑לים ָהא ֵֹ֨מר ִל‬ ָ ְ‫וּל ָע ֵ ֤רי י‬ ְ ‫קוֹמם׃‬ ֽ ֵ ‫יה ֲא‬ ָ ‫בוֹת‬ ֖ ֶ ‫הוּד ֙ה ִתּ ָבּ ֶ֔נינָ ה וְ ָח ְר‬ Who confirms the word of His servant and fulfils the counsel of His messengers. for I knew that he would not live after his falling. ‘they shall be rebuilt and I will raise up its ruins’. d) Psalm 23:3 ‫י־צ ֶדק ְל ַ ֣מ ַען ְשׁ ֽמוֹ׃‬ ֶ֗ ‫שׁוֹבב ַיֽנְ ֵ ֥חנִ י ְב ַמ ְעגְּ ֵל‬ ֑ ֵ ְ‫נַ ְפ ִ ֥שׁי י‬ He restores my soul. f) Psalm 146:9 ‫עוֹדד וְ ֶ ֖ד ֶרְך ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים יְ ַעֵוּֽת׃‬ ֑ ֵ ְ‫הו֤ה ֘שׁ ֹ ֵ ֤מר ֶאת־גֵּ ִ ֗רים יָ ֣תוֹם וְ ַא ְל ָמ ָנ֣ה י‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ . He leads me on paths of righteousness for the sake of His Name. e) Psalm 30:2 :‫א־שׂ ַ ֖מּ ְח ָתּ אֹיְ ַב֣י ִ ֽלי‬ ִ ֹ ‫יתנִ י וְ ל‬ ֑ ָ ‫רוֹמ ְמָך֣ ְי֭הוָ ה ִ ֣כּי ִד ִלּ‬ ִ ‫ֲא‬ I will extol You O Lord for You have drawn me up and have not let my foes rejoice over me. ‘Stand over me and put me to death. Who says of Jerusalem.

‫מ ְת ֵ֔תהוּ‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וַ ֲא‬ Polel imperf. ‫מוּת‬. + sf. “put me to death”. 1 sg. h) Song of Songs 2:7 ‫רוּשׁ ַ ֙ל ִ֙ם ִבּ ְצ ָב ֔אוֹת ֖אוֹ ְבּ ַאיְ ֣לוֹת ַה ָשּׂ ֶ ֑דה‬ ָ ְ‫ִה ְשׁ ַ֨בּ ְע ִתּי ֶא ְת ֶ֜כם ְבּנ֤ וֹת י‬ ְ ‫ם־תּ ִ ֧עירוּ ׀ ְ ֽו ִא‬ ָ ‫ִא‬ ‫ת־ה ַא ֲה ָ ֖בה ַ ֥עד ֶשׁ ֶתּ ְח ָ ֽפּץ׃‬ ָ ‫ם־תּ ֽע ְוֹר ֛רוּ ֶא‬ I adjure you. + vav conjunctive. 3 m. that you will not waken nor arouse love until it pleases. 1 sg. (although the meaning seems to be as if it were vav consec. but He makes crooked the way of the wicked. He relieves orphan and widow. by the gazelles or by the hinds of the field.10 (The Amalekite telling David how he killed Saul) ‫מ ְת ֵ֔תנִ י‬ ֹ֣‫וּ‬ Polel imperat. “and I put him .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 99 The Lord protects strangers. 3 pl. ‫מוּת‬. m. O daughters of Jerusalem. Explanatory notes to verses with Polel: a) Exodus 15:17 ‫כּוֹנְ נ֥ וּ‬ Polel perf. (GK 20h). ‫(“ כּוּן‬they) have established”. He brings the wicked low to the ground. g) Psalm 147:6 ‫י־א ֶרץ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫הו֑ה ַמ ְשׁ ִ ֖פּיל ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים ֲע ֵד‬ ָ ְ‫עוֹדד ֲענָ ִו֣ים י‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ְמ‬ The Lord restores the humble.sg. Note that pataḥ).sg. + sf. ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬when a consonant with sheva is strengthened—to make the sheva more audible”. Note the Dagesh Forte Dirimens in ‫“ . b) ‫ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬ is not in construct state here (qamets under dalet. not II Samuel 1:9.

+ sf. hind.sg. ‫“ . 2 m. 3 m.י‬he will restore. ‫ַאיְ לוֹת‬ .רוּם‬I will extol. exalt you”.sg.שׁוּב‬he restores.עוּר‬you will rouse. Psalm 23:3 ‫שׁוֹבב‬ ֑ ֵ ְ‫י‬ e) earlier in Isaiah 44:26 ‫קוֹמם‬ ֽ ֵ ‫ֲא‬ d) ‫ וָ ֲאמ ְֹת ֵתהוּ‬corresponding to ‫וָ ֶא ֱעמֹד‬ Polel imperf. ‫ > ַאיָּ לוֹת‬cstr.קוּם‬I will raise up”. g) Psalm 147:6 ‫עוֹדד‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ ְמ‬Polel participle m. do again” ).e. doe > pl.sg. h) Song of Songs 2:7 ‫ ְתּ ֽע ְוֹר ֛רוּ‬Polel imperf. the verse). vav + qamets. ‫“ . repeat.sg. Polel: = “restore. refreshes”. ‫“ . Psalm 30:2 ֣‫רוֹמ ְמָך‬ ִ ‫ ֲא‬Polel imperf. 2 m.f. and see BDB p 728: ‫“ =עוּד‬return. ‫ ַאיָּ ָלה‬n. relieve”. > Piel: = “surround”. ‫ָדּ ָלה‬ f) “draw water” > Piel (only here): “You have drawn me up”. 3 m. ‫עוּד‬. incite”. Contrast Piel of this root in Psalm 119:61 (see above).pl. Psalm 146:9 ‫עוֹדד‬ ֑ ֵ ְ‫“ .100 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW to death”. ‫“ . 1 sg.‫ עוּד‬Polel imperf. c) Polel imperf. relieve”. 1 sg. go about. i.

‘behold this has touched your lips. The student may consult the verb tables in any reliable Biblical Hebrew grammar book. PARSE and TRANSLATE all the HIPHIL verbs. and your iniquity will depart and your sin will be atoned for’.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 101 HIPHIL Try to recognise Hiphil verbs Study the following biblical verses. Explanatory notes are found at the end of the section. 2 Leviticus 8:13 ‫ת־בּ ֵנ֣י ַא ֲה ֗ר ֹן וַ יַּ ְל ִבּ ֵ ֤שׁם ֻכּ ֳתּ ֹנ ֙ת וַ יַּ ְח ֹ֤גּר א ָֹת ֙ם ַא ְב ֔ ֵנט‬ ְ ‫וַ יַּ ְק ֵ ֨רב מ ֶֹ֜שׁה ֶא‬ ‫וַ יַּ ֲח ֥ב ֹשׁ ָל ֶ ֖הם ִמגְ ָבּ ֑עוֹת‬ And Moses brought near Aaron’s sons and he clothed them (with) tunics and he girded them with girdles and he bound turbans on them. . 1 Exodus 14:10 ‫יהם וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ִמ ְצ ַ ֣ריִ ם ׀ נ ֵ ֹ֣ס ַע‬ ֶ֜ ֵ‫ת־עינ‬ ֵ ‫וּפ ְר ֖עֹה ִה ְק ִ ֑ריב וַ יִּ ְשׂאוּ֩ ְב ֵנֽי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֨אל ֶא‬ ַ ֙ ‫יהם וַ ִיּ ְֽיר‬ ֶ֗ ‫ַא ֲח ֵר‬ ‫אד‬ ֹ ֔ ‫אוּ ְמ‬ And Pharoah drew near and the children of Israel lifted up their eyes and behold the Egyptians were marching after them and they were very afraid. 3 Isaiah 6:7 ֖‫אתָך‬ ְ ‫ל־שׂ ָפ ֶ ֑תיָך וְ ָ ֣סר ֲעו ֶֹ֔נָך וְ ַח ָטּ‬ ְ ‫אמר ִה ֵנּ֛ה נָ ַג֥ע ֶז֖ה ַע‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־פּי וַ ֕יּ‬ ִ ֔ ‫וַ יַּ ַגּ֣ע ַע‬ ‫ְתּ ֻכ ָ ֽפּר׃‬ And he caused (it) (the burning coal) to touch my mouth and he said.

He has destroyed his strongholds. 6 Leviticus 26:9 ‫יתי‬ ֖ ִ ‫ת־בּ ִר‬ ְ ‫יתי ֶא ְת ֶכ֑ם וַ ֲה ִקימ ִ ֹ֥תי ֶא‬ ֖ ִ ‫יתי ֶא ְת ֶ֔כם וְ ִה ְר ֵבּ‬ ֣ ִ ‫יכם וְ ִה ְפ ֵר‬ ֶ֔ ‫֣יתי ֲא ֵל‬ ִ ‫וּפ ִנ‬ ָ ‫ִא ְתּ ֶ ֽכם׃‬ And I will turn to you and I will make you fruitful and multiply you and establish My covenant with you. and He has increased in the daughter of Judah. He has swallowed up all her palaces. Abraham’s servant) ‫תּ ֶרד ַכּ ָ ֛דּהּ ַעל־יָ ָ ֖דהּ וַ ַתּ ְשׁ ֵ ֽ קהוּ׃‬ ֹ ֧ ַ‫אמר ְשׁ ֵ ֣תה ֲאד ִֹנ֑י וַ ְתּ ַמ ֵ֗הר ו‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֖תּ‬ And she said. 7 Lamentations 2:5 ‫יה ִשׁ ֵ ֖חת ִמ ְב ָצ ָ ֑ריו‬ ָ ‫נוֹת‬ ֶ֔ ‫ל־א ְר ְמ‬ ַ ‫ָה ָ֨יה ֲאד ָֹנ֤י ְכּאוֹיֵ ֙ב ִבּ ַלּ֣ע יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ִבּ ַלּ ֙ע ָכּ‬ ֔ ָ ְ‫וַ יֶּ֙ ֶר ֙ב ְבּ ַבת־י‬ ‫הוּדה ַתּ ֲאנִ ָיּ֖ה וַ ֲאנִ יָּ ה‬ The Lord was like an enemy. mourning and moaning. . 5 Exodus 1:20 ‫אד׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ֹלהים ַל ְֽמיַ ְלּ ֑ד ֹת וַ ִיּ ֶ֧ רב ָה ָ ֛עם וַ ַיּ ַֽע ְצ ֖מוּ ְמ‬ ֖ ִ ‫֥יטב ֱא‬ ֶ ‫וַ ֵיּ‬ And G-d dealt well with the midwives and the people multiplied and grew very mighty. He has swallowed up Israel.102 4 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Genesis 24:18 (Rebekkah to Eliezer. ‘drink my Lord’ and she hastened and let down her pitcher on her hand and she gave him to drink.

and I shall make them into a forest. then he shall bear her iniquity. ‘they are my hire. 11 Numbers 30:16 (concerning vows) ‫ת־עו ָֹנֽהּ׃‬ ֲ ‫ם־ה ֵ ֥פר יָ ֵ ֛פר א ָ ֹ֖תם ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ ְמ ֑עוֹ וְ נָ ָ ֖שׂא ֶא‬ ָ ‫וְ ִא‬ And if he will surely annul them after he has heard (them).PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 8 103 Deuteronomy 9:14 ‫ת־שׁ ָ֔מם ִמ ַ ֖תּ ַחת ַה ָשּׁ ָ ֑מיִ ם וְ ֶ ֽא ֱע ֶשׂ ֙ה‬ ְ ‫ֶ ֤ה ֶרף ִמ ֶ֙מּנִּ ֙י וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵ ֔ידם וְ ֶא ְמ ֶ ֣חה ֶא‬ ָ ‫וֹת ָ֔ך ְל‬ ְ ‫ֽא‬ ‫גוֹי־ע ֥צוּם וָ ָ ֖רב ִמ ֶ ֽמּנּוּ׃‬ Let me alone that I may destroy them and blot out their name from under Heaven and I will make you a nation mightier and more numerous than it. begin (to) take possession. and the beasts of the field will eat them. 10 Deuteronomy 2:31 ‫ת־א ְר ֑צוֹ ָה ֵ ֣חל ָ ֔רשׁ ָל ֶ ֖ר ֶשׁת‬ ַ ‫ת־סי ֖חֹן וְ ֶא‬ ִ ‫תי ֵ ֣תּת ְל ָפ ֶ֔ניָך ֶא‬ ֙ ִ ‫ְר ֵ֗אה ַ ֽה ִח ֹּ֨ל‬ ‫ת־א ְר ֽצוֹ׃‬ ַ ‫ֶא‬ See. 9 Hosea 2:14 ‫־לי‬ ֖ ִ ‫שׁר ָא ְמ ָ ֗רה ֶא ְת ָנ֥ה ֵ֙ה ָמּ ֙ה ֔ ִלי ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָנ ְֽתנוּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫וּת ֵ ֣אנָ ָ֔תהּ ֲא‬ ְ ‫וַ ֲה ִשׁמּ ִֹ֗תי גַּ ְפנָ ֙הּ‬ ‫ְמ ַ ֽא ֲה ָ ֑בי וְ ַשׂ ְמ ִ ֣תּים ְל ַ֔י ַער וַ ֲא ָכ ָ ֖ל ַתם ַח ַיּ֥ת ַה ָשּׂ ֶ ֽדה׃‬ And I shall devastate her vines and her fig trees of which she said. in order to inherit his land. . which my lovers have given me’. I have begun (to) give before you Sihon and his land.

16 Lamentations 1:5 ‫֛יה‬ ָ ‫עוֹל ֶל‬ ָ ‫֑יה‬ ָ ‫ֹב־פּ ָשׁ ֶע‬ ְ ‫הוֹג֖הּ ַ ֣על ר‬ ָ ‫הו֥ה‬ ָ ְ‫֣יה ָשׁ ֔לוּ ִ ֽכּי־י‬ ָ ‫אשׁ אֹיְ ֶב‬ ֙ ֹ ‫יה ְלר‬ ָ ‫ָהי֨ וּ ָצ ֶ ֤ר‬ ‫י־צר׃‬ ֽ ָ ֵ‫ָה ְל ֥כוּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בי ִל ְפנ‬ Her adversaries have become chief. her enemies are at ease. . He has led and brought into darkness and not light. 14 Lamentations 3:2 ‫א־אוֹר׃‬ ֽ ֹ ‫אוֹתי נָ ַ ֛הג וַ יּ ַֹלְ֖ך ֥ח ֹ ֶשְׁך וְ ל‬ ִ֥ Me. her children have gone into captivity before the enemy.104 12 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Deuteronomy 26:6 ‫וַ יָּ ֵ ֧רעוּ א ָ ֹ֛תנוּ ַה ִמּ ְצ ִ ֖רים וַ יְ ַענּ֑ וּנוּ וַ יִּ ְתּנ֥ וּ ָע ֵל֖ינוּ ֲעב ָ ֹ֥דה ָק ָ ֽשׁה׃‬ And the Egyptians maltreated us and afflicted us. 13 Deuteronomy 28:52 (vv 15-68: The Warnings) ‫ל־שׁ ָע ֶ ֗ריָך ַע֣ד ֶ ֤ר ֶדת חֹמ ֶֹ֙ת ֙יָך ַהגְּ ב ֹ֣הוֹת וְ ַה ְבּ ֻצ ֔רוֹת‬ ְ ‫וְ ֵה ַ֨צר ְל ָ֜ך ְבּ ָכ‬ And He will cause you distress in all your gates until your high and fortified walls come down. and put hard labour on us. for the Lord has caused her sorrow for her many sins. 15 Lamentations 3:5 ‫וּת ָל ָ ֽאה׃‬ ְ ‫ָבּ ָנ֥ה ָע ַל֛י וַ יַּ ַ ֖קּף ֥ר ֹאשׁ‬ He has built against me and surrounded (me) with venom and hardship.

3 m.pl. in our verse. ‫וַ יַּ ְל ִבּ ֵשׁם‬ Hiphil imperf. Explanatory notes for try to recognise Hiphil verbs 1 Exodus 14:10 ‫ִה ְק ִריב‬ Hiphil perf. “He came near.g. + sf. her new moons and her Sabbaths. ‫ יַ גְ ִדּיל‬to ‫יַ גְ ֵדּל‬. Leviticus 8:13. and all her appointed times. + vav consec. thus: ‫( יַ ְמ ִליְך‬Imperf. 3 m. e. so that. approach”. ‫קרב‬. her feast days. it is written ‫ וַ יַּ ְק ֵרב‬and not ‫וַ יַּ ְק ִריב‬.sg. 2 Leviticus 8:13 ‫וַ יַּ ְק ֵרב‬ Hiphil imperf. ‫קרב‬. .) is shortened to ‫יַמ ֵלְך‬ ְ (Jussive). 3 m. as Joseph had said.”Hence. “And he caused to come near”. See WHG p 114 b: “It is to be noted very carefully that the Hiphil is the only part of the regular verb which has a shortened form of the Imperfect. ‘and he made great’ is ‫( וַ יַּ גְ ֵדּל‬and not ‫)וַ יַּ גְ ִדּיל‬. apoc. below).PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 17 105 Hosea 2:13 ‫מוֹע ָ ֽדהּ׃‬ ֲ ‫שׂוֹשׂהּ ַח ָגּ֖הּ ָח ְד ָ ֣שׁהּ וְ ַשׁ ַבּ ָ ֑תּהּ וְ ֖כֹל‬ ָ֔ ‫ל־מ‬ ְ ‫תּי ָכּ‬ ֙ ִ ‫וְ ִה ְשׁ ַבּ‬ I will put an end to all her joy. made an Note the apparent intransitive sense of Hiphil here (see Use of Hiphil.sg. 3 m.sg. + vav consec. and that the Waw Consecutive takes the shortened form of the Imperfect when there is one. 18 Genesis 41:54 ‫יוֹסף‬ ֑ ֵ ‫שׁ ַבע ְשׁ ֵנ֤י ָה ָר ָע ֙ב ָל ֔בוֹא ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ָא ַ ֣מר‬ ֣ ֶ ‫וַ ְתּ ִח ֜ ֶלּינָ ה‬ And the seven years of famine began to come.

f. 1 c. brought down.f. + vav consec. 3 f. fruitful”. Longer form of Hiphil imperf. turban 3 Isaiah 6:7 ‫ וַ יַּ גַּ ע‬Hiphil imperf. is ‫יע‬ ַ ִ‫יַ גּ‬.” (they are: ‫יבשׁ‬ 6 ‫)ימן ילל יקץ יטב ישׁר ינק‬ Leviticus 26:9 ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫וְ ִה ְפ ֵר‬ Hiphil perf. And see JM 76 a-d: “The verbs with primitive ‫ י‬as the first radical number only seven—. ‫ָפּ ָרה‬ = “bear fruit.m. caused them to wear). descended”. The longer form of the Hiphil imperf. 3 m. = tunic > pl. + vav consec. apoc.sg. see JM 75.sg. = head-gear. let ִ /‫יוֹריד‬ ִ . “And he did good to. apoc. The longer form of the Hiphil imperf. 3 m. ‫יטב‬. dealt well with”. 4 Genesis 24:18 ‫וַ תּ ֶֹרד‬ Hiphil imperf. down”. ‫“ = יָ ַרד‬he came.pl. as opposed to pe-yod verbs which were originally pe-vav. > “and I will make (you) fruitful”. ‫ ִמגְ ָבּעוֹת‬n. is ‫תּוֹריד‬ 5 Exodus 1:20 ‫יטב‬ ֶ ֵ‫וַ יּ‬ Hiphil imperf.106 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “and he clothed them”. + vav consec.sg. apoc. “and he caused to touch”. = girdle. The primitive ‫ י‬is maintained in all the forms. (lit.sg. Note that is the equivalent of ‫וַ יַּ ְל ֵבּשׁ א ָֹתם‬. is ‫יטיב‬ ִ ֵ‫י‬ which is a true pe-yod verb. ‫ֻכּ ֳתּנֹת‬ ‫ ַא ְבנֵ ט‬n. ‫וַ יַּ ְל ִבּ ֵשׁם‬ ‫ ֻכּתֹּנֶ ת‬n. + vav consec. went down. ‫“ = נָ גַ ע‬he touched”. “And she caused to come down. be .

fortress. 1 c. = n. Deuteronomy 9:14 ‫ֶה ֶרף‬ Hiphil imperative m. shortened form. ‫ָר ָפה‬ “let drop.“that I may annihilate them”. + vav consec.” ‫ָר ָבה‬ 107 = “be. many. . 9 + sf. 1 c.ָ “and he made much. let alone”. + vav consec. “and I shall devastate”. e. + vav conjunctive. ‫“ = קוּם‬arise”. + vav consec. apoc. ‫( וַ יֶּ גֶ ל‬II Kings 17:6).m. ‫“ = גָּ ָלה‬go into exile” Note: ‫ = ָאנָ ה‬mourn > “mourning”. ‫ ָשׁ ַמד‬. + vav consec. establish”. Longer form of Hiphil imperf.sg. become ‫וַ ֲה ִקימ ִֹתי‬ Hiphil perf. This pattern of shortened Hiphil imperfect is typical of lamed-hey verbs.f. 7 ‫וַ יֶּ ֶרב‬ Hiphil imperf.sg.g. great”.f. ‫ וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵידם‬Hiphil imperf. ‫יַ ְר ֶבּה‬. Hosea 2:14 ‫וַ ֲה ִשׁמּ ִֹתי‬ Hiphil perf. much.sg. “leave (me) alone”.sg. increase. = “fortification. = “mourning”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫וְ ִה ְר ֵבּ‬ Hiphil perf. make inaccessible > stronghold”. ‫ִמ ְב ָצר‬ ‫ַתּ ֲאנִ יָּ ה‬ n.pl. 3 m. 8 n. “and I will cause to arise. 3 m. ‫“ = ָפּנָ ה‬turn”. ‫ָבּ ַצר‬ ‫ֲאנִ יָּ ה‬ cut off. ‫“ = ָשׁ ֵמם‬be desolated”.sg.sg. increased”. Longer form: ‫( ַה ְר ֵפּה‬II Kings 4:27). ‫ר ָבה‬. ‫( וַ יֶּ ֶפן‬Judges 15:4). 1 c. “and I will multiply. 1 c.

‫ָה ֵחל‬ Hiphil ‫ ָה ֵס ִבּי‬/‫) ָה ֵסב‬. . evil”.sg. imperative m. 3 m. apoc. cstr.sg. “and they did hurt.pl.sg. narrow”. ‫יוֹליְך‬.sg. + vav consec. ‫ירד‬. “and he has led.108 10 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Deuteronomy 2:31 ‫ֹּלתי‬ ִ ‫ַה ִח‬ Hiphil perf. ִ 15 ‫וַ יַּ ַקּף‬ Lamentations 3:5 Hiphil imperf. + vav consec. apoc. be restricted. ‫יַ ִקּיף‬. tie up. + vav consec. cause distress”. 14 Lamentations 3:2 ‫וַ יּ ַֹלְך‬ Hiphil imperf. 13 Deuteronomy 28:52 ‫וְ ֵה ַצר‬ Hiphil perf. 1 c. m. “I have begun”. annul”.sg. “until the coming down of”. “he will surely break. Longer form of Hiphil imperf. 3 m. ‫“ )יָ ַרשׁ‬take possession of”. ‫( ָצ ַרר‬I) = “bind. ‫ ָח ַלל‬. + vav consec.sg. + Hiphil imperf. abs. “and he will make narrow (for you). (compare ‫ָס ַבב‬ ‫ ָרשׁ‬is a pausal form of ‫( ֵרשׁ‬Qal imperat.sg. Longer form of Hiphil imperf. ‫ ָה ַלְך‬. Note also: ‫ ַעד ֶר ֶדת‬lit. ‫. 12 Deuteronomy 26:6 ‫וַ יָּ ֵרעוּ‬ Hiphil imperf. 3 m. brought”. 11 Numbers 30:16 (concerning vows) ‫יָפר‬ ֵ ‫ָה ֵפר‬ Hiphil inf. ‫ ַעד‬+ inf. 3 m. ‫פרר‬. ‫רעע‬. make ineffectual. ‫( נָ ַקף‬II) = “go around”. “and he has surrounded”. Qal. 3 m. ָח ַלל‬ “begin”.

hardship 16 Lamentations 1:5 ‫הוֹגָ הּ‬ Hiphil perf. ‫“ = יָ גָ ה‬suffer” (not in Qal). 18 Genesis 41:54 ‫וַ ְתּ ִח ֶלּינָ ה‬ Hiphil imperf. ‫ = ָל ָאה‬be weary > ‫ ְתּ ָל ָאה‬n. Uses of Hiphil The following summary of the uses of Hiphil is based on the analyses of modern grammarians (see Bibliography).sg. + vav consec. 17 Hosea 2:13 ‫וְ ִה ְשׁ ַבּ ִתּי‬ Hiphil perf. II Kings 25:23: ֙‫ְך־בּ ֶבל‬ ָ ‫י־ה ְפ ִ ֤ קיד ֶ ֽמ ֶל‬ ִ ‫ל־שׂ ֵ ֨רי ַה ֲחיָ ֜ ִלים ֵ ֣ה ָמּה וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִ֗שׁים ִ ֽכּ‬ ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ֩ ָכ‬ ‫ֶאת־גְּ ַד ְל ָ֔יהוּ‬ . at ease”.m. ‫חלל‬.sg. Note also: ‫ ָשׁ ֵלו‬/‫“ = ָשׁ ָלה‬be quiet. “and I will cause to cease”.f. = venom (poisonous herb).g.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 109 Note also: ‫ רֹאשׁ‬n. tav. entrust to ‫ָק ַדשׁ‬ be holy ‫ִה ְק ִדּישׁ‬ sanctify > e. = weariness.sg. Note that the final root letter. “he has caused her grief. 3 f. “and (they) began”. 1 c. has assimilated into the tav of the suffix. ‫ ָשׁ ַבת‬.m. I: Causative of Qal ‫ָפּ ַקד‬ oversee > ‫ִה ְפ ִקיד‬ make overseer. / ‫ רוֹשׁ‬n. + sf. 3 m. sorrow”.pl. ‫ ִה ְשׁ ַבּ ִתּי > ִה ְשׁ ַבּ ְת ִתּי‬. 3 f. + vav consec.

g. “he ate”. ‫ָא ַכל‬ = e. Verbs which are intransitive in Qal. despise. e. then the Hiphil takes two accusatives: ‫ָר ָאה‬ = “he saw”. in the right. trifling) e. e. If the Qal already has a transitive meaning. they and their men. II: Declarative/estimative ‫ִה ְצ ִדּיק‬ declare one to be ‫ ַצ ִדּיק‬. in the wrong. Exodus 33:18: ‫ת־כּב ֶ ֹֽדָך׃‬ ְ ‫ַה ְר ֵ ֥אנִ י ָנ֖א ֶא‬ “Please show me (cause me to see) Your glory”. ‫יָ ָצא‬ he went out. ‫הוֹציא‬ ִ he took out. Exodus 16:32: ‫ת־ה ֗ ֶלּ ֶחם ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ֶה ֱא ַכ ְ֤ל ִתּי ֶא ְת ֶכ ֙ם ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ֔בּר‬ ַ ‫ְל ַ ֣מ ַען יִ ְר ֣אוּ ֶא‬ “So that they may see the food that I fed you (caused you to eat) in the desert”. acquit ‫יע‬ ַ ‫ִה ְר ִשׁ‬ declare one to be ‫ ָר ָשׁע‬. heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah”. Deuteronomy 25:1: ‫ת־ה ָר ָ ֽשׁע׃‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ַצּ ִ ֔דּיק וְ ִה ְר ִ ֖שׁיעוּ ֶא‬ ַ ‫יקוּ ֶא‬ ֙ ‫וְ ִה ְצ ִ ֙דּ‬ . swift. simply become transitive in Hiphil.g. (‫ = ָק ַלל‬be slight. condemn ‫ֵה ַקל‬ consider someone insignificant.g.g.110 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “All the officers of the army.

g. I Kings 8:8: ‫ן־ה ֨קֹּ ֶד ֙שׁ‬ ‫אשׁי ַה ַבּ ִ ֤דּים‬ ֵ֨ ‫ם וַ יֵּ ָראוּ֩ ָר‬ ֒ ‫כוּ ַה ַבּ ִדּי‬ ֮ ‫ֽוַיַּ ֲא ִר‬ “The poles projected (were long) so that the ends of the poles were visible from the sanctuary”.g. ‫ֶה ֱחזִ יק‬ “he was strong” ‫ֶה ֱא ִמין‬ “he trusted” “But we must not say that the Hiphil is intransitive or that it stands for the Qal: the transitive idea is genuinely present to Semitic feeling. ‫ ְל ַה ֲא ִריְך‬to be long (acquire length) ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ְל ַה ְצ ִל‬ to have success ‫ ְל ַה ֲא ִדים‬to become red (Isaiah 1:18) ַ ‫ִמ‬ e.g. p 145) distinguishes the following categories: a): Hiphil stems which express the obtaining or receiving of a concrete or abstract quality. Genesis 34:5: ‫וְ ֶה ֱח ִ ֥רשׁ יַ ֲע ֖קֹב ַעד־בּ ָ ֹֽאם׃‬ “Jacob remained silent until they came”. Genesis 39:2: ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ת־יוֹסף וַ יְ ִ ֖הי ִ ֣אישׁ ַמ ְצ ִ ֑ל‬ ֵ֔ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֤הי יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶא‬ “The Lord was with Joseph and he became a successful man”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 111 “They will declare the innocent in the right and declare the guilty in the wrong” III: Inwardly transitive/intensive The Hiphil is very frequently used of actions or states which we express by an intransitive verb. e. e. Gesenius (GK 53d. 1932) e.g. . ‫ ֶה ֱח ִרישׁ‬to keep silence” (Davidson. ‫ ֶה ֱחזִ יק‬to develop strength.

ְב ַה ְקשׁ ָ ֹ֖תהּ‬Hiphil inf. Joel 1:10: ‫הוֹבישׁ ִתּ ֖ירוֹשׁ ֻא ְמ ַ ֥לל יִ ְצ ָ ֽהר׃‬ ֥ ִ ‫ִכּ֚י ֻשׁ ַ ֣דּד ָדּ ֔ ָגן‬ “For the grain has been robbed. too. Genesis 35:17 ‫ם־ז֥ה‬ ֶ ַ‫ל־תּ ְיר ִ֔אי ִ ֽכּי־ג‬ ֣ ִ ‫אמר ָל֤הּ ַה ְמיַ ֶ ֙לּ ֶד ֙ת ַא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֥הי ְב ַה ְקשׁ ָ ֹ֖תהּ ְבּ ִל ְד ָ ֑תּהּ וַ ֨תּ‬ ‫ָלְ֖ך ֵ ֽבּן׃‬ “While she was labouring (‫ . b): Stems which express in Hiphil the entering into a certain condition and being in that condition. e.112 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW (The root ‫ צלח‬in the Hiphil is also found with a transitive meaning. The Hiphil forms of some verbs of motion are a variety of this class: ‫ְל ַה ְק ִריב‬ to come near. ‘Do not fear. ‫ ְל ַה ְר ִחיק‬to withdraw far off (also used as causatives) e. the midwife said to her.) in her delivery. cstr. is a son for you.g. ‫ְל ַה ְקשׁוֹת‬ to become hard.’” e.g. difficult ‫הוֹבישׁ‬ ִ ‫ְל‬ to become dry e. and the oil devastated”. the wine dried up. Genesis 24:21).קשׁה .g. Exodus 14:10: ‫וּפ ְר ֖עֹה ִה ְק ִ ֑ריב‬ ַ “And Pharoah drew near” . for this one.g. + sf.

‫ִה ְשׁ ִרישׁ‬ grow roots (Job 5:3). the producing of a thing”). d): Denominatives (See GK 53g: he regards these Hiphils as causative since they “express the bringing out.g. a people heavy with iniquity. seed of evildoers. e.g. ‫יטיב‬ ִ ‫ְל ֵה‬ to act well. Genesis 13:9: ‫ימנָ ה‬ ִ֔ ‫ם־ה ְשּׂ ֣מ ֹאל וְ ֵא‬ ַ ‫ל־ה ָ֙א ֶר ֙ץ ְל ָפ ֶ֔ניָך ִה ָ ֥פּ ֶרד ָנ֖א ֵמ ָע ָל֑י ִא‬ ָ ‫ֲה ֤ל ֹא ָכ‬ ‫ם־היָּ ִ ֖מין וְ ַא ְשׂ ְמ ִ ֽא ָילה׃‬ ַ ‫וְ ִא‬ . Genesis ַ ‫י־מ ְשׁ ִח ִ ֣תים ֲא ַ֔נ ְחנוּ ֶא‬ ַ ‫“ ִ ֽכּ‬For we are destroying this 19:13: ‫ת־ה ָמּ ֖קוֹם ַה ֶזּ֑ה‬ place”. Isaiah 1:4: ‫יתים‬ ִ ‫֣הוֹי גּ֣ וֹי ח ֵֹ֗טא ַ ֚עם ֶכּ ֶ֣בד ָע ֔ו ֹן ֶז֣ ַ רע ְמ ֵר ֔ ִעים ָבּ ִנ֖ים ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬ “Woe! They are a sinful nation. ‫ימין‬ ִ ‫ ֵה‬go to the right. to do good ‫ ְל ַה ְשׁ ִחית‬to act corruptly e.g. corrupt children”. The root ‫ שׁחת‬is also found in Hiphil with a causative sense. Leviticus 1:13: ֙‫ת־הכֹּל‬ ַ ‫וְ ִה ְק ִ ֨ריב ַהכּ ֵ ֹ֤הן ֶא‬ “The priest shall offer everything” c): Stems which express action in some particular direction.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 113 e.g. ‫ִה ְשׂ ְמ ִאיל‬ go to the left e.

‫יָמין‬ ִ n. ‫מר‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ל־א ֲה ֖ר ֹן ֵלא‬ ַ ‫ל־ע ַ ֤דת ְבּ ֵנֽי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל֙ ִ ֽמ ָמּ ֳח ָ ֔רת ַעל־מ ֶ ֹ֥שׁה וְ ַ ֽע‬ ֲ ‫ וַ יִּ ֹּ֜לנוּ ָכּ‬6 ֥ ַ ‫ַא ֶ ֥תּם ֲה ִמ ֶ ֖תּם ֶא‬ ‫ וַ יְ ִ֗הי ְבּ ִה ָקּ ֵ ֤הל ָ ֽה ֵע ָד ֙ה ַעל־מ ֶ ֹ֣שׁה‬7 ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫ת־עם י‬ ֵ ֔ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ל־א ֲה ֔ר ֹן וַ יִּ ְפ ֙נוּ ֶאל־‬ ַ ‫וְ ַ ֽע‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫מוֹעד וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ִכ ָ ֖סּהוּ ֶה ָע ָנ֑ ן וַ יֵּ ָ ֖רא ְכּ ֥בוֹד י‬ ‫מוֹעד׃ פ‬ ֽ ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֖י‬ ְ ‫ וַ יָּ ֤ב ֹא מ ֶֹשׁ ֙ה וְ ַא ֲה ֔ר ֹן ֶא‬8 ‫תּוְֹך ָה ֵע ָ ֣דה ַה ֔זּ ֹאת‬ ֙ ‫ ֵה ֗ר ֹמּוּ ִמ‬10 ‫מר׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫הו֖ה ֶאל־מ ֶ ֹ֥שׁה ֵלּא‬ ָ ְ‫ וַ יְ ַד ֵ ֥בּר י‬9 ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ ֨יּ‬11 ‫יהם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ֵ‫ל־פּנ‬ ְ ‫וַ ֲא ַכ ֶ ֥לּה א ָ ֹ֖תם ְכּ ָ ֑רגַ ע ַוֽ יִּ ְפּ ֖לוּ ַע‬ ‫ל־א ֲה ֗ר ֹן ַ ֣קח‬ ַ ‫אמר מ ֶֹ֜שׁה ֶ ֽא‬ ‫הוֹלְ֧ך‬ ֵ ְ‫יה ֵ֜אשׁ ֵמ ַ ֤על ַה ִמּזְ ֵ֙בּ ַח׀ וְ ִ ֣שׂים ְק ֔טֹ ֶרת ו‬ ָ ‫ן־ע ֨ ֶל‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ְח ָתּה וְ ֶת‬ ַ ֠ ‫ֶא‬ ‫הו֖ה ֵה ֵ ֥חל‬ ָ ְ‫יהם ִ ֽכּי־יָ ָ ֥צא ַה ֶ ֛קּ ֶצף ִמ ִלּ ְפ ֵנ֥י י‬ ֑ ֶ ‫ל־ה ֵע ָ ֖דה וְ ַכ ֵפּ֣ר ֲע ֵל‬ ָ ‫ְמ ֵה ָ ֛רה ֶא‬ ‫ל־תּוֹך ַה ָקּ ָ֔הל וְ ִה ֵנּ֛ה‬ ֣ ‫שׁר ׀ ִדּ ֶבּ֣ר מ ֶֹ֗שׁה וַ יָּ֙ ָר ֙ץ ֶא‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ וַ יִּ ַ ֨קּח ַא ֲה ֜ר ֹן ַכּ ֲא‬12 ‫ַה ָנּֽ גֶ ף׃‬ . I will go to the left”. (‫ ְשׂמֹאל‬n.sg. first-born). if to the left.114 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “Is not the whole land before you? Please separate from me. ‫ ְבּכוֹר‬n. then I will go to the right and if to the right.m.m. = the left. Jeremiah 4:31: ‫ירה‬ ֔ ָ ‫חוֹלה ָשׁ ַ֗מ ְע ִתּי ָצ ָר ֙ה ְכּ ַמ ְב ִכּ‬ ָ ֜ ‫ִכּי֩ ֨קוֹל ְכּ‬ “For I have heard an outcry like that of a woman in labour. 2 Parse and translate all the Hiphil verbs. (‫ ַמ ְב ִכּ ָירה‬Hiphil participle f.g. = right hand) e. Exercise Study the following extract from the Book of Numbers (17:6-15) and answer the following questions: 1 Parse and translate all the Niphal verbs. ‫בכר‬. in pain like a woman giving birth for the first time”.f.

Views of medieval scholars on use of Hiphil This section presents the views of medieval scholars on the uses of the Hiphil conjugation. 3 f. ‫“ בּ‬in (its) being gathered”. + vav consec.לוּן‬imperf. imperf. “take” (lit. as well as brief biographical sketches of these scholars. ‫ֵה ֵ ֥חל‬ ‫ .pl. “you have killed”. “and it was restrained”.עצר וַ ֵתּ ָע ַ ֖צר‬imperf. Their comments are presented in the original rabbinic Hebrew.עצר נֶ ֱע ָ ֽצ ָרה‬perf. + vav consec. “it has begun”. “and they murmured”. m. “be lifted up”.sg.sg. “it was restrained”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 115 ‫מד‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ וַ יַּ ֲע‬13 ‫ל־ה ָ ֽעם׃‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ְקּ ֔טֹ ֶרת וַ יְ ַכ ֵ ֖פּר ַע‬ ַ ‫תּן ֶ ֽא‬ ֙ ֵ ִ‫ֵה ֵ ֥חל ַה ֶנּ֖ גֶ ף ָבּ ָ ֑עם וַ יּ‬ ַ ‫ֵ ֽבּ‬ ‫ים ַבּ ַמּגֵּ ֔ ָפה‬ ֙ ‫ וַ יִּ ְהי֗ וּ ַה ֵמּ ִת‬14 ‫ין־ה ֵמּ ִ ֖תים ֵוּב֣ין ֽ ַה ַח ִיּ֑ים וַ ֵתּ ָע ַ ֖צר ַה ַמּגֵּ ָ ֽפה׃‬ ְ ‫ַא ְר ָבּ ָ ֥עה ָע ָ ֛שׂר ֶ ֖א ֶלף‬ ‫ל־דּ ַבר־ ֽקֹ ַרח׃‬ ְ ‫וּשׁ ַב֣ע ֵמ ֑אוֹת ִמ ְלּ ַ ֥בד ַה ֵמּ ִ ֖תים ַע‬ ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ וַ ָיּ ָ֤שׁב ַא ֲה ֙ר ֹן ֶאל־מ ֶֹ֔שׁה ֶאל־ ֶ ֖פּ ַתח‬15 ‫מוֹע֑ד וְ ַה ַמּגֵּ ָ ֖פה נֶ ֱע ָ ֽצ ָרה׃ פ‬ Key to exercise Niphal verbs: ‫וַ יִּ ֹּ֜לנוּ‬ ‫ .sg.ראה‬apoc. + prep. ‫וַ יֵּ ָ ֖רא‬ ‫ . ‫הוֹלְ֧ך‬ ֵ ְ‫ו‬ ‫ . Hiphil verbs: ‫ . ָרמֹם‬imperat.pl.sg.מוּת ֲה ִמ ֶ ֖תּם‬perf. 3 f.קהל ְבּ ִה ָקּ ֵ ֤הל‬inf. 3 m. ‫ֵה ֗ר ֹמּוּ‬ ‫ . 3 m.הלְך‬imperat. m. + vav consec.pl. 2 m. cstr. 3 m. “cause to go”). pausal.חלל‬perf. Students . ‫ . together with translation and explanation. ‫ . A glossary of some of the Hebrew grammatical terms used by these scholars is found at the end of the section. ‫ . “and (it) appeared”.sg.

on “inwardly transitive” or “intensive” Hiphils). for some verbs are both transitive and intransitive. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra suggests that the Hiphil perf. (compare GK 53d.e. ‫ ִה ְק ִ ֖ריב‬in this verse could have an intransitive sense and mean “he drew near”. his camp. form ‫ ִה ְק ִ ֖ריב‬could have either a transitive or an intransitive sense in this verse.116 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW should study the biblical verses and compare the views of the medieval scholars with the views in modern grammar books. p 145.sg. says Ibn Ezra. ‫“ ִה ְק ִריב ַמ ֲחנֵ הוּ‬he brought near his camp”. 3 m. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִה ְק ִ ֖ריב‬ ‫עוֹמ ִדים כי ימצאו פעלים ֶשׁיֵּ ְצאוּ‬ ְ ‫ַמ ֲחנֵ הוּ או הוא ֵמ ַה ְפּ ָע ִלים ָה‬ ‫וְ יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra He brought near. i. and we understand the verse as if it said. Note Ibn Ezra’s terms for “transitive verb” (‫יוֹצא‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ ) and “intransitive verb” (‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ ). Alternatively. ‘Behold now. even though the word ‫ ַמ ֲחנֵ הוּ‬is not actually written in the biblical text. I know that you are a beautiful woman’”. If it has a transitive sense. he said to Sarai. . then the reader must ‘supply’ the direct object. or (translating as ‘he came near’) it is one of the intransitive verbs. 1 Genesis 12:11 ‫ה־נ֣א‬ ָ ֵ‫ל־שׂ ַ ֣רי ִא ְשׁ ֔תּוֹ ִהנּ‬ ָ ‫אמ ֙ר ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יְ ִ֕הי ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִה ְק ִ ֖ריב ָל ֣בוֹא ִמ ְצ ָ ֑ריְ ָמה וַ ֙יּ‬ ‫ת־מ ְר ֶ ֖אה ָ ֽא ְתּ׃‬ ַ ‫יְפ‬ ַ ‫יָ ַ ֔ד ְע ִתּי ִ ֛כּי ִא ָ ֥שּׁה‬ “And it was that when he came near to entering Egypt. his wife.

Bethel was to the west and the Ai to the east. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫וַ יַּ ְע ֵ֨תּק‬ ‫ק־צוּר‬ ֗ ‫פּוֹעל י ֵֹצא כי )איוב יח ד( וְ יֶ ְע ַתּ‬ ַ ‫נּוֹסף והוא‬ ָ ‫ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד ַה‬ :‫עוֹמד וְ ַה ָפּעוּל ָא ֳהלוֹ‬ ֵ ‫ִמ ְמּק ֹֽמוֹ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The word ‫( וַ יַּ ְע ֵ֨תּק‬Hiphil apoc. ‫ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן‬ ‫ ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬. advance) is Hiphil and transitive because the Qal imperf.) (‫= ָע ֵתק‬ move. even though this word is not actually written in the biblical verse. Hence. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra explains that the Hiphil form ‫ וַ יַּ ְע ֵ֨תּק‬is transitive and that the implied direct object is “his tent”. Note Ibn Ezra’s term for the Hiphil: ‫( ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד ַהנּוֹ ָסף‬lit. He built there an altar to the Lord and He called in the name of the Lord”.sg. Note also Ibn Ezra’s terminology for “direct object” – ‫ ַה ָפּעוּל‬. the verse should be translated: “He removed his tent from there to the mountain east of Bethel—. + vav consec. . “the additional heavy/intensive conjugation”). where it has an intransitive meaning.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 2 117 Genesis 12:8 ‫ית־אל ִמיָּ ֙ם וְ ָה ַע֣י‬ ֤ ֵ ‫ית־אל וַ ֵיּ ֣ט ָא ֳה ֹ֑לה ֵ ֽבּ‬ ֖ ֵ ‫וַ יַּ ְע ֵ֨תּק ִמ ָ֜שּׁם ָה ָ֗ה ָרה ִמ ֶ ֛קּ ֶדם ְל ֵ ֽב‬ ֤ ָ ‫ִמ ֶ ֔קּ ֶדם וַ ִיּ ֶֽב‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫יהוה וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֖רא ְבּ ֵ ֥שׁם י‬ ָ֔ ‫ן־שׁם ִמזְ ֵ֙בּ ַח ֽ ַל‬ “He moved from there to the mountain east of Bethel and pitched his tent. proceed. form ‫ וְ יֶ ְע ַתּק‬in Job 18:4 is intransitive (“shall the rock be removed out of its place”) and the direct object of ‫ וַ יַּ ְע ֵ֨תּק‬is “his tent”. 3 m. imperf.” However. the word “his tent” (‫ ) ָא ֳהלוֹ‬is not actually written in the biblical text. Ibn Ezra bases his opinion on the occurrence of the root ‫ עתק‬in the Qal in Job 18:4. His term for the Piel is “the heavy conjugation”.

118 3 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Genesis 37:23: ‫ת־כּ ָתּנְ ֔תּוֹ‬ ֻ ‫ת־יוֹס ֙ף ֶא‬ ֵ ‫ל־א ָ ֑חיו וַ יַּ ְפ ִ ֤שׁיטוּ ֶא‬ ֶ ‫יוֹסף ֶא‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ר־בּא‬ ֥ ָ ‫ֽוַיְ ִ֕הי ֽ ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ‫תנֶ ת ַה ַפּ ִ ֖סּים ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ת־כּ‬ ְ ‫ֶא‬ “And it was when Joseph came to his brothers that they stripped Joseph of his tunic. the striped tunic that was on him”.pl. for they told him to take it off by himself. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫שׁיטוּ‬ ֤ ִ ‫וַ יַּ ְפ‬ . 4 Genesis 42:6 ‫ל־ע֣ם ָה ָ ֑א ֶרץ‬ ַ ‫ל־ה ָ֔א ֶרץ ֥הוּא ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר ְל ָכ‬ ָ ‫יוֹסף ֤הוּא ַה ַשּׁ ִ ֣לּיט ַע‬ ֵ֗ ְ‫ו‬ . A transitive verb which takes two direct objects.e. i. 3 m. “Joseph” and “his tunic” (both marked by -‫) ֶאת‬. see: Leviticus 6:4 ‫ת־בּגָ ָ ֔דיו וְ ָל ַ ֖בשׁ ְבּגָ ִ ֣דים ֲא ֵח ִ ֑רים‬ ְ ‫וּפ ַשׁ ֙ט ֶא‬ ָ : “He shall take off his clothes and put on other clothes”.‫אוֹתהּ ְבּ ַע ְצמוֹ‬ ָ ‫עוּלים ֶשׁ ָא ְמרוּ לוֹ ֶשׁיַּ ְפ ִשׁיטוּ‬ ִ ‫יוֹצא ִל ְשׁנֵ י ְפּ‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ Translation of Ibn Ezra “And they stripped”. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra explains that the Hiphil verb ‫שׁיטוּ‬ ֤ ִ ‫( וַ יַּ ְפ‬imperf. This is due to the fact that the verb ‫ ָפּ ַשׁט‬in the Qal is already transitive. ‫ )פשׁט‬takes two direct objects in this verse. + vav consec.

means “buy grain” (BDB p 991). taking two direct objects (accusatives). the noun “grain” is not actually written in the biblical text. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר‬ . where the suffix on the Hiphil imperfect (‫ ) ַתּ ְשׁ ִבּ ֵ ֙רנִ י‬constitutes one direct object. he was the grain-seller for all the people of the land”.sg. grain” (see Gen 42:1. “Joseph was the one selling (‫ ) ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר‬grain (‫ ) ֶשׁ ֶבר‬to all the people of the land”. It is a transitive verb. Ibn Ezra concludes that in the Hiphil. this verb takes two accusatives. + definite article) is from the root ‫ שׁבר‬and means “sell”. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra connects ‫ ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר‬with the noun ‫“ = ֶשׁ ֶבר‬corn. ‫ ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר‬. However. ‫ ָשׁ ַבר‬in the Qal is transitive. m. 43:2 etc) and the denominative verb ‫ ָשׁ ַבר‬which. In Gen 42:6. and the noun ‫א ֶכל‬ ֹ ֣ (“food”) is the second direct object. This is seen ֹ ֣ “you shall sell me food clearly in Deuteronomy 2:28: ‫א ֶכל ַבּ ֶכּ ֶ֤סף ַתּ ְשׁ ִבּ ֵ ֙רנִ ֙י‬ for money”. i. 5 Exodus 16:7 ‫הו֑ה‬ ָ ְ‫ת־תּ ֻלנּ ֵֹת ֶיכ֖ם ַעל־י‬ ְ ‫הוה ְבּ ָשׁ ְמ ֥עוֹ ֶא‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ת־כּ ֣בוֹד י‬ ְ ‫ית ֙ם ֶא‬ ֶ ‫וּ ֗בֹ ֶקר ְוּר ִא‬ ‫וְ ַנ ְ֣חנוּ ָ֔מה ִ ֥כּי ַתלּוֹנוּ ] ַת ִ ֖לּינוּ[ ָע ֵ ֽלינוּ׃‬ .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 119 “Joseph was the ruler over the land. see Gen 43:2: ‫א ֶכל׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫רוּ־לנוּ ְמ ַעט־‬ ֥ ָ ‫“ = ִשׁ ְב‬buy us a little food”. in the Qal. the reader must “assume” a second direct object to be inherent in the Hiphil participle. and accordingly.e.‫עוּלים‬ ִ ‫יוֹצא ִל ְשׁנֵ י ְפּ‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ ‫מוֹכר והוא‬ ֵ ‫ִמגִּ זְ ַרת ֶשׁ ֶבר וְ ַטעמוֹ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The word ‫( ַה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֖בּיר‬Hiphil participle.

17 and Joshua 9:18. . which Rashi does – “your sons and your wives and your daughters and the mixed multitude”.120 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “And in the morning you shall see the glory of the Lord. but ‫( לוּן‬II) means “murmur” and occurs only in Niphal and Hiphil in: Exodus 15. which can only be read as a Hiphil ‫ ַתּ ִלּינוּ‬. Hiphil) because of the lamed having a dagesh and because of the Keri (with yod. pass the night”. but that meaning would presuppose the Ketiv.‫ֶשׁ ַתּ ְר ִעימוּ ָע ֵלינוּ את הכל‬ ‫ ִמ ְפּנֵ י ַדּגְ שׁוּתוֹ‬. Numbers 14. 17. whereas the Ketiv has vav – ‫תלונו‬. which must then have a causative sense. and this makes it necessary to supply the direct object. ‫“ ִתּלּוֹנוּ‬you complain”. For the root ‫( לוּן‬II). see BDB p 534.‫ועל ָכּ ְר ִחי אני זָ קוּק ְל ָפ ֵרשׁ ַת ִלּינוּ בלשון ַתּ ְפ ִעילוּ‬ ַ ְ . ‫( לוּן‬I) means “lodge. 16. which could be read as a Niphal imperf. your sons and your wives and your daughters and the mixed multitude. Rashi feels compelled to follow the Keri.‫וע ֶרב ַרב‬ ֵ ‫ את בניכם ונשיכם ובנותיכם‬.‫וּק ִריָ יתוֹ‬ Translation of Rashi That you make everyone murmur against us. as a Niphal imperfect). Explanation of Rashi One might have translated the verse as “and what are we that you should complain against us”. However. Who are we that you cause others to complain about us?” Comment of Rashi on [‫] ַת ִ ֖לּינוּ‬ ‫ַתלּוֹנוּ‬ . 16. ‫תלונו‬. which could be read as ‫ ִתּלּוֹנוּ‬.e. I am forced to explain ‫ ַת ִלּינוּ‬in the sense of “you make people do something” (i. as He hears your complaints against the Lord.

‫תמם‬. Accordingly.‫וט ַעם וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי‬ . ‫שׁכך‬. means “abate. + vav consec. ‫שׁכך‬. which Ibn Ezra suggests is an anthropomorphic statement.sg. where the Qal root.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 6 121 Numbers 17:20 ‫נּוֹת‬ ֙ ‫ת־תּ ֻל‬ ְ ‫ר־בּוֹ ַמ ֵ ֣טּהוּ יִ ְפ ָ ֑רח וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי ֵ ֽמ ָע ֗ ַלי ֶא‬ ֖ ‫וְ ָה ָ֗יה ָה ִ ֛אישׁ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֶא ְב ַח‬ ‫יכם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ֲא ֶ ֛שׁר ֵ ֥הם ַמ ִלּ ִינ֖ם ֲע ֵל‬ “The man whom I will choose – his staff shall blossom. the Hiphil perf. like the root of ‫ וַ ֲה ִתמּ ִֹתי‬. I will rid Myself of the complaints of the children of Israel. “to find rest”. like ‫ תמם( וַ ֲה ִתמּ ִֹתי‬Hiphil) in Ezekiel 22:15: “and I will consume your filth out of you”. . which they complain against you”. decrease. Hence. for G-d does not need to “rid Himself” in a literal sense. allay” is anthropomorphic. Ibn Ezra’s comments on ‫( וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי‬Hiphil perf. “I will cause to abate”. 1 c. from the same root as ‫ ָשׁ ָכ ָכה‬in Esther 7:10: “and the anger of the king abated”. G-d is stating that He will “rid Himself” of the complaints of the Israelites.‫אדם למצוא מנוחה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra This is a geminate verb (double ‘ayin). ‫ וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי‬has a causative meaning. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra points out that the root of ‫ וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי‬is geminate.‫ִמ ָפּ ֳע ֵלי ַה ֶכּ ֶפל‬ ַ :‫ִמגִּ זְ ַרת )אסתר ז י( וַ ֲח ַמת ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ָשׁ ָכ ָכה‬ ‫ כדרך בני‬. He also explains the meaning by referring to Esther 7:10. ‫)שׁכך‬ :‫ ְכּמוֹ )יחזקאל כב טו( וַ ֲה ִתמּ ִֹתי ֻט ְמ ָא ֵתְך ִמ ֵמְּך‬. The meaning of ‫“ וַ ֲה ִשׁכּ ִ ֹ֣תי‬and I will cause to abate. decrease”.

relax”. 3 m. with a causative meaning). the meaning is “let drop.sg. nor forget the covenant of your forefathers that He swore to them”. Note that there is another Hiphil verb in this verse: ‫יתָך‬ ֑ ֶ ‫( וְ ֣ל ֹא יַ ְשׁ ִח‬root ‫ .‫יַפ ִעיל הוא‬ ְ ‫ ולשון ֥ל ֹא יַ ְר ְפָּך֖ לֹא‬. ‫ָר ָפה‬ (Qal) = “sink.). . abandon. Comment of Rashi on ֖‫֥ל ֹא יַ ְר ְפָּך‬ ‫יִתּן ְלָך‬ ֵ ‫ לא‬. destroy you”. ֖‫ יַ ְר ְפָּך‬is a Hiphil (i. + sf. 2 m. 3 m. He will not give you any looseness.sg. BDB suggests a theoretical meaning of “go to ruin” for ‫ ָשׁ ַחת‬. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that ֖‫ יַ ְר ְפָּך‬is a Hiphil verb with a causative meaning.122 7 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Deuteronomy 4:31 ‫יתָך וְ ֤ל ֹא יִ ְשׁ ַכּ ֙ח‬ ֑ ֶ ‫ֹלהיָך ֥ל ֹא יַ ְר ְפָּך֖ וְ ֣ל ֹא יַ ְשׁ ִח‬ ֶ֔ ‫הו֣ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫חוּם י‬ ֙ ‫ִ ֣כּי ֵ ֤אל ַר‬ ְ ‫ֶא‬ ‫ת־בּ ִ ֣רית ֲאב ֶֹ֔תיָך ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר נִ ְשׁ ַ ֖בּע ָל ֶ ֽהם׃‬ “For the Lord your G-d is a merciful G-d.שׁחת‬Hiphil imperf. nor ruin you. It is possible that ‫וְ ֣ל ֹא‬ ‫יתָך‬ ֑ ֶ ‫ יַ ְשׁ ִח‬is another example of a causative Hiphil. Hence. He will not forsake you. equivalent to: ‫יַ ְר ֶפּה‬ ‫א ְֹתָך‬.‫ִמ ְלּ ַה ֲחזִ יק ְבָּך ְבּיָ ָדיו‬ . + sf.‫רפיון‬ Translation of Rashi ֖‫( ֥ל ֹא יַ ְר ְפָּך‬means) He will not let loose of you from keeping hold of you in His hands. ֖‫ יַ ְר ְפָּך‬is Hiphil imperf. forsake”. 2 m. in the Hiphil. ‫יתָך‬ ֑ ֶ ‫“ = וְ ֣ל ֹא יַ ְשׁ ִח‬and He will not cause you to go to ruin.sg.sg. although the root ‫שׁחת‬ does not occur in the Qal.e.

it would apply to the borrower (i. Note also that Lambdin (157) suggests a permissive use of Hiphil. 4:25. lend). but if it stated ‫( וְ ָע ַב ְט ָתּ‬in the Qal).g.g. you shall lend to many nations. the Hiphil form is used (i. e. e. when it refers to the lender.עבט( וְ ַה ֲע ַב ְט ָתּ‬Hiphil).‫נּוֹפל על ַה ַמּ ְלוֶ ה נופל ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ַמ ְפ ִעיל‬ ֵ ‫כל לשון ַה ְלוָ ָאה ְכּ ֶשׁ‬ ֵ ‫ וְ ַה ֲע ַב ְט ָתּ ואם היה אומר וְ ָע ַב ְט ָתּ היה‬. 4:31. ‫ . See also Deut. Comment of Rashi on ‫וְ ֽ ַה ֲע ַב ְט ָ֞תּ‬ ‫ ְכּגוֹן‬.e. Genesis 48:11: ‫ֹלהים ַגּ֥ם ֶאת־זַ ְר ֶ ֽעָך׃‬ ֖ ִ ‫“ וְ ִה ֵ֨נּה ֶה ְר ָ ֥אה א ִ ֹ֛תי ֱא‬and behold G-d has allowed me to see your children also” (Jacob to Joseph).g.” e.לוה(וְ ִה ְלו‬Hiphil). 8 Deuteronomy 15:6 ‫ר־לְ֑ך וְ ֽ ַה ֲע ַב ְט ָ֞תּ גּוֹיִ ֣ם ַר ִ֗בּים וְ ַא ָתּ ֙ה‬ ָ ‫ֹלה ֙יָך ֵ ֽבּ ַר ְכ ָ֔ך ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ִדּ ֶבּ‬ ֶ֙ ‫הו֤ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫ִ ֽכּי־י‬ ‫יִמ ֽשׁ ֹלוּ׃‬ ְ ‫וּבָך֖ ֥ל ֹא‬ ְ ‫וּמ ַשׁ ְל ָ֙תּ ְבּגוֹיִ ֣ם ַר ִ֔בּים‬ ֽ ָ ‫֣ל ֹא ַת ֲע ֔בֹט‬ “For the Lord your G-d blessed you as He had spoken to you. and you shall rule over many nations.e. . i.לוה( וְ ָלו‬Qal). ‫ית‬ ָ ִ‫ . but you will not borrow. “This is closely related to the causative meaning and can be decided only from context. give a pledge).‫ית‬ ָ ִ‫וְ ִה ְלו‬ ‫נוֹפל על ַהֹּלוֶ ה כמו‬ ‫ית‬ ָ ִ‫וְ ָלו‬ Translation of Rashi In the case of every term that denotes transacting a loan. but they will not rule over you”.e. ‫ית‬ ָ ִ‫ . It is possible that a permissive meaning could be perceived in the Hiphil verbs in Deut. cause someone to give a pledge.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 123 But see Isaiah 1:4 below for the inwardly transitive meaning of ‫ ָשׁ ַחת‬in the Hiphil (“act corruptly”).

spurned the Holy One of Israel.124 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Explanation of Rashi Rashi simply explains that the roots ‫ עבט‬and ‫ לוה‬are both used in the Qal to mean “borrow” and in the Hiphil to mean “lend”. Ibn Ezra’s comment on ‫יתים‬ ֑ ִ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬ ‫נַ ְפ ָשׁם אוֹ ַדּ ְר ָכּם‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra Themselves or their way. 9 Isaiah 1:4 ‫יתים ָעזְ ֣בוּ‬ ֑ ִ ‫֣הוֹי גּ֣ וֹי ח ֵֹ֗טא ַ ֚עם ֶכּ ֶ֣בד ָע ֔ו ֹן ֶז֣ ַ רע ְמ ֵר ֔ ִעים ָבּ ִנ֖ים ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬ ְ ‫הוה ִ ֽנ ֲא ֛צוּ ֶא‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ֶאת־י‬ ‫ת־ק ֥דוֹשׁ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל נָ ֹ֥זרוּ ָא ֽחוֹר׃‬ “Woe sinful nation. borrow”. noun ‫ֲעבֹט‬ = “pledge”. . Thus. while the Hiphil form means “cause to give a pledge. lend”. they have forsaken the Lord. turned their back to Him”. a people weighed down by iniquity. the Qal form means “give a pledge. sg. corrupt children. ‫ עבט‬is in fact a denominative verb derived from the masc. Radak’s comment on ‫יתים‬ ֑ ִ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬ ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫יתים ַדּ ְר ֵכ‬ ִ ‫ָבּנִ ים ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬ Translation of Radak Children corrupting their ways. seed of evildoers.

like: I Kings 8:8: “the poles were long” and Exodus 14:10: “Pharoah drew near”. . ‫יתים‬ ִ ‫ ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬. says the Lord. pl. they are not transitive.‫יוֹצ ִאין ָבּ ֲא ֵח ִרים‬ ְ ‫ ֵאינָ ן‬.The Hiphil participle ‫ )רעע( ְמ ֵר ֔ ִעים‬in the same verse can also be taken as an inwardly transitive/intensive Hiphil. “children who corrupt themselves” or “children who corrupt their way(s)”. 10 Isaiah 1:18 ‫שּׁ ֶלג יַ ְל ִ֔בּינוּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ים ַכּ‬ ֙ ִ‫הו֑ה ִאם־יִ ְֽהי֨ וּ ֲח ָט ֵא ֶיכ֤ם ַכּ ָשּׁנ‬ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֣ ַ ֹ ‫כוּ־נ֛א וְ נִ ָוּ ְֽכ ָ ֖חה י‬ ָ ‫ְל‬ ֖ ָ ‫ִאם־יַ ְא ִ ֥דּימוּ ַכ‬ ‫תּוֹלע ַכּ ֶ ֥צּ ֶמר יִ ְהיֽ וּ׃‬ “Come now. However. See Genesis 19:13 for another example of the transitive use of ‫ שׁחת‬in the Hiphil and see II Chronicles 26:16 for an example of the inwardly transitive use of ‫ שׁחת‬in the Hiphil. Ibn Ezra and Radak are both suggesting that ‫יתים‬ ִ ‫ ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬should be understood in a causative sense and therefore they supply direct objects. It is possible to take ‫יתים‬ ִ ‫ ַמ ְשׁ ִח‬as an inwardly transitive/intensive Hiphil (GK 53f) and translate as “children acting corruptly”. participle form.‫אע"פ ֶשׁ ֵהן ְכּ ֵב ִדים‬ . If your sins are like scarlet they will become as white as snow.” Comment of Isaiah of Trani on ‫ יַ ְל ִ֔בּינוּ‬and ‫יַ ְא ִ ֥דּימוּ‬ ‫ כמו )מ"א ח ח( וַ יַּ ֲא ִריכוּ‬. “a seed of evildoers”. If they become as red as the scarlet worm. let us debate together.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 125 Explanation of Ibn Ezra and Radak Both Ibn Ezra and Radak have supplied a direct object to the Hiphil masc.‫וּפ ְרעֹה ִה ְק ִריב‬ ַ (‫ַה ַבּ ִדּים )שמות יד י‬ Translation of Isaiah of Trani Even though these verbs are Hiphil. they will become as white as wool.

HITHPAEL Spot the Hithpael Study the following biblical verses. 2 Deuteronomy 3:23 ‫מר׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫הו֑ה ָבּ ֵ ֥עת ַה ִ ֖הוא ֵלא‬ ָ ְ‫וָ ֶא ְת ַח ַנּ֖ ן ֶאל־י‬ And I beseeched the Lord at that time. while Athaliah reigned over the land. 3 Psalm 18:24 ‫וָ ֱא ִ ֣הי ָת ִ ֣מים ִע ֑מּוֹ וָ ֶ֝א ְשׁ ַתּ ֵ֗מּר ֵמ ֲעו ִ ֹֽני׃‬ . saying. 1 II Kings 11:3 ‫ל־ה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ָ ‫שׁשׁ ָשׁ ִנ֑ים וַ ֲע ַת ְל ָי֖ה מ ֶ ֹ֥ל ֶכת ַע‬ ֣ ֵ ‫הוה ִמ ְת ַח ֵ ֖בּא‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וַ יְ ִ ֤הי ִא ָתּ ֙הּ ֵבּ֣ית י‬ And he was with her hidden in the house of the Lord for six years. p 145. PARSE and TRANSLATE all the HITHPAEL verbs.126 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Explanation of Isaiah of Trani Isaiah of Trani points out that the Hiphil imperfects ‫( יַ ְל ִ֔בּינוּ‬root ‫ )לבן‬and ‫( יַ ְא ִ ֥דּימוּ‬root ‫ )אדם‬are not transitive. just like the Hiphils in I Kings 8:8 (‫ )וַ יַּ ֲא ִריכוּ‬and Exodus 14:10 (‫) ִה ְק ִריב‬. Explanatory notes are found at the end of the section. The student may consult the verb tables in any reliable Biblical Hebrew grammar book. Isaiah of Trani has in fact pointed out the phenomenon of inwardly transitive or intensive Hiphils – see GK 53d.

4 Micah 6:2 ‫ם־ע ֔מּוֹ וְ ִעם־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל יִ ְתוַ ָ ֽכּח׃‬ ַ ‫ִ ֣כּי ִ ֤ריב ַ ֽליהוָ ֙ה ִע‬ For the Lord has a controversy with His people and He will contend with Israel. 5 Genesis 44:16 ‫וּמה־נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ ַ ‫ֹאמ ֙ר ַ ֽלאד ִֹ֔ני ַמה־נְּ ַד ֵ ֖בּר‬ ַ ‫הוּדה ַמה־נּ‬ ֗ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And Judah said. ‘What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak? How shall we justify ourselves?’ 6 Leviticus 21:1 ‫ל־הכּ ֲֹה ִנ֖ים ְבּ ֵנ֣י ַא ֲה ֑ר ֹן וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָ ֣תּ ֲא ֵל ֶ֔הם ְל ֶנ ֶ֥פשׁ ֽל ֹא־יִ ַטּ ָ ֖מּא ְבּ ַע ָ ֽמּיו׃‬ ַ ‫מר ֶא‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ֱא‬ Speak to the priests. with none to deliver.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 127 And I was innocent with him and I kept myself from my iniquity. and you shall say to them. ‘none shall defile himself for a (dead) soul among his people’. 7 Job 5:4 ‫יִ ְר ֲח ֣קוּ ָב ָנ֣יו ִמֶיּ ַ֑שׁע וְ יִ ַֽ דּ ְכּ ֥אוּ ַ֝ב ַ֗שּׁ ַער וְ ֵ ֣אין ַמ ִ ֽצּיל׃‬ Let his children be far from safety and let them be crushed in the gate. the sons of Aaron. 8 Numbers 7:89 ‫ת־ה ֜קּוֹל ִמ ַדּ ֵבּ֣ר‬ ַ ‫מוֹע ֮ד ְל ַד ֵבּ֣ר ִאתּוֹ ֒ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֨מע ֶא‬ ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וּב ֨ב ֹא מ ֶֹ֜שׁה ֶאל־‬ ְ ‫ל־א ֣ר ֹן ָה ֵע ֻ ֔דת ִמ ֵ ֖בּין ְשׁ ֵנ֣י ַה ְכּ ֻר ִ ֑בים וַ יְ ַד ֵ ֖בּר‬ ֲ ‫ֵא ֗ ָליו ֵמ ַ ֤על ַה ַכּ ֨ ֹפּ ֶר ֙ת ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ַע‬ ‫ֵא ָ ֽליו׃‬ .

11 Genesis 9:21 ‫ן־ה ַ ֖יּ יִ ן וַ יִּ ְשׁ ָ ֑כּר וַ יִּ ְת ַגּ֖ל ְבּ ֥תוְֹך ָא ֳה ֹֽלה׃‬ ַ ‫וַ ֵיּ ְ֥שׁ ְתּ ִמ‬ And he drank from the wine and became drunken. from between the two Cherubim and it spoke to him. 12 II Samuel 13:5 ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּ ְבָך֖ וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬ ִ ‫אמר לוֹ֙ יְ ֣הוֹנָ ָ ֔דב ְשׁ ַ ֥כב ַע‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ And Jonadab said to him.128 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And when Moses went into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him. they prophesied by Baal and caused my people Israel to err. and he was uncovered in the midst of his tent. ‘lie down on your bed and pretend to be sick’. 9 Leviticus 14:8 ‫ל־שׂ ָע ֗רוֹ וְ ָר ַ ֤חץ ַבּ ַ֙מּ ֙יִם וְ ָט ֵ֔הר‬ ְ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ת־בּגָ ָ ֜דיו וְ גִ ַלּ֣ח ֶא‬ ְ ‫וְ ִכ ֶבּ ֩ס ַה ִמּ ַטּ ֵ֨הר ֶא‬ And he that is to be purified shall wash his clothes and shave off all his hair and bathe in water and he shall be clean. 10 Jeremiah 23:13 ‫ת־ע ִ ֖מּי‬ ַ ‫יתי ִת ְפ ָל֑ה ִהנַּ ְבּ ֣אוּ ַב ַ֔בּ ַעל וַ יַּ ְת ֥עוּ ֶא‬ ִ ‫יאי שׁ ְֹמ ֖רוֹן ָר ִ ֣א‬ ֥ ֵ ‫וּבנְ ִב‬ ִ ‫ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬ And among the prophets of Samaria I have seen folly. . he heard the Voice speaking to him from above the covering that was on the Ark of Testimony.

so also in the imperfect and imperative. e.sg. ‫נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ Hithpael imperf. and note also that ‫ ת‬has been changed to the emphatic ‫ט‬. Regarding verbs ‫ פ"י‬see GK 69 i: “The original waw is retained as a firm consonant—in the Hithpael of some verbs. + vav consec.יכח‬he will argue”. ‫“ . Kelley p 111.sg.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 129 Explanatory notes to spot the Hithpael 1 II Kings 11:3 ‫ ִמ ְת ַח ֵ ֖בּא‬Hithpael participle m. ‫ ִה ְתוַ ַדּע‬from ‫יָ ַדע‬. e.pl. 3rd m. strife.m. dispute 5 Genesis 44:16 (Judah’s appeal for Benjamin after the discovery of the goblet in his sack). the perfect very frequently (in stems ending in ‫ )פ מ ק נ‬has retained the original Patah in the final syllable—.שׁמר‬and I kept myself”.חבא‬hiding oneself. ‫“ . ‫“ .” ‫ ִריב‬n. Note metathesis of ‫ ת‬of Hithpael preformative with first root letter ‫( שׁ‬a sibilant). See WHG p 120. with ְ‫ ו‬consecutive. i. See GK 54k: “As in Piel.” 3 Psalm 18:24 ‫וָ ֶ֝א ְשׁ ַתּ ֵ֗מּר‬ Hithpael imperf. 1 c. ָצ ֵדק‬how) shall we justify ourselves?” Note the metathesis of the 1st root letter (‫ )צ‬with the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative. + vav consec. pausal. ‫נִ ְת ַצ ֵדּק < נִ ְצ ַתּ ֵדּק < נִ ְצ ַט ֵדּק‬.חנן‬and I sought favour. 2 Deuteronomy 3:23 ‫וָ ֶא ְת ַח ַנּ֖ ן‬ Hithpael imperf. (GK 54 b). pausal. 1 c.—. . 7:16. hidden”. ‫ִה ְתוַ ַכּח‬ from ‫יָכח‬ ַ . ‫“ . so in Hithpael. ‫ ִתּ ְת ַח ַכּם‬Ec.sg.e. 1 c.g. ‫(“ . implored”.g.sg. ‫ ִה ְתוַ ָדּה‬from ‫—יָ ָדה‬. 4 Micah 6:2 ‫יִתוַ ָ ֽכּח‬ ְ Hithpael imperf.

e.e. ‫“ = ָדּ ָכא‬crush”(not in Qal) > Hithpael: “let themselves be crushed”.g.sg. become unclean.pl. ‫ ִמ ְת ַדּ ֵבּר < ִמ ַדּ ֵבּר‬. ‫“ . + vav conjunctive. i. 3 m. Note the assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative to the 1st root letter which is a dental (‫)ד‬. as well as ‫— ִה ְתנַ ֵבּא‬.pl.130 6 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Leviticus 21:1 (rules for priests) ‫יִ ַטּ ָ ֖מּא‬ Hithpael imperf. ‫“ = ָט ֵמא‬be. ‫“ = ָט ֵהר‬be clean. Note that the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative has assimilated into the 1st root letter because it is a dental (‫)ט‬. 9 Leviticus 14:8 (purification of a leper) ‫ַה ִמּ ַטּ ֵ֨הר‬ Hithpael participle m. ‫“ . Note assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative to the 1st root letter which is a dental (‫)ט‬.” Hithpael: “defile oneself”. pure >Hithpael: “purify oneself” > + definite article: ‫“ = ַה ִמּ ַטּ ֵ֨הר‬the candidate for purification” (BDB p 372). (WHG p 120).sg. ְ i. Note assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative to the 1st root letter (‫)נ‬.e. ‫ ִהנַּ ֵבּא‬to prophesy. ‫ ִה ְתנַ ְבּאוּ < ִהנַ ְבּאוּ‬.נָ ָבא‬they prophesied”. 3 m. 10 Jeremiah 23:13 ‫ִהנַּ ְבּ ֣אוּ‬ Hithpael perf. 3 c. ‫יִת ַט ָמּא < יִ ַטּ ָמּא‬ 7 Job 5:4 (the fate of the children of the foolish) ‫וְ יִ ַֽ דּ ְכּ ֥אוּ‬ Hithpael imperf.דבר‬speaking”. i. i. e.sg.” .e. See GK 54 c: “The assimilation of the ‫ ת‬occurs also with ‫ נ‬and ‫כ‬. Note the assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative to the 1st root letter which is a dental (‫)ד‬. ‫יִת ַדּ ְכּאוּ < יִ ַדּ ְכּאוּ‬ ְ 8 Numbers 7:89 ‫ ִמ ַדּ ֵבּ֣ר‬Hithpael participle m.

+ vav consec. (see Bibliography). ‫“ = גָּ ָלה‬uncover. I: Reflexive of Piel ‫ ִה ְת ַק ֵדּשׁ‬he sanctified himself ‫ִה ְת ַאזֵּ ר‬ he girded himself ‫ ִה ְת ַח ֵבּא‬he hid himself e. imagines himself as. David’s eldest son. Longer form of Hithpael imperf.sg. ‫ִה ְתנַ ֵקּם‬ he showed himself revengeful (Niphal: take revenge) ‫ ִה ְת ַע ֵשּׁר‬he gave himself out to be rich. 12 II Samuel 13:5 (Jonadab’s advice to Amnon. feigned himself as rich . Uses of Hithpael The following summary of the uses of Hithpael is based on the analyses of modern grammarians. would be ‫ ִה ְת ַח ֵלּה‬. shortened form. would be ‫יִתגַּ ֶלּה‬ ְ . apoc. II: A more intensive meaning implying that one shows himself as. 3 m. gives himself out as. performing the action of the simple verb. ‫“ = ָח ָלה‬be weak.sg. Tamar) ‫וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬ Hithpael imperative m. sick” > (here): “make (yourself) sick”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 11 131 Genesis 9:21 (Noah planted a vineyard and became drunk) ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַגּ֖ל‬ Hithpael imperf.g. Longer form of imperative m. pausal. who was sick with love for his half-sister. remove” > (here): “and he was uncovered”. Exodus 19:12: ‫יִ ְת ַק ָ ֑דּשׁוּ‬ ‫הו֖ה‬ ָ ְ‫וְ ַג֧ם ַהכּ ֲֹה ִנ֛ים ַהנִּ גָּ ִ ֥שׁים ֶאל־י‬ “Even the priests who approach the Lord must sanctify themselves”.sg.

Although the Hithpael is used to designate such action.g.g.” ‫ִה ְת ָר ָאה‬ look upon one another . and he raved in the house. it is rare. I Samuel 18:10: ‫ל־שׁאוּל֙ וַ יִּ ְתנַ ֵבּ֣א‬ ָ ‫ֹלהים ׀ ָר ָ ֤עה ׀ ֶא‬ ִ֨ ‫רוּח ֱא‬ ַ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֣הי ִ ֽמ ָמּ ֳח ָ ֗רת וַ ִתּ ְצ ַ ֣לח‬ ‫תוְֹך־ה ַ֔בּיִ ת‬ ַ ‫ְב‬ “On the following day a spirit of melancholy from G-d came upon Saul. he acted proudly ‫ִה ְת ַח ֵכּם‬ he showed himself wise. Numbers 16:13: ‫יתנוּ ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ ֑בּר‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ית ֙נוּ ֵמ ֶ֨א ֶרץ זָ ַ ֤בת ָח ָל ֙ב ְוּד ַ֔בשׁ ַל ֲה ִמ‬ ָ֙ ‫ַה ְמ ֗ ַעט ִ ֤כּי ֶ ֽה ֱע ִל‬ ‫ם־ה ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֽרר׃‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ִ ַ‫י־ת ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֥רר ָע ֵל֖ינוּ גּ‬ “Is it too little that you brought us up from a land flowing with milk and honey to have us die in the desert. that you would make yourself ruler over us?” e. crafty ‫ִה ְת ַח ָלּה‬ he pretended to be ill ‫ ִה ְשׂ ָתּ ֵרר‬he made himself a prince ‫ִה ְתנַ ֵבּא‬ he acted in an excited manner like a prophet.” III: Reciprocal action See Waltke/O’Connor p 431: “When two or more subjects act in relationship to each other according to the notion expressed by the verbal root.132 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ִה ְתגַּ ֵדּל‬ he made himself great. the action is reciprocal. he raved e.

no 6).g. the man and his wife. ‫ . Genesis 2:25: ‫יִתבּ ֹ ָ ֽשׁשׁוּ׃‬ ְ ‫רוּמּים ֽ ָה ָא ָ ֖דם וְ ִא ְשׁ ֑תּוֹ וְ ֖ל ֹא‬ ִ֔ ‫יה ֙ם ֲע‬ ֶ ֵ‫וַ ִיּ ְֽהי֤ וּ ְשׁנ‬ “They were both naked. doing something for oneself. he would hear the Voice speaking to him from above the cover. for one’s own benefit. ‘Indirect Reflexive’) .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ִה ַדּ ֵבּר‬ 133 converse ‫ ִה ְתבּ ֵֹשׁשׁ‬feel shame before each other e. to one’s own detriment) (called by Lambdin. Genesis 42:1: ‫אמר יַ ֲעק ֹ֙ב ְל ָב ָ֔ניו ָל ָ֖מּה ִתּ ְת ָר ֽאוּ׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫שׁ־שׁ ֶבר ְבּ ִמ ְצ ָ ֑ריִם וַ ֤יּ‬ ֖ ֶ ֶ‫וַ ַיּ֣ ְ רא יַ ֲע ֔קֹב ִ ֥כּי י‬ “And Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt and Jacob said to his sons: ‘Why do you look upon one another?’” e. Views of Medieval Schol- e. Numbers 7:89: ‫ת־ה ֜קּוֹל ִמ ַדּ ֵבּ֣ר‬ ַ ‫מוֹע ֮ד ְל ַד ֵבּ֣ר ִאתּוֹ ֒ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֨מע ֶא‬ ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וּב ֨ב ֹא מ ֶֹ֜שׁה ֶאל־‬ ְ ‫ֵא ֗ ָליו ֵמ ַ ֤על ַה ַכּ ֨ ֹפּ ֶר ֙ת‬ “When Moses would enter the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him.” IV: Action upon or for oneself (in one’s own special interest.g.” (but compare Rashi’s view on ars on Use of Hithpael. yet they felt no shame before each other. ִמ ַדּ ֵבּ֣ר‬see below.g.

‘From where have you come?’ The Satan answered the Lord. I Samuel 18:4: ‫שׁר ָע ֔ ָליו‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ת־ה ְמּ ִעיל֙ ֲא‬ ַ ‫שּׁט יְ הוֹנָ ָ֗תן ֶ ֽא‬ ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ‬ “and Jonathan took off (lit.’” . stripped from himself) the robe he was wearing.g.g.” b): without accusative ‫ִה ְת ַה ֵלְּך‬ walk about for oneself (Lambdin cites hlk as the only example of the iterative use of the Hithpael) ‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵלּל‬ pray for oneself e.134 a): FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW with accusative of object ‫ִה ְת ָפּ ֵרק‬ tear off from oneself (Exodus 32:3) ‫ִה ְתנַ ֵצּל‬ strip from oneself (Exodus 33:6) ‫ ִה ְת ַפּ ֵשּׁט‬strip from oneself (I Samuel 18:4) ‫ ִה ְת ַפּ ַתּח‬loosen from oneself (Isaiah 52:2) ‫ִה ְצ ַטיֵּ ד‬ take (something) as one’s provision (Joshua 9:12) e. Job 1:7: ‫אמר‬ ַ֔ ֹ ‫ל־ה ָשּׂ ָ ֖טן ֵמ ַ ֣איִ ן ָתּ ֑ב ֹא וַ ַ֨יּ ַען ַה ָשּׂ ָ ֤טן ֶאת־יְ הוָ ֙ה וַ יּ‬ ַ ‫הו֛ה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֧יּ‬ ‫וּמ ִה ְת ַה ֵלְּ֖ך ָ ֽבּהּ׃‬ ֽ ֵ ‫ִמ ֣שּׁוּט ָבּ ָ֔א ֶרץ‬ “And the Lord asked the Satan. ‘From wandering and walking about the earth.

” Exercise: identify the Hithpael verbs in the following biblical verses. (see explanatory notes at the end). a woman who fears the Lord. and beauty vain.” 3 Numbers 16:13 ‫יתנוּ ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ ֑בּר‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ית ֙נוּ ֵמ ֶ֨א ֶרץ זָ ַ ֤בת ָח ָל ֙ב ְוּד ַ֔בשׁ ַל ֲה ִמ‬ ָ֙ ‫ַה ְמ ֗ ַעט ִ ֤כּי ֶ ֽה ֱע ִל‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫ם־ה ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֽרר׃‬ ִ ַ‫י־ת ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֥רר ָע ֵל֖ינוּ גּ‬ .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW V: 135 Seldom passive (tends to be found in later biblical literature) e.g. 1 Genesis 44:16 ‫וּמה־נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ ַ ‫ֹאמ ֙ר ַ ֽלאד ִֹ֔ני ַמה־נְּ ַד ֵ ֖בּר‬ ַ ‫הוּדה ַמה־נּ‬ ֗ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ “And Judah said. discuss their form and use.g. she should be praised. Proverbs 31:30: ‫֝הוה ִ ֣היא ִת ְת ַה ָ ֽלּל׃‬ ָ֗ ‫ת־י‬ ְ ‫שׁ ֶקר ַ ֭ה ֵחן וְ ֶ ֣ה ֶבל ַה ֹ֑יּ ִפי ִא ָ ֥שּׁה יִ ְר ַא‬ ֶ֣ “Grace is false. Ecclesiastes 8:10: ‫וְ יִ ְֽשׁ ַתּ ְכּ ֥חוּ ָב ִ ֖עיר‬ “and they are forgotten in the city. ‘What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak and how shall we justify ourselves?’” 2 Exodus 33:6 ‫חוֹרב׃‬ ֽ ֵ ‫ת־ע ְד ָי֖ם ֵמ ַ ֥הר‬ ֶ ‫וַ ִיּ ְֽתנַ ְצּ ֧לוּ ְב ֵנֽי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֛אל ֶא‬ “The children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from Mount Horeb.” e.

The Hithpael is here the re- . O captive daughter of Zion. no 5) for form (imperf.” 5 Isaiah 52:2 ‫מוֹס ֵ ֣רי‬ ְ [‫חי‬ ֙ ִ ‫וּשׁ ָל ִ֑ם ִה ְת ַפּ ְתּחוּ ] ִ ֽה ְת ַפּ ְתּ‬ ָ ‫וּמי ְשּׁ ִ ֖בי יְ ֽר‬ ִ ‫ִה ְתנַ ֲע ִ ֧רי ֵמ ָע ָ ֛פר ֥ק‬ ֔ ֵ ָ‫ַצוּ‬ ‫־ציּֽ וֹן׃‬ ִ ‫ארְך ְשׁ ִב ָיּ֖ה ַבּת‬ “Shake yourself from the dust.136 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “Is it too little that you brought us up from a land flowing with milk and honey to have us die in the desert. no 2) for Rashi’s comment. but a woman who fears the Lord. ָצ ֵדק‬metathesis of ‫ צ‬with ‫ ת‬of Hithpael prefix). loose from yourself the bands of your neck. ‫ . O Jerusalem. that you should act the prince over us?” 4 Joshua 9:12 ‫יכם‬ ֑ ֶ ‫אתנוּ ָל ֶל ֶ֣כת ֲא ֵל‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ֶז֣ה ַל ְח ֵ֗מנוּ ָ֞חם ִה ְצ ַט ַיּ֤ ְ דנוּ אֹתוֹ֙ ִמ ָ ֣בּ ֵ֔תּינוּ ְבּי֥ וֹם ֵצ‬ “This is our bread we provided hot for ourselves from our houses on the day we went out to go to you. arise and sit down. See “Views of Medieval Exegetes” (below.pl. she shall be praised.” Explanatory notes (for: identify the Hithpael verbs) 1 Genesis 44:16 ‫נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ See “Spot the Hithpael” (above. 1 c.” 6 Proverbs 31:30 ‫֝הוה ִ ֣היא ִת ְת ַה ָ ֽלּל׃‬ ֗ ָ ‫ת־י‬ ְ ‫שׁ ֶקר ַ ֭ה ֵחן וְ ֶ ֣ה ֶבל ַה ֹ֑יּ ִפי ִא ָ ֥שּׁה יִ ְר ַא‬ ֶ֣ “Grace is false and beauty is vain. pausal.

1 c. Note metathesis of the sibilant ‫ שׂ‬with the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael preformative. One should compare Exod. 12:36). food”.) = “ornaments” > ‫ ֶע ְדיְ ָך‬/‫ ֶע ְדיוֹ‬etc.pl. The Hithpael occurs only here (‫ .וַ ִיּ ְֽתנַ ְצּ ֧לוּ‬imperf.” 4 Joshua 9:12 ‫ ִה ְצ ַט ַיּ֤ ְ דנוּ‬denom.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 137 ַ ‫ַ ֽע‬ flexive of the Piel and for the Piel use of this root. 3 m.sg. Exod. Hithpael perf. 32:3 and Rashi’s comment there (see Views of Medieval Scholars on Hithpael. “We supplied ourselves with provisions”. from ‫ ַשׂר‬n. (coll. ‫ צוד‬from the masc. followed by the definite direct object ‫ ַ ֝נ ְפ ֗שׁוֹ‬. More intensive use of Hithpael > “that you should act the prince over us.g.m. The words in this . no 4 below). 2 m. which has become an emphatic ‫ט‬. called Indirect Reflexive by Lambdin.m. ‫( ָע ָדה‬I) = ornament.) as the reflexive of the Piel: “they stripped from themselves” (Lambdin’s Indirect Reflexive) and taking a direct object (‫“ = ֶע ְד ָי֖ם‬their ornaments”). Note the metathesis of the ‫( צ‬1st root letter) with the ‫ת‬ of the Hithpael preformative. This type of Hithpael expresses action upon or for oneself. spoil” (e. 2 Exodus 33:6 The root ‫ נצל‬occurs in the Piel in the sense of “strip off. ‫ ִה ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֽרר‬. ruler. 3 Numbers 16:13 (‫ ) ָשׂ ַרר‬denom. where ‫ ַצ ְדּ ֥קוֹ‬is Piel infinitive construct + sf. 3:22. prince” > Hithpael imperf. ‫ ִת ְשׂ ָתּ ֵ ֥רר‬followed by infinitive absolute Hithpael.sg. = “chief. see: Job 32:2: ‫ל־צ ְדּ ֥קוֹ‬ ‫ֹלהים׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫“ ַ֝נ ְפ ֗שׁוֹ ֵמ ֱא‬because he justified himself rather than G-d”. deck oneself > ‫ ֲע ִדי‬n.pl. Note also compensatory lengthening (qamets under tav) due to absence of dagesh in resh (middle root letter). + vav consec. 3 m. noun ‫= ַציִ ד‬ “provision.

e.g. Their comments are presented in the original rabbinic . 14:27: ‫ת־מ ְצ ַ ֖ריִם ְבּ ֥תוְֹך ַה ָיּֽם׃‬ off the Egyptians into the sea”. e. imprison”. in Prov.e. in the reflexive sense of “shake yourself”. The Keri (‫חי‬ ֙ ִ ‫ ) ִ ֽה ְת ַפּ ְתּ‬is imperative f.sg. The noun ‫מוֹסר‬ ֵ (= ‫אסר‬ ֵ ֹ ‫ )מ‬n. ‫מוֹסרוֹת‬ ֵ ) is derived from the root ‫“ = ָא ַסר‬bind. the Hithpael occurs in a passive sense: ‫“ = ִת ְת ַה ָ ֽלּל‬she shall be praised” (imperf. free” (see I Kings 20:11) and the Hithpael here is the (indirect) reflexive of the Piel – “loosen from yourself”. 31:30. so that they would be permitted to make a covenant with Joshua. The Piel of ‫ פתח‬has the sense of “loosen. pausal). 5 Isaiah 52:2 ‫נָ ַער‬ = “shake” occurs also in Piel in the sense of “shake out.g.—. since the Israelites had been forbidden to make agreements with their neighbours. and describes it as performed with regard to or for oneself. Hithpael in such cases readily takes an accusative. sg. Views of medieval scholars on use of Hithpael This section presents the views of medieval scholars on the uses of the Hithpael conjugation. ‫חי‬ ֙ ִ ‫ ִ ֽה ְת ַפּ ְתּ‬is the only occurrence in the Hithpael of the root ‫= פתח‬ “open”. the ‘accusative’ (i.sg.138 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW verse are uttered by the Gibeonites. praise oneself). Here only. I Kings 20:11. 3 fem.” Here. 6 Proverbs 31:30 The root ‫ הלל‬occurs in Piel with the meaning of “praise” and in Hithpael sometimes has the reflexive meaning of “glory.e. who pretended to be poor travellers from afar. off”. and see GK 54 f: “It (Hithpael) more often indicates an action less directly affecting the subject. = “band. bond” (pl. boast” (i. The Hithpael occurs only here in Isaiah 52:2 (‫ ) ִה ְתנַ ֲע ִ ֧רי‬as imperative f. ִ ‫הו֛ה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫“ וַ יְ נַ ֵ ֧ער י‬and the Lord shook Exod. Psalm 34:3. in one’s own special interest.m. the direct object) is ‫ארְך‬ ֔ ֵ ָ‫מוֹס ֵ ֣רי ַצוּ‬ ְ “the bands of your neck”.

as well as brief biographical sketches of these scholars. Ibn Ezra suggests that this second alternative implies “quarrel with . “look upon one another”. challenged the King of Israel. Students should study the biblical verses and compare the views of the medieval scholars with the views in modern grammar books. like: (II Kings 14:8): ‘Come. (The King of Judah.pl. Alternatively. or. together with translation and explanation. ‫ִתּ ְת ָר ֽאוּ‬ could be a Hithpael implying reciprocal action. ‫) ָר ָאה( ִתּ ְת ָר ֽאוּ‬. do not quarrel with one another. implying that one shows himself as. that is. That is.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 139 Hebrew. A glossary of some of the Hebrew grammatical terms used by these scholars is found at the end of the section. imagines himself as. let us look one another in the face’. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra gives two alternative ways to understand the Hithpael imperf. ‘Why do you look at one another?’ Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִתּ ְת ָר ֽאוּ‬ ‫ַאל ִתּ ְתראוּ ֶשׁיֵּ שׁ ָל ֶכם הוֹן או ַאל ִתּהיוּ ְמ ִר ִיבים זה עם זה כמו )מ"ב‬ ‫יד ח( ְל ָ ֖כה נִ ְת ָר ֶ ֥אה ָפ ִ ֽנים׃‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra Do not show yourselves (pretend) as having wealth. performing the action of the simple verb. 2 m. gives himself out as. 1 Genesis 42:1 ‫אמר יַ ֲעק ֹ֙ב ְל ָב ֔ ָניו ָל ָ֖מּה ִתּ ְת ָר ֽאוּ׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫שׁ־שׁ ֶבר ְבּ ִמ ְצ ָ ֑ריִם וַ ֤יּ‬ ֖ ֶ ֶ‫וַ ַיּ֣ ְ רא יַ ֲע ֔קֹב ִ ֥כּי י‬ Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt so Jacob said to his sons. Jehoash). Jacob’s message to his sons was that they should not imagine that they had the material means to delay any longer from going down to Egypt to obtain grain. Amaziah. It could be an “intensive” Hithpael.

1 pl. e. 1 c.‫כּגוֹן נִ ְצ ַט ָדּק ִמגִּ זְ ַרת צדק‬ Translation of Rashi ‫ נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬is derived from the root ‫צדק‬. as the same expression is used when the King of Judah. ‘What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak and how shall we justify ourselves? (clear ourselves)’ Comment of Rashi on ‫נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ ‫סוֹדהּ ַצ ִדּ"י והיא ָב ָאה ְל ַד ֵבּר‬ ָ ְ‫יבה ֶשׁ ְתּ ִח ַלּת י‬ ָ ‫וכן ָכּל ֵתּ‬ ֵ . Jehoash. would be ‫נִ ת‬. The expected prefix for Hithpael imperf. pausal).d). takes ‫ ט‬instead of ‫( ת‬in the prefix).‫ְלשׁוֹן ֶצ ֶדק‬ ‫נוֹתנָ הּ‬ ְ ‫נוֹתן ֵטי"ת במקום ָתּי"ו וְ ֵאינָ הּ‬ ֵ .‫ְבּ ָלשׁוֹן ִמ ְת ָפּ ֵעל או נִ ְת ָפּ ֵעל‬ . Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains the Hithpael formation ‫( נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬imperf. ‫ נִ ְצ ַט ָדּק‬from the root ‫.pl.‫לפני אוֹת ראשונה של יְ סוֹד ַה ֵתּ ָיבה ֶא ָלּא ְב ֶא ְמ ַצע אותיות ָה ִע ָקּר‬ .‫ וַ יִּ ְצ ַט ַבּע ִמגִּ זְ ַרת צבע‬. 2 Genesis 44:16 ‫וּמה־נִּ ְצ ַט ָ ֑דּק‬ ַ ‫ֹאמ ֙ר ַ ֽלאד ִֹ֔ני ַמה־נְּ ַד ֵ ֖בּר‬ ַ ‫הוּדה ַמה־נּ‬ ֗ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And Judah said.g.c. but after the first root letter (and before the second root letter). it is not placed before the first root letter. however. the ‫ ת‬has become ‫ ט‬and has changed places with the ‫צ‬. unwisely challenged the King of Israel. Every root whose first letter is ‫צ‬ when used in the Hithpael or Nithpael.צדק‬ ‫“( וַ יִּ ְצ ַט ַבּע‬let him be wet”) (Daniel 4:12) from the root ‫צבע‬.140 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW one another”. Amaziah. See also GK 54 b. . but since the first root letter is ‫( צ‬a sibilant). (See WHG p 120 for rules of Hithpael when the first root letter is a sibilant or dental.

implying that Pharoah wants to “show himself. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫מה‬ ֖ ָ ‫ִ ֽנ ְת ַח ְכּ‬ . cohortative 1st c.‫ ְכּמוֹ ִמנִּ זְ ֵמי‬. ‫חכם‬ “bewise”.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 3 141 Exodus 1:10 (words of Pharoah about the children of Israel) ‫ָ ֥ה ָבה ִ ֽנ ְת ַח ְכּ ָ ֖מה ֑לוֹ‬ Come.‫יהם‬ .pl.‫ט כט( ִמן ָה ִעיר‬ . and brought them to Aaron. that he should not multiply. imperf. Ibn Ezra’s words suggest that he saw ‫מה‬ ֖ ָ ‫ ִ ֽנ ְת ַח ְכּ‬as an “intensive” Hithpael. 4 Exodus 32:3 ‫ל־א ֲה ֽר ֹן׃‬ ַ ‫יהם וַ יָּ ִ ֖ביאוּ ֶ ֽא‬ ֑ ֶ ֵ‫שׁר ְבּ ָאזְ נ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ל־ה ֔ ָעם ֶאת־נִ זְ ֵ ֥מי ַהזָּ ָ ֖הב ֲא‬ ָ ‫קוּ ָכּ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֽפּ ְר‬ All the people broke off from themselves the golden earrings which were in their ears. let us deal wisely with him. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra comments on ‫מה‬ ֖ ָ ‫ ִ ֽנ ְת ַח ְכּ‬. give himself out as wise” in his dealings with the Israelites.‫נְ ַב ֵקּשׁ ֶדּ ֶרְך ָח ְכ ָמה ֶשׁלֹּא יִ ְר ֶבּה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra Let us seek a way of wisdom.‫ְלשׁוֹן ְפּ ִר ַיקת ַמ ָשּׂא‬ ֶ ‫ִמנִּ זְ ֵמ‬ ‫אתי ֶאת ָה ִעיר )שמות‬ ִ ‫ ְכּמוֹ ְכּ ֵצ‬. Comment of Rashi on ‫קוּ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֽפּ ְר‬ ‫יהם נִ ְמ ְצאוּ ֵהם ְמפ ָֹר ִקים‬ ֶ ֵ‫ ְכּ ֶשׁנְּ ָטלוּם ֵמ ָאזְ נ‬.‫ — ֶאת נִ זְ ֵמי‬.

‫( ֶאת‬indicates definite direct object) is the equivalent to ‫ִמן‬ ִ ‫ְכּ ֵצ‬ (from). Contrast Rashi’s view with the statement in GK 54 f : “It (Hithpael) more often indicates an action less directly affecting the subject. Rashi compares Exodus 9:29 where ‫ֶאת‬ again has the force of ‫ ִמן‬.e. i. according to Rashi. Like Exodus 9:29 where ‫ ֶאת‬has the force of ‫ ִמן‬in ‫אתי ֶאת‬ ‫“ ָה ִעיר‬when I departed (from) the city”. and describes it as performed with regard to or for oneself. in one’s own special interest. + vav consec. in the sense that by removRashi explains that ‫קוּ‬ ing the rings from their ears. the translation is: “All the people unloaded from themselves the rings”. they became “unloaded” from their rings—. the translation of ‫ל־ה ֔ ָעם‬ ָ ‫קוּ ָכּ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֽפּ ְר‬ ‫ ֶאת־נִ זְ ֵ ֥מי ַהזָּ ָ ֖הב‬is: “All the people unloaded themselves from the rings” whereas. ‫קוּ‬ which normally indicates a definite direct object. ‫ פרק‬denotes unloading a burden. Explanation of Rashi ֙ ‫ וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֽפּ ְר‬is here followed by ‫ֶאת‬ The Hithpael imperf. One would not expect a Hithpael (reflexive) to be followed by a definite direct object. Hithpael in such cases readily takes an accusative. Consequently. “the people unloaded themselves from the golden rings”. When they took them (the rings) from their ears.”Hence. 5 Leviticus 18:24 ‫ר־א ִ ֥ני ְמ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַ֖ח‬ ֲ ‫גּוֹים ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ִ֔ ‫ל־א ֶלּ ֙ה נִ ְט ְמ ֣אוּ ַה‬ ֵ֙ ‫ל־א ֶלּה ִ ֤כּי ְב ָכ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫ל־תּ ַטּ ְמּ ֖אוּ ְבּ ָכ‬ ֽ ִ ‫ַא‬ ‫יכם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ֵ‫ִמ ְפּנ‬ . the people “unloaded themselves” from the rings. according to GK.142 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation of Rashi “And they unloaded themselves”. ֙ ‫ וַ יִּ ְת ָ ֽפּ ְר‬really is reflexive. This interpretation causes Rashi to assert that the particle ‫ ֶאת‬here has the force of the preposition ‫“ ִמן‬from”.

since dagesh in middle root letter (as in the ‫ מ‬of ‫ ) ִ ֽתּ ַטּ ְמּ ֖אוּ‬is characteristic of Hithpael. and is not due to the assimilation of the ‫ נ‬of Niphal. Ibn Ezra explains this and also points out that one cannot mistake the strong dagesh in the ‫ט‬ as due to the assimilation of the ‫ נ‬of the Niphal.‫ַדּגְ שׁוּת ַהמ"ם ַכּ ִמּ ְשׁ ָפּט‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The dagesh in the ‫ ט‬is due to the assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael. Explanation of Ibn Ezra The Hithpael verb ‫ ִ ֽתּ ַטּ ְמּ ֖אוּ‬is derived from the root ‫“ = ָט ֵמא‬be impure”. of ‫ ָט ֵמא‬would also have qamets under the ‫( ט‬not pataḥ). but not of Niphal. the nations.‫ַדּגְ שׁוּת ַהטּי"ת ְל ִה ְת ַבּ ַלּע תי"ו ִה ְת ָפּ ֵעל ולא נו"ן ִבּנְ יַ ן נִ ְפ ָעל‬ . dagesh in middle root letter). for in all these.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 143 Do not defile yourselves in any of these. Ibn Ezra’s point is well worth making because both the Niphal and the Hithpael may have a reflexive sense and may mean “defile oneself” (BDB p 379). 6 Numbers 7:89 ‫ת־ה ֜קּוֹל ִמ ַדּ ֵ ֣בּר‬ ַ ‫מוֹע ֮ד ְל ַד ֵבּ֣ר ִאתּוֹ ֒ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ֨מע ֶא‬ ֵ ‫א ֶהל‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וּב ֨ב ֹא מ ֶֹ֜שׁה ֶאל־‬ ְ ֲ ‫ֵא ֗ ָליו ֵמ ַ ֤על ַה ַכּ ֨ ֹפּ ֶר ֙ת ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ַע‬ ‫ל־א ֣ר ֹן ָה ֵע ֻ ֔דת ִמ ֵ ֖בּין ְשׁ ֵנ֣י ַה ְכּ ֻר ִ ֑בים וַ יְ ַד ֵ ֖בּר‬ ‫ֵא ָ ֽליו׃‬ . ‫ ִתּ ָטּ ְמאוּ‬. which I am sending away from before you. The proof is the dagesh in the ‫ מ‬according to the rule (of Hithpael. defiled themselves. the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael prefix is assimilated into the ‫ ט‬as indicated by the strong dagesh.e. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִ ֽתּ ַטּ ְמּ ֖אוּ‬ ‫ וְ ָה ֵעד‬. Since the first root letter is a dental (‫)ט‬. One may add that the Niphal imperf. i.

because it would not have been respectful to have used the Piel.144 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And when Moses went into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him. ‫ ְמ ַד ֵבּר‬. respresented by the strong dagesh. implying that G-d spoke directly to Moses as it were.‫ְכּמוֹ ִמ ְת ַדּ ֵבּר‬ :‫שׁוֹמ ַע ֵמ ֵא ָליו‬ ֵ ‫וּמ ֶֹשׁה‬ Translation of Rashi ‫ִמ ַדּ ֵבּר‬ is the same as ‫“ ִמ ְת ַדּ ֵבּר‬uttering itself”. Rather. from between the two Cherubim and it spoke to him.‫לוֹמר ֵכּן‬ ַ ‫ ְכּבוֹדוֹ ֶשׁל ַמ ְע ָלה‬. he heard the Voice speaking to him from above the covering that was on the Ark of Testimony. Comment of Rashi on ‫ִמ ַדּ ֵבּ֣ר‬ ‫ ְמ ַד ֵבּר ֵבּינוֹ ְל ֵבין ַע ְצמוֹ‬. Rashi explains that the Reflexive (Hithpael) is used here out of reverence for the Divine. the Voice spoke to Itself and Moses could not help hearing it. It is out of reverence for the Most High that Scripture speaks thus: (the Voice) was speaking to itself and Moses heard it of his own accord.sg. . with the assimilation of the ‫ ת‬of Hithpael into the ‫ד‬. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that ‫ ִמ ַדּ ֵבּר‬is a Hithpael participle m. 7 I Samuel 18:4 ‫שׁר ָע ֔ ָליו ַוֽ יִּ ְתּ ֵנ֖הוּ ְל ָדִו֑ד‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ת־ה ְמּ ִעיל֙ ֲא‬ ַ ‫שּׁט יְ הוֹנָ ָ֗תן ֶ ֽא‬ ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ‬ And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was on him and gave it to David.

cannot take a direct object and therefore the particle ‫ ֶאת‬here must be understood in the sense of ‫“( ִמן‬from”) – i.e. Contrast Radak’s approach here with GK 54 f (see above. see Uses of Hithpael IV) can indeed take an accusative of object. like Genesis 44:4: “They went out from (‫ ) ֶאת‬the city”.e. says Radak. “and Jonathan stripped from himself the robe which was on him”. where it is suggested that this kind of Hithpael (called Indirect Reflexive by Lambdin. The Hithpael is used here. because Jonathan acted with great love and great good will. + vav consec. to David). Explanation of Radak Radak states that Hithpael cannot be transitive (‫יוֹצא‬ ֵ ) and therefore cannot have a direct object. “Jonathan stripped himself from the robe—. which also has the sense of ‫ ִמן‬. no 4). then we could render. the Hithpael imperf.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 145 ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ‬ Comment of Radak on ‫שּׁט‬ ‫ת־ה ִע ֮יר ֣ל ֹא‬ ָ ‫ֵפּירוּשׁ ִמן ַה ְמּ ִעיל כמו )בראשית מד ד( ֠ ֵהם ָי ְֽצ ֣אוּ ֶא‬ ‫יוֹצא וְ ָא ַמר בלשון התפעל כי ְבּ ָרצוֹן‬ ֵ ‫ִה ְר ִחיק ֒וּ כי אין ִבּנְ יַ ן ִה ְת ָפּ ֵעל‬ .” Radak compares ‫ ֶאת‬in Genesis 44:4. Radak then explains why the Hithpael is used rather than the Qal. 8 II Samuel 13:2 ‫בוּר ָתּ ָ ֣מר ֲאח ֹ֔תוֹ‬ ֙ ‫וַ ֵ֨יּ ֶצר ְל ַא ְמנ֜ וֹן ְל ִה ְת ַח ֗לּוֹת ַ ֽבּ ֲע‬ . ‫שּׁט‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ‬.‫וּב ַא ֲה ָבה ַר ָבּה ִה ְת ַפּ ֵשּׁט ְבּגָ ָדיו וּנְ ָתנָ ם לוֹ‬ ְ ‫גָּ דוֹל‬ Translation of Radak ‫שּׁט‬ ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ‬ means “he stripped himself from (‫ ) ֶאת‬the robe”. For Hithpael cannot be transitive. Accordingly. He used Hithpael because (Jonathan) took off his clothes with great goodwill and great love and gave them to him (i. since the Qal ‫ ָפּ ַשׁט‬is used in a transitive sense to mean “strip” – see I Samuel 19:24: ‫ם־הוּא ְבּגָ ָ ֗דיו‬ ֜ ַ‫“ וַ יִּ ְפ ַ֨שׁט גּ‬He also took off his clothes”.

implying that Amnon was not actually ill. Explanation of Radak ‫ וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬is the apocopated imperative (pausal) Hithpael. Tamar). cstr. from his great desire for her. even pretended to be ill.146 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Amnon was distressed enough to make himself sick for the sake of Tamar his sister. Explanation of Radak Radak explains that ‫( ְל ִה ְת ַח ֗לּוֹת‬Hithpael inf. but seemed ill. was sick with love for his half-sister. 9 II Samuel 13:5 ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּ ְבָך֖ וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬ ִ ‫אמר לוֹ֙ יְ ֣הוֹנָ ָ ֔דב ְשׁ ַ ֥כב ַע‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ Jehonadab said to him. David’s eldest son. ‘Lie on your bed and pretend to be ill. + lamed. Radak again explains that it implies pretence of illness. Je- . ‫ )חלה‬expresses a more intensive meaning.’ Comment of Radak on ‫וְ ִה ְת ָ ֑חל‬ ‫חוֹלה‬ ֶ ‫ַה ְר ֵאה ַע ְצ ְמָך‬ Translation of Radak Show yourself to be ill. ‫( חלה‬shortened from ‫) ִה ְת ַח ֵלּה‬. Comment of Radak on ‫ְל ִה ְת ַח ֗לּוֹת‬ ‫חוֹלה ֵמרוֹב ֶח ְשׁקוֹ ָבהּ‬ ֶ ‫ַעד ֶשׁ ָהיָ ה נִ ְר ֶאה‬ Translation of Radak Until he seemed ill. (Amnon.

10 Isaiah 1:16 ‫צוּ ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ ָה ִ ֛סירוּ ֥ר ֹ ַע ַמ ַע ְל ֵל ֶיכ֖ם ִמ ֶ ֣נּ גֶ ד ֵע ָינ֑י ִח ְד ֖לוּ ָה ֵ ֽר ַע׃‬ ֙ ‫ַר ֲח‬ Wash yourselves. like: Leviticus 14:4: where the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael prefix is assimilated into the ‫ ט‬of ‫טהר‬. root ‫( זכה‬be clean.” Note.e. remove the evil of your deeds from before My eyes. as well as a change of ‫ ת‬to ‫ד‬. the ‫ ת‬is assimilated to the ‫– ז‬ unless indeed ‫ ִהזַ כּוּ‬imperative Niphal of ‫ זכך‬is intended. in the only instance of the kind. cease to do evil. i. just like ‫( ַל ִמּ ַטּ ֵהר‬Levit.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 147 honadab advised Amnon to pretend to be ill in order that he could seduce Tamar. the comment of SHADAL (Samuel David Luzzatto. make yourselves clean. Compare GK 54 d: “Metathesis would likewise be expected— when ‫ ת‬and ‫ ז‬come together. 14:4) instead of ‫“( ַל ִמּ ְת ַט ֵהר‬unto him who purifies himself”). Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ‬ ‫ וְ ָל ַקח ַל ִמּ ַטּ ֵהר‬:‫בדגְ שׁוּת הזי"ן כמו‬ ַ ‫וּבוּלּע התי"ו‬ ַ ‫ִמ ִבּנְ יַ ן ִה ְת ָפּ ֵעל‬ ( ‫)ויקרא יד ֝ד‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra This is a Hithpael and the ‫ ת‬of the Hithpael prefix has been assimilated into the ‫ז‬. pure) with assimilation of ‫ ת‬into the ‫ז‬.‫שּׁוֹרשׁ זכך‬ ֶ ‫וְ ִאם ָהיָ ה נִ ְפ ַעל ִמ‬ . Instead of this.pl. however. 18001865. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra clarifies that ‫ ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ‬is a Hithpael imperative m. ‫ ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ‬instead of ‫ ִה ְתזַ כּוּ‬. Italian scholar): ‫ היה ַטעמוֹ למעלה‬. (‫) ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ‬.

148 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW – “If it was Niphal from ‫זכך‬. “give oneself out ֵ֗ ‫ ִ֝מ ְת‬. root ‫עשׁר‬. ‫ ִרישׁ‬/‫)רוּשׁ‬. “pretend to be poor”. based on the analyses found in modern . which also has this more intensive meaning. a number of supposed perfects of Pual are in fact passives of Qal and a number of supposed imperfects of Hophal are in fact imperfects of the passive of Qal. which does not have the simple reflexive meaning of “make oneself rich” but the more intensive meaning of “pretend to be rich”. examples of these three categories will be discussed.” 11 ‫ִהזַּ ֔כּוּ‬ would not be on the Proverbs 13:7 ‫רוֹשׁשׁ וְ ֣הוֹן ָ ֽרב׃‬ ֵ֗ ‫ֵי ֣שׁ ִ ֭מ ְת ַע ֵשּׁר וְ ֵ ֣אין ֑כֹּל ִ֝מ ְת‬ There is one who pretends to be rich. ‫ ִ ֭מ ְת ַע ֵשּׁר‬. In this section. but yet has great riches. One may note the other participle in this verse. ‫רוֹשׁשׁ‬ Hithpolel (root. a as rich”. Moreover. Explanation of Rashi Rashi comments on the Hithpael participle m. Comment of Rashi on ‫ִ ֭מ ְת ַע ֵשּׁר‬ ‫ַמ ְר ֶאה ַע ְצמוֹ ָע ִשׁיר‬ Translation of Rashi He shows himself to be rich. yet has nothing. there are some examples of supposed participles of Pual without the preformative mem which could be participles of former passives of Qal.sg. (there is another) who pretends to be poor. the accent on ultimate but on the penultimate syllable. THE THEORY OF THE QAL PASSIVE According to this theory.

identify the verbal forms which could be construed as Qal Passives and explain why. However. (the pataḥ characteristic of Pual perf. forsake”.sg.sg. this root does not occur in Piel. (GK 52e. and which form their imperfect from another conjugation.sg. the mound and tower have become dens forever. pausal. a pasture of flocks. this root ( ‫“ = ָעזַ ב‬leave. 3 m. 3 m. 3 m. He reckons as such all those perfects. 1 Isaiah 32:14 ‫ד־עוֹלם‬ ָ֔ ‫רוֹת ַע‬ ֙ ‫י־א ְר ֣מוֹן נֻ ָ֔טּשׁ ֲה ֥מוֹן ִ ֖עיר ֻע ָזּ֑ב ֣עֹ ֶפל וָ ַ֜ב ַחן ָה ָ֨יה ְב ַ ֤עד ְמ ָע‬ ַ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫ְמ ֥שׂוֹשׂ ְפּ ָר ִ ֖אים ִמ ְר ֵ ֥עה ֲע ָד ִ ֽרים׃‬ For the palace has been abandoned.6). a joy of wild asses. JM 58a-d. has been lengthened to qamets under the influence of the ’Athnaḥ). generally Niphal. ‫נֻ ָ֔טּשׁ‬ appears to be Pual perf. At the end of the section there will also be discussion of the opinions of some medieval scholars. 53u. forsake”) does not occur . However. 3 m. of which the Piel (which ought to express the corresponding active) is either not found at all. pausal. (the pataḥ characteristic of Pual perf.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 149 grammar books. IBHS 22.sg. has been lengthened to qamets under the influence of the accentuation). see GK 52e: “According to the convincing suggestion of Bottcher—many supposed perfects of Pual are in reality passives of Qal. 52s. ‫“ = נָ ַטשׁ‬leave. or only (as in the case of ‫)יִ ֵלּד‬ with a different meaning. I: Supposed perfects of Pual With regard to some verbal forms which are apparently Pual perfect forms. the city’s multitude forsaken. and the ‘Pual’ occurs only here. ‫ֻע ָזּ֑ב‬ appears to be Pual perf.” In the following biblical verses.

. but the Piel of ‫ ָל ַקח‬does not occur (see above. Isa 7:16.) from ‫“ = ָל ַקח‬he took”. which— is characteristic of the whole of Piel and Pual. the Piel of ‫ ָל ַקח‬is not attested and the meaning of ‫וְ ֻל ַ ֤קּח‬ is the passive of the Qal (“was taken”). However. no 2). taken) from them a curse by all the exile of Judah that is in Babylon. Job 18:4). For absence of dagesh in middle root letter (‫)ק‬ and ḥaṭeph-qamets under the ‫ק‬. (‫“ = ָק ָלה‬roast”). ‫ֻל ֳֽק ָחה‬ appears to be Pual perf.sg. 18:6.150 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW in Piel.—. is often omitted—when the middle radical has sheva under it—.”see also GK 10h. (lit. considers ‫ ֻל ֳֽק ָחה‬to be a Pual formation. with ֳ owing to the influence of the preceding u. Ibn Ezra. as is evident from his comment on this verse. where he states that it is ‫ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬ which is his terminology for Piel and Pual. however. The vocal character of the sheva under the litera dagessanda is sometimes in such cases—expressly emphasized by its taking the form of a ḥaṭeph. because she was taken from Man. 2 Jeremiah 29:22 ‫מר יְ ִ ֽשׂ ְמָך֤ יְ הוָ ֙ה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫הוּדה ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ְבּ ָב ֶ ֖בל ֵלא‬ ֔ ָ ְ‫וְ ֻל ַ ֤קּח ֵמ ֶה ֙ם ְק ָל ֔ ָלה ְלכֹל֙ גָּ ֣לוּת י‬ ָ ‫ר־ק ָ ֥לם ֶ ֽמ ֶל‬ ‫ְך־בּ ֶ ֖בל ָבּ ֵ ֽאשׁ׃‬ ָ ‫וּכ ֶא ָ֔חב ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ְ ‫ְכּ ִצ ְד ִק ָיּ֣הוּ‬ And there will be derived (lit. as in ‫ ֻל ֳֽק ָחה‬Gn 2:23. 3 f. ‫ ָל ַקח‬. The Niphal imperf is found four times (Lev 26:43. 3 m. “the heavy conjugation”). (+ vav consec.sg. The ‘Pual’ occurs only here and in Jeremiah 49:25 (3 f. saying: ‘May the Lord make you like Zedekiah and like Ahab whom the king of Babylon roasted in fire. see GK 52d: “The Dagesh Forte. 3 Genesis 2:23 ‫את יִ ָקּ ֵ ֣רא ִא ָ֔שּׁה ִ ֥כּי ֵמ ִ ֖אישׁ ֻל ֳֽק ָחה־זּֽ ֹאת׃‬ ֙ ֹ ‫ְלז‬ She shall be called Woman. ‫וְ ֻל ַ ֤קּח‬ appears to be Pual perf.sg. ‫) ֻעזְּ ָבה‬.

‫“ = ְמיַ ֶלּ ֶדת‬midwife”. but fornication was not done (in going) after you. 3 m. help to bring forth.sg. but the root ‫ זָ נָ ה‬is unattested in the Hebrew Bible in Piel and occurs only here in ‘Pual’. to him also. The form is Pual. in your fornications. beget) and although the Piel of ‫ יָ ַלד‬is attested. even though the Piel is not found. it has the meaning of “cause.sg. be a harlot”. 3 m. 6 Job 33:21 ‫מוֹתיו ֣ל ֹא ֻר ֽאוּ׃‬ ָ֗ ‫וּשׁ ִפי ]וְ ֻשׁ ֥פּוּ[ ֝ ַע ְצ‬ ְ .PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 151 ‫ולֹא נִ ְדגַּ שׁ קו"ף ֻל ֳֽק ָחה זאת ְל ָה ֵקל על הלשון והוא מהבנין הכבד‬ . bring forth. assist.‫וְ ִאם לֹא נִ ְמ ָצא‬ “The koph of ‫ ֻל ֳֽק ָחה‬lacks the strong dagesh in order to facilitate pronunciation. the meaning (“there was born”) is passive of the Qal (‫ = יָ ַלד‬bear. 5 Ezekiel 15:34 ‫זוּנּ֑ה‬ ָ ‫נוּתיִ ְך וְ ַא ֲח ַ ֖ריִ ְך ֣ל ֹא‬ ַ֔ ְ‫ן־הנָּ ִשׁ ֙ים ְבּ ַתז‬ ַ ‫י־בְך ֵ ֤ה ֶפְך ִמ‬ ָ֨ ‫וַ יְ ִה‬ And the contrary is in you from (other) women. ‫זוּנּ֑ה‬ ָ is apparently Pual perf.sg. see Gen 35:17 etc). tend as midwife”.” 4 Genesis 4:26 ‫ת־שׁ ֖מוֹ ֱאנ֑ וֹשׁ‬ ְ ‫ד־בּן וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֥רא ֶא‬ ֵ֔ ‫ם־הוּא יֻ ַלּ‬ ֙ ַ‫וּל ֵ ֤שׁת גּ‬ ְ And to Shet. ‫יֻ ַלּד‬ appears to be Pual perf. ‫“ = זָ נָ ה‬commit fornication. (the Piel participle f. However. there was born a son and he called his name Enosh.

only the imperfect Hophal should have been preserved. II: Apparent Hophal imperfects With regard to some verbal forms which are apparently Hophal imperfects. ‫וּשׁ ִפי‬ ְ = “and bareness”) ‫ ֻר ֽאוּ‬could be Pual perf. in fact. (Ketib: (‫ = ָשׁ ָפה‬sweep bare). See GK 53u: “In point of fact it would be very ַ and ‫ יֻ ַ ֽקּח‬that of these frequently used strange. identify the verbal forms which could be construed as Qal Passives and explain why. 1 Genesis 18:4 ‫ט־מיִ ם וְ ַר ֲח ֖צוּ ַרגְ ֵל ֶיכ֑ם‬ ַ֔ ‫ח־נ֣א ְמ ַע‬ ָ ‫יֻ ַ ֽקּ‬ Let a little water be taken and wash your feet.e. ‫“ = ָל ַקח‬he took”.” In the following biblical verses. here the Hiphil). are not seen. ‫ ָר ָאה‬. ‫יֻ ַ ֽקּח‬ appears to be Hophal imperf.” Waltke/O’Connor (22. As in the case of the perfects passive of Qal (see above. —. the corresponding Hiphil is not attested (i. imperfects of the passive of Qal. suggesting that it is Qal passive. especially in the case of ‫יֻתּן‬ verbs. ‫יח‬ ַ ‫ ִה ְל ִק‬/‫יח‬ ַ ‫) ִה ִקּ‬.152 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW His bones are laid bare. nor the perfect of the ‘Hophal’.pl. nor the tense of the same conjugation (i.e. here the perfect Hophal) is found. 52e) the question is again of verbs of which neither the corresponding causative (i. 3 c.6b) point out (note 29) that the root lqh shows an apparent Pual eight times and an apparent Hophal six times. However.e.sg. but this root is unattested in Piel in the Hebrew Bible and this apparent ‘Pual’ is a Hapax. . see GK 53u: “According to Bottcher—and Barth (see above 52e) a number of supposed imperfects Hophal are. 3 m. amongst all the forms of Hiphil and Hophal.

” 3 ‫יֻ ַ ֽקּח‬ (Gen 18:4) from the intensive/heavy Genesis 4:24 ‫ם־קיִ ן וְ ֶל ֶ֖מְך ִשׁ ְב ִ ֥עים וְ ִשׁ ְב ָ ֽעה׃‬ ֑ ָ ‫ִ ֥כּי ִשׁ ְב ָע ַ ֖תיִם יֻ ַקּ‬ If Cain will be avenged sevenfold. however. then Lemech (will be avenged) seventyseven times. ‫ יֻ ַקּם‬appears to be Hophal imperf. However. The Niphal imperf.‫נּוֹסף‬ ָ ‫ַה‬ “The word ‫יֻתּן‬ ַ is like conjugation.sg. where he indicates that both ‫יֻתּן‬ ַ and ‫ יֻ ַקּח‬are Hophals. Moerover. 3 m. take vengeance”. it shall be unclean. (see also: Gen 4:15. of ‫ נָ ַתן‬is well attested. Ibn Ezra’s comment on Levit. ‫יֻתּן‬ ַ appears to be Hophal imperf. Ex 21:21). neither the Hiphil nor the Hophal perfect are attested.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 2 153 Leviticus 11:38 ‫ל־ז ַרע וְ נָ ַ ֥פל ִמנִּ ְב ָל ָ ֖תם ָע ָל֑יו ָט ֵ ֥מא ֖הוּא ָל ֶ ֽכם׃‬ ֶ֔ ‫ן־מיִ ֙ם ַע‬ ַ֙ ‫יֻתּ‬ ַ ‫וְ ִ ֤כי‬ But if any water be put upon the seed and any part of the carcass fall on it. 11:38. ‫נָ ַקם‬ = “avenge.e. ‫“ = נָ ַתן‬he gave”.sg. ‫ ִהנְ ִתּין‬/‫ ) ִה ִתּין‬and the ‘Hophal’ perfect does not occur. 3 m. Note. ‫ט־מיִ ם ֵמ ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬ ַ֔ ‫ח־נ֣א ְמ ַע‬ ָ ‫ )בראשית יח ד( יֻ ַ ֽקּ‬:‫יוּתּן ְכּמוֹ‬ ַ ‫וּמ ַלּת‬ ִ . the meaning is the passive of the Qal: “he will be given/put”. but the corresponding Hiphil is not attested (i. .

however. Barth’s suggestion—that. However.10 corresponding to the perfect ‫ ֻל ַקּח‬.—Notice.” See also: JM 58b: “Corresponding to the perfect passive Qal ‫ ֻק ַטּל‬there is a participle ‫ ֻק ָטּל‬.2. 3 m. These participles are distinguished from the perfect (as in Niphal) by the a of the final syllable.sg. ‫ ס ֲֹע ָרה‬Isa 54:11. Furthermore.8 corresponding to the perfect ‫ ֻל ָקּח .יֻ ַלּד‬taken 2 Kg 2. just as there is a participle ‫ נִ ְק ָטל‬corresponding to the perfect ‫נִ ְק ַטל‬.154 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW III: Apparent Pual participle forms without preformative mem. e. corresponding to the perfect ‫יוּלד . consumed. they are perfect participles of former passives of Qal. as the active of forms like ‫ ֻא ָכּל‬only occurs in Qal. it will be so for you. With regard to these apparent Pual participle forms. ‫ ֻל ָקּח‬2 K 2:10. the qamets under the ‫ ק‬is hard to explain since the word does not carry a pausal accent. Pual participle m. 13. ‫( ֻא ָכּל‬Ex 3:2).g. that is. ‫יוּלּד‬ ָ (for ‫ ) ְמיֻ ָלּד‬Ju 13:8. Consequently. but if not. identify the verbal forms which could be construed as Qal Passives and explain why. 1 II Kings 2:10 (Elijah to Elisha) ‫ם־איִ ן ֥ל ֹא יִ ְה ֶיֽה׃‬ ֖ ַ ‫י־לָך֣ ֵ֔כן וְ ִא‬ ְ ‫ם־תּ ְר ֶ֨אה א ִֹ֜תי ֻל ָ ֤קּח ֵ ֽמ ִא ָתּ ְ֙ך יְ ִ ֽה‬ ִ ‫ִא‬ If you will see me taken from you. a participle form is required. see GK 52s: “A few examples occur of the participle Pual without the preformative (‫) ְמ‬.” In the following biblical verses.” ‫ֻל ָ ֤קּח‬ is a strange verbal form because it appears to have the form of a Pual perf. ‫ ֻל ָ ֤קּח‬here is either a Qal passive participle or it is equivalent to ‫ ְמ ֻל ָקּח‬. Jdg. syntactically. 3. 2 Exodus 3:2 ‫וְ ִה ֵנּ֤ה ַה ְסּנֶ ֙ה בּ ֵֹע֣ר ָבּ ֵ֔אשׁ וְ ַה ְסּ ֶנ֖ה ֵא ֶינ֥נּוּ ֻא ָ ֽכּל׃‬ .sg. ֻא ַכּל‬ ָ (for ‫ )יֻ ָלּד‬born. Thus one has ‫ ֻא ָכּל‬eaten. Ex. it shall not be so.

‫ ֻא ָ ֽכּל‬possesses the passive force of the Qal. tend as midwife”. but the bush was not consumed. 3 m.sg.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 155 And. Consequently. The definite article prefix makes it even less likely that the form is a Pual perfect. ‫ ֻא ָ ֽכּל‬appears to be Pual perf. as for example: ‫וְ זֵ ִדים ִט ַבּ ְע ָתּ‬ . pp 88-89 and Chomsky’s editorial note 146. Radak points out the occurrence of some verbs in the Pual even though there are no corresponding Piel forms. behold. p 103. ‫ ָא ַכל‬. Radak then suggests that one may create Piel forms on the basis of these Puals. m. IV: Views of medieval scholars on the Qal Passive See David Kimḥi’s Hebrew Grammar (Mikhlol) systematically presented and critically annotated by William Chomsky. the verbal form ‫ ֻא ָ ֽכּל‬here is preceded by ‫ ֵאין‬as a negative and not by ‫לֹא‬. ‫ )יָ ַלד‬but is likely to be Qal passive participle.sg. while the Qal ‫“ = יָ ַלד‬bear. indicating a participle form. the form ‫ ֻא ָ ֽכּל‬here must be taken as Qal passive participle. 24 k: Rem. although there is a view (see GK 52s) that it is a shortened form of ‫( ְמ ֻא ָכּל‬Pual participle). art. Published by Bloch Publishing Company New York 1952. since the Piel of ‫ יָ ַלד‬occurs only with the meaning of “cause to bring forth. which does not occur in the Piel in the Hebrew Bible. the bush burned with fire. + def. Furthermore. The qamets in the last syllable is characteristic of all passive participles (‫נִ ְק ָטל‬/‫ ְמ ֻק ָטּל‬/‫ ) ָמ ְק ָטל‬and compare ‫ ֻל ָקּח‬above (1). However. bring forth”. 4. 3 Judges 13:8 (words of Manoah to G-d) ‫יּוּלּד׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ַ ֽמה־נַּ ֲע ֶ ֖שׂה ַל ַנּ ַ֥ער ַה‬ What shall we do to the child that will be born? ‫יּוּלּד‬ ֽ ָ ‫ ַה‬could be a shortened form of ‫( ַה ְמיֻּ ָלּד‬Pual part. pausal (the non-pausal form would be ‫ֻא ַכּל‬ with patah in the second syllable).

” . who explain why the Qal Passive disappeared. These latter forms appear to Ezra (Moz. and were regarded as such by Ibn Janaḥ (c. some vestiges of which still remain. however. (phrases found in Jewish synagogue liturgy. which is recorded by Ibn Barun (a medieval grammarian and lexicographer) in Kitāb al-Muwazana.e. ‫“ = נָ ַתן‬he gave” > ‫יֻתּן‬ ַ = “he will be given”. a serious controversy resulted between the Nagid and Ibn Janaḥ. ‫“ = ָל ַקח‬he took” > ‫“ = יֻ ַקּח‬he will be taken”. “The passive Qal. Radak names Samuel haNagid (993-1055/6 CE. himself. p 12. Samuel ha-Nagid regarded ‫ יֻ ַקּח‬and ‫יֻתּן‬ ַ as Qal Passives. since the corresponding Hiphils are not attested and in meaning they are passive of the Qal. as we have seen. independently of the older Hebrew grammarians. disagreed with the Nagid and refers these forms to the “heavy” conjugations (Piel and Hiphil).). Consequently. the former in the prayer before the morning Amidah/Standing Prayer and the latter in the prayer before the Evening Amidah/Standing Prayer) on the basis of Exodus 15:4: ‫“ ֻט ְבּעוּ‬they were sunk” (Pual perf.156 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “you have drowned the arrogant”and ‫“ ִבּ ְתהֹמֹת ִט ַבּע‬he drowned (them) in the deep”. 985 – 1040 CE) (a prominent medieval Spanish Jewish scholar who wrote a grammar and a dictionary). Chomsky gives a fascinating editorial note (146) on this section of Radak. had made it well-nigh redundant. ed. having gradually assumed the passive meaning. quoting Ibn Ezra’s grammar treatise. disappeared little by little from the linguistic consciousness of Hebrew for the phonetic reasons indicated and also because Nifal. Chomsky concludes his note (146) as follows: “This theory of the existence of a passive Kal in Hebrew was revived and systematically elaborated in modern times. we may quote Jouon/Muraoka 58d. 33a) with regard to ‫ יֻ ַקּח‬and ‫יֻתּן‬ be imperfect Hophal. However. “Moznaim” where Samuel ha-Nagid is quoted by Ibn ַ . by Boettcher and particularly by Barth—. Ibn Ezra. a prominent medieval Spanish Jewish scholar) who regarded these ‘Pual’ forms as passives of the Qal. Kokowzoff.” In conclusion. i. passive of Hiphil.

root > ‫יבה‬ ָ ‫ַה ֵתּ‬ ‫ = יְ סוֹד‬the root of the word (Rashi) ‫ימא‬ ָ ‫ְכּמוֹ ְד ֵת‬ as it says ‫יִתּ ֵכן‬ ָ ‫לֹא‬ it is not possible/not likely ‫ָמקוֹר‬ infinitive absolute (used by Radak) ‫ִמ ְשׁ ָקל‬ (morphological) pattern ‫ֶשׁ ֶקל‬ (morphological) pattern (i. word pattern.m. shape) another interpretation ‫( ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד‬used by Ibn Ezra) ‫ַה ִבּנְ יָ ן ַה ָכּ ֵבד ַהנּוֹ ָסף‬ the heavy conjugation/Piel (used by Ibn Ezra) the additional heavy conjuga- tion/Hiphil ‫ַה ַטּ ַעם‬ the meaning ‫ַט ְעמוֹ‬ its meaning ‫ַט ַעם‬ “accent” (see Shadal on Isaiah 1:16) ‫לּוֹעז‬ ֵ ‫ַה‬ strange.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 157 Glossary of rabbinic Hebrew grammatical terminology ‫אוֹתיּוֹת ָה ִע ָקּר‬ ִ the root letters ‫ גִּ זְ ָרה‬n. formation) ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ verb . foreign language (in Rashi refers to Old French) (see Psalm 114:1: ‫לוֹעז‬ ֵ ‫) ֵמ ַעם‬ ‫ַל ַעז‬ foreign language (Old French in Rashi) ‫ יְ סוֹד‬n. -‫גִּ זְ ַרת‬ ‫ָדּ ָבר ַא ֵחר > ד"א‬ root (lit.f. > cstr.e. cutting.

it was very popular among the Jews of Christian Europe who had no access to Arabic. called ‫ ַמ ְח ֶבּ ֶרת ְמנַ ֵחם‬. who were flourishing in the tolerant Islamic civilisation of Spain at that time. = “translation”. word ‫ַתּ ְרגּוּם‬ lit. Judah ibn Ḥayyūj (950 – 1000 CE) Native of Fas. unlike the Jews of the Spanish school. He was quoted twenty-three times by Ibn Ezra in his commentaries. Brief biographical sketches of medieval scholars (in chronological order) Menaḥem ibn Saruq (910 – 970 CE) He wrote the first complete dictionary in Hebrew. .e. verbs of doubling) ‫יבה‬ ָ ‫ ֵתּ‬n. who wrote in Arabic and who virtually discovered the basic triconsonantal nature of the verbal stem. the Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible.f.158 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫יוֹצא‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ transitive verb ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ intransitive verb ‫ְפּ ָע ִלים ֶשׁיֵּ ְצאוּ וְ יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬ ‫ָפּעוּל‬ verbs that are both transitive and intransitive direct object ‫עוּלים‬ ִ ‫וֹצא ִל ְשׁנֵ י ְפּ‬ ֵ ‫פּוֹעל י‬ ַ a transitive verb which takes two direct objects ‫פּוֹעל ָכּ ֵבד‬ ַ Piel ‫ָפּ ֳע ֵלי ַה ֶכּ ֶפל‬ double ‘ayin verbs (lit. and since it was written in Hebrew. i.

1174) Commentator on Bible and Talmud. Studied under his grandfather. Nevertheless. Tibbon. Hence. in Troyes. Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Yishaki) (1040 – 1105) Born in Troyes. quadre. It is crucial to remember that despite all the progress made by the end of the eleventh century in Hebrew grammar and lexicography. 985 – c. of which some have survived. Notable for his high status among both the Arabs and Jews of his time. tri. quoting it by name more than one hundred and fifty times. France. in complete independence of the Spanish school. despite its merit. 1040) Born in Cordova. which endeavoured to arrive at a literal interpretation of the Bible. Germany and Italy. Rashbam (Rabbi Samuel ben Meir) (c. Rashi. Even more than Rashi. Samuel ha-Nagid (993 – 1055/6) Vizier of Granada (medieval Muslim Spain). the results were accessible only to those who knew Arabic. quinque consonantal radicals. thereby excluding the Jews of Christian Spain. Rashi relied on ‫( ַמ ְח ֶבּ ֶרת ְמנַ ֵחם‬see above). Mainly a poet and halakhist. he moved away from reliance on midrashic sources in his exegesis and applied the principles of contextual exegesis. Born in Ramerupt in Northern France. He also wrote a grammati- . He wrote a grammar and a dictionary. ‫ ַמ ְח ֶבּ ֶרת ְמנַ ֵחם‬posited uni. France. preserved both in the Arabic original and in the Hebrew translation by Judah b. the peshaṭ.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 159 Jonah ibn Janaḥ (’Abu’l Walid ibn Merwan) (c. bi. and which used the old Midrashic exegesis selectively. He wrote commentaries on most of the books of the Bible. Rashi founded a new school of exegesis in Northern France. 1080-85 – c. Joseph Kara (1050 – 1125 CE) A colleague or student of Rashi in the peshaṭ school of N France. He was often quoted by Ibn Ezra. Rashi’s grasp of the triconsonantal nature of the verbal stem was incomplete. and as a result. However.

He also wrote several books on grammar: . Sefer Daikut. all the Jewish philological research. His use of Hebrew meant that through his agency. He personally translated the most important works of Hayyuj (see above). a combination of a Hebrew Grammar and a Dictionary. Rabbi David Kimḥi (Radak) Born in Narbonne in 1160 CE. Joseph Kimḥi. . His biblical commentaries (only his commentary on the Pentateuch has come down almost in its entirety) are characterized by devotion to the peshaṭ (literal meaning of the text). The Dictionary ָ ‫“( ֵס ֶפר ַה‬Book of Roots”).160 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW cal work. In his Kitāb al-Muwazana bayn allugha al-‘Ibraniyya wa-al-‘Arabiyya (“The Book of Comparison between the Hebrew and Arabic Language”) he developed the comparative linguistic studies begun by Ibn Quraysh and others.‫ ַצחוֹת‬. Ibn Ezra and his own father. He excelled both as a biblical exegete and as a poet.‫ ְשׂ ַפת יֶ ֶתר‬. 1100) Hebrew grammarian and lexicographer. He wrote a two-part work called the Mikhlol.‫מֹאזְ נַ יִ ם‬ Ibn Barun (c.‫ יְ סוֹד ַה ִדּ ְקדּוּק‬.‫רוּרה‬ ָ ‫ ָשׂ ָפה ְבּ‬. written in Arabic. Northern France and England. generally adhering to the plain meaning (peshaṭ) and referring to a wide range of sources. but especially as a grammarian. Provence. became available to the Jews of Christian Europe. Abraham ibn Ezra (1092 – 1167 CE) Ibn Ezra left Spain in 1140 CE and for the rest of his life wandered over Italy. including Rashi. Radak was later issued separately as ‫שּׁוֹר ִשׁים‬ wrote Hebrew commentaries on many parts of the Bible.

as well as a physician. born c. Spain. Appointed Professor of the rabbinical college of Padua in 1829. He wrote Hebrew commentaries on many parts of the Hebrew Bible. inheriting the scholarship of both N France and Provence. c. 1200 CE?) An outstanding Italian scholar. Isaiah ben Mali di Trani (the Elder. he was a halakhist and a biblical commentator. Isaiah ben Elijah di Trani (the Younger. There is some confusion concerning some biblical commentaries which have been ascribed to di Trani the Elder which perhaps should be ascribed to di Trani the Younger. Samuel David Luzzatto (Shadal) (1800 – 1865) Italian scholar.PART ONE: THE VERB IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 161 Naḥmanides (Rabbi Moses ben Naḥman/Ramban) (1194 – 1270) Born in Gerona. 1235 – 1300 CE) Grandson of Isaiah ben Mali di Trani the Elder. .

.

{ii} to discuss their form and use. in connected narrative or discourse.e. 163 . in proverbial sayings. {iii} a substitute for any form of a finite verb: {a}: without significant force when an inflected form has already been used. which may briefly be summarized as follows: {i} a strengthening complement to finite verbs from the same root. i. {b}: with more force on its own without a preceding finite form.g.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE In this section. (Jouon/Muraoka describe this function as “accusative of internal object either before or after the verb”. in descriptions or where the action is to be vividly expressed. the student is asked: {i} to identify the Infinitive Absolute forms in the fifty biblical verses reproduced here. Explanatory notes are supplied at the end of the list of verses. in injunctions. {ii} an adverbial complement to finite verbs from a different root. The selection of verses is designed to illustrate the various forms of Infinitive Absolute in the different conjugations and also to illustrate the various functions of Infinitive Absolute. 123d). placed either before or after the finite verb. e.

placed either before or after the verb. 1 Genesis 2:17 ‫אכ֖ל ִמ ֶ ֑מּנּוּ ִ֗כּי ְבּי֛ וֹם ֲא ָכ ְלָך֥ ִמ ֶ ֖מּנּוּ ֥מוֹת‬ ַ ֹ ‫וּמ ֗ ֵעץ ַה ַ ֙דּ ַע ֙ת ֣טוֹב וָ ָ ֔רע ֥ל ֹא ת‬ ֵ ‫ָתּ ֽמוּת׃‬ But from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. now. I: A strengthening complement to finite verbs from the same root. (1-23). The explanatory notes further clarify these usages.164 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW {iv} as an English gerund (a verbal noun – part verb. Discuss their form and use. there is in this city a man of G-d. The student should consult the reference grammar books in the bibliography for further study. This is a rare use of the Infinitive Absolute however. all that he says will surely come about. and the man is honourable. you shall surely die. 3 Exodus 21:28 ‫ת־א ָ ֖שּׁה וָ ֵ ֑מת ָס ֨קוֹל יִ ָסּ ֵ ֜קל ַה ֗שּׁוֹר וְ ֤ל ֹא‬ ִ ‫ת־אישׁ ֥אוֹ ֶא‬ ֛ ִ ‫וְ ִ ֽכי־יִ ֨ ַגּח ֥שׁוֹר ֶא‬ ‫וּב ַעל ַה ֖שּׁוֹר נָ ִ ֽ קי׃‬ ֥ ַ ‫ת־בּ ָשׂ ֔רוֹ‬ ְ ‫יֵ ָא ֵכל֙ ֶא‬ . part noun – that functions as a noun in a clause). you shall not eat from it. Exercise: identify the Infinitive Absolute forms in the following biblical verses. 2 I Samuel 9:6 ‫ים ָבּ ִ ֣עיר ַה ֔זּ ֹאת וְ ָה ִ ֣אישׁ נִ ְכ ָ֔בּד ֥כֹּל ֲא ֶשׁר־יְ ַד ֵ ֖בּר ֣בּוֹא‬ ֙ ‫ֹלה‬ ִ ‫ישׁ־א‬ ֱ ‫ה־נ֤א ִא‬ ָ ֵ‫ִהנּ‬ ‫֑יָבוֹא‬ Behold. for on the day that you eat from it.

but he shall surely be delivered into the hand of the King of Babylon. 7 Exodus 22:11 ‫וְ ִאם־גָּ ֹ֥נב יִ גָּ ֵנ֖ב ֵמ ִע ֑מּוֹ יְ ַשׁ ֵלּ֖ם ִל ְב ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬ . and the owner of the ox shall be free. whether ox or ass or sheep. he shall restore double. 6 Exodus 22:3 ‫ד־שׂה ַח ִיּ֑ים ְשׁ ַנ֖ יִם‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ד־ח ֛מוֹר ַע‬ ֲ ‫ם־ה ָמּ ֵצ ֩א ִת ָמּ ֵ֨צא ְביָ ֜דוֹ ַהגְּ נֵ ָ֗בה ִמ ֧שּׁוֹר ַע‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽא‬ ‫יְ ַשׁ ֵ ֽלּם׃‬ If the thing stolen shall indeed be found in his hand.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 165 If an ox gores a man or a woman and they die. alive. (but) you shall utterly detest it and you shall utterly abhor it. the ox shall surely be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten. 4 Jeremiah 32:4 ‫תן ְבּ ַי֣ד‬ ֙ ֵ ָ‫תן יִ נּ‬ ֹ ֤ ָ‫יִמּ ֵל֖ט ִמַיּ֣ד ַה ַכּ ְשׂ ִ ֑דּים ִ ֣כּי ִהנּ‬ ָ ‫הוּדה ֥ל ֹא‬ ֔ ָ ְ‫הוּ ֶ ֣מ ֶלְך י‬ ֙ ‫ק‬ ָ֙‫וְ ִצ ְד ִ יּ‬ ‫ְך־בּ ֶ֔בל‬ ָ ‫ֶ ֽמ ֶל‬ And Zedekiah King of Judah shall not escape from the hand of the Chaldeans. 5 Deuteronomy 7:26 ‫מהוּ ַשׁ ֵ ֧קּץ ְתּ ַשׁ ְקּ ֶצ֛נּוּ וְ ַת ֵ ֥עב‬ ֹ ֑ ‫֥ית ֵ ֖ח ֶרם ָכּ‬ ָ ִ‫יתָך וְ ָהי‬ ֶ֔ ‫ל־בּ‬ ֵ ‫וֹע ָב ֙ה ֶא‬ ֵ ‫א־ת ִ ֤ביא ֽת‬ ָ ֹ ‫וְ ל‬ ‫י־ח ֶרם ֽהוּא׃‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ְ ֽתּ ַת ֲע ֶ ֖בנּוּ ִכּ‬ And you shall not bring an abomination into your house and become a devoted thing like it. for it is a devoted thing.

9 Numbers 22:37 ‫א־לְך ָל ָ֥מּה‬ ָ ֔ ֹ ‫ל־בּ ְל ֗ ָעם ֲהל ֹ ֩א ָשׁ ֹ֨ל ַח ָשׁ ַל ְ֤ח ִתּי ֵא ֶ ֙ל ֙יָך ִל ְקר‬ ִ ‫אמר ָבּ ֜ ָלק ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ַ ‫א־ה ַל ְ֖כ ָתּ ֵא ָל֑י ַ ֽה ֻא ְמ ָ֔נם ֥ל ֹא‬ ‫אוּכ֖ל ַכּ ְבּ ֶ ֽדָך׃‬ ָ ֹ‫ל‬ And Balak said to Balaam.166 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW But if it shall indeed be stolen from him. ‘what have you done to me? I took you to curse my enemies and behold you have surely blessed (them)’. 8 Genesis 37:8 ‫יּוֹספוּ‬ ֤ ִ ַ‫ם־מ ֥שׁוֹל ִתּ ְמ ֖שׁ ֹל ָ ֑בּנוּ ו‬ ָ ‫ֹלְך ָע ֔ ֵלינוּ ִא‬ ֙ ‫אמרוּ לוֹ֙ ֶא ָ֔חיו ֲה ָמ ֹ֤לְך ִתּ ְמ‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ְ ‫ל־חֹלמ ָ ֹ֖תיו וְ ַע‬ ֲ ‫עוֹד ְשׂ ֣נ ֹא א ֹ֔תוֹ ַע‬ ‫ל־דּ ָב ָ ֽריו׃‬ ֙ And his brothers said to him. 11 II Kings 5:11 ‫אמר֩ ִה ֵ֨נּה ָא ַ֜מ ְר ִתּי ֵא ַל֣י יֵ ֵצ֣א יָ ֗צוֹא וְ ָע ַמ ֙ד וְ ָק ָר ֙א‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ֥צֹף נַ ֲע ָ ֖מן וַ יֵּ ַלְ֑ך וַ יּ‬ ‫ל־ה ָמּ ֖קוֹם וְ ָא ַ ֥סף ַה ְמּצ ָ ֹֽרע׃‬ ַ ‫ֹלהיו וְ ֵה ִנ֥יף יָ ֛דוֹ ֶא‬ ָ֔ ‫הו֣ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫ְבּ ֵשׁם־י‬ . ‘did I not indeed send to you to call you? Why did you not come to me? Am I not indeed able to honour you?’ 10 Numbers 23:11 ‫ית ִ ֑לי ָל ֤קֹב אֹיְ ַ ֙בי ְל ַק ְח ִ֔תּיָך וְ ִה ֵנּ֖ה‬ ָ ‫ל־בּ ְל ֔ ָעם ֶ ֥מה ָע ִ ֖שׂ‬ ִ ‫אמר ָבּ ָל ֙ק ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ֵבּ ַ ֥ר ְכ ָתּ ָב ֵ ֽרְך׃‬ And Balak said to Balaam. he shall make restitution to its owner. ‘will you indeed reign over us or will you indeed have dominion over us?’ And they hated him more for his dreams and for his words.

and he will stand and call on the name of the Lord his G-d. ‘behold I thought. for he has sold us and has indeed consumed our money. 14 Genesis 8:7 ‫וֹא וָ ֔שׁוֹב ַעד־יְ ֥ב ֹ ֶשׁת ַה ַ ֖מּיִם ֵמ ַ ֥על ָה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ֙ ‫ת־הע ֵ ֹ֑רב וַ יֵּ ֵצ֤א יָ צ‬ ָ ֽ ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּ֖ח ֶא‬ And he sent forth the raven and it went out and back continually until the waters were dried up from upon the earth. and he said. he that gathered least gathered (a quantity of) ten homer. 13 Numbers 11:32 ‫פוּ‬ ֙ ‫ל־ה ֜ ַלּיְ ָלה וְ ֣כֹל י֣ וֹם ַ ֽה ָמּ ֳח ָ ֗רת וַ ַיּ ַֽא ְס‬ ַ ‫יּוֹם ַה ֨הוּא וְ ָכ‬ ֩ ‫ל־ה‬ ַ ‫וַ ָיּ֣ ָ קם ָה ֡ ָעם ָכּ‬ ‫וֹח‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ְשּׂ ֔ ָלו ַה ַמּ ְמ ֕ ִעיט ָא ַ ֖סף ֲע ָשׂ ָ ֣רה ֳח ָמ ִ ֑רים וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְט ֤חוּ ָל ֶה ֙ם ָשׁ ֔ט‬ ַ ‫ֶא‬ ‫ְס ִב ֖יבוֹת ַ ֽה ַמּ ֲח ֶנֽה׃‬ And the people arose all that day and all the night and all the next day. and they gathered the quails. 12 Genesis 31:15 ‫ת־כּ ְס ֵ ֽפּנוּ׃‬ ַ ‫ם־א ֖כוֹל ֶא‬ ָ ַ‫אכל גּ‬ ַ ֹ ‫ֲה ֧לוֹא נָ ְכ ִריּ֛ וֹת נֶ ְח ַ ֥שׁ ְבנוּ ֖לוֹ ִ ֣כּי ְמ ָכ ָ ֑רנוּ וַ ֥יּ‬ Are we not accounted as foreigners to him. he will surely come out to me. and he will wave his hand over the place and he will heal the leper’. 15 II Kings 2:11 ‫וּסי ֵ֔אשׁ וַ יַּ ְפ ִ ֖רדוּ ֵבּ֣ין‬ ֵ ‫ב־א ֙שׁ וְ ֣ס‬ ֵ ‫לוְֹך וְ ַד ֵ֔בּר וְ ִה ֵנּ֤ה ֶ ֽר ֶכ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יְ ִ֗הי ֵ ֣ה ָמּה ה ְֹל ִ ֤כים ָה‬ ‫יהם וַ יַּ֙ ַעל֙ ֵ ֣א ִל ָ֔יּהוּ ַ ֽבּ ְס ָע ָ ֖רה ַה ָשּׁ ָ ֽמיִ ם׃‬ ֑ ֶ ֵ‫ְשׁנ‬ .PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 167 And Na‘aman was angry and he went away. and they kept spreading for themselves round the camp.

‘Come to Gedaliah son of Ahikam’. and Elijah went up in the storm-wind to the Heavens. there was a chariot of fire and horses of fire. when he met them. 19 Jeremiah 41:6 ‫הי‬ ֙ ִ ְ‫ן־ה ִמּ ְצ ֔ ָפּה ה ֵ ֹ֥לְך ָה ֹ֖לְך וּב ֶֹכ֑ה ַוֽ י‬ ַ ‫את ֙ם ִמ‬ ָ ‫ַו֠יֵּ ֵצא יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֨ ֵעאל ֶבּן־נְ ַתנְ ָי֤ה ִל ְק ָר‬ ֶ֔ ‫אמר ֲא ֵל‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ִכּ ְפ ֣ג ֹשׁ א ָֹ֔תם וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫ן־א ִחי ָ ֽ קם׃‬ ֲ ‫יהם ֖בֹּאוּ ֶאל־גְּ ַד ְל ָי֥הוּ ֶב‬ And Ishmael the son of Netanya went out from Mitspah to meet them. weeping continually as he went. that he said to them. 17 Genesis 12:9 ‫וֹע ַה ֶנּֽ גְ ָבּה׃‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ ַ ֣סּע ַא ְב ָ ֔רם ָה ֥לוְֹך וְ נָ ֖ס‬ And Abram journeyed continually toward the South. 16 Genesis 8:3 ‫וַ יָּ ֻ ֧שׁבוּ ַה ַ ֛מּיִ ם ֵמ ַ ֥על ָה ָ ֖א ֶרץ ָה ֣לוְֹך וָ ֑שׁוֹב וַ יַּ ְח ְס ֣רוּ ַה ַ֔מּיִ ם ִמ ְק ֵ֕צה ֲח ִמ ִ ֥שּׁים‬ ‫וּמ ַ ֖את יֽ וֹם׃‬ ְ And the waters receded from upon the earth continually. talking as they went. and it was. 18 Genesis 26:13 ‫אד׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫לוְֹך וְ גָ ֵ ֔דל ַ ֥עד ִ ֽכּי־גָ ַ ֖דל ְמ‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ גְ ַ ֖דּל ָה ִ ֑אישׁ וַ ֵיּ ֶ֤לְך ָה‬ And the man became great and he continued becoming greater. and they separated between the two of them. . and behold. until he was very great.168 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW They were walking along. and the waters diminished at the end of one hundred and fifty days.

please kill me. says the Lord. 22 Numbers 11:15 ‫אתי ֵ ֖חן ְבּ ֵע ֶינ֑יָך‬ ִ ‫ם־מ ָ ֥צ‬ ָ ‫־ע ֹ ֶשׂה ֗ ִלּי ָה ְר ֵג֤נִ י נָ ֙א ָה ֔ר ֹג ִא‬ ֣ ‫ם־כּ ָ֣כה ַא ְתּ‬ ָ ‫וְ ִא‬ ‫ל־א ְר ֶ ֖אה ְבּ ָר ָע ִ ֽתי׃‬ ֶ ‫וְ ַא‬ And if thus You are doing to me. the eyes of the Lord are upon the sinful kingdom. if I have found favour in Your eyes. 21 Amos 9:8 ‫הוה ַבּ ַמּ ְמ ָל ָכ ֙ה ַ ֽה ַח ָטּ ָ֔אה וְ ִה ְשׁ ַמ ְד ִ ֣תּי א ָֹ֔תהּ ֵמ ַ ֖על ְפּ ֵנ֣י‬ ִ֗ ְ‫ִה ֵ֞נּה ֵע ֵינ֣י ֲאד ָֹנ֣י י‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫ת־בּית יַ ֲע ֖קֹב נְ ֻאם־י‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ָה ֲא ָד ָ ֑מה ֶ֗א ֶפס ֠ ִכּי ֣ל ֹא ַה ְשׁ ֵ ֥מיד ַא ְשׁ ִ ֛מיד ֶא‬ Behold.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 169 20 Isaiah 30:19 ‫א־ת ְב ֶ֗כּה ָחנ֤ וֹן יָ ְחנְ ָ֙ך ְל ֣קוֹל זַ ֲע ֶ ֔קָך‬ ִ ֹ ‫וּשׁ ָל ִ֑ם ָבּ ֣כוֹ ֽל‬ ָ ‫י־עם ְבּ ִציּ֥ וֹן יֵ ֵ ֖שׁב ִבּ ֽיר‬ ֛ ַ ‫ִכּ‬ ‫ְכּ ָשׁ ְמ ָע ֖תוֹ ָע ָנֽ ְך׃‬ For. and let me not see my evil. O people that dwells in Zion. 23 Genesis 46:4 ‫יוֹסף יָ ִ ֥שׁית יָ ֖דוֹ‬ ֵ֕ ְ‫ָאנ ִֹ֗כי ֵא ֵ ֤רד ִע ְמּ ָ֙ך ִמ ְצ ַ ֔ריְ ָמה וְ ָאנ ִ ֹ֖כי ַ ֽא ַע ְלָך֣ גַ ם־ ָע ֹ֑לה ו‬ ‫ל־ע ֶינֽיָך׃‬ ֵ ‫ַע‬ . and I shall destroy it from upon the face of the earth. He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry. in Jerusalem. you shall weep no more. when He hears it. He will answer you. except that I will not utterly destroy the House of Jacob.

who brought you up from the land of Egypt’. I have acted foolishly and have erred greatly’. 25 I Samuel 26:21 ‫א־א ַ ֤רע ְל ָ֙ך ֔עוֹד ֠ ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶ֨שׁר‬ ָ ֹ ‫י־ד ִ֗וד ֠ ִכּי ֽל‬ ָ ‫אתי ֣שׁוּב ְבּ ִ ֽנ‬ ִ ‫אמר֩ ָשׁ ֨אוּל ָח ָ֜ט‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬ ‫אד׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫יָ ְק ָ ֥רה נַ ְפ ִ ֛שׁי ְבּ ֵע ֶינ֖יָך ַהיּ֣ וֹם ַה ֶזּ֑ה ִה ֵנּ֥ה ִה ְס ַכּ ְ֛ל ִתּי וָ ֶא ְשׁ ֶגּ֖ה ַה ְר ֵ ֥בּה ְמ‬ And Saul said. and Joseph will place his hand on your eyes. 26 Exodus 32:8 ֙‫יתם ָע ֣שׂוּ ָל ֶ֔הם ֵ ֖עגֶ ל ַמ ֵסּ ָ ֑כה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַ ֽתּ ֲחווּ־לוֹ‬ ִ֔ ִ‫שׁר ִצוּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ן־ה ֶ ֙דּ ֶר ְ֙ך ֲא‬ ַ ‫ָ ֣סרוּ ַמ ֵ֗הר ִמ‬ ְ ֹ ‫חוּ־לוֹ וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫ֹלה ֙יָך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽ ֶה ֱע ֖לוָּך ֵמ ֶ ֥א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ָ ֽריִ ם׃‬ ֶ֙ ‫אמ ֔רוּ ֵ ֤א ֶלּה ֱא‬ ֔ ‫וַ יִּ זְ ְבּ‬ They have turned aside quickly from the way which I commanded them. for I will no longer harm you. from beginning to end. ‘I have sinned.170 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW I will go down with you to Egypt and I will also surely bring you up. behold. return. my son. O Israel. 24 I Samuel 3:12 ‫יתוֹ ָה ֵ ֖חל‬ ֑ ‫ל־בּ‬ ֵ ‫ל־א ֶ ֥שׁר ִדּ ַ ֖בּ ְר ִתּי ֶא‬ ֲ ‫ל־ע ֔ ִלי ֵ ֛את ָכּ‬ ֵ ‫הוּא ָא ִ ֣ קים ֶא‬ ֙ ‫ַבּיּ֤ וֹם ַה‬ ‫וְ ַכ ֵ ֽלּה׃‬ On that day I will fulfill for Eli all that I have said concerning his house. they have made for themselves a molten calf and they have bowed down to it and sacrificed to it and they said: ‘these are your gods. . because my life was precious in your sight this day. David. II: An adverbial complement to finite verbs from a different root (24-26).

. (when) they had just stationed the sentinels. and they blew the trumpets and shattered the pitchers which were in their hand(s).PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 171 III: Infinitive Absolute as a substitute for any form of a finite verb (27-44). 29 Genesis 41:43 ‫ר־לוֹ וַ יִּ ְק ְר ֥אוּ ְל ָפ ָנ֖יו ַא ְב ֵ ֑רְך וְ נָ ֣תוֹן‬ ֔ ‫וַ יַּ ְר ֵכּ֣ב א ֹ֗תוֹ ְבּ ִמ ְר ֶכּ ֶ֤בת ַה ִמּ ְשׁנֶ ֙ה ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ‫ל־א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ָ ֽריִ ם׃‬ ֥ ֶ ‫א ֹ֔תוֹ ַ ֖על ָכּ‬ And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had and they called out before him Avrekh and they placed him over the whole land of Egypt. 28 Exodus 8:11 ‫ת־ל ֔בּוֹ וְ ֥ל ֹא ָשׁ ַ ֖מע ֲא ֵל ֶ ֑הם‬ ִ ‫וַ ַיּ֣ ְ רא ַפּ ְר ֗עֹה ִ ֤כּי ָ ֽהיְ ָת ֙ה ָ ֽה ְרוָ ָ֔חה וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּ ֙ד ֶא‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ִדּ ֶ ֥בּר י‬ And Pharoah saw that there was respite and he hardened his heart. 27 Judges 7:19 ‫מ ֶרת‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ר־א ֜תּוֹ ִבּ ְק ֵצ֣ה ַ ֽה ַמּ ֲח ֶ֗נה ֚ר ֹאשׁ ָה ַא ְשׁ‬ ִ ‫ה־אישׁ ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ִ֨ ‫וּמ ָא‬ ֵ ‫וַ יָּ ֣ב ֹא ִ֠ג ְדעוֹן‬ ‫וֹפ ֔רוֹת וְ נָ ֥פוֹץ‬ ָ ‫עוּ ַבּ ֣שּׁ‬ ֙ ‫ת־ה ֽשּׁ ֹ ְמ ִ ֑רים ַוֽ יִּ ְת ְק‬ ָ֔ ‫ַה ִ ֽתּ‬ ַ ‫יכוֹנה ַ ֛אְך ָה ֵ ֥ קם ֵה ִ ֖ קימוּ ֶא‬ ‫ַה ַכּ ִ ֖דּים ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ְבּיָ ָ ֽדם׃‬ So Gideon and the hundred men with him came to the edge of the camp. at the beginning of the middle watch. as the Lord had spoken. and he did not listen to them.

31 Ecclesiastes 9:11 ‫בּוֹרים‬ ֣ ִ ִ‫ת־ה ֶ֗שּׁ ֶמשׁ ִ ֣כּי ל ֹ ֩א ַל ַקּ ֨ ִלּים ַה ֵמּ ֜רוֹץ וְ ֧ל ֹא ַלגּ‬ ַ ‫אה ַ ֽת ַח‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ַ֜שׁ ְב ִתּי וְ ָר‬ ‫ַה ִמּ ְל ָח ָ֗מה ְו֠גַ ם ֣ל ֹא ַל ֲח ָכ ִ ֥מים ֶ ֙ל ֶח ֙ם וְ ֨ ַגם ֤ל ֹא ַלנְּ בֹנִ ֙ים ֔ע ֹ ֶשׁר וְ ַג֛ם ֥ל ֹא‬ ‫ת־כּ ָ ֽלּם׃‬ ֻ ‫י־עת וָ ֶ ֖פגַ ע יִ ְק ֶ ֥רה ֶא‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ַליּ ְֹד ִ ֖עים ֵ ֑חן ִכּ‬ I returned and saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift. and he said to him.172 30 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Zechariah 3:4 ‫מר ָה ִ ֛סירוּ ַה ְבּגָ ִ ֥דים ַהצּ ִ ֹ֖אים ֵמ ָע ָל֑יו‬ ֹ ֔ ‫ל־הע ְֹמ ִ ֣דים ְל ָפנָ ֙יו ֵלא‬ ָ ‫אמר ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֣ען וַ ֗יּ‬ ‫אמר ֵא ֗ ָליו ְר ֵ֨אה ֶה ֱע ַ ֤ב ְר ִתּי ֵמ ָע ֶ ֙ל ֙יָך ֲעו ֶֹ֔נָך וְ ַה ְל ֵ ֥בּשׁ א ְֹתָך֖ ַמ ֲח ָל ֽצוֹת׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And he answered and he spoke to those who stood before him. but time and chance happens to them all. nor wealth to men of understanding nor favour to men of skill. nor even is bread to the wise. saying. 32 Jeremiah 14:5 ‫א־ה ָי֖ה ֶ ֽדּ ֶשׁא׃‬ ָ ֹ ‫ם־א ֶל ֙ת ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶ ֔דה יָ ְל ָ ֖דה וְ ָעז֑ וֹב ִ ֥כּי ֽל‬ ֶ֙‫ִ ֤כּי גַ ַ יּ‬ Even the hind in the field gives birth and (then) abandons (its young). nor the battle to the strong. ‘remove the filthy garments from upon him’. because there is no grass. 33 Jeremiah 32:44 ‫ם ְבּ ֶ֨א ֶרץ ִבּנְ יָ ִ֜מן‬ ֒ ‫תוֹם וְ ָה ֵע֣ד ֵע ִדי‬ ֮ ‫ָשׂ ֞דוֹת ַבּ ֶכּ ֶ֣סף יִ ְקנ֗ וּ וְ ָכ ֨תוֹב ַבּ ֵ ֥סּ ֶפר וְ ָח‬ ְ ‫וּב ָע ֵ ֥רי ַה ְשּׁ ֵפ ָ ֖לה‬ ‫וּב ָע ֵ ֣רי‬ ְ ‫וּב ָע ֵ ֣רי ָה ָ֔הר‬ ְ ‫הוּד ֙ה‬ ָ ְ‫וּב ָע ֵ ֤רי י‬ ְ ‫רוּשׁ ֗ ַל ִם‬ ָ ְ‫וּב ְס ִב ֵיב֣י י‬ ִ ‫בוּתם‬ ֖ ָ ‫ת־שׁ‬ ְ ‫י־א ִ ֥שׁיב ֶא‬ ָ ‫ַה ֶ ֑נּ גֶ ב ִ ֽכּ‬ . ‘see. I have caused your iniquity to pass from upon you and I will clothe you with robes’.

35 Exodus 20:8 ‫זָ ֛כוֹר֩ ֶאת־י֥ וֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָ ֖בּת ְל ַק ְדּ ֽשׁוֹ‬ Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. one cannot revoke. and seal (it) with the ring of the King. 36 Deuteronomy 5:12 ‫וֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָ ֖בּת ְל ַק ְדּ ֑שׁוֹ‬ ֩ ֥‫ָשׁ ֛מוֹר ֶאת־י‬ Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it. 37 Jeremiah 2:2 ‫הוה זָ ַכ ְ֤ר ִתּי ָל ְ֙ך ֶ ֣ח ֶסד‬ ָ֔ ְ‫מר ֚כֹּה ָא ַ ֣מר י‬ ֹ ֗ ‫רוּשׁ ֜ ַל ִם ֵלא‬ ָ ְ‫את ְב ָאזְ נֵ ֙י י‬ ֩ ָ ‫ָה ֹ֡לְך וְ ָ ֽ ק ָר‬ ‫רוּעה׃‬ ֽ ָ ְ‫לוֹּלתיִ ְך ֶל ְכ ֵ ֤תְּך ַא ֲח ַר֙י ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ֔בּר ְבּ ֶ ֖א ֶרץ ֥ל ֹא ז‬ ֑ ָ ‫עוּריִ ְך ַא ֲה ַ ֖בת ְכּ‬ ֔ ַ ְ‫נ‬ .PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 173 They will buy fields with money and they will write (it) in the book and they will seal (it) and they will call witnesses in the land of Benjamin and in the surroundings of Jerusalem and in the cities of Judah and in the cities of the mountain and in the cities of the Lowland and in the cities of the South. 34 Esther 8:8 ‫שׁם ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך וְ ִח ְת ֖מוּ‬ ֣ ֵ ‫יכ ֙ם ְבּ‬ ֶ ֵ‫הוּדים ַכּ ֤טּוֹב ְבּ ֵ ֽעינ‬ ֜ ִ ְ‫ל־היּ‬ ַ ‫ְו ַ֠א ֶתּם ִכּ ְת ֨בוּ ַע‬ ‫ם־ה ֶ֗מּ ֶלְך וְ נַ ְח ֛תּוֹם ְבּ ַט ַ ֥בּ ַעת‬ ַ ‫י־כ ָ֞תב ֲא ֶשׁר־נִ ְכ ָ ֣תּב ְבּ ֵשׁ‬ ְ ‫ְבּ ַט ַ ֣בּ ַעת ַה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ֵ ֥אין ְל ָה ִ ֽשׁיב׃‬ And you write about the Jews as is good in your eyes in the name of the King. for a writing which is written in the name of the King and sealed with the ring of the King. for I will return their captivity.

39 Deuteronomy 1:16 ‫וּשׁ ַפ ְט ֶ ֣תּם‬ ְ ‫יכ ֙ם‬ ֶ ‫ין־א ֵח‬ ֲ ‫מ ַע ֵבּ‬ ֹ ֤ ‫מר ָשׁ‬ ֹ ֑ ‫יכם ָבּ ֵ ֥עת ַה ִ ֖הוא ֵלא‬ ֶ֔ ‫וָ ֲא ַצוֶּ ֙ה ֶאת־ ֣שׁ ֹ ְפ ֵט‬ ‫ֶ֔צ ֶדק‬ And I commanded your judges at that time saying. in a land that was not sown’. and it shall be there as a witness against you.174 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Go and call in the ears of Jerusalem saying. 41 Jeremiah 7:9 ‫ֹלהים‬ ֥ ִ ‫אף וְ ִה ָשּׁ ֵ ֥ב ַע ַל ֶ ֖שּׁ ֶקר וְ ַק ֵ ֣טּר ַל ָ ֑בּ ַעל וְ ָה ֹ֗לְך ַא ֲח ֵ ֛רי ֱא‬ ֹ ֗ ָ‫ֲהגָ ֹ֤נב ָר ֨צ ֹ ַח ְ ֽונ‬ ‫ֲא ֵח ִ ֖רים ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽל ֹא־יְ ַד ְע ֶ ֽתּם׃‬ . 40 Hosea 4:2 ‫אף ָפּ ָ ֕רצוּ וְ ָד ִ ֥מים ְבּ ָד ִ ֖מים נָ ָגֽעוּ׃‬ ֹ ֑ ָ‫ָא ֹ֣לה וְ ַכ ֵ֔חשׁ וְ ָר ֥צֹ ַח וְ גָ ֹ֖נב וְ נ‬ There is swearing and lying and killing and stealing and committing adultery. ‘Thus says the Lord. ‘hear (the claims) between your brothers and you shall judge justly’. they break all bounds and blood touches blood. when you went after Me in the wilderness. I remember for you the kindness of your youth. the love of your nuptials. 38 Deuteronomy 31:26 ‫הו֖ה‬ ָ ְ‫תּוֹר ֙ה ַה ֶ֔זּה וְ ַשׂ ְמ ֶ ֣תּם א ֹ֔תוֹ ִמ ַצּ֛ד ֲא ֥רוֹן ְבּ ִרית־י‬ ָ ‫ָל ֗קֹ ַח ֵ ֣את ֵ ֤ס ֶפר ַה‬ ‫ה־שׁם ְבָּך֖ ְל ֵ ֽעד׃‬ ֥ ָ ָ‫ֹלה ֶיכ֑ם וְ ָ ֽהי‬ ֵ ‫ֱא‬ Take this book of the Law and you shall place it beside the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord your G-d.

for he has proclaimed a release to the Lord. all the congregation shall stone him with stones outside the camp. every creditor (lit. and will you return to me? 43 Numbers 15:35 ‫יוּמת ָה ִ ֑אישׁ ָר ֨גוֹם א ֹ֤תוֹ ָ ֽב ֲא ָבנִ ֙ים‬ ֖ ַ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹ֔שׁה ֥מוֹת‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ל־ה ֵע ָ ֔דה ִמ ֖חוּץ ַל ַֽמּ ֲח ֶנֽה׃‬ ֣ ָ ‫ָכּ‬ And the Lord said to Moses. can he return to her again? Shall not that land be greatly polluted? And you have played the harlot with many lovers. . and will you go after other gods which you do not know? 42 Jeremiah 3:1 ‫ישׁ־א ֵ֗חר ֲהיָ ֤שׁוּב‬ ַ ‫יְתה ְל ִא‬ ֣ ָ ‫ת־א ְשׁתּוֹ֩ וְ ָה ְל ָ֨כה ֵמ ִא ֜תּוֹ וְ ָה‬ ִ ‫ֵ ֣הן יְ ַשׁ ַלּ֣ח ִ ֣אישׁ ֶא‬ ‫יה ֔עוֹד ֲה ֛לוֹא ָחנ֥ וֹף ֶתּ ֱח ַנ֖ ף ָה ָ ֣א ֶרץ ַה ִ ֑היא וְ ַ֗א ְתּ זָ נִ ֙ית ֵר ִ ֣עים ַר ִ֔בּים‬ ָ֙ ‫ֵא ֶ ֙ל‬ ‫וְ ֥שׁוֹב ֵא ַ ֖לי‬ If a man sends away his wife and she goes from him and becomes another man’s.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 175 Will you steal. the man shall surely be put to death. he shall not exact (it of) his neighbour and his brother. murder and commit adultery and swear falsely and burn incense to Baal. every possessor of a loan of his hand) who lends to his neighbour. 44 Deuteronomy 15:2 ‫שּׁה יָ ֔דוֹ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יַ ֶ ֖שּׁה ְבּ ֵר ֵ ֑עהוּ‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ל־בּ ַעל֙ ַמ‬ ַ֙ ‫ה ָשׁ ֗מוֹט ָכּ‬ ֒ ‫וְ זֶ ֮ה ְדּ ַ ֣בר ַה ְשּׁ ִמ ָטּ‬ ‫יהוֽה׃‬ ָ ‫י־ק ָ ֥רא ְשׁ ִמ ָ ֖טּה ַ ֽל‬ ָ ‫ת־א ִ֔חיו ִ ֽכּ‬ ָ ‫הוּ וְ ֶא‬ ֙ ‫ת־ר ֙ ֵע‬ ֵ ‫ֽל ֹא־יִ ֤גּ ֹשׂ ֶא‬ And this is the manner of the release.

seek justice. part noun – that functions as a noun in a clause) (4550). judge the orphan. a man will sin. let us eat and drink. 47 Isaiah 42:24 ‫הו֑ה ז֚וּ‬ ָ ְ‫שׁוֹסה ] ִל ְמ ִשׁ ָ ֧סּה[ יַ ֲע ֛קֹב וְ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֥אל ְלבֹזְ ִז֖ים ֲה ֣לוֹא י‬ ֶ ‫ִ ֽמי־נָ ַ֨תן ִל ְמ‬ ָ ֹ ‫ָח ָ ֣טאנוּ ֔לוֹ וְ ֽל‬ ‫תוֹר ֽתוֹ׃‬ ָ ‫א־א ֤בוּ ִב ְד ָר ָכ ֙יו ָה ֔לוְֹך וְ ֥ל ֹא ָשׁ ְמ ֖עוּ ְבּ‬ Who gave Jacob for a spoil and Israel to robbers? Was it not the Lord. 48 Isaiah 22:13 ‫וְ ִה ֵנּ֣ה ָשׂ ֣שׂוֹן וְ ִשׂ ְמ ָ֗חה ָה ֤ר ֹג ָבּ ָק ֙ר וְ ָשׁ ֣חֹט ֔צ ֹאן ָא ֥כֹל ָבּ ָ ֖שׂר וְ ָשׁ ֣תוֹת ָ ֑י יִ ן‬ ‫ָא ֣כוֹל וְ ָשׁ ֔תוֹ ִ ֥כּי ָמ ָ ֖חר נָ ֽמוּת׃‬ And behold there is joy and gladness. relieve the oppressed. . and they were not willing to walk in His ways and they did not listen to His Law. eating meat and drinking wine. slaying cattle and killing sheep. 45 Proverbs 28:21   ‫ע־גּ ֶֽבר׃‬ ָ ‫ת־ל ֶחם יִ ְפ ַשׁ‬ ֶ ֗ ‫ל־פּ‬ ַ ‫א־טוֹב וְ ַע‬ ֑ ֹ ‫ר־פּ ִ ֥נים ל‬ ָ ‫ַ ֽה ֵכּ‬ Showing partiality (in judgment) is not good. for a morsel of bread.176 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW IV: Use of Infinitive Absolute as an English gerund (a verbal noun – part verb. 46 Isaiah 1:17 ‫יטב ִדּ ְר ֥שׁוּ ִמ ְשׁ ָ ֖פּט ַא ְשּׁ ֣רוּ ָח ֑מוֹץ ִשׁ ְפ ֣טוּ יָ ֔תוֹם ִ ֖ריבוּ ַא ְל ָמ ָנֽה׃‬ ֛ ֵ ‫ִל ְמ ֥דוּ ֵה‬ Learn to do well. against Whom we have sinned. for tomorrow we shall die. plead for the widow.

סקל‬note that although the stem of the inf. 50 II Kings 13:17 ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ישׁע יְ ֵר ֙ה וַ יּ֔ וֹר וַ ֗יּ‬ ֤ ָ ‫אמר ֱא ִל‬ ֶ ֹ ‫אמר ְפּ ַ ֧תח ַה ַח ֛לּוֹן ֵ ֖ק ְד ָמה וַ יִּ ְפ ָ ֑תּח וַ ֤יּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֗יּ‬ ‫ת־א ָ ֛רם ַבּ ֲא ֵ ֖פק‬ ֲ ‫ית ֶא‬ ֧ ָ ‫שׁוּעה ַ ֽב ֲא ָ ֔רם וְ ִה ִכּ‬ ֣ ָ ‫שׁוּעה ַ ֽליהוָ ֙ה וְ ֵ ֣חץ ְתּ‬ ֤ ָ ‫ץ־תּ‬ ְ ‫ֵח‬ ‫ד־כּ ֵ ֽלּה׃‬ ַ ‫ַע‬ And he said. Qal expresses the idea of the verb in general and may be joined . serves as strengthening or emphasizing complement before the verb. abs. ‫ . and you shall strike Aram completely in Aphek’. and Eli the priest was sitting on the chair by the doorpost of the Temple of the Lord. ‘an arrow of deliverance for the Lord and an arrow of deliverance from Aram. and Elisha said.sg.בוא‬inf. abs.מוּת‬inf. “(it) will surely come about”. abs. 3 ‫ָס ֨קוֹל יִ ָסּ ֵ ֜קל‬ Qal. ‘shoot’ and he shot. Kish. followed by Qal imperf. 3 m.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 49 177 I Samuel 1:9 ‫תה וְ ֵע ִ ֣לי ַהכּ ֵֹ֗הן י ֵֹשׁ ֙ב‬ ֹ ֑ ‫וַ ָ ֣תּ ָקם ַח ֔ ָנּה ַא ֲח ֵ ֛רי ָא ְכ ָ ֥לה ְב ִשׁ ֹ֖לה וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫יכל י‬ ֥ ַ ‫זוּז֖ת ֵה‬ ַ ‫ל־מ‬ ְ ‫ל־ה ִכּ ֵ֔סּא ַע‬ ַ ‫ַע‬ And Hannah arose after eating in Shiloh and after drinking. Saul’s servant is speaking to Saul when Saul despaired of finding the lost asses belonging to his father. abs.sg. “You shall surely die”. ‫ . ‫ . The inf. emphasizes certainty of fulfillment. Here it strengthens the certainty of the threat. Explanatory notes to identify infinitive absolute forms 1 ‫֥מוֹת ָתּ ֽמוּת‬ Qal. 2 m. and he said. ‘open the window eastward’ and he opened (it). followed by Qal imperf. 2 ‫֣בּוֹא ֑יָבוֹא‬ Qal. is oftenest of the same stem as the finite verb. nevertheless the inf. abs.

). ‫“ = שׁקץ‬detest” Piel. both inf. inf. and the finite form are Niphal. ‫“ = תעב‬abhor” Here. forms (each before a finite verb of the same stem) emphasize the antithesis following the preceding negative clause. e. “And you shall not bring—BUT (implied) you shall utterly detest it and you shall utterly abhor it”. masc.sg. the inf. however. ‫ .מצא‬here. abs. For ‫ת־א ָ ֖שּׁה‬ ִ ‫ת־אישׁ ֥אוֹ ֶא‬ ֛ ִ ‫ ֶא‬see GK 117d: “On the other hand ‫ֵאת‬ occurs very seldom in prose before a noun actually or apparently undetermined.178 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW with any other stem. 27:42: ‫וַ יֻּ ַגּ֣ד‬ ‫ת־דּ ְב ֵ ֥רי ֵע ָ ֖שׂו‬ ִ ‫“ ְל ִר ְב ָ ֔קה ֶא‬and there were told (i. ‫“ יִ ָסּ ֵקל‬the ox shall surely be stoned”.נתן‬The inf. before the finite verb gives emphasis to the supposition. 21:28—perhaps the ‫ ֶאת־‬is used in order to avoid the combination ‫—שׁוֹר ִאישׁ‬. “If —shall indeed be found”. Here. abs. Qal gives emphasis to the injunction conveyed by the Niphal imperf. 3 m. abs. . 4 ‫תן‬ ֙ ֵ ָ‫תן יִ נּ‬ ֹ ֤ ָ‫ִ ֣כּי ִהנּ‬ Niphal. abs. In Ex. although there is no introductory antithetical particle as in no 4 above.” For ‫ת־בּ ָשׂ ֔רוֹ‬ ְ ‫ וְ ֤ל ֹא יֵ ָא ֵכל֙ ֶא‬see GK 121b: “—The passive. Note that both inf. 6 ‫ִה ָמּ ֵצ ֩א ִת ָמּ ֵ֨צא‬ Niphal. abs. “He will not escape BUT he will surely be delivered”. one told) to Rebekah the words of Esau”. abs.e. Note also the use of -‫ ֶאת‬in this verse. Both the inf. ‫ . and finite verb are of the same stem. —more frequently with the object of the active construction still subordinated in the accusative. 5 ‫ַשׁ ֵ ֧קּץ ְתּ ַשׁ ְקּ ֶצ֛נּוּ‬ ‫וְ ַת ֵ ֥עב ְ ֽתּ ַת ֲע ֶ ֖בנּוּ‬ Piel.g. Gen. ‫“ = נָ גַ ח‬gore”. is also used impersonally (in the 3rd sing. before the finite verb (Niphal imperf. ‫ )יִ נָּ ֵתן‬emphasizes the antithesis introduced by ‫ ִ ֣כּי‬after the preceding negative clause.

Note place of inf. 8 ‫ֹלְך ָע ֔ ֵלינוּ‬ ֙ ‫ֲה ָמ ֹ֤לְך ִתּ ְמ‬ Qal.יצא‬note inf. “But if it shall indeed be stolen”. ‫ .f. after finite verb.ברך‬note compensatory lengthening of vowel under beth due to absence of strong dagesh in resh. = “quail”.שׁלח‬The inf. 12 ‫ם־א ֖כוֹל‬ ָ ַ‫אכל גּ‬ ַ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬ 13 ‫וֹח‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְט ֤חוּ ָל ֶה ֙ם ָשׁ ֔ט‬ Qal. “He has indeed consumed”.משׁל‬ the inf. after the finite verb.שׁטח‬note furtive pataḥ due to lamedguttural verb. before the finite verb emphasizes the supposition. ‫ . ‫ . ‫. . ‫ ח ֶֹמר‬n. “They kept spreading them out”. “Did I not indeed send—?” 10 ‫ֵבּ ַ ֥ר ְכ ָתּ ָב ֵ ֽרְך‬ Piel. abs. abs. “He will surely come out”. ‫ם־מ ֥שׁוֹל ִתּ ְמ ֖שׁ ֹל ָ ֑בּנוּ‬ ָ ‫ִא‬ Qal. ‫ .m. abs. abs. Na‘aman.גנב‬but the finite verb is Niphal (‫)יִ גָּ ֵנ֖ב‬. = “homer” (a dry measure) > pl. ‫ . abs. strengthened with ‫גַּ ם‬. ‫ ֳח ָמ ִרים‬. Qal. ‫ ְשׂ ָלו‬n. prevalence.אכל‬note inf. after the verb often seems to suggest an indefinitely prolonged state of the action. ‫ . 11 ‫יֵ ֵצ֣א יָ ֗צוֹא‬ Qal. ‫“ = נוּף‬move to and fro. before the finite verb strengthens the question. before the finite verb strengthens the question. The inf. wave” > Hiphil: “wave (hand)”. Words of Leah and Rachel about Laban their father. abs.מלך‬the inf. before the finite verb strengthens the question. Note the method for asking an alternative question: ‫ֲה— ִאם‬ 9 ‫ֲהל ֹ ֩א ָשׁ ֹ֨ל ַח ָשׁ ַל ְ֤ח ִתּי‬ Qal. and therefore to express continuance. Aramean army captain. after finite verb.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 179 7 ‫וְ ִאם־גָּ ֹ֥נב יִ גָּ ֵנ֖ב‬ Qal. seeks a cure for his leprosy from Elisha. The inf. here with the same function of emphasis as when before the finite verb. abs. abs. ‫ .

following ֣ ַ ִ‫וַ יּ‬.יצא‬Qal ‫שׁוּב‬. to express the idea of long continuance. ‫ ָה ֹ֖לְך‬. abs. 19 ‫ה ֵ ֹ֥לְך ָה ֹ֖לְך וּב ֶֹכ֑ה‬ Qal ‫ .180 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 14 ‫צוֹא וָ ֔שׁוֹב‬ ֙ ָ‫וַ יֵּ ֵצ֤א י‬ Qal ‫ . of another verb (here. ‫וּב ֶֹכ֑ה‬. Ishmael son of . abs.הלך‬Note the Qal active participle ‫ה ֵ ֹ֥לְך‬. abs. of ‫ הלך‬together with the inf. abs.הלך‬Qal ‫שׁוּב‬. Note the use of the Qal finite form of the verb ‫)וַ ֵיּ ֶ֤לְך( הלך‬. of the verb ‫שׁוּב‬. This is another example of a second inf.” Note also infinitive construct Qal from ‫יְבשׁת – יבשׁ‬ ֶ . “He the finite verb ‫סּע‬ journeyed continually”. of the verb ‫ הלך‬together with the inf.—. Note the use of inf.הלך‬Qal ‫נסע‬. followed by the inf. abs. abs. ‫ )שׁוּב‬is added.הלך‬Piel: ‫דבר‬. the use of the inf. “It went out and back continually”. see BDB p 152). ‫( גָ ֵדל‬or adj. ‫ . 16 ‫וַ יָּ ֻ ֧שׁבוּ— ָה ֣לוְֹך וָ ֑שׁוֹב‬ 17 ‫וֹע‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ ַ ֣סּע— ָה ֥לוְֹך וְ נָ ֖ס‬ Qal. followed by a second inf. Note that the nuance of continuity becomes clearer when an inf. This expresses the idea of long continuance. namely. followed by the Qal active participle of a different verb. “The waters returned continually”. abs. followed by the Qal inf. expresses the simultaneousness or quasi-simultaneousness of a second action—Gn 8:7 ‘and he went out just to come back again (soon)’. The effect is again to express the idea of long continuance. followed by the masculine participle form. ‫ . See also JM 123m: “The postpositive inf. abs. all following the finite verb ‫( וַ יִּ גְ ַדּל‬cognate with ‫)גָ ֵדל‬. Qal of the same stem (‫לוְֹך‬ ֙ ‫) ָה‬. ‫ . 15 ‫לוְֹך וְ ַד ֵ֔בּר‬ ֙ ‫ה ְֹל ִ ֤כים ָה‬ Qal. of the verb ‫נסע‬. ‫הלך‬. 18 ‫לוְֹך וְ גָ ֵ ֔דל‬ ֙ ‫וַ ֵיּ ֶ֤לְך ָה‬ “and he (Isaac) grew more and more”. “crying continually as he went”. This example may be compared with the one above (no 16). abs. after the finite verb conveying the idea of continuity “Walking along talking as they went”. following the finite verb ‫שׁבוּ‬ ֧ ֻ ָ‫וַ יּ‬. abs. Qal.

Note that inf. cstr. ‫“ = זָ ַעק‬cry. degree etc. ‫( זַ ֲע ֶקָך‬pausal). abs. abs. ‫“ ְכּ ָשׁ ְמ ָעתוֹ‬when he hears it” is a unique form (GK 45d). ‫“ . before ‫ יָ ְחנְ ָך‬Qal imperf. 23 ‫ם־ע ֹ֑לה‬ ָ ַ‫ַ ֽא ַע ְלָך֣ ג‬ Qal. . ‫ . abs.כלה‬from beginning to end”. Also. “Please kill me”. Negative precedes inf.“You shall indeed not weep”. ‫ .חנן‬he will surely be gracious to you”. a bowshot away”. it may be joined with any other stem. Qal of the strong verb”. abs. 21 ‫֣ל ֹא ַה ְשׁ ֵ ֥מיד ַא ְשׁ ִ ֛מיד‬ 22 ‫ָה ְר ֵג֤נִ י נָ ֙א ָה ֔ר ֹג‬ Qal. after the imperative. ָחנוֹן‬Qal inf. Qal expresses the idea of the verb in general. abs. Qal + Compare the frequent ‫יוּמת‬ Hophal finite verb). ‫)רחק‬.g. 20 ‫א־ת ְב ֶ֗כּה‬ ִ ֹ ‫ָבּ ֣כוֹ ֽל‬ Qal. 24 ‫ָה ֵ ֖חל וְ ַכ ֵ ֽלּה‬ Hiphil. abs. is used to describe adverbially the manner. + sf. Hiphil.הרג‬note position of inf.חלל‬Piel ‫“ . forms (chiefly Hiphil) have become in effect straightforward adverbs. after Hiphil finite verb. “And I will also surely bring you up”. 25 ‫אד‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ַה ְר ֵ ֥בּה ְמ‬ Hiphil. ַ ‫ מוֹת‬e. ‫“ . ָר ָבה‬very much”. abs. ְכּ ָשׁ ְמ ָעתוֹ‬ see GK 45c for “other forms of the inf. abs. The inf abs. of the action expressed by a previous non-cognate verb. ‫( שׁמד‬extra yod in inf. abs.עלה‬Qal inf. Some inf. cstr. ‫. and see BDB p 1033 for usual form of Qal inf.). governor of Judah. ‫בכה‬. Compare Genesis 21:16: ‫“ ַה ְר ֵח ֙ק ִכּ ְמ ַט ֲחֵו֣י ֶ ֔ק ֶשׁת‬at a distance. abs.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 181 Nethaniah (royal descent) was responsible for the murder of Gedaliah. + sf. Moses pleading with G-d when the people were lusting for the fleshpots of Egypt. Since inf. cstr. cry out” > inf. + sf. precedes the negative. in this instance of a denial being given to previous words. “Except that I will not utterly destroy”. ‫ . Exodus 21:12 (inf. ‫ . Also. from ‫>שׁמע‬ ‫ ָשׁ ְמעוֹ‬. (‫ ַה ְר ֵח ֙ק‬is Hiphil inf. installed by Babylon.

Note the work of A. respite. imperf. = “libation. abs. where ‫ ָה ֵ ֥ קם‬is inf. relief. Hiphil. before finite verb ‫ ֵה ִ ֖ קימוּ‬. Such uncertainty might arise if the manuscript before him was indistinct in places. ‫נפץ‬. 1952. 27 ‫וֹפ ֔רוֹת וְ נָ ֥פוֹץ ַה ַכּ ִ ֖דּים‬ ָ ‫ַוֽ יִּ ְת ְקע֙וּ ַבּ ֣שּׁ‬ “They blew the trumpets and shattered the pitchers”. 3 c. err”. ‫וַ יַּ ְכ ֵבּד‬. or if the copyist had before him divergent readings. ‫קום‬.182 ‫סכל‬ FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW > Hiphil: ‫ִה ְס ַכּ ְל ִתּי‬ = “I have acted foolishly”. ‫ָשׁגָ ה‬ = “go astray.pl. ‫“ = ָרוַ ח‬be wide. 28 ‫ת־ל ֔בּוֹ‬ ִ ‫וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּ ֙ד ֶא‬ Hiphil. is introduced by “and”. here.מהר‬quickly”. ‫קום‬. Hiphil perf. spacious” > ‫ ְרוָ ָחה‬n.e. vayiqtol form). scarcely”. and unlike the complementary infinitive. abs. This infinitive may follow any inflected form. ‫“ = נָ ַסְך‬pour out” > n. ‫אְך ָה ֵ ֥ קם ֵה ִ ֖ קימוּ‬ ֛ ַ . He suggests that the use of this construction (vav inf. abs. abs. ‫“ . abs. Rubinstein (“A Finite Verb continued by an Infinitive Absolute in Biblical Hebrew”. ‫“ . ‫( וַ יַּ ְרא‬Qal apocop. molten metal. since in the Hebrew Pentateuch of the Samaritans. or possibly the copyist was writing a passage from memory. with vav conjunctive. The inf. Note also in this verse.f.) may be due to scribes or copyists. in connected narrative or discourse. adverbial use. we find the inflected form. i. 26 ‫ַמ ֵ֗הר‬ ‫ַמ ֵסּ ָכה‬ Piel. Qal imperf. + vav consec. image” > ‫= ֵעגֶ ל ַמ ֵסּ ָכה‬ “molten calf”. abs. He points to an apparent “redundancy of function” of the inf. + vav follows the inflected form. pp 362-7). “only just. . is used instead of an inflected form without significant force when an inflected form has already been used – ‫עוּ‬ ֙ ‫ ַוֽ יִּ ְת ְק‬in this example. The Hiphil inf.f. ‫ וְ נָ ֥פוֹץ‬is Qal inf. For use of ‫ַ ֛אְך‬ here see BDB p 36: as an adverb of time. Vetus Testamentum 2.כבד‬and he hardened his heart”. who resorted to it when they could not be certain of the form of a finite verb. + vav consec. (a vayiqtol form).

‘On the so-called Infinitivus Absolutus in Hebrew’. The use of ‫ וְ נָ תוֹן‬leaves open the question of whether the subject is again Pharoah (as in ‫ )וַ יַּ ְר ֵכּ֣ב‬or is impersonal (as in ‫) וַ יִּ ְק ְראוּ‬. The copyist may have been unwilling to commit himself. Rubinstein suggests that the inf. ‫וְ נָ תוֹן‬. Hammershaimb.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 183 Another illustration brought by Rubinstein of this apparent “redundancy of function” is the reading in: Isaiah 37:19: ‫אשׁ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫יהם ָבּ‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ֹלה‬ ֵ ‫ת־א‬ ֱ ‫תן ֶא‬ ֹ ֥ ָ‫ וְ נ‬where ֹ ֥ ָ‫ וְ נ‬follows the inflected form in 37:18: ‫ֶה ֱח ִ ֜ריבוּ ַמ ְל ֵ ֥כי‬ the inf. connected by vav. reading in Isaiah 37:19 may have been a scribe’s way of dealing with divergent readings. ‫“( וַ יַּ ְר ֵכּ֣ב‬and he caused to ride”) and ‫“( וַ יִּ ְק ְר ֥אוּ‬and they called”). pp 85-94. + vav. This text is paralleled in II Kings 19:17. Printed in Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G R Driver. where the finite form ‫( וְ נָ ְתנוּ‬vav + Qal perf. 1963. 29 ‫ר־לוֹ‬ ֔ ‫וַ יַּ ְר ֵכּ֣ב א ֹ֗תוֹ ְבּ ִמ ְר ֶכּ ֶ֤בת ַה ִמּ ְשׁנֶ ֙ה ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ְר ֥אוּ ְל ָפ ָנ֖יו ַא ְב ֵ ֑רְך‬ ‫ל־א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ָ ֽריִ ם׃‬ ֥ ֶ ‫וְ נָ ֣תוֹן א ֹ֔תוֹ ַ ֖על ָכּ‬ The Qal inf. abs. stating: “According to the old principle of always preferring the more complicated reading. + vav. Rubinstein’s view is disputed by E.” (note 1.) follows ‫ ֶה ֱח ִ ֜ריבו‬and the Isaiah Scroll has ‫ויתנו‬. abs. abs. OUP.18. in Hebrew reflects a usage which was common in Canaanite and Phoenician. ‫תן‬ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָר ֖צוֹת‬ ָ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ ַא ֛שּׁוּר ֶא‬. He points out how rare is this usage in the Hebrew Bible (between 45-58 instances according to whether textual errors are taken into consideration or not) and suggests that this use of inf. follows the inflected forms. I consider the infinitive to be the original form. p 91).abs. and the fact that this old construction gradually fell into desuetude must then have influenced later transmissions of the text. .

so neutral a form is the inf. i. the Hiphil inf. ‫וְ ַה ְל ֵ ֥בּשׁ‬ is Hiphil inf. ‫לבשׁ‬. abs. Qal perf.f. The use of inf.” v 4: “—take the filthy garments from off him—and I will clothe you with robes. that in the case of Zechariah 3:4 it may have even the force of a passive. e.”(Rubinstein. but work was halted due to the hostility of their neighbours. and stood before the angel. ‫ ֶמ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬n. e. 30 chariot. = “robe of state” (taken off in ‫ צֹאי > צוא‬adj. “prostrate yourself”.g. Joshua.e. the High Priest. abs.ראה‬I returned and I saw”. p 366).m. ‫צֹאים‬ Historical setting: the Jews who had returned from Babylon had started to restore the Temple. follows the Hiphil perf. ‫ ִמ ְשׁנֶ ה‬n. copy.” 31 ‫אה‬ ֹ ֣ ‫ַ֜שׁ ְב ִתּי וְ ָר‬ Qal. out” > ordinary life).f. Qal inf. abs. ‫ָח ַלץ‬ = “draw off. “grand vizier”. leaves open the question of whether the angel or those standing before him clothe Joshua. v 3: “Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments. In ch 3 (th 4th Vision). (Assyrian). abs. “Indeed. ‘and thou shalt be clothed’. Compare use ֣ ַ ְ‫ ו‬and of finite forms in: Ecclesiastes 4:1: ‫שׁ ְב ִ ֽתּי ֲא ֗ ִני וָ ֶא ְר ֶא ֙ה‬ Ecclesiastes 4:7: ‫וְ ַ ֧שׁ ְב ִתּי ֲא ִנ֛י וָ ֶא ְר ֶ ֥אה‬ . abs. ‫ ֶה ֱע ַב ְר ִתּי‬. is accused by the Satan and acquitted. or. double. Here. filthy > pl.g. ‫“ . ‫“ וְ ַה ְל ֵ ֥בּשׁ א ְֹתָך֖ ַמ ֲח ָל ֽצוֹת‬And I will clothe you with robes”. Haggai and Zechariah urged the people to carry on the rebuilding. second. ‫)שׁוב‬. ‫ַמ ֲח ָל ָצה‬ n. following finite verb ‫( ַ֜שׁ ְב ִתּי‬qatal form.184 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ַא ְב ֵרְך‬ many Egyptian derivations proposed.

‫יִ ְקנוּ‬.חתם‬Hiphil ‫עוד‬. 7:18: ‫זָ כֹר‬ ‫ ִתּזְ כֹּר‬.זכר‬inf. = hind. Three vav + inf. ‫ עזב‬+ vav. abs.f. with understanding”. for imperative. 38 ‫ָלק ַֹח‬ 39 ‫ָשׁמ ַֹע‬ 40 ‫אף‬ ֹ ֑ ָ‫ָא ֹ֣לה וְ ַכ ֵ֔חשׁ וְ ָר ֥צֹ ַח וְ גָ ֹ֖נב וְ נ‬ + inf. abs. Niphal. A series of inf. abs. ‫ . abs. 37 ‫ָהֹלְך‬ Qal. for imperative.לקח‬inf. See GK 113bb: the full form occurs in Deut. following a qatal form.רצח‬Qal ‫אף . discerning. ‫ . abs. ‫ ַאיָּ ָלה‬n. 6:17: ‫ ָשׁמוֹר ִתּ ְשׁ ְמרוּן‬and in Deut.m. 35 ‫זָ כוֹר‬ Qal. forms following a Yiqtol form.כתב‬Qal ‫ . doe (here > ‫) ַאיֶּ ֶלת‬. Qal. 33 ‫ָשׂדוֹת ַבּ ֶכּ ֶסף יִ ְקנוּ‬ ‫וְ ָכתוֹב ַבּ ֵסּ ֶפר וְ ָחתוֹם‬ ‫וְ ָה ֵעד ֵע ִדים‬ Qal ‫ . pl.גנב‬ ֹ ֑ ָ‫וְ נ‬ Qal ‫נאף‬. abs. 36 ‫ָשׁמוֹר‬ Qal. for imperative. it is an elliptical form. forms used in place of inflected forms for . chance. abs.שׁמר‬inf.שׁמע‬inf. abs. ‫כתב‬. 34 ‫ נִ ְכ ָ ֣תּב—וְ נַ ְח ֛תּוֹם‬Vav participle m.הלך‬inf. ‫ . ‫ . following a Niphal Qal. occurrence. ‫“ נְ בֹנִ ים‬intelligent. Moses commanding the Levites to put the Book of the Law by the side of the Ark of the Covenant. ‫חתם‬. abs. for imperative.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 185 ‫ ֶפּגַ ע‬n. ‫ ָא ֹ֣לה‬Qal ‫ וְ ַכ ֵ֔חשׁ . ‫ .כחש‬Qal ‫ וְ גָ ֹ֖נב . for imperative.sg.אלה‬Piel ‫ וְ ָר ֥צֹ ַח . “gives birth and abandons”. 32 ‫יָ ְל ָ ֖דה וְ ָעז֑ וֹב‬ Qal inf. ‫ ִבּין‬Niphal part.e. i.

‫ . Qal. abs. ‫= נָ גַ שׂ‬ oppress.186 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW vivid description of prevailing conduct. Inf. abs. ‫( ִריב‬Qal) = strive. with SUBJECT expressed (‫ ָה ֵע ָדה‬-‫) ָכּל‬. . abs. forms used in place of inflected forms in indignant question about prevailing conduct.נאף‬ Niphal.נכר‬subject in a nominal clause. Use of inf. 45 -‫ַה ֵכּר‬ “They shall stone him”. abs.” 43 ‫ָר ֨גוֹם א ֹ֤תוֹ‬ 44 ‫שּׁה יָ ֔דוֹ‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ל־בּ ַעל֙ ַמ‬ ַ֙ ‫ָשׁ ֗מוֹט ָכּ‬ “Every possessor of a loan of his hand shall let drop/fall”. used in place of inflected form in indignant question about prevailing conduct. ‫נָ ָשׁה‬ = lend. “regard for faces (partiality) is not good”. Qal. ‫“ = ָחנֵ ף‬be polluted.יטב‬direct object of a transitive verb. break over ‫אף וְ ִה ָשּׁ ֵ ֥ב ַע ַל ֶ ֖שּׁ ֶקר וְ ַק ֵ ֣טּר ַל ָ ֑בּ ַעל וְ ָה ֹ֗לְך‬ ֹ ֗ ָ‫ֲהגָ ֹ֤נב ָר ֨צ ֹ ַח ְ ֽונ‬ A series of inf. a remitting (every 7th year is ‫) ְשׁנַ ת ְשׁ ִמ ָטּה‬.” 41 ‫“ = ָפּ ַרץ‬break through. ‫ ָר ֨צ ֹ ַח . Hiphil. with SUBJECT expressed. instead of finite verb. = loan.f. 46 ‫יטב‬ ֛ ֵ ‫ֵה‬ Hiphil. 42 ‫וְ ֥שׁוֹב ֵא ַ ֖לי‬ “and will you return to me?”. abs. become a creditor >Hiphil: lend > ‫ ַמ ֶשּׁה‬n. Qal inf. ‫= ֵהן‬ “lo! Behold! if. ‫אף . ‫ וְ ָה ֹ֗לְך . instead of finite verb. ‫ֲהגָ ֹ֤נב‬ Qal. ‫ = ָשׁ ַמט‬let drop > ‫ ְשׁ ִמ ָטּה‬n. (limits). Note also ‫“ ָחנוֹף ֶתּ ֱחנַ ף‬be greatly polluted”. lit. profane”. ‫הלך‬. ‫ . ‫וְ ִה ָשּׁ ֵ ֥ב ַע . preceding finite verb for emphasis.m.קטר‬Qal. contend. Use of Qal inf.שׁבע‬Piel. Qal. = a letting drop (of exactions). ‫שׁוב‬. Punishment for man who gathered sticks on the Sabbath. ‫רגם‬.רצח‬ ֹ ֗ ָ‫ְ ֽונ‬ ‫ וְ ַק ֵ ֣טּר . ‫שׁמט‬.גנב‬Qal.

‫. JM 123c: suggest become an adverb here. “until completion” = “com> Qal imperative m. shortened after vav consec. (‫ָשׁחֹט )צֹאן‬ Qal.הלך‬object complement of an intransitive verb.שׁתה‬taking a direct object. ‫ . ‫יָ ָרה‬ Qal. from ‫שׁתה‬ 49 ‫תה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ‬ 50 ‫ד־כּ ֵ ֽלּה‬ ַ ‫ַע‬ that ‫ ַכּ ֵ ֽלּה‬has pletely”. 47 ‫ָה ֔לוְֹך‬ Qal. “after drinking”. INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT In this section. the student is asked: {i} to identify the Infinitive Construct forms in the forty-six biblical verses reproduced here. abs. ‫ . = “the ruthless” (only here). only Qal part. Vrss.m. “booty. ‫“ = יְ ֵרה‬shoot”. . Piel.see BDB p 330: (‫“ = )חמץ‬be ruthless”. ‫ ָחמוֹץ‬n.כלה‬following a preposition. (‫ָשׁתוֹת )יָ יִ ן‬ Qal. 48 (‫ָהר ֹג ) ָבּ ָקר‬ Qal.אכל‬taking a direct object.sg.שׁתה‬ following a preposition (not common).שׁחט‬taking a direct object. give passive. ‫“ ָאכוֹל וְ ָשׁתוֹ‬let us eat and drink” (use of inf. perh. ‫ . ‫ . (The prophet Elisha and King Joash of Israel). ‫“ = וַ יּוֹר‬and he shot”.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 187 ‫ַא ְשּׁרוּ ָחמוֹץ‬ = “set right the ruthless” or: “relieve the oppressed”. plunder”. in place of finite verb) compare: ‫ ָשׁתוֹת‬and ‫ ָשׁתוֹ‬as variant forms of Qal inf.הרג‬taking a direct object. ‫ . ‫חוֹמץ‬ ֵ ְ‫( ו‬Psalm 71:4). ‫= ָחמוּץ‬ “oppressed”. ‫ .f. ‫ ְמ ִשׁ ָסּה‬n. (‫ָאכֹל ) ָבּ ָשׂר‬ Qal. > Hiphil imperf. abs.

The functions of Infinitive Construct are further clarified in the explanatory notes to the biblical verses. Explanatory notes are supplied at the end of the list of verses. with the sense of “is to be. The Infinitive Construct is a verbal noun. (Davidson. which does not of itself express tense. causal clauses and even expresses negative result and concession. The main functions of the Infinitive Construct may briefly be summarized as follows: {i} In its nominal function it may be used as the subject or object of a sentence. {ii} With prepositions. The student should consult the reference grammar books in the bibliography for further study. The selection of verses is designed to illustrate the various forms of Infinitive Construct in the different conjugations and also to illustrate the various functions of Infinitive Construct. It does admit both prepositions and suffixes.188 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW {ii} to discuss their form and use. or in the genitive. . {v} The Infinitive Construct with lamed prefix may be used in a gerundial sense. {iii} The Infinitive Construct with lamed prefix or the Infinitive Construct introduced by ‫ ְל ַמ ַען‬or ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬may express Purpose. nor does it take the Definite Article. it may form temporal clauses. “to explain the circumstances or nature of a preceding action”. Syntax p 127 f). ought to be”. must be. {iv} The Infinitive Construct with lamed prefix may have a gerundive function.

. you shall not eat from it. for on the day that you eat from it. I will make for him a helpmate corresponding to him. 4 Hosea 2:5 ‫יה ַכ ִמּ ְד ָ֗בּר וְ ַשׁ ִ֙תּ ָ֙ה‬ ָ ‫יה ְכּי֖ וֹם ִהָוּ ְֽל ָ ֑דהּ וְ ַשׂ ְמ ִ ֣תּ‬ ָ ‫יטנָּ ה ֲע ֻר ָ֔מּה וְ ִ֨ה ַצּגְ ִ֔תּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ן־א ְפ ִשׁ‬ ַ ‫ֶפּ‬ ‫יה ַבּ ָצּ ָ ֽמא׃‬ ָ ‫ְכּ ֶ ֣א ֶרץ ִצ ָ֔יּה וַ ֲה ִמ ִ ֖תּ‬ Lest I strip her naked. you shall surely die. and set her as in the day that she was born. I: Nominal function of Infinitive Construct (1-7) 1 Genesis 2:18 ‫הּ־לּוֹ ֵ ֖עזֶ ר ְכּנֶ גְ ֽדּוֹ׃‬ ֥ ‫א־טוֹב ֱהי֥ וֹת ָ ֽה ָא ָ ֖דם ְל ַב ֑דּוֹ ֽ ֶא ֱע ֶשׂ‬ ֛ ֹ‫ל‬ It is not good that the man should be alone. 2 I Samuel 15:22 ‫מ ַע ִמ ֶזּ ַ֣בח ֔טוֹב‬ ֹ ֨ ‫ִה ֵנּ֤ה ְשׁ‬ Behold. discuss their form and use. 3 Genesis 2:17 ‫אכ֖ל ִמ ֶ ֑מּנּוּ ִ֗כּי ְבּי֛ וֹם ֲא ָכ ְלָך֥ ִמ ֶ ֖מּנּוּ ֥מוֹת‬ ַ ֹ ‫וּמ ֗ ֵעץ ַה ַ ֙דּ ַע ֙ת ֣טוֹב וָ ָ ֔רע ֥ל ֹא ת‬ ֵ ‫ָתּ ֽמוּת׃‬ And from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 189 Exercise: identify the Infinitive Construct forms in the following biblical verses. and make her as the wilderness and set her like a land of drought and slay her with thirst. listening is better than sacrifice.

I am weary of bearing (them). and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister saying. causal clauses etc (8-22) 8 Genesis 24:30 ‫וּכ ָשׁ ְמ ֗עוֹ‬ ְ ֒ ‫ים ַעל־יְ ֵ ֣די ֲאחֹתוֹ‬ ֮ ‫ת־ה ְצּ ִמ ִד‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ֗ ֶנּזֶ ם ְ ֽו ֶא‬ ַ ‫את ֶא‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֣הי ִכּ ְר‬ ֹ ֔ ‫ת־דּ ְב ֵ ֞רי ִר ְב  ָ ֤קה ֲאחֹתוֹ֙ ֵלא‬ ִ ‫ֶא‬ ‫ל־ה ִ֔אישׁ‬ ָ ‫ה־ד ֶ ֥בּר ֵא ַל֖י ָה ִ ֑אישׁ וַ יָּ ב ֹ ֙א ֶא‬ ִ ֹ‫מר ֽכּ‬ ‫ל־ה ָ ֽעיִ ן׃‬ ָ ‫ל־הגְּ ַמ ִ ֖לּים ַע‬ ַ ‫וְ ִה ֵנּ֛ה ע ֵ ֹ֥מד ַע‬ And it was when he saw the ring and the bracelets on the hands of his sister. they have become a burden on Me. I do not know how to go out or come in. ‘Thus the . My soul hates. 6 Isaiah 1:14 ‫יתי נְ ֽשׂ ֹא׃‬ ִ ‫יכ ֙ם ָשׂנְ ָ ֣אה נַ ְפ ִ֔שׁי ָהי֥ וּ ָע ַל֖י ָל ֑טֹ ַרח נִ ְל ֵ ֖א‬ ֶ ‫וּמוֹע ֵד‬ ֲ ‫ָח ְד ֵשׁ ֶיכ֤ם‬ Your New Moons and your appointed seasons.190 5 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW I Kings 3:7 ‫ֹכי ַנ ַ֣ער ָק ֔טֹן ֥ל ֹא ֵא ַ ֖דע‬ ֙ ִ ‫ת־ע ְב ְדּ ָ֔ך ַ ֖תּ ַחת ָדִּו֣ד ָא ִ ֑בי וְ ָ ֽאנ‬ ַ ‫ַא ָתּ ֙ה ִה ְמ ַל ְ֣כ ָתּ ֶ ֽא‬ ‫ֵ ֥צאת וָ ֽב ֹא׃‬ You have made Your servant king instead of David my father. even though I am a young lad. 7 Genesis 37:5 ‫יּוֹספוּ ֖עוֹד ְשׂ ֥נ ֹא א ֹֽתוֹ׃‬ ֥ ִ ַ‫יוֹס ֙ף ֲח ֔לוֹם וַ יַּ ֵגּ֖ד ְל ֶא ָ ֑חיו ו‬ ֵ ‫וַ יַּ ֲח ֹ֤לם‬ And Joseph dreamed a dream and he told (it) to his brothers and they hated him still more. II: Infinitive Construct with prepositions to form temporal clauses.

‘Lift up your eyes and look from the place where you are. northward and southward and eastward and westward’. 11 Genesis 45:1 ‫ל־א ָ ֽחיו׃‬ ֶ ‫יוֹסף ֶא‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ישׁ ִא ֔תּוֹ ְבּ ִה ְתוַ ַ ֥דּע‬ ֙ ‫א־ע ַמד ִא‬ ֤ ָ ֹ ‫וְ ל‬ And no man stood with him when Joseph made himself known to his brothers. 12 Genesis 13:14 ‫ד־לוֹט ֽ ֵמ ִע ֔מּוֹ ָ ֣שׂא ָנ֤א ֵעינֶ֙ ֙יָך ְוּר ֵ֔אה‬ ֣ ‫ל־א ְב ָ ֗רם ַא ֲח ֵר֙י ִה ָ ֽפּ ֶר‬ ַ ‫ַיהוה ָא ַ ֣מר ֶא‬ ָ֞ ‫ֽו‬ ‫ר־א ָ ֣תּה ָ ֑שׁם ָצ ֥ ֹפנָ ה וָ ֶנ֖ גְ ָבּה וָ ֵ ֥ ק ְד ָמה וָ ָי ָֽמּה׃‬ ַ ‫ן־ה ָמּ ֖קוֹם ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ַ ‫ִמ‬ And the Lord said to Abram after Lot was separated from him. that he came to the man and behold he was standing by the camels at the well. when they were in the field. that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 191 man spoke to me’. and no hammer nor axe nor any iron tool were heard in the House. 10 I Kings 6:7 ‫ל־כּ ִ ֣לי‬ ְ ‫וּמ ָקּ ֤בוֹת וְ ַהגַּ ְרזֶ ֙ן ָכּ‬ ַ ‫ן־שׁ ֵל ָ ֥מה ַמ ָ ֖סּע נִ ְב ָנ֑ה‬ ְ ‫וְ ַה ַ֙בּיִ ֙ת ְבּ ִה ָ ֣בּנ ֹ֔תוֹ ֶ ֽא ֶב‬ ‫ַב ְר ֶ֔זל ֽל ֹא־נִ ְשׁ ַ ֥מע ַבּ ַ ֖בּיִ ת ְבּ ִה ָבּנ ֹֽתוֹ׃‬ And the House. . while it was being built. when it was being built. was built of stone perfect (at the) quarrying. 9 Genesis 4:8 ‫ל־ה ֶבל ָא ִ ֖חיו וַ יַּ ַה ְר ֵגֽהוּ׃‬ ֥ ֶ ‫יוֹתם ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶ ֔דה וַ ָיּ ָ֥ קם ַ ֛קיִ ן ֶא‬ ֣ ָ ‫הי ִבּ ְה‬ ֙ ִ ְ‫ֽוַי‬ And it was.

for I am heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue. nor since you spoke to your servant. 17 Jeremiah 7:13 ‫הו֑ה וָ ֲא ַד ֵ֨בּר‬ ָ ְ‫ל־ה ֽ ַמּ ֲע ִ ֥שׂים ָה ֵ ֖א ֶלּה נְ ֻאם־י‬ ַ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫שׂוֹת ֶכ֛ם ֶא‬ ְ ‫וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ַי ַ֧ען ֲע‬ ‫יכם ַה ְשׁ ֵכּ֤ם וְ ַד ֵבּ ֙ר וְ ֣ל ֹא ְשׁ ַמ ְע ֶ֔תּם‬ ֶ֜ ‫ֲא ֵל‬ .192 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 13 Genesis 13:10 ‫ל־כּ ַכּ֣ר ַהיַּ ְר ֵ ֔דּן ִ ֥כּי ֻכ ָלּ֖הּ ַמ ְשׁ ֶ ֑ קה ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י‬ ִ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ת־ע ָ֗יניו וַ יַּ ְר ֙א ֶא‬ ֵ ‫א־לוֹט ֶא‬ ֣ ‫וַ יִּ ָשּׂ‬ ‫ת־עמ ָ ֹ֔רה‬ ֲ ‫ת־סד ֹ֙ם וְ ֶא‬ ְ ‫הוה ֶא‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ַשׁ ֵ ֣חת י‬ And Lot lifted up his eyes and saw the whole Jordan Valley. 15 II Kings 4:8 ‫ל־ל ֶחם׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫הי ִמ ֵ ֣דּי ָע ְב ֔רוֹ יָ ֻ ֥סר ָ ֖שׁ ָמּה ֶל ֱא ָכ‬ ֙ ִ ְ‫ַוֽ י‬ And it was. he would turn aside there to eat bread. neither yesterday nor the day before. until the subsidence of your brother’s anger from you. 14 Genesis 27:44. that it was wellirrigated. 16 Exodus 4:10 ‫ל ֹ ֩א ִ֨אישׁ ְדּ ָב ִ ֜רים ָא ֗נ ֹ ִכי ַגּ֤ם ִמ ְתּמוֹל֙ ַגּ֣ם ִמ ִשּׁ ְל ֔שׁ ֹם ַגּ֛ם ֵמ ָ ֥אז ַדּ ֶבּ ְרָך‬ ‫וּכ ַ ֥בד ָל ֖שׁוֹן ָאנֽ ִֹכי׃‬ ְ ‫ד־פּה‬ ֛ ֶ ‫ל־ע ְב ֶ ֑דָּך ִ ֧כּי ְכ ַב‬ ַ ‫ֶא‬ I am not a man of words.45 ‫ד־שׁוּב‬ ֨ ‫־תּ ֖שׁוּב ֲח ַ ֥מת ָא ִ ֽחיָך׃ ַע‬ ָ ‫יָמים ֲא ָח ִ ֑דים ַ ֥עד ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ֣ ִ ‫וְ יָ ַשׁ ְב ָ ֥תּ ִע ֖מּוֹ‬ ‫ף־א ִ֜חיָך ִמ ְמּ ָ֗ך‬ ָ ‫ַא‬ And you shall dwell with him a few days (years) until your brother’s wrath subsides. whenever he passed by. before the Lord had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.

‘I have not sinned’. surely His anger has returned from me. 21 Genesis 27:1 ‫את‬ ֹ ֑ ‫הי ִ ֽכּי־זָ ֵ ֣ קן יִ ְצ ָ֔חק וַ ִתּ ְכ ֶ ֥הין ָ ֵע ָינ֖יו ֵמ ְר‬ ֙ ִ ְ‫וַ י‬ . because you said. because you have done all these deeds. 20 Jeremiah 2:35 ‫ל־א ְמ ֵ ֖רְך‬ ָ ‫אוֹתְך ַע‬ ָ֔ ‫יתי ַ ֛אְך ָ ֥שׁב ַא ֖פּוֹ ִמ ֶ ֑מּנִּ י ִהנְ נִ ֙י נִ ְשׁ ָ ֣פּט‬ ִ ‫אמ ִר֙י ִ ֣כּי נִ ֵ ֔קּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ ֽתּ‬ ‫אתי׃‬ ִ ‫֥ל ֹא ָח ָ ֽט‬ And you said. speaking early and often. and I have spoken to you. Trial and Dispute) because of the dispute of the children of Israel and because of their testing of the Lord. 19 Exodus 17:7 ‫ל־ריב ׀ ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֗אל וְ ֨ ַעל נַ סּ ָ ֹ֤תם‬ ֣ ִ ‫יבה ַע‬ ֑ ָ ‫וּמ ִר‬ ְ ‫שׁם ַה ָמּ ֔קוֹם ַמ ָ ֖סּה‬ ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָר ֙א‬ ‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ֙ה‬ And he called the name of the place Massah and Merivah (lit. says the Lord. ‘because I am innocent. 18 Isaiah 30:12 ‫חוּ ְבּ ֣ע ֹ ֶשׁק‬ ֙ ‫ָל ֵ֗כן ֤כֹּה ָא ַמ ֙ר ְק ֣דוֹשׁ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ַי ַ֥ען ָ ֽמ ָא ְס ֶכ֖ם ַבּ ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה ַו ִֽתּ ְב ְט‬ ‫וְ נָ ֔לוֹז וַ ִ ֽתּ ָשּׁ ֲענ֖ וּ ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬ Therefore thus says the Holy One of Israel. but you did not listen.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 193 And now. ‘because you despise this word and trust in oppression and crookedness and lean on it’.’ behold I will enter into judgment with you.

22 Job 10:7 ‫י־ל ֹא ֶא ְר ָ ֑שׁע וְ ֵ ֖אין ִמיָּ ְדָך֣ ַמ ִ ֽצּיל׃‬ ֣ ‫ל־דּ ְע ְתָּך ִכּ‬ ֭ ַ ‫ַ ֽע‬ Although You know that I shall not be found guilty and there is none to deliver from Your hand. which the children of men had built. IV: Gerundive use of Infinitive Construct + lamed (25-31) 25 Genesis 15:12 ‫ימה ֲח ֵשׁ ָ ֥כה‬ ֛ ָ ‫ל־א ְב ָ ֑רם וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ֵא‬ ַ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֤הי ַה ֶ֙שּׁ ֶמ ֙שׁ ָל ֔בוֹא וְ ַת ְר ֵדּ ָ ֖מה נָ ְפ ָל֣ה ַע‬ ‫גְ ד ָֹל֖ה נ ֶ ֹ֥פ ֶלת ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬ . III: Infinitive Construct with lamed (or without) to express purpose (23-24) 23 Genesis 11:5 ‫ת־ה ִמּגְ ָ ֑דּל ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָבּנ֖ וּ ְבּ ֵנ֥י ָה ָא ָ ֽדם׃‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ִ ֖עיר וְ ֶא‬ ָ ‫את ֶא‬ ֹ ֥ ‫הוה ִל ְר‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וַ ֵיּ ֣ ֶ רד י‬ And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower. for the sake of showing you My strength and in order to recount My Name in all the land.194 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And it was when Isaac was old and his eyes were dim so that he could not see. 24 Exodus 9:16 ‫וּל ַ ֛מ ַען ַס ֵ ֥פּר‬ ְ ‫את ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ִ֔תּיָך ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר ַה ְרא ְֹתָך֣ ֶאת־כּ ִ ֹ֑חי‬ ֙ ֹ ‫אוּלם ַבּ ֲע ֥בוּר ז‬ ָ ֗ ְ‫ו‬ ‫ל־ה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ָ ‫ְשׁ ִ ֖מי ְבּ ָכ‬ But indeed on account of this have I caused you to stand firm.

27 II Kings 4:13 ‫ת‬ ֒ ‫ל־ה ֲח ָר ָ ֣דה ַהזֹּא‬ ַ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ינוּ ֶא‬ ֮ ‫יה ִה ֵנּ֣ה ָח ַ ֣ר ְד ְתּ ֵא ֵל‬ ֮ ָ ‫ר־נ֣א ֵא ֶל‬ ָ ‫אמר ֗לוֹ ֱא ָמ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫ל־שׂר ַה ָצּ ָ ֑בא‬ ֣ ַ ‫ל־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ֖אוֹ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ר־ל ְ֙ך ֶא‬ ָ ‫ֶ ֚מה ַל ֲע ֣שׂוֹת ֔ ָלְך ֲהֵי֤שׁ ְל ַד ֶבּ‬ Say now to her.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 195 And the sun was about to set and a deep slumber fell on Abram and behold. whereas now you will smite Aram only three times. great darkness. I do not know where the men went. then you would have smitten Aram until annihilation. a terror. 26 Joshua 2:5 ‫וַ יְ ִ֨הי ַה ַ֜שּׁ ַער ִל ְס ֗גּוֹר ַבּ ֨ח ֹ ֶשׁ ְ֙ך וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִ ֣שׁים יָ ָ֔צאוּ ֣ל ֹא יָ ַ ֔ד ְע ִתּי ָ ֥אנָ ה ָה ְל ֖כוּ‬ ‫ֽ ָה ֲאנָ ִ ֑שׁים‬ And the gate was about to close at dark and the men went out. what is to be done for you? Should one speak for you to the king or to the captain of the host?’ 28 II Kings 13:19 ‫ד־כּ ֵלּ֑ה‬ ַ ‫ת־א ָ ֖רם ַע‬ ֲ ‫ית ֶא‬ ָ ‫אוֹ־שׁ ֙שׁ ְפּ ָע ִ֔מים ָ ֛אז ִה ִ ֥כּ‬ ֵ ‫אמ ֙ר ְל ַה ֨כּוֹת ָח ֵ ֤משׁ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֙יּ‬ ‫ת־א ָ ֽרם׃‬ ֲ ‫וְ ַע ָ֕תּה ָשׁ ֹ֥לשׁ ְפּ ָע ִ ֖מים ַתּ ֶ ֥כּה ֶא‬ And he said. ‘you should have smitten five or six times. ‘Behold you have taken all this anxious care for us.’ 29 Isaiah 5:4 ‫֛יתי ַל ֲע ֥שׂוֹת ֲענָ ִ ֖בים‬ ִ ‫וּע ִקֵוּ‬ ַ ‫יתי ֑בּוֹ ַמ ֧דּ‬ ִ ‫עוֹד ְל ַכ ְר ִ֔מי וְ ֥ל ֹא ָע ִ ֖שׂ‬ ֙ ‫ה־לּ ֲע ֥שׂוֹת‬ ַ ‫ַמ‬ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֥עשׂ ְבּ ֻא ִ ֽשׁים׃‬ . was falling on him.

and the man asked him saying. ‘Hush! for one must not mention the name of the Lord’. but it produced stinking grapes? 30 Amos 6:10 ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫וְ ָא ַ ֣מר ָ֔הס ִ ֛כּי ֥ל ֹא ְל ַהזְ ִ ֖כּיר ְבּ ֵ ֥שׁם י‬ And he will say. V: Gerundial use of Infinitive Construct + lamed (32-38) 32 I Kings 5:23 ‫יתי׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫ת־ח ְפ ִ֔צי ָל ֵ ֖תת ֶ ֥ל ֶחם ֵבּ‬ ֶ ‫שׂה ֶא‬ ֣ ֶ ‫וְ ַא ָתּ ֙ה ַתּ ֲע‬ And you will accomplish my desire. 31 Esther 4:2 ‫ל־שׁ ַער ַה ֶ ֖מּ ֶלְך ִבּ ְל ֥בוּשׁ‬ ֥ ַ ‫ר־ה ֶ ֑מּ ֶלְך ִ ֣כּי ֵ ֥אין ָל ֛בוֹא ֶא‬ ַ ‫וַ יָּ ֕בוֹא ַ ֖עד ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י ַ ֽשׁ ַע‬ ‫ָ ֽשׂק׃‬ And he came up to the front of the king’s gate. in giving food for my household. for none might enter the king’s gate with clothing of sackcloth. 33 Genesis 37:15 ‫מר‬ ֹ ֖ ‫וַ יִּ ְמ ָצ ֵ ֣אהוּ ִ֔אישׁ וְ ִה ֵנּ֥ה ת ֶ ֹ֖עה ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶ ֑דה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ָא ֵל֧הוּ ָה ִ ֛אישׁ ֵלא‬ ‫ה־תּ ַב ֵ ֽקּשׁ׃‬ ְ ‫ַמ‬ And a man found him and behold he was wandering in the field. ‘what are you looking for?’ .196 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW What more should I have done to my vineyard which I did not do to it? Why did I hope to produce (fine) grapes.

37 Genesis 18:25 ‫ם־ר ָ֔שׁע‬ ָ ‫יק ִע‬ ֙ ‫ָח ֨ ִל ָלה ְלּ ָ֜ך ֵמ ֲע ֣שׂ ֹת ׀ ַכּ ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֗זּה ְל ָה ִ ֤מית ַצ ִדּ‬ Far be it from you (lit. in requesting a king for yourselves. 38 Genesis 29:26 ‫ירה׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ירה ִל ְפ ֵנ֥י ַה ְבּ ִכ‬ ֖ ָ ‫קוֹמנוּ ָל ֵ ֥תת ַה ְצּ ִע‬ ֑ ֵ ‫אמר ָל ָ֔בן לֹא־יֵ ָע ֶ ֥שׂה ֵ ֖כן ִבּ ְמ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And Laban said. 36 Genesis 3:22 ‫ֵ ֤הן ָ ֽה ָא ָד ֙ם ָהיָ ֙ה ְכּ ַא ַ ֣חד ִמ ֶ֔מּנּוּ ָל ַ ֖ד ַעת ֣טוֹב וָ ָ ֑רע‬ Behold the man has become like one of us. a profanation to you) to do this thing. to give the younger before the elder’.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 34 197 I Samuel 12:17 ‫הוה ִל ְשׁ ֥אוֹל ָל ֶכ֖ם‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ית ֙ם ְבּ ֵע ֵינ֣י י‬ ֶ ‫י־ר ַע ְת ֶכ֤ם ַר ָבּ ֙ה ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ֲע ִשׂ‬ ָ ‫ְוּד ֣עוּ ְוּר ֗אוּ ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫ֶ ֽמ ֶלְך׃‬ Know and see that your wickedness is great. 35 I Samuel 14:33 ‫ל־ה ָ ֑דּם‬ ַ ‫יהו֖ה ֶל ֱא ֣כֹל ַע‬ ָ ‫מר ִה ֵנּ֥ה ָה ָ ֛עם ח ִ ֹ֥טאים ַ ֽל‬ ֹ ֔ ‫וַ יַּ ִגּ֤ידוּ ְל ָשׁאוּל֙ ֵלא‬ And they told Saul saying. in knowing good and evil. ‘it is not done thus in our place. to slay the righteous with the wicked. . which you have done in the eyes of the Lord. ‘behold the people are sinning to the Lord in eating with the blood’.

43 Genesis 3:11 ‫ל־מ ֶ ֖מּנּוּ ָא ָ ֽכ ְל ָתּ׃‬ ִ ‫יתיָך ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ֲא ָכ‬ ֛ ִ ִ‫ן־ה ֗ ֵעץ ֲא ֶ ֧שׁר ִצוּ‬ ָ ‫ֲה ִמ‬ . 42 Deuteronomy 8:11 ‫מר ִמ ְצו ָֹת ֙יו‬ ֹ ֤ ‫ֹלהיָך ְל ִב ְל ִ֨תּי ְשׁ‬ ֑ ֶ ‫הו֣ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫ן־תּ ְשׁ ַ ֖כּח ֶאת־י‬ ִ ‫ִה ָ ֣שּׁ ֶמר ְל ָ֔ך ֶפּ‬ ‫וּמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָ ֣טיו וְ ֻחקּ ָֹ֔תיו‬ ִ Take care lest you forget the Lord your G-d in not keeping His commandments and His judgments and His statutes. in order not to give seed to his brother. 40 Genesis 38:9 ‫ן־ז ַ רע ְל ָא ִ ֽחיו׃‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ל־א ֶשׁת ָא ִח ֙יו וְ ִשׁ ֵ ֣חת ַ֔א ְר ָצה ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי נְ ָת‬ ֤ ֵ ‫ם־בּא ֶא‬ ָ֨ ‫וְ ָה ָ֞יה ִא‬ And it was. 41 Genesis 19:21 ‫ת־ה ִ ֖עיר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬ ָ ‫אתי ָפ ֔ ֶניָך ַגּ֖ם ַל ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה ְל ִב ְל ִ ֛תּי ָה ְפ ִ ֥כּי ֶא‬ ִ ‫ִהנֵּ ֙ה נָ ָ ֣שׂ‬ ‫ִדּ ַ ֽבּ ְר ָתּ׃‬ Behold I have given you favour (lit.198 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW VI: Negative Infinitive Construct: use of ‫( לְ ִבלְ ִתּי‬39-44) 39 Genesis 4:15 ‫הו֤ה ְל ַ ֙קיִ ֙ן ֔אוֹת ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ַהכּוֹת־א ֹ֖תוֹ ָכּל־מ ְֹצ ֽאוֹ׃‬ ָ ְ‫וַ ָ֨יּ ֶשׂם י‬ And he placed a sign on Cain in order that anyone finding him should not smite him. lifted up your face) also for this thing. he would destroy (his seed) on the ground. whenever he came to the wife of his brother. in my not overturning the city of which you spoke.

Saul had been commanded to destroy Amalek and all that he had. “listening”. ‘she is more righteous than me. ‫ .שׁמע‬subject of sentence (nominative). 3 ‫ֲא ָכ ְלָך‬ Qal. ‫ אכל‬+ sf.sg. 2 ‫ְשׁמ ַֹע‬ Qal. Hence. ָהיָ ה‬subject of sentence (nominative). “your eating”. 2 m. because I did not give her to Shelah my son’ and he did not continue to know her. “the day of your eating”. Explanatory notes to identify infinitive construct forms 1 ‫ ֱהיוֹת‬Qal. ‫ . Genitive function. . “(man’s) being—”. 45 Genesis 37:35 ‫א ָלה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ל־בּ ִנ֛י ָא ֵ ֖בל ְשׁ‬ ְ ‫י־א ֵ ֧רד ֶא‬ ֵ ‫אמר ִ ֽכּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫אן ְל ִה ְתנַ ֵ֔חם וַ ֕יּ‬ ֙ ֵ ‫וַ יְ ָמ‬ And he refused to be comforted and he said. Samuel’s rebuke.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 199 Have you eaten from the tree from which I commanded you not to eat? 44 Ruth 2:9 ‫ת־הנְּ ָע ִ ֖רים ְל ִב ְל ִ ֣תּי נָ גְ ֵעְ֑ך‬ ַ ‫֛יתי ֶא‬ ִ ‫ֲה ֥לוֹא ִצִוּ‬ Have I not commanded the young men not to harm you? VII: Infinitive Construct + lamed as object of governing verb (45-46). but he spared Agag and the best of the livestock. ‘for I will go down to my son in mourning to Sheol’. 46 Genesis 38:26 ‫יה ְל ֵשׁ ָל֣ה ְב ִנ֑י‬ ָ ‫ל־כּן לֹא־נְ ַת ִ ֖תּ‬ ֥ ֵ ‫י־ע‬ ַ ‫אמ ֙ר ָ ֽצ ְד ָ ֣ קה ִמ ֶ֔מּנִּ י ִ ֽכּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫הוּדה וַ ֙יּ‬ ֗ ָ ְ‫וַ יַּ ֵכּ֣ר י‬ ‫וְ ֽל ֹא־יָ ַ ֥סף ֖עוֹד ְל ַד ְע ָ ֽתּהּ׃‬ And Judah recognized (them) and he said.

‫ ראה‬+ prep. = “dryness. cstr. ‫ . approaches Abraham’s servant.נִ ְל ֵא‬I am weary of bearing”. Note qamets under vav conjunctive before tone syllable. forms are functioning as objects (accusative) of the verb ‫“ לֹא ֵא ַדע‬I do not know”.e. . cstr. “Even though I was a young lad. ‫ > יצג‬Hiphil:“set.f. + prep ‫בּ‬ expressing time. i. Rebekah’s brother. i. set” (note assimilation of tav. followed by subject and then predicate. ‫. ‫ > ִשׁית‬Qal perf.בוא‬going out and coming in”.כ‬lit. + prep ‫ . 10 ‫ְבּ ִה ָבּנֹתוֹ‬ Niphal.“as the day of her being born”. “when they were”. G-d grants his prayer and also gives him wealth and glory). The two inf. forms express time. “her being born”. 9 ‫יוֹתם‬ ָ ‫ִבּ ְה‬ Qal. “when (he) saw—and when he heard”.יצא‬Qal.נשׂא‬object of verb ‫יתי‬ ִ ‫“ . 5 ‫ֵצאת וָ בֹא‬ 6 ‫נְ שׂא‬ Qal. not knowing how to go out and come in”.שׂנא‬ object of verb ‫יּוֹספוּ‬ ִ ַ‫. (The dream of Solomon at Gibeon. place”. “as his hearing”.sg. “as the seeing”.pl. 8 ‫ִכּ ְראֹת‬ ‫וּכ ָשׁ ְמעוֹ‬ ְ Qal. He asks G-d for understanding and ability to judge the people. + prep ‫ . 3 m. lit.ו‬ “they continued hating him”. ‫ ילד‬+ sf. cstr. 3 m. Qal. lit. 3 f.sg. ‫ כ‬+ sf. “when it was built—”. Genitive function. ‫“ ַשׁ ִתּי‬I have put.200 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 4 ‫ִהוָּ ְל ָדהּ‬ Niphal. drought”. ‫“ . 3 m. “in their being”.בּ‬inf. ‫ ִציָּ ה‬n.בּ‬lit. ‫ שׁמע‬+ prep.sg. inf. ‫ היה‬+ sf.e. into tav of suffix). “in its being built”. Both these inf. Laban.sg. 7 ‫ְשׂנ ֹא‬ Qal. ‫ בנה‬+ sf. Qal. Note also the nominal circumstantial clause introduced by vav. third root letter. + prep ‫ בּ‬expressing time. ‫ . 1 c. cstr. ‫ .

(Words joined by maqqef lose their primary accent unless they are the final word in the unit and may undergo vowel changes due to the loss of accent). = “quarry. “until your brother’s anger returns—”. Neither hammer nor axe was used in the building of the Temple.sg.m. = “hammer” > pl. (Hertz p 338). enough” > “out of the sufficiency . ‫ גַּ ְרזֶ ן . shortened from tsere. cstr. Rebekkah advising Jacob to flee Esau’s wrath and take refuge with her brother Laban. cstr. ַמ ָקּבוֹת‬n. Note segol under resh. 13 '‫ִל ְפנֵ י ַשׁ ֵחת ה‬ Piel. “as often as his passing”. “after the separating of Lot from him”. inf. 14 ‫ שׁוּב‬Qal. the SHAMIR. a kind of worm which could cleave the stones. ‫ ָתּשׁוּב‬. “before the Lord destroyed Sodom & Gomorrah”.m. The stones were fitted together with one of the marvels of Creation. + prep to express time.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 201 ‫ ַמ ָסּע‬n. (‫ ִמ ֵדּי‬is made up of the prep ‫ ִמן‬and the construct form of ‫“ = ַדּי‬sufficiency. i.e. Note that in the previous verse. lit.e. quarrying” > ‫“ ֶא ֶבן ְשׁ ֵל ָמה ַמ ָסּע‬stone perfect (at the) quarrying”. ‫ פרד‬following the prep ‫ ַא ֲח ֵרי‬. “after Lot separated from him”. i. = “axe”. “when it was quarried”.בּ‬lit. 15 ‫ִמ ֵדּי ָע ְברוֹ‬ Qal. the temporal clause is expressed by ‫ ַעד ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ the finite verb.e. + prep expressing time. “until the returning of your brother’s anger from you”. ‫ שׁחת‬following prep ‫ .e. “when Joseph made himself known”. cstr.f. following the prep ‫ . i. ִל ְפנֵ י‬lit. the prep ‫ ַא ֲח ֵרי‬+ inf. 11 ‫ ְבּ ִה ְתוַ ַדּע‬Hithpael.e. + prep expressing time. 3 m. Expressing time. due to maqqef. “in (Joseph’s) making himself known”. ‫שׁוּב‬ following the prep ‫“ = ַעד‬until”. ִמ ֵדּי‬lit. i. ‫“ = נָ ַקב‬pierce” > ‫ ַמ ֶקּ ֶבת‬n. “before the Lord’s destroying Sodom & Gomorrah”. 12 ‫לוֹט‬-‫ַא ֲח ֵרי ִה ָפּ ֶרד‬ Niphal. inf. inf. Lit. i. ‫ ידע‬+ prep ‫ . cstr. ‫ עבר‬+ sf.

cstr. i.202 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW of”).e. ‫“ = נָ לוֹז‬crooked” > “crookedness”.e.pl.e. Qal. + prep ‫ מ‬to express negative result. “because of your doing”. + prep expressing time. Moses pleading lack of rhetorical ability.e. + prep ‫ ַעל‬expressing cause. + prep expressing cause. “because you did—”. he used to—”. 2 m. i. “so that he could not see”. “since your speaking”. “upon your knowing”. i.e. + prep to express concession. i. inf. 22 ‫ ַדּ ְע ְתָּך‬-‫ַעל‬ Qal. 17 ‫שׂוֹת ֶכם‬ ְ ‫ יַ ַען ֲע‬Qal.e. 20 ‫ ָא ְמ ֵרְך‬-‫ַעל‬ Qal. following prep ‫ . inf. “upon their trying”. ‫ דבר‬+ sf 2 m. 2 m. 3 m. “whenever he passed by. “since you spoke”.עשׂה‬ 18 ‫יַ ַען ָמ ָא ְס ֶכם‬ Qal. ַעל‬inf. cstr. “This word” refers to the prophetic warning against alliance with Egypt. “although you know—”. ‫. The Shunamite lady’s hospitality to Elisha the Prophet. following prep ‫ . inf. expressing purpose.sg. ‫ מאס‬+ sf. “because they tried—”.sg. ‫ ידע‬+ sf. ַעל‬lit. “because you said—”.pl. inf. cstr. cstr.sg. ַעל‬lit. + prep expressing time. ‫ ראה‬+ lamed prefix. following prep ‫ . ‫ נסה‬+ sf. 16 ‫ֵמ ָאז ַדּ ֶבּ ְרָך‬ Piel. inf. “from seeing”. 2 f. ֵמ‬lit. ‫> לוּז‬ Niphal part. + prep expressing cause. 23 ‫ִל ְראֹת‬ following prep ‫ .e. “because of your rejecting”. 21 ‫ֵמ ְראוֹת‬ Qal. + prep expressing cause. following prep ‫ . “upon your saying”. cstr. see”. lit. i. Inf. 19 ‫סּוֹתם‬ ָ ַ‫וְ ַעל נ‬ Piel. i. cstr.יַ ַען‬lit. cstr. ‫ ראה‬+ prep ‫ . cstr. “in order to . i. following prep ‫ . ‫ אמר‬+ sf. ֵמ ָאז‬lit. inf.יַ ַען‬lit.

2 m. ‫ נכה‬+ lamed prefix. 28 ‫ְל ַהכּוֹת‬ Hiphil. 25 ‫ וַ יְ ִהי ַה ֶשּׁ ֶמשׁ ָלבוֹא‬Qal. cstr. “stinking things. “and the gate was about to be shut. went to visit him. Elisha’s last illness. ‫ זכר‬+ lamed prefix. sense of: “is to be.pl. but with omission of ‫(“ . “what is to be done for you?” Gerundive use of inf. “one must not mention”. 29 ‫ ַלּ ֲעשׂוֹת עוֹד‬-‫ַמה‬ 30 ‫לֹא ְל ַהזְ ִכּיר‬ Qal.m.היה‬it was) to smite/you should have smitten”. Joash. 27 ‫ֶמה ַל ֲעשׂוֹת ָלְך‬ Qal. had to be shut”. cstr.לֹא‬negative of gerundive use of inf. Elisha told Joash to smite the arrows on the ground. wild grapes” (‫“ = ָבּ ַאשׁ‬have a bad smell.e. lit. ‫ עשׂה‬+ lamed prefix. “in order to ְ Piel.היה‬what should I have done?” ‫ ְבּ ֻא ִשׁים‬n. King of Israel. gerundive use of inf. cstr. ‫ דבר‬+ lamed prefix. i. “should one speak for you to the king?” Gerundive use of inf. must be. onomatopoeic). ‫ עשׂה‬+ lamed prefix.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 203 24 ‫ַבּ ֲעבוּר ַה ְרא ְֹתָך‬ Hiphil. Elisha reproved him. cstr. preceded by ‫ . 26 ‫וַ יְ ִהי ַה ַשּׁ ַער ִל ְסגּוֹר‬ Qal. ‫ ספר‬following prep ‫ ְל ַמ ַען‬expressing show you”. ‫ סגר‬+ lamed prefix. “in order to recount”. gerundive use of inf. ‫ ָלְך‬-‫ֲהיֵ שׁ ְל ַד ֶבּר‬ Piel.sg. ‫וּל ַמ ַען ַס ֵפּר‬ purpose. . cstr. cstr. cstr. ‫( ַהס‬pausal: ‫“ = ) ָהס‬hush! keep silence” (prob. but with omission of preceding ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬/‫ ָהיָ ה‬. gerundive use of inf. “and the sun was about to set”. “for the sake of showing you”. Hiphil. gerundive use of inf. but without ‫“ . ‫ ראה‬+ sf. stink”). ‫ בוא‬+ lamed prefix. following prep ‫ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬ expressing purpose. Joash smote them three times only. ought to be”.

“Behold like one of us. ‫ ידע‬+ prefix lamed. “The people are sinning in eating with the blood. “The man asked him. cstr. cstr. + prep to express negative result. “This gerundial use is very common” (Davidson. . ‫ נתן‬+ prefix lamed. Syntax. “in slaying/to slay the righteous with the wicked”. cstr. cstr. attendant circumstances. 38 ‫ָל ֵתת‬ Qal. “to give the younger before the elder”. ‫ שׁאל‬+ prefix lamed. cstr. gerundial use of inf. gerundial use of inf. cstr. cstr. or otherwise to define more exactly” (GK 114). gerundial use of inf. in knowing good and evil”. cstr. ‫ נתן‬+ prefix lamed. gerundial use of inf. ‫ בוא‬+ prefix lamed. who were tending the flock in Shechem. “to explain the circumstances or nature of a preceding action” (Davidson. gerundial use of inf. plus lamed.e. cstr. “so that you will not do”. gerundial use of inf. “to state motives. ‫ עשׂה‬+ prep ‫ . preceded by gerundive use of inf. ֵאין‬negative of 32 ‫ָל ֵתת‬ 33 ‫ֵלאמֹר‬ Qal. ‫ אכל‬+ prefix lamed. ‫ אמר‬+ prefix lamed. i.מ‬lit. inf. “in your asking for a king”. “for none might enter”.” Qal. Hiram of Tyre has agreed to supply timber for the Temple and comes to a mutual agreement with Solomon. A man found Joseph looking for his brothers. ‫ . “from doing”. saying—”. Syntax. Qal. 37 ‫ֵמ ֲעשׂ ֹת‬ Qal. 35 ‫ֶל ֱאכֹל‬ 36 ‫ָל ַד ַעת‬ Qal. p 127).204 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 31 ‫ֵאין ָלבוֹא‬ Qal. p 127 f). gerundial use of inf. 34 ‫ִל ְשׁאוֹל‬ Qal. ‫ מות‬+ prefix lamed. ‫ְל ָה ִמית‬ Hiphil.

‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי .שׁמר‬+ inf. cstr.sg. Shelah.נכה‬ the particle ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬negatives infinitives expressing purpose. The angel agreed to spare Zoar. cstr. Onan and Shelah.sg. + sf. Expressing purpose here. Qal. shortened from ḥolem. + prefix lamed. inf. 44 ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ְל ִב ְל ִתּי נָ גְ ֵעְך‬+ inf. 43 ‫ ִמ ֶמּנּוּ‬-‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ֲא ָכל‬ Qal.נתן‬note short qamets before maqqef. The particle ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬is frequently used to negative an inf. cstr. in its gerundial sense. 2 f. ‫ . Judah and Batshua had three sons. cstr. “he refused to be comforted”. The particle ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬negatives the inf. Judah then ceased relations with her. ‫ הפך‬+ sf. 40 ‫זֶ ַרע‬-‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי נְ ָתן‬ Qal.sg. as here. 41 ‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ָה ְפ ִכּי‬ Qal. as here. but Onan was unwilling. “he did not continue to know her”. negative purpose. ‫ נחם‬+ prefix lamed. ‫ ידע‬+ sf.“in order not to harm you”. inf. ‫“ = נגע‬touch”. 45 ‫ְל ִה ְתנַ ֵחם‬ Hithpael. 42 ‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ְשׁמֹר‬ Qal. a small town whither Lot had fled from Sodom. Tamar. “in order not to give seed to his brother”. “in order that (anyone finding him) should not smite him”. so Judah ordered Onan to perform levirate duty. 1 c. 3 f.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 205 39 ‫אֹתוֹ‬-‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ַהכּוֹת‬Hiphil.“in not overturning the city—”. form in its gerundial or explicative sense. negative purpose.אכל‬+ inf. cstr. but Er died. Tamar had become pregnant by acting as a harlot because Judah had not given her as wife to his 3rd son. ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי . ‫. Er. “I commanded you not to eat from it”. “in not keeping”. cstr. Judah took a wife for Er. + lamed as object of governing verb. + lamed as object of governing verb. . 46 ‫ְל ַד ְע ָתּהּ‬ Qal. cstr.

Rashi has no special term for the ‘infinitive construct’. ֵ 1 Exodus 8:11 ‫ת־ל ֔בּוֹ‬ ִ ‫וַ ַיּ֣ ְ רא ַפּ ְר ֗עֹה ִ ֤כּי ָ ֽהיְ ָת ֙ה ָ ֽה ְרוָ ָ֔חה וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּ ֙ד ֶא‬ And Pharoah saw that there was respite and he hardened his heart. cstr. together with translation and explanation. Note the following grammatical terms used by Rashi and Ibn Ezra for infinitive forms: Rashi’s terms for ‘infinitive absolute’ are: ‫ ָפּעוֹל‬and ‫הוֹ וֶה‬.‫ְלשׁוֹן ָפּעוֹל הוא‬ ‫ת־מוֹאב׃‬ ָֽ ‫ ]וַ יַּ כּוּ־[ ָ֔בהּ וְ ַה ֖כּוֹת ֶא‬:(‫ַה ֶנּֽ גְ ָבּה׃ וכן )מלכים ב ג כד‬ ‫)שמואל א כב יג(׃‬ . However. when Rashi deems such forms to have the force of a frequentative or customary action. cstr. Comment of Rashi on ‫וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּ ֙ד‬ ‫וֹע‬ ַ ‫ וַ יִּ ַ ֣סּע ַא ְב ָ ֔רם ָה ֥לוְֹך וְ נָ ֖ס‬:(‫ )בראשית יב ט‬:‫ כמו‬. or long continuance. ‫( ְל ִה ָפּ ֵעל‬see below. an infinitive absolute or participle. ‫ ִל ְפעוֹל‬and the Niphal inf. Students should study the biblical verses and compare the views of the medieval scholars with the views in modern grammar books. Ibn Ezra’s term for the ‘infinitive construct’ is ‫פּוֹעל‬ ַ ‫ֵשׁם ַה‬ ‫ ַה ָסּמוְּך‬and his term for the ‘infinitive absolute’ is ‫פּוֹעל ֶשׁ ֵאינוֹ‬ ַ ‫ֵשׁם ַה‬ ‫ ָסמוְּך‬or ‫מּוּכ ָרת‬ ְ ‫פּוֹעל ַה‬ ַ ‫שׁם ַה‬. Rashi’s comment on Genesis 34:15). labeling the Qal inf.206 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW VIEW OF MEDIEVAL SCHOLARS ON THE FORM AND USE OF INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE AND INFINITIVE CONSTRUCT The comments of the medieval scholars are presented in the original rabbinic Hebrew. The terms ‫ ָפּעוֹל‬and ‫ הוֹ וֶה‬are often interchangeable. The term ‫ הוֹ וֶה‬is often employed by Rashi to a form in the perfect or imperfect.

from four different biblical verses. abs. forms are used after the finite verb for emphasis. abs. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּד‬ . that is in I Samuel 22:13 (‫)וְ ָשׁאוֹל לוֹ‬. I Kings 20:37: and the man smote him.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 207 ֙‫וּבן־יִ ָ ֑שׁי ְבּ ִת ְתּ ָ֙ך ֜לוֹ ֶל ֶ֣חם וְ ֶ֗ח ֶרב וְ ָשׁ ֥אוֹל לוֹ‬ ֶ ‫ָ ֚ל ָמּה ְק ַשׁ ְר ֶ ֣תּם ָע ֔ ַלי ַא ָ ֖תּה‬ ‫אֹלהים‬ ִ֔ ‫ֵ ֽבּ‬ ‫וּפ ֽצ ֹ ַע‬ ָ ‫ וַ יַּ ֵ ֥כּהוּ ָה ִ ֖אישׁ ַה ֵ ֥כּה‬:(‫)מלכים א כ לז‬ Translation of Rashi’s comments ‫וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּ ֙ד‬ This is an expression of ‘continuity’ like: Genesis 12:9: and Abraham journeyed continually towards the South. abs. after the finite verb emphasizes the nuance of continuity. (words of King Saul to Abimelech. II Kings 3:24: and they smote Moab with great force. you and the son of Jesse. instead of an inflected form. smiting and wounding (him). and it seems to be this aspect of the function of inf. “Pharoah continued hardening his heart”. priest of Nob. We have seen that the inf. by your giving him bread and a sword and you consulted G-d for him. as is the case with ‫וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּד‬. is used in place of the finite verb. Only in one of Rashi’s examples does it seem possible that the inf. In three of Rashi’s examples (Gen 12:9: ‫סוֹע‬ ַ ָ‫ ( . abs. Explanation of Rashi’s comments Rashi brings examples of inf. I Samuel 22:13: why have you conspired against me.)וְ ַהכּוֹת‬I Kings 20:37: ‫וּפצ ַֹע‬ ָ ‫) ַה ֵכּה‬. It is noteworthy that most of Rashi’s examples do not illustrate the use of inf.) ָהלוְֹך וְ נ‬II Kings 3:24: ‫( . that Rashi is keen to highlight here.‫פּוֹעל ָע ָבר‬ ַ ‫פּוֹעל ַתּ ַחת‬ ַ ‫ֵשׁם ַה‬ . abs. whom he rebuked for sheltering David). the inf. abs.

for tomorrow we shall die”. II Samuel 3:16: “and her husband went with her. set it aside for the Sabbath. weeping as he went”. the inf. pay attention to remember continually the Sabbath day. forms. the two inf. “let us eat and drink”. forms. 2 Exodus 20:8 ‫זָ ֛כוֹר֩ ֶאת־י֥ וֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָ ֖בּת ְל ַק ְדּ ֽשׁוֹ‬ Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. In Rashi’s first example. ָ ‫ ָה ֧לוְֹך‬coming after the finite verb.‫ֵח ֶפץ יָ ֶפה‬ Translation of Rashi on Exodus 20: ‫ זָ כוֹר‬is an expression of continuity. Explanation of Rashi on Exodus 20:8 Rashi compares ‫ זָ כוֹר‬with two examples. like: Isaiah 22:13: “let us eat and drink. Comment of Rashi on ֩‫זָ ֛כוֹר‬ ‫ ָא ֣כוֹל וְ ָשׁ ֔תוֹ ִ ֥כּי ָמ ָ ֖חר נָ ֽמוּת׃‬:(‫ )ישעיה כב יג‬:‫ כמו‬.‫לשון ָפּעוֹל הוא‬ ‫וּב ֛כֹה‬ ָ ‫ישׁהּ ָה ֧לוְֹך‬ ָ֗ ‫ וַ ֵ֨יּ ֶלְך ִא ָ֜תּהּ ִא‬:(‫)שמואל ב ג טז‬ ‫ ְתּנוּ ֵלב ִלזְ כּוֹר ָתּ ִמיד את יום ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ֶשׁ ִאם נִ זְ ַדּ ֵמּן ְלָך‬. (Isaiah 22:13). abs. (note that Ibn Ezra does not offer any explanation for the phenomenon). In Rashi’s second example (II Samuel 3:16). ‫וַ ֵ֨יּ ֶלְך‬. abs.‫וכן ִפתרוֹנוֹ‬ .‫ ְתּ ֵהא ַמזְ ִמינוֹ ְל ַשׁ ָבּת‬. that if something nice comes your way. ‫וּב ֛כֹה‬ .208 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation of Ibn Ezra’s comments The infinitive is used instead of the finite verb. ‫ ָא ֣כוֹל וְ ָשׁ ֔תוֹ‬are used in place of finite verbs. This is the explanation.

‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬is a ‫ ָפּעוֹל‬form (inf. Hence. 30. 3 I Samuel 1:9 ‫תה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫וַ ָ ֣תּ ָקם ַח ָ֔נּה ַא ֲח ֵ ֛רי ָא ְכ ָ ֥לה ְב ִשׁ ֹ֖לה וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ‬ And Hannah arose after eating in Shiloh and after drinking. weeping as he went”. Saul gave Michal to Phalti. who had been won by David for slaughter of Philistines. ‫ַא ֲח ֵרי ָאכוֹל בשילה ואחרי ָשׁתֹה‬ (thereby corresponding with ‫) ָשׁתֹה‬.). but David insisted on the return of Michal when Abner wanted to make a treaty with him). whereas ‫( ְל ָא ְכ ָלה‬with lamed) is ‫ – ִל ְפעוֹל‬inf. It is noteworthy that the function of ‫ זָ כוֹר‬in Exodus 20:8 is not the same as the function of the inf. cstr.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 209 emphasize the nuance of continuity. abs. form (see Genesis 1:29. . instead of functioning merely as a vowel letter) and the ’aleph has ḥatef-qamets and it (the word ‫ ) ָא ְכ ָלה‬is like ‫ ָאכוֹל‬. “her husband went with her. younger daughter of King Saul. Comment of Rashi on ‫ָא ְכ ָ ֥לה‬ ‫ַא ֲח ֵ ֛רי‬ ‫לא ַמ ִפּיק ה"א והאל"ף חטף קמץ והיא כמו ַא ֲח ֵרי ָאכוֹל בשילה‬ ‫ אחרי ָא ְכ ָלה לשון‬. since ‫ זָ כוֹר‬comes in place of the imperative form. (Phalti went with Michal.‫נוֹפל ֵבּין ְלזָ ָכר ֵבּין ִלנְ ֵק ָבה‬ ֵ ‫וה ָלּשׁוֹן‬ ַ . abs.i.).‫לא ְכ ָלה לשון ִל ְפעוֹל‬ ָ ‫ָפּעוֹל כמו‬ Translation of Rashi The word ‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬does not have mappiq hey (mappiq is a dot that can be inserted in a final hey to enable it to retain its consonantal value.e. After David’s flight. 6:21 etc.‫וא ֲח ֵרי ָשׁתֹה‬ ַ . forms in either of the examples brought by Rashi. but it seems that it is the nuance of continuity that Rashi wishes to illustrate.

The hey is not for a feminine. serve here in place of finite verbs. has mappiq hey and this is not present in our word. (‫ ) ָמקוֹר‬with an extra hey. form has lamed attached. there is I Sm 1.e. abs. note 3: “‫תה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ‬is impossible Hebrew and as the LXX shows. 30 etc. abs. because then the ’aleph would have long qamets. i. abs. corresponding with ‫ ָשׁתֹה‬. The inf. is ‫ ָפּעוֹל‬and for inf. a late addition. but it is worth noting the comments of Gesenius and Jouon/Muraoka: see GK 113e. abs.sg. cstr. abs.‫ופירוּשׁ אחרי ֶשׁ ָא ְכלוּ וְ ָשׁתוּ‬ ֵ ‫ָמקוֹר‬ Translation of Radak The word ‫ ָא ְכ ָ ֥לה‬is inf. “she had eaten”. The meaning is “after they had eaten and drunk”.sg. not ḥatef qamets. ‫ ְל ָא ְכ ָלה‬.e. Equally. inf. . as in Genesis 1:29. Explanation of Radak Radak’s comment brings out the fact that these forms. We see here clearly that Rashi’s terminology for inf.9 ‫תה‬ Comment of Radak on ‫ָא ְכ ָ ֥לה‬ ‫ַא ֲח ֵ ֛רי‬ ‫ ואין הה"א ִלנְ ֵק ָבה כי איננה ַמ ִפּיק וכן ָשׁתֹה‬. to ֹ ֑ ‫וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣ר ָשׁ‬ be governed by a preposition. since the suffix of 3 f. he discounts the idea that ‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬could be Qal perf.” And see: JM 123c: “It is equally abnormal for an inf. 3 f. the Qal inf. He concludes that ‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬is like ‫ ָאכוֹל‬. abs. according to his opinion. abs. form. no special term). is ‫( ִל ְפעוֹל‬i. Rashi does not comment on the abnormal ‫תה‬ ֹ ֑ ‫וְ ַא ֲח ֵ ֣רי ָשׁ‬.210 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Explanation of Rashi Rashi discounts the idea that ‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬could mean “her eating”. also Qal inf.‫תוֹס ֶפת ה"א‬ ֶ ‫ָמקוֹר ְבּ‬ . However. cstr. since it has no mappiq and likewise ‫ ָשׁתֹה‬is inf. noun + suffix.

Rashi avoids this problem by taking these forms as inf. “besmear”) ‫ָה ַ ֑שׁע‬ = ֙ ֵ ‫ ַה ְשׁ‬and ‫ַה ְכ ֵ ֖בּד‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫מן‬ ‫ ִל ָבּם‬. abs. blinded” > Hiphil imperative m.sg. lest one will see with one’s eyes and hear with one’s ears. abs. They could have been taken as Hiphil imperative m.sg. (‫“ = ָשׁ ַעע‬be smeared over.‫ לשון ָהלוְֹך לשון ָפּעוֹל‬. labeling them ‫לשון ָהלוְֹך לשון ָפּעוֹל‬. forms.‫ ִלבּוֹ‬-‫ וְ ַה ְכ ֵבּד ֶאת‬:(‫ )שמות ח יא‬:‫כמו‬ . harden their ears and smear their eyes. and make their ears heavy. but such a view gives rise to the problem that the prophet would hardly be asked to fatten the people’s hearts. and one’s heart will understand and will return and be healed.. an expression of a continuous action. and besmear their eyes. . Their heart continually becomes fatter and his ears are becoming heavier and heavier so that they do not hear. an expression of continuity.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 4 211 Isaiah 6:10 ‫ב־ה ָע֣ם ַה ֶ֔זּה וְ ָאזְ ָנ֥יו ַה ְכ ֵבּ֖ד וְ ֵע ָינ֣יו ָה ַ ֑שׁע ֶפּן־יִ ְר ֶ֨אה ְב ֵע ָ֜יניו‬ ָ ‫מן ֵל‬ ֙ ֵ ‫ַה ְשׁ‬ ְ ‫יָבין וָ ָ ֖שׁב וְ ָ ֥ר ָפא ֽלוֹ׃‬ ֛ ִ ‫וּל ָב ֥בוֹ‬ ְ ‫וּב ָאזְ ָנ֣יו יִ ְשׁ ָ֗מע‬ Make the heart of this people fat. Hiphil. since they have the same form as inf.‫מוֹע‬ ַ ‫וה ְכ ֵבּד ִמ ְשּׁ‬ ַ ‫הוֹלְך ָהלוְֹך וְ ַה ְשׁ ֵמן ואזניו הולכים ָהלוְֹך‬ ֵ Translation of Rashi Like Exodus 8:11: “and (he) hardened his heart”. Hence. abs. Explanation of Rashi Rashi takes ‫( ַה ְשׁ ֵמן‬also ‫ ַה ְכ ֵבּד‬and ‫ ) ָה ַשׁע‬as inf.

because of the word “lest”. but it is by way of speech. these forms are all imperatives (‫)ציווי‬.‫ וכמוהו רבים‬. giving emphasis to the finite Hiphil imperf.‫ רק הוא בדבור‬. form ‫ )יַ ְק ִטירוּן‬and likewise. Ibn Ezra implies that the people are being deprived of the ability to repent as punishment for their sins. Only.‫ ַק ֵטּר יַ ְק ִטירוּן ַכּיּוֹם ַה ֵח ֶלב וְ ֵכן ָה ַשׁע כמו )ויקרא ה ד( ְל ָה ַרע‬:(‫טז‬ ‫ וידענו כי אין כּ ַֹח‬. ‫( ָה ַשׁע‬Hiphil: ‫ )שׁעע‬has the same form as the infinitive form ‫( ְל ָה ַרע‬Hiphil: ‫( )רעע‬Leviticus 5:4).212 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Comment of Ibn Ezra on Isaiah 6:10 ‫ )שמואל א ב‬:‫פּוֹעל כמו‬ ַ ‫ַה ְשׁ ֵמן – יש אומר ֶשׁ ִמּ ַלּת ַה ְשׁ ֵמן ֵשׁם ַה‬ .‫וזה לא יִ ָתּ ֵכן ַבּ ֲעבוּר ִמ ַלּת ֶפּן‬ . . 5 Hosea 6:9 ‫חוּ־שׁ ְכ ָמה ִ ֥כּי זִ ָ ֖מּה ָע ֽשׂוּ׃‬ ֑ ֶ ‫דוּדים ֶ ֚ח ֶבר ֽכֹּ ֲה ִ֔נים ֶ ֖דּ ֶרְך יְ ַר ְצּ‬ ֗ ִ ְ‫וּכ ַח ֵ֨כּי ִ֜אישׁ גּ‬ ְ And as troops waiting for a man is the company of priests. But this is not likely. abs. Explanation of Ibn Ezra on Isaiah 6:10 Ibn Ezra holds that these forms must be imperatives because infinitives could not be the verbal form of a main clause followed by the subordinate clause introduced by ‫“ = ֶפּן‬lest”.‫ רק הכל ִציווי‬.‫ַבּנָּ ִביא ְל ַה ְשׁמן ַה ֵלּב‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra on Isaiah 6:10 There are those who say that the word ‫ ַה ְשׁ ֵמן‬is an infinitive form ַ ‫ ) ֵשׁם ַה‬like: I Samuel 2:16: “let them indeed make the fat to smoke (‫פּוֹעל‬ now” (where the word ‫ ַק ֵטּר‬is Piel inf. We know that the prophet does not have the ability to fatten the heart. they murder on the road to Shechem for they have planned wickedness. and there are many such examples.

where one would have expected ‫וּכ ַחכּוֹת‬ ְ . see GK 75nn-rr). from the lamed-hey root ‫ חכה‬would be ‫ =( ַחכּוֹת‬waiting).’aleph and lamed-hey. ‫וּכ ַח ֵכּי‬ ְ is a strange form. form of the root ‫ כלה‬would be ‫ ְל ַכלּוֹת‬and from the context. cstr. 6 Isaiah 42:19. Similarly. ‫( ְל ַחכּוֹת‬to wait). (For discussion of relation between verbs lamed.PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 213 ְ Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫וּכ ַח ֵ֨כּי‬ ‫היו"ד ַתּ ַחת ה"א על דרך ְל ַכ ֵלּא ַה ֶפּ ַשׁע )דניאל ט כד( גם הוא‬ ‫וא ֶלּה ַהשׁתים ִמלּוֹת זָ רוֹת ֵהן כי ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט בּעלי‬ ֵ . in which case the ’aleph similarly replaces the hey. (when derived from) a lamed-hey verb is ‫( ְל ַכלּוֹת‬to finish).20 ‫ם־ע ְב ִ ֔דּי וְ ֵח ֵ ֖רשׁ ְכּ ַמ ְל ָא ִ ֣כי ֶא ְשׁ ָל֑ח ִ ֤מי ִעוֵּ ֙ר ִכּ ְמ ֻשׁ ֔ ָלּם וְ ִעֵוּ֖ר‬ ַ ‫ִ ֤מי ִעוֵּ ֙ר ִ ֣כּי ִא‬ ָ ְ‫ְכּ ֶ ֥ע ֶבד י‬ ‫וֹח ָאזְ ַנ֖ יִ ם וְ ֥ל ֹא‬ ַ ‫מר ָפּ ֥ק‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ית ] ָר ֥אוֹת[ ַר ֖בּוֹת וְ ֣ל ֹא ִת ְשׁ‬ ָ ‫הוֽה׃ ָר ִא‬ ‫יִ ְשׁ ָ ֽמע׃‬ Who is blind but My servant or deaf as My messenger whom I send? Who is blind as he that is perfect and blind as the servant of the Lord? Seeing . Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra is explaining that the regular form of Piel inf. for the proper form of the inf.‫באל"ף תחת ה"א‬ . the form ‫ ְל ַכ ֵלּא‬in Daniel 9:24 clearly means “to finish”. cstr. cstr. Both of these words (‫וּכ ַח ֵכּי‬ ְ and ‫ ) ְל ַכ ֵלּא‬are rare. the regular Piel inf. Compare ‫( ְל ַכ ֵלּא ַה ֶפּ ַשׁע‬Daniel 9:24) = “to finish the transgression”. which presupposes the Piel of the root ‫ כלה‬and not ‫כלא‬. Hence.‫הה"א ְבּ ָסמוְּך ְל ַכלּוֹת ְל ַחכּוֹת‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The yod in ‫וּכ ַח ֵכּי‬ ְ replaces hey.

‫ואזְ נֵ יהם יִ ְפ ְקחוּ ולא יִ ְסגְּ רוּם‬ ָ .‫ וכן הוא‬. devise > Qal imperf. and now nothing that they scheme to do will be withheld from them’. purpose. but they will not hear.pl.יָ זֹמּוּ‬see Rashi’s comment on ‫ַה ִח ָלּ֣ם‬ .‫ִת ְשׁ ְמ ֵרם ַהנֶּ ֶפשׁ או ָה ַעיִ ן‬ . 7 Genesis 11:6 ‫הוה ֵ ֣הן ַ ֤עם ֶא ָח ֙ד וְ ָשׂ ָ ֤פה ַא ַח ֙ת ְל ֻכ ֔ ָלּם וְ ֶז֖ה ַה ִח ָלּ֣ם ַל ֲע ֑שׂוֹת‬ ֗ ָ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫וְ ַע ָתּ ֙ה ֽל ֹא־יִ ָבּ ֵצ֣ר ֵמ ֶ֔הם ֛כֹּל ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יָ זְ ֖מוּ ֽ ַל ֲע ֽשׂוֹת׃‬ And the Lord said. and that is strange. and this is what they begin to do. the absolute (‫ ) ָראֹה‬and the construct (‫) ְראוֹת‬.214 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW many things but you do not take heed. 3 m.‫שׂוֹתם – ְל ַה ְת ִחיל ֵהם לעשות‬ ָ ‫ ֲע‬. The meaning is: they will perceive many words but their soul or eye will not retain them. they will open their ears and will not close them. GK 67dd) ‫ יָ זְ ֖מוּ‬for ‫ .(‫וה ָסּמוְּך ) ְראוֹת‬ ַ (‫מּוּכ ָרת ) ָראֹה‬ ְ ‫ַה‬ .‫וזה ָתּ ֵמ ַהּ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra It is an irregular form. ‘Behold one people and one language for them all. opening the ears but he does not hear.‫ ָא ְמ ָרם‬:‫ כמו‬:‫ַה ִח ָלּם‬ . (‫ = זָ ַמם‬consider. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫( ָראוֹת‬Qere) ‫פּוֹעל ְבּ ֶא ָחד‬ ַ ‫ִמ ָלּה זָ ָרה ַבּ ֲעבוּר ִה ְת ַחבּרוּת ְשׁנֵ י ִמ ְשׁ ְק ֵלי ֵשׁם ַה‬ ‫ יִ ְראוּ ְדּ ָב ִרים ַר ִבּים ולא‬.‫ ולא יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ‬. it is a combination of the two infinitives.

Explanation of Rashi’s comment Rashi points out that in the word ‫( ַה ִח ָלּם‬Hiphil inf. sg. ‫חלל‬. Comment of Rashi on ‫ְל ָשׁ ְכ ִנ֣י‬ . 3 m. + sf. cstr. they speak. so here – they begin to do. ‫“ ָק ְטלוֹ‬his killing” may mean “slaughter committed by him” (subjective) or the “slaughter of him by another” (objective). (i. appendix to p 45). the suffix is subjective. they do).PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 215 Translation of Rashi’s comment ‫ ַה ִח ָלּם‬is infinitive. ‘they begin’) where the suffix acts as the subject of the verb. Only the suffix of the 1st pers.e. while the subjective use is always expressed by ‫( ָק ְט ִלי‬Silbermann p 263. cstr. like: ‫‘ ָא ְמ ָרם‬their speaking’. ‫וֹתם‬ ָ ‫‘ ֲעשׂ‬their doing’ (i. “their beginning”).e. That is. .‫תוֹכם‬ ָ ‫ ַעל ְמנָ ת ִל ְשׁכּוֹן ֲאנִ י ְב‬  Translation of Rashi in order that I may dwell in their midst. has two forms: ‫ ְל ָק ְט ֵלנִ י‬can mean only “to kill me”. form may be either subjective or objective. Rashi’s clarification arises from the fact that the suffix on an inf. 8 Exodus 29:46 ‫֧אתי א ָ ֹ֛תם ֵמ ֶ ֥א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ַ ֖ריִ ם‬ ִ ‫הוֹצ‬ ֵ ‫יהם ֲא ֶ֨שׁר‬ ֶ֔ ‫וְ יָ ְד ֗עוּ ִ ֣כּי ֲא ִנ֤י יְ הוָ ֙ה ֱא ֹ֣ל ֵה‬ ‫תוֹכם‬ ֑ ָ ‫ְל ָשׁ ְכ ִנ֣י ְב‬ And they shall know that I am the Lord their G-d who brought them out from the land of Egypt that I may dwell in their midst. This is comparable to ‫‘ ָא ְמ ָרם‬their speaking’ and ‫שׂוֹתם‬ ָ ‫‘ ֲע‬their doing’.pl.

Rashi also explains that the lamed before the inf.‫ָהיָ ה ְלָך‬ . Explanation of Rashi Rashi supplies the missing ‫ ָהיָ ה‬. sg.216 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Explanation of Rashi Rashi clarifies that the 1st pers. ‫ )נכה‬was explained as the gerundive use of inf. with omission of ‫ ָהיָ ה‬. suffix on the Qal inf. cstr. G-d brought them out of Egypt for the express purpose that they should lead such lives that He could dwell in their midst. ‫ ְל ָשׁ ְכנִ י‬. cstr. . 9 II Kings 13:19 ‫ד־כּ ֵלּ֑ה וְ ַע ָ֕תּה‬ ַ ‫ת־א ָ ֖רם ַע‬ ֲ ‫ית ֶא‬ ָ ‫אוֹ־שׁ ֙שׁ ְפּ ָע ִ֔מים ָ ֛אז ִה ִ ֥כּ‬ ֵ ‫ְל ַה ֨כּוֹת ָח ֵ ֤משׁ‬ ‫ת־א ָ ֽרם׃‬ ֲ ‫ָשׁ ֹ֥לשׁ ְפּ ָע ִ ֖מים ַתּ ֶ ֥כּה ֶא‬ You should have smitten five or six times. Then. you would have smitten Aram five or six times. then you would have smitten Aram until annihilation. cstr. + lamed. See no 28 above where ‫( ְל ַה ֨כּוֹת‬Hiphil.‫שׁוּעה ִה ְר ַכּ ְב ִתּי ידיך על ַה ֶקּ ֶשׁת‬ ָ ‫ֶשׁ ֲה ֵרי ְל ִסימן ְתּ‬ Translation of Rashi You should have (smitten). expresses ‘purpose’. Rashi’s comment supports this analysis. has a subjective sense. whereas now you will smite Aram only three times. Comment of Rashi on ‫ְל ַה ֨כּוֹת‬ ‫ית את ארם חמש או שש פעמים‬ ָ ‫ית ִה ִכּ‬ ָ ‫ ָאז ִאם כּך ָע ִשׂ‬. for as a sign of victory did I make your hands grasp the bow. if you had done so.

Explanation of Rashi We see from Rashi’s comment that he has no special term for the inf. if you will be like us. cstr. that every male be circumcised.‫להיות נִ מּוֹל‬ Translation of Rashi ‫מּל‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ ְל ִה‬means ‘to be circumcised’. cstr. cstr. ‫“ אות‬we will consent”. (Qal) but a passive inf. Note also ‫ – נֵ ֣אוֹת‬Niphal imperf. He labels the Qal inf. ‫ ִל ְפעוֹל‬and he labels the Niphal inf. ‘Hear (the claims) between your brothers and judge righteously’. cstr. 1 c. ‫ – נִ מּוֹל‬see GK 72ee). ֹ ֥ ‫ְל ִה‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫מּל‬ .PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 10 217 Genesis 34:15 ‫מּל ָל ֶכ֖ם ָכּל־זָ ָ ֽכר׃‬ ֹ ֥ ‫מנוּ ְל ִה‬ ֹ ֔ ‫ְך־בּ ֖ז ֹאת נֵ ֣אוֹת ָל ֶכ֑ם ִ ֚אם ִתּ ְהי֣ וּ ָכ‬ ְ ‫ַא‬ But on this (condition) will we consent to you. (Niphal). ‫מּל‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ ְל ִה‬is the Niphal inf.‫ אינו לשון ִל ְפעוֹל ֶא ָלּא לשון ְל ִה ָפּ ֵעל‬.pl. It is not an active inf. + lamed prefix from the root ‫מוּל‬ (Niphal perf. cstr. 11 Deuteronomy 1:16 ‫וּשׁ ַפ ְט ֶ ֣תּם‬ ְ ‫יכ ֙ם‬ ֶ ‫ין־א ֵח‬ ֲ ‫מ ַע ֵבּ‬ ֹ ֤ ‫מר ָשׁ‬ ֹ ֑ ‫יכם ָבּ ֵ ֥עת ַה ִ ֖הוא ֵלא‬ ֶ֔ ‫וָ ֲא ַצוֶּ ֙ה ֶאת־ ֣שׁ ֹ ְפ ֵט‬ ‫ֶ֔צ ֶדק‬ And I charged your judges at that time saying. cstr. ‫ ְל ִה ָפּ ֵעל‬. .

abs. See GK 113bb.‫או ָהיָ ה ֵכּן ַבּ ֲעבוּר אוֹת ַהגָּ רוֹן‬ . Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ָא ֥לוֹת‬ ‫פּוֹעל ַה ָסּמוְּך וְ ֶשׁ ֵאינוֹ ָסמוְּך‬ ַ ‫מוּר ֶכּ ֶבת ִמ ֵשּׁם ַה‬ ְ ‫ֶדּ ֶרְך זָ ָרה ְכּ ִאילוּ ַה ִמּ ָלּה‬ . that is. he suggests that the meaning is as if the inf. abs.‫ִשׁ ְמעוּ ָשׁמ ַֹע‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra ‫ָשׁמ ַֹע‬ is an infinitive form like: “Remember the Sabbath day” (Exodus 20:7). ‫ִשׁ ְמעוּ‬ ‫“( ָשׁמ ַֹע‬hear surely”) or ‫“( ָשׁמ ַֹע ִשׁ ְמעוּ‬surely hear”). abs. forms as elliptical. Ibn Ezra construes such inf. However. forms used for imperatives (“hear”. form either followed or came before the imperative form. but (the meaning is as if it was written) “surely hear” or “hear surely”.218 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ֹ ֤ ‫ָשׁ‬ Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫מ ַע‬ ‫יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת והוא ָשׁמ ַֹע ִשׁ ְמעוּ או‬-‫ זָ כוֹר ֶאת‬:‫ָשׁמ ַֹע ֵשׁם ַהפּ ַֹעל כמו‬ . they make covenants and justice sprouts like a poisonous herb on the furrows of the field. i. “remember”). Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra compares ‫ ָשׁמ ַֹע‬to ‫ – זָ כוֹר‬both Qal inf.e. 12 Hosea 10:4 ‫אשׁ ִמ ְשׁ ֔ ָפּט ַ ֖על ַתּ ְל ֵ ֥מי‬ ֙ ֹ ‫וּפ ַ ֤רח ָכּר‬ ָ ‫ִדּ ְבּ ֣רוּ ְד ָב ִ ֔רים ָא ֥לוֹת ָ ֖שׁוְ א ָכּ ֣ר ֹת ְבּ ִ ֑רית‬ ‫ָשׂ ָ ֽדי׃‬ They speak words. swearing falsely.

PART TWO: THE INFINITIVES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

219

Translation of Ibn Ezra

‫ָא ֥לוֹת‬

(= “swearing”) is a strange formation as if the word were a
combination of the inf. cstr. and the inf. abs. Or else it is so due to the
guttural letter (’aleph).
Explanation of Ibn Ezra

‫“ = ָא ָלה‬swear, curse”. The Qal inf. abs. is generally vocalised with a qames
under the first letter of the verb. However, the ot ending in the word ‫ָא ֥לוֹת‬
indicates that the infinitive here is construct and therefore the ’aleph should
be vocalised with a composite sheva, rather than a qamets (‫) ֲאלוֹת‬. The
correct form of the inf. abs. here would be as in Hosea 4:2: ‫ ָאֹלה‬. The
confusion may have arisen because the letter ’aleph is a guttural and
therefore does not tolerate the sheva which is expected in a Qal inf. cstr.
form from a strong verb, such as: ‫ ְשׁמוֹר‬from ‫ ָשׁ ַמר‬of which the inf. abs.
would be ‫ ָשׁמוֹר‬.

PART THREE: SYNTAX
FINAL OR PURPOSE CLAUSES
Final or purpose clauses are clauses which express the purpose or aim of an
action. The main methods for expressing PURPOSE in Classical Biblical
Hebrew may be summarized as follows:
1

Vav Conjunctive + Imperf. or Cohortative

2

Inf. cstr. + lamed

3

‫ ְל ַמ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ imperf.

4

‫ ְל ַמ ַען‬+ imperf.

5

‫ ְל ַמ ַען‬+ inf. cstr.

6

‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ imperf.

7

‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ imperf. (less usual)

8

‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬+ imperf.

9

‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬+ inf. cstr.

The main methods for expressing “negative purpose” in classical Biblical
Hebrew may be summarized as follows:
1

‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬+ inf. cstr.

2

‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬+ imperf. (only twice)

3

‫ ֲא ֶשׁר לֹא‬+ imperf.
221

222
4

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

‫ ְל ַמ ַען ) ֲא ֶשׁר( לֹא‬+ imperf.

Study the following biblical verses and discuss/analyse the various
methods for expressing “purpose” in Biblical Hebrew. See the
explanatory notes at the end of each verse.
I:

Vav Conjunctive + Imperf./Cohortative

1

Genesis 24:14 (Eliezer praying to G-d, describing the impending
encounter with Rebekah)

‫י־נ֤א ַכ ֵדּ ְ֙ך וְ ֶא ְשׁ ֶ֔תּה וְ ָא ְמ ָ ֣רה ְשׁ ֵ֔תה‬
ָ ‫יה ַה ִטּ‬
ָ֙ ‫וְ ָה ָי֣ה ַ ֽהנַּ ֲע ָ ֗ר ֲא ֶ֨שׁר א ַ ֹ֤מר ֵא ֶ ֙ל‬
֣ ָ ‫וְ גַ ם־גְּ ַמ ֶלּ֖יָך ַא ְשׁ ֶ ֑ קה א ָ ֹ֤תהּ ה ֙ ַֹכ ְח ָ֙תּ ְל ַע ְב ְדָּך֣ ְליִ ְצ ָ֔חק‬
‫ית‬
ָ ‫י־ע ִ ֥שׂ‬
ָ ‫וּבהּ ֵא ַ ֔דע ִכּ‬
‫ם־אד ִ ֹֽני׃‬
ֲ ‫ֶ ֖ח ֶסד ִע‬
And it shall be, the maiden to whom I shall say, ‘please incline your jar that
I may drink’, and she shall say, ‘drink, and I will also water your camels’, she
is the one You have appointed for Your servant Isaac and thereby I shall
know that You have shown kindness to my master.

‫וְ ֶא ְשׁ ֶ֔תּה‬

“that I may drink” (note also:

‫יכח‬

> Hiphil: decide, adjudge,

appoint).
2

Genesis 27:4 (Isaac to Esau)

‫יאה ִ ֖לּי וְ א ֵ ֹ֑כ ָלה ַבּ ֲע ֛בוּר‬
ָ ‫ה־לי ַמ ְט ַע ִ֜מּים ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָא ַ ֛ה ְב ִתּי וְ ָה ִ ֥ב‬
ִ ֨ ‫וַ ֲע ֵשׂ‬
‫ְתּ ָב ֶר ְכָך֥ נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ְבּ ֶ ֥ט ֶרם ָא ֽמוּת׃‬
And make for me tasty food such as I like and bring (it) to me that I may
eat, so that my soul may bless you before I die.

‫וְ א ֵֹכ ָ֑לה‬

“in order that I may eat” (vav conjunctive + cohortative 1 sg.

pausal;

‫)א ֵֹכ ָלה > א ְֹכ ָלה > א ַֹכל‬

PART THREE: SYNTAX

223

II: Infinitive Construct + lamed
3

I Kings 18:42 (after Elijah’s confrontation with the prophets of Baal
on Mount Carmel)

‫ל־ר ֹאשׁ ַה ַכּ ְר ֶמל֙ וַ יִּ גְ ַ ֣הר‬
֤ ‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֶ ֥לה ַא ְח ָ ֖אב ֶל ֱא ֣כֹל וְ ִל ְשׁ ֑תּוֹת וְ ֵ֨א ִל ָ֜יּהוּ ָע ֨ ָלה ֶא‬
‫ַ֔א ְר ָצה‬
And Ahab went up to eat and to drink and Elijah went up to the top of
Mount Carmel and crouched on the ground.

‫“ ֶל ֱא ֣כֹל וְ ִל ְשׁ ֑תּוֹת‬in order to eat and to drink”
4

Judges 3:1

‫הוה ְלנַ ֥סּוֹת ָ ֖בּם ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל‬
ָ֔ ְ‫֣יח י‬
ַ ‫שׁר ִה ִנּ‬
֣ ֶ ‫וְ ֵ ֤א ֶלּה ַהגּוֹיִ ֙ם ֲא‬
And these are the nations that the Lord left to test Israel by them.

‫“ ְלנַ ֥סּוֹת ָ ֖בּם‬to that He might test by them”
III:

‫ לְ ַמ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ imperf.

5

Genesis 18:19 (G-d is about to reveal to Abraham the impending
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah)

‫רוּ ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך‬
֙ ‫ת־בּיתוֹ֙ ַא ֲח ָ ֔ריו וְ ָ ֽשׁ ְמ‬
ֵ ‫ת־בּ ָנ֤יו וְ ֶא‬
ָ ‫ִ ֣כּי יְ ַד ְע ִ֗תּיו ְל ַמ ַען֩ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יְ ַצ ֶ ֜וּה ֶא‬
‫ל־א ְב ָר ָ֔הם ֵ ֥את‬
ַ ‫וּמ ְשׁ ָ ֑פּט ְל ַ֗מ ַען ָה ִ ֤ביא יְ הוָ ֙ה ַע‬
ִ ‫הוה ַל ֲע ֥שׂוֹת ְצ ָד ָ ֖ קה‬
ָ֔ ְ‫י‬
‫ר־דּ ֶ ֖בּר ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬
ִ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬
For I have known him that he may instruct his children and his household
after him and they will keep the way of the Lord to do righteousness and
justice in order that the Lord may bring on Abraham what He has promised
him.

224

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

‫ת־בּ ָנ֤יו‬
ָ ‫“ ְל ַמ ַען֩ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יְ ַצ ֶ ֜וּה ֶא‬in order that he may instruct his children”
IV:

֩‫ לְ ַמ ַען‬+ imperf.

6

Genesis 12:13 (Abram to Sarai in Egypt)

‫בוּרְך וְ ָחיְ ָ ֥תה נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ִבּגְ ָל ֵ ֽלְך׃‬
֔ ֵ ‫ב־לי ַב ֲע‬
֣ ִ ‫ֽיט‬
ַ ִ‫י־נ֖א ֲא ֣חֹ ִתי ָ ֑א ְתּ ְל ַ֙מ ַ ֙ען י‬
ָ ‫ִא ְמ ִר‬
Please say that you are my sister that it may go well with me for your sake
and my soul will live because of you.

‫ב־לי‬
֣ ִ ‫ֽיט‬
ַ ִ‫“ ְל ַ֙מ ַ ֙ען י‬in order that it may go well with me”
7

Genesis 27:25 (Isaac to Jacob)

‫א ְכ ָל ֙ה ִמ ֵצּ֣יד ְבּ ִ֔ני ְל ַ ֥מ ַען ְתּ ָ ֽב ֶר ְכָך֖ נַ ְפ ִ ֑שׁי‬
ֹ ֽ ְ‫אמר ַה ִגּ ָ֤שׁה ִ ֙לּי ו‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֗יּ‬
And he said, ‘bring (it) near to me and let me eat of my son’s game, that my
soul may bless you’.

‫“ ְל ַ ֥מ ַען ְתּ ָ ֽב ֶר ְכָך֖ נַ ְפ ִ ֑שׁי‬in order that my soul may bless you”
V:

‫ לְ ַמ ַען‬+ inf. cstr.

8

Genesis 37:22 (Reuben to his brothers concerning Joseph)

‫ל־ה ֤בּוֹר ַהזֶּ ֙ה‬
ַ ‫ם ַה ְשׁ ִ ֣ליכוּ א ֹ֗תוֹ ֶא‬
֒ ‫כוּ־ד‬
ָ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְפּ‬
ִ ‫אוּב֮ן ַא‬
ֵ ‫אמר ֲא ֵל ֶ ֣הם ְר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬
‫יבוֹ‬
֖ ‫חוּ־בוֹ ְל ַ֗מ ַען ַה ִ ֤צּיל אֹתוֹ֙ ִמיָּ ָ ֔דם ַל ֲה ִשׁ‬
֑ ‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְל‬
ִ ‫שׁר ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ֔בּר וְ ָי֖ד ַא‬
֣ ֶ ‫ֲא‬
‫ל־א ִ ֽביו׃‬
ָ ‫ֶא‬
And Reuben said to them, ‘do not shed blood, cast him into this pit which
is in the wilderness, and do not lay a hand on him’, in order to save him
from their hand, to bring him back to his father.

֙‫“ ְל ַ֗מ ַען ַה ִ ֤צּיל אֹתוֹ‬in order to save him” (‫ ;נצל‬Hiphil)

PART THREE: SYNTAX
9

225

Amos 2:7

‫ת־שׁם ָק ְד ִ ֽשׁי׃‬
֥ ֵ ‫ל־הנַּ ֲע ָ ֔רה ְל ַ ֥מ ַען ַח ֵלּ֖ל ֶא‬
ֽ ַ ‫כוּ ֶא‬
֙ ‫וְ ִ ֣אישׁ וְ ָא ִ֗ביו ֵי ְֽל‬
A man and his father go to the (same) girl in order to profane My holy
name.

‫“ ְל ַ ֥מ ַען ַח ֵלּ֖ל‬in order to profane” (‫ ;חלל‬Piel)
VI:

‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬+imperf.

10

Deuteronomy 4:10

‫ת־דּ ָב ָ ֑רי ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יִ ְל ְמ ֜דוּן ְליִ ְר ָ ֣אה א ִֹ֗תי‬
ְ ‫ת־ה ֔ ָעם וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵ ֖עם ֶא‬
ָ ‫ל־לי ֶא‬
֙ ִ ‫ַה ְק ֶה‬
Gather the people to Me that I may let them hear My words, in order that
they may learn to fear Me.

‫“ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יִ ְל ְמ ֜דוּן‬in order that they may learn”. (Note ‫“ וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵ ֖עם‬in order
that I may let them hear”; vav conjunctive + imperf. Hiphil ‫ שׁמע‬+ sf. 3
m.pl.).
11

Joshua 3:7

‫הוֹשׁ ַע ַהיּ֣ וֹם ַה ֶ֗זּה ָא ֵחל֙ גַּ ֶדּ ְל ָ֔ך ְבּ ֵע ֵינ֖י ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל‬
ֻ֔ ְ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶאל־י‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫֛יתי ִעם־מ ֶ ֹ֖שׁה ֶא ְה ֶי֥ה ִע ָ ֽמְּך׃‬
ִ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ֵ ֽי ְ ד ֔עוּן ִ֗כּי ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָה ִי‬
And the Lord said to Joshua, ‘this day I will begin to exalt you in the eyes of
all Israel, so that they shall know that I will be with you as I was with
Moses.

‫“ ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ֵ ֽי ְ ד ֔עוּן‬so that they shall know”

in order that he may bless you before he dies. Genesis 27:4 (Isaac to Esau) ‫יאה ִ ֖לּי וְ א ֵֹכ ָ֑לה ַבּ ֲע ֛בוּר‬ ָ ‫ה־לי ַמ ְט ַע ִ֜מּים ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָא ַ ֛ה ְב ִתּי וְ ָה ִ ֥ב‬ ִ ֨ ‫וַ ֲע ֵשׂ‬ ‫ְתּ ָב ֶר ְכָך֥ נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי ְבּ ֶ ֥ט ֶרם ָא ֽמוּת׃‬ And make for me tasty food such as I like and bring (it) to me that I may eat. so that my soul may bless you before I die. ‫“ ַבּ ֲע ֛בוּר ְתּ ָב ֶר ְכָך֥ נַ ְפ ִ ֖שׁי‬so that my soul may bless you” 14 Exodus 19:9 (preparing for Mount Sinai) ‫הוה ֶאל־מ ֶֹ֗שׁה ִה ֵ֨נּה ָאנ ִֹ֜כי ָ ֣בּא ֵא ֶל ֮יָך ְבּ ַע֣ב ֶ ֽה ָענָ ן֒ ַבּ ֲע ֞בוּר‬ ָ֜ ְ‫אמר י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫עוֹל֑ם‬ ָ ‫ם־בָּך֖ יַ ֲא ִ ֣מינוּ ְל‬ ְ ַ‫יִ ְשׁ ַ ֤מע ָה ָע ֙ם ְבּ ַד ְבּ ִ ֣רי ִע ָ֔מְּך וְ ג‬ And the Lord said to Moses. in order that the people may hear when I speak with you and also in you will they believe for ever’. ‫“ ַבּ ֲע ֞בוּר יִ ְשׁ ַ ֤מע ָה ָע ֙ם‬in order that the people may hear” .226 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW VII: ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ 12 ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬+ imperf. (less usual) Genesis 27:10 (Rebekah to Jacob) ‫מוֹתוֹ׃‬ ֽ ‫את ְל ָא ִ ֖ביָך וְ ָא ָכ֑ל ַבּ ֲע ֻב֛ר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָיְב ֶר ְכָך֖ ִל ְפ ֵנ֥י‬ ֥ ָ ‫וְ ֵה ֵב‬ And you will bring (it) to your father and he will eat. ֖‫“ ַבּ ֲע ֻב֛ר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָיְב ֶר ְכָך‬in order that he may bless you” VIII: 13 ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬+ imperf. ‘behold I will come to you in a thick cloud.

‫וּל ַ ֛מ ַען ַס ֵ ֥פּר‬ ְ ) 16 II Samuel 18:18 ‫ק־ה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך‬ ַ ‫שׁר ְבּ ֵ ֽע ֶמ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ת־מ ֙ ֶצּ ֶב ֙ת ֲא‬ ַ ‫ב־לוֹ ְב ַחיָּ ו ] ְב ַחיָּ ֙יו[ ֶא‬ ֤ ‫וְ ַא ְב ָשׁ ֹ֣לם ָל ַ ֗קח וַ יַּ ֶצּ‬ ‫ין־לי ֵ֔בן ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר ַהזְ ִ ֣כּיר ְשׁ ִ ֑מי‬ ֣ ִ ‫ִ ֤כּי ָא ַמ ֙ר ֵ ֽא‬ And Absalom had taken. ‫“ ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר ַהזְ ִ ֣כּיר ְשׁ ִ ֑מי‬to keep my name in remembrance” (note: ‫ > נצב‬Hiphil: ‫“ = ִה ִצּיב‬set up” > n. cstr. ‘I have no son to keep my name in remembrance’. ‫ ַמ ֶצּ ֶבת‬/‫“ = ַמ ֵצּ ָבה‬pillar”) X: Some rare usages in late biblical Hebrew 17 Ecclesiastes 3:14 ‫עוֹלם ָע ָל ֙יו ֵ ֣אין‬ ָ ֔ ‫ֹלה ֙ים ֚הוּא יִ ְה ֶי ֣ה ְל‬ ִ ‫ל־א ֶ֨שׁר יַ ֲע ֶ ֤שׂה ָה ֱא‬ ֲ ‫יָ ַ ֗ד ְע ִתּי ֠ ִכּי ָכּ‬ ֣ ִ ‫וּמ ֶ ֖מּנּוּ ֵ ֣אין ִלגְ ֑ר ֹ ַע וְ ָה ֱא‬ ‫ֹלהים ָע ָ֔שׂה ֶשׁ ִיּ ְֽ ר ֖אוּ ִמ ְלּ ָפ ָנֽיו׃‬ ִ ‫הוֹסיף‬ ִ֔ ‫ְל‬ . in order to show you My power and in order to recount My Name in all the land. for he said. (note also ‫ ְל ַמ ַען‬+ inf. cstr. in his lifetime. ‫ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר ַה ְרא ְֹתָך֣ ֶאת־כּ ִ ֹ֑חי‬ “in order to show you My power” (‫. Piel. 15 Exodus 9:16 227 ‫וּל ַ ֛מ ַען ַס ֵ ֥פּר‬ ְ ‫את ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ִ֔תּיָך ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר ַה ְרא ְֹתָך֣ ֶאת־כּ ִ ֹ֑חי‬ ֙ ֹ ‫אוּלם ַבּ ֲע ֥בוּר ז‬ ָ ֗ ְ‫ו‬ ‫ל־ה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ָ ‫ְשׁ ִ ֖מי ְבּ ָכ‬ Nevertheless I have caused you to stand for this purpose.PART THREE: SYNTAX IX: ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬+ inf. and set up for himself the pillar which is in the Valley of the King.f.ראה‬ Hiphil).

to express negative purpose. one cannot add to it and one cannot diminish it. reflect. to the end that man should find nothing after Him. cstr. but in a day of adversity. . so that man should find no fault with Him). ‫יִמ ָ ֧צא ָ ֽה ָא ָ ֛דם‬ ְ ‫ל־דּ ְב ַ ֗רת ֶשׁ ֨לּ ֹא‬ ִ ‫“ ַע‬so that man may not find” (‫ֶשׁ‬ ‫ ַעל ִדּ ְב ַרת‬+ imperf.e.f. ‫) ַהכּוֹת‬ ‫ > נכה‬Hiphil inf. manner). 18 Ecclesiastes 7:14 ‫ת־ז֤ה ְל ֻע ַמּת־זֶ ֙ה ָע ָ ֣שׂה‬ ֶ ‫וּבי֥ וֹם ָר ָ ֖עה ְר ֵ ֑אה ַגּ֣ם ֶא‬ ְ ‫טוֹב ֙ה ֱהֵי ֣ה ְב ֔טוֹב‬ ָ ‫ְבּי֤ וֹם‬ ‫וּמה׃‬ ָ ‫יִמ ָ ֧צא ָ ֽה ָא ָ ֛דם ַא ֲח ָ ֖ריו ְמ ֽא‬ ְ ‫ל־דּ ְב ַ ֗רת ֶשׁ ֨לּ ֹא‬ ִ ‫ֹלהים ַע‬ ִ֔ ‫ָ ֽה ֱא‬ In a day of prosperity be joyful. ‫“ ֶשׁ ִיּ ְֽ ר ֖אוּ ִמ ְלּ ָפ ָנֽיו‬that (men) should fear before Him”. cstr. lest anyone who found him should smite him. = cause.) (‫ ֶשׁ‬is synonymous with ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬but in usage limited to late Hebrew and passages with North Palestinian colouring. ‫“ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ַהכּוֹת־א ֹ֖תוֹ‬in order that (noone) should smite him” (use of ‫ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי‬+ inf. reason. XI: Negative purpose 19 Genesis 4:15 ‫הו֤ה ְל ַ ֙קיִ ֙ן ֔אוֹת ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ַהכּוֹת־א ֹ֖תוֹ ָכּל־מ ְֹצ ֽאוֹ׃‬ ָ ְ‫וַ ָ֨יּ ֶשׂם י‬ And the Lord put a mark on Cain. (i.) (‫ ִדּ ְב ָרה‬n. G-d has made the one corresponding to the other.228 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW I know that whatever G-d does it will be forever. see BDB pp 979-80). and G-d has brought it to pass that (men) should fear before Him. (‫ ֶשׁ‬+ imperf.

22 Exodus 20:17 ‫בוּר נַ ֣סּוֹת ֶא ְת ֶ֔כם ָ ֖בּא‬ ֙ ‫ל־תּ ָירא ֒וּ ִ֗כּי ְל ַ ֽב ֲע‬ ִ ‫ל־ה ָע ֮ם ַא‬ ָ ‫אמר מ ֶ ֹ֣שׁה ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫ל־פּנֵ ֶיכ֖ם ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ֶת ֱח ָ ֽטאוּ׃‬ ְ ‫וּב ֲע ֗בוּר ִתּ ְה ֶי֧ה יִ ְר ָא ֛תוֹ ַע‬ ַ ‫ֹלהים‬ ֑ ִ ‫ָה ֱא‬ And Moses said to the people. (‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬+ imperf. ‫)נתן‬ 21 II Kings 23:10 (reign of Josiah. cstr. ֙ ‫“ ְל ַ ֽב ֲע‬in order to test”. ‫)עבר‬. Piel inf. widow of his older brother. ‫“ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי ֶת ֱח ָ ֽטאוּ‬so that you do not sin”. Er. (note also: ‫בוּר נַ ֣סּוֹת‬ . for G-d has come in order to test you and in order that the fear of Him should be on your faces. so that no one might cause his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech. Er. cstr. so as not to give seed to his brother. tepat = “fireplace”). Onan and Shelah were sons of Judah and Bat-Shua) ‫ן־ז ַ רע ְל ָא ִ ֽחיו׃‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ל־א ֶשׁת ָא ִח ֙יו וְ ִשׁ ֵ ֣חת ַ֔א ְר ָצה ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי נְ ָת‬ ֤ ֵ ‫ם־בּא ֶא‬ ָ֨ ‫וְ ָה ָ֞יה ִא‬ And it was. whenever he went in to his brother’s wife. ‫“ ְל ִב ְל ִ֗תּי ְל ַה ֲע ִ֨ביר‬so that no one might cause to pass through” (‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬+ inf. he destroyed (his seed) on the ground. only twice. so that you do not sin’. a righteous king of Judah) ‫תּ ֶפת ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ְבּ ֵ ֣גי ְבנֵ י ] ֶבן־[ ִה ֹ֑נּם ְל ִב ְל ִ֗תּי ְל ַה ֲע ִ֨ביר ִ֜אישׁ‬ ֹ ֔ ‫ת־ה‬ ַ ‫וְ ִט ֵ ֣מּא ֶא‬ ‫מּ ֶלְך׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ת־בּ ֛תּוֹ ָבּ ֵ ֖אשׁ ַל‬ ִ ‫ת־בּנ֧ וֹ וְ ֶא‬ ְ ‫ֶא‬ And he defiled Tophet which is in the valley of Ben-Hinnom. It may also be from an Aramaic word.PART THREE: SYNTAX 20 229 Genesis 38:9 (Onan was unwilling to perform levirate duty for Tamar. (Joseph Kara suggests that Tophet = “pit”. here + II Sam 14:14). Qal. ‘do not fear. ‫ן־ז ַ רע‬ ֖ ֶ ‫“ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֥תּי נְ ָת‬so as not to give seed” (‫ ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬+ inf. Hiphil + lamed.

‫“ = ָה ָבה‬come now”. that your nakedness may not be exposed upon it. 23 ‫וּב ֲע ֗בוּר ִתּ ְה ֶי֧ה‬ ַ “and in order that the fear of Him Genesis 11:7 ‫ָ ֚ה ָבה ֽנ ְֵר ָ ֔דה וְ נָ ְב ָ ֥לה ָ ֖שׁם ְשׂ ָפ ָ ֑תם ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ֣ל ֹא יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֔עוּ ִ ֖אישׁ ְשׂ ַ ֥פת ֵר ֵ ֽעהוּ׃‬ Come.). ‫יִ ְר ָא ֛תוֹ . 25 may not be exposed” Deuteronomy 20:18 ‫וֹעב ָֹ֔תם‬ ֲ ‫ְל ַ֗מ ַען ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ֽל ֹא־יְ ַל ְמּ ֤דוּ ֶא ְת ֶכ ֙ם ַל ֲע ֔שׂוֹת ְכּכֹל֙ ֽתּ‬ In order that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominations. ‫ . (‫ֽל ֹא‬ ‫ ְל ַ֗מ ַען ֲא ֶ֨שׁר‬+ imperf.גלה‬Niphal imperf. confuse > Qal imperf. ‫= נָ ְב ָלה‬ ‫נָ ב ָֹלּה‬. ֖‫א־תגָּ ֶ ֥לה ֶע ְרוָ ְתָך‬ ִ ֹ ‫“ ֲא ֶ ֛שׁר ֽל‬that your nakedness (‫ ֲא ֶ ֛שׁר ֽל ֹא‬+ imperf. so that they shall not understand one another’s speech there. mix.). ‫> ַהב‬ emphatic imperat.)נסה‬ should be”). let us go down and confound their speech there. And for ‫ ָה ָבה‬see BDB p 396. ‫“ ְל ַ֗מ ַען ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ֽל ֹא־יְ ַל ְמּ ֤דוּ ֶא ְת ֶכ ֙ם‬in order that they may not teach you”.230 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW cstr. 24 Exodus 24:26 ‫א־תגָּ ֶ ֥לה ֶע ְרוָ ְתָך֖ ָע ָ ֽליו׃‬ ִ ֹ ‫ל־מזְ ְבּ ִ ֑חי ֲא ֶ ֛שׁר ֽל‬ ִ ‫א־ת ֲע ֶ ֥לה ְב ַמ ֲע ֹ֖לת ַ ֽע‬ ַ ֹ ‫וְ ֽל‬ Do not ascent My altar by steps. ‫“ יָ ַהב‬give” > Qal imperat. ‫“ ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ֣ל ֹא יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֔עוּ‬so that they shall not undersand” (‫ ֲא ֶשׁר לֹא‬+ imperf.pl.) . 1 c. Note also ‫ = ָבּ ַלל‬mingle.

in order that I might not sin against You. .PART THREE: SYNTAX 26 231 Psalm 119:11 ‫א־לְך׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ְ ֭בּ ִל ִבּי ָצ ַ ֣פנְ ִתּי ִא ְמ ָר ֶ ֑תָך ְ֝ל ַ֗מ ַען ֣ל ֹא ֶ ֽא ֱח ָט‬ In my heart I have hidden Your word. ( ‫ְ֝ל ַ֗מ ַען‬ ‫ ֣ל ֹא‬+ imperf. but in usage was limited to late biblical Hebrew and passages with North Palestinian colouring (BDB pp 979-980). ‫א־לְך‬ ֽ ָ ‫“ ְ֝ל ַ֗מ ַען ֣ל ֹא ֶ ֽא ֱח ָט‬In order that I might not sin against You”. the various other methods for expressing ‘purpose’ in biblical Hebrew were superseded in rabbinic Hebrew by expressions such as: ‫ְכּ ֵדי ְל‬ + infinitive ‫ַעל ְמנָ ת‬ + infinitive ‫ֶשׁ‬ imperfect + ‫ְכּ ֵדי ֶשׁ‬ ‫ִבּ ְשׁ ִביל ֶשׁ‬ ‫ַעל ְמנָ ת ֶשׁ‬ The particle ‫ ֶשׁ‬does appear in biblical Hebrew. as synonymous with ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬. However. both biblical Hebrew and post-biblical Hebrew make use of lamed + infinitive. In order to express ‘purpose’.) The biblical origins of rabbinic Hebrew words for expressing purpose.

enough”. see below). For ‫ ַדּי‬+ suffix. II Chron 30:3. said the Lord of Hosts if I will not open for you the windows of heaven and pour out for you blessing immeasurable (lit. see: Esther 1:18. ‫הוֹתר‬ ֽ ֵ “shewed excess. ‫ ֵדּי‬. see also: Jeremiah 49:9. had more than enough”). . abs. (‫ ַדּי‬is a substantive meaning “sufficiency. It occurs in the absolute state only three times.232 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Study the following biblical verses in order to trace the biblical origins of: ‫ ִבּ ְשׁ ִביל‬/‫ ַעל ְמנָ ת‬/‫ְכּ ֵדי‬ 1 Malachi 3:10 ‫וּב ָחנ֤ וּנִ י‬ ְ ‫יתי‬ ִ֔ ‫יהי ֶ֙ט ֶר ֙ף ְבּ ֵב‬ ֥ ִ ִ‫אוֹצר ו‬ ָ֗ ‫ל־בּ֣ית ָה‬ ֵ ‫ל־ה ַמּ ֲע ֵ֜שׂר ֶא‬ ֽ ַ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ָה ִ֨ביאוּ ֶא‬ ‫ם־ל ֹא ֶא ְפ ַ ֣תּח ָל ֶ֗כם ֵ ֚את ֲא ֻר ֣בּוֹת‬ ֧ ‫הו֣ה ְצ ָב ֑אוֹת ִא‬ ָ ְ‫נָ ֙א ָבּ ֔ז ֹאת ָא ַ ֖מר י‬ ‫י־די׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ד־בּ ִל‬ ְ ‫ַה ָשּׁ ַ֔מיִ ם וַ ֲה ִריק ִ ֹ֥תי ָל ֶכ֛ם ְבּ ָר ָ ֖כה ַע‬ Bring all the tithe into the storehouse and let there be food in My House and put Me to the test with this. until there is not sufficiency). occurring here in pause. (Note also: ‫ > יתר‬Hiphil inf. The construct state. (‫ ַד ָיּ֛ם‬means literally “their sufficiency”. Proverbs 25:16). 2 Exodus 36:7 (The building of the Tabernacle) ‫הוֹתר׃‬ ֽ ֵ ְ‫אכה ַל ֲע ֣שׂוֹת א ָ ֹ֑תהּ ו‬ ֖ ָ ‫ל־ה ְמּ ָל‬ ַ ‫אכה ָהיְ ָ ֥תה ַד ָיּ֛ם ְל ָכ‬ ָ֗ ‫וְ ַה ְמּ ָל‬ For the material they had was sufficient for all the work to do it. and too much. occurs five times and ‫ ַדּי‬+ suffix occurs four times. Obadiah v 5.

m. = “pledge. (‫ ְכּ ֵ ֥די גְ ֻא ָלּ ֽתוֹ‬means literally “according to the sufficiency of his redemption”. Isaiah 40:16.e. 5 Deuteronomy 25:2 (against excessive punishment) ‫ם־בּן ַה ֖כּוֹת ָה ָר ָ ֑שׁע וְ ִה ִפּ ֤ילוֹ ַהשּׁ ֵֹפ ֙ט וְ ִה ָכּ֣הוּ ְל ָפ ֔ ָניו ְכּ ֵ ֥די ִר ְשׁ ָע ֖תוֹ‬ ֥ ִ ‫וְ ָה ָי֛ה ִא‬ ‫ְבּ ִמ ְס ָ ֽפּר׃‬ . abs. 25:28. see also: Leviticus 5:7. but he has sufficient means. ‫“ = ְכּ ֵדי‬according to the sufficiency of” occurs four times in the Hebrew Bible. article pledged”. a denominative verb derived from ‫ ֲעבוֹט‬n. + Hiphil imperf. ‫יטנּוּ‬ ֶ֔ ‫וְ ַה ֲע ֵב ֙ט ַתּ ֲע ִב‬. The Hiphil verb means “cause to give a pledge. has enough). see the other three examples below. lend”). one is able. and he has acquired enough for his redemption. 12:8. Note also: ‫> נשׂג‬ Hiphil: ‫“ = ִה ִשּׂיג‬reach. i. + suffix. Note also the Hiphil inf. overtake” > ‫“ = ִה ִשּׂיגָ ה יָ דוֹ‬one’s hand has reached”. 4 Leviticus 25:26 (redemption of land) ‫וּמ ָ ֖צא ְכּ ֵ ֥די גְ ֻא ָלּ ֽתוֹ׃‬ ָ ‫ה־לּוֹ גּ ֵ ֹ֑אל וְ ִה ִ ֣שּׂיגָ ה יָ ֔דוֹ‬ ֖ ֶ‫וְ ִ֕אישׁ ִ ֛כּי ֥ל ֹא יִ ְֽהי‬ If a man has no redeemer. ‫ ֵ ֚דּי ַמ ְחס ֹ֔רוֹ‬means literally “the sufficiency of his need”. (Construct ‫ ֵדּי‬occurs by itself five times.PART THREE: SYNTAX 3 233 Deuteronomy 15:8 (Israelite warned against letting the approach of the Jubilee Year hinder him from helping the poor) ‫יטנּוּ ֵ ֚דּי ַמ ְחס ֹ֔רוֹ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יֶ ְח ַ ֖סר‬ ֶ֔ ‫ת ַח ִתּ ְפ ַ ֛תּח ֶאת־יָ ְדָך֖ ֑לוֹ וְ ַה ֲע ֵב ֙ט ַתּ ֲע ִב‬ ֹ ֧ ‫י־פ‬ ָ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫ֽלוֹ׃‬ But you shall open your hand wide to him and you shall surely lend him sufficient for his need that he lacks.

4: Jeremiah 13:25. 8 Psalm 16:5 ‫גּוֹר ִ ֽלי׃‬ ָ ‫תּוֹמיְך‬ ֥ ִ ‫כוֹסי ַ֝א ָ֗תּה‬ ֑ ִ ְ‫ת־ח ְל ִ ֥ קי ו‬ ֶ ָ‫ֽהוה ְמנ‬ ָ֗ ְ‫י‬ The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup. 63:11. (‫ ְכּ ֵ ֥די ִר ְשׁ ָע ֖תוֹ‬means literally “according to the sufficiency of his wickedness”). 7 Nehemiah 5:8 (Nehemiah rebukes the creditors) ‫הוּדים ַהנִּ ְמ ָכּ ִ ֤רים ַלגּוֹיִ ֙ם ְכּ ֵ ֣די‬ ֜ ִ ְ‫ת־א ֵ֨חינוּ ַהיּ‬ ַ ‫וָ א ְֹמ ָ ֣רה ָל ֶ֗הם ֲא ַנ ְ֣חנוּ ָ֠קנִ ינוּ ֶא‬ ‫ָ֔בנוּ‬ And I said to them. ‫ ְמנָ ת‬occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible and always = “portion”. you grasp (uphold) my lot. = portion. See GK 95n: “A few (aramaising) feminines from lamed-hey stems are found . (‫ = ְכּ ֵ ֣די ָ֔בנוּ‬lit.234 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And it shall be. ‘we have bought (back) our Jewish brothers who were sold to the nations according to our ability’. “according to the sufficiency of what is in us”). 6 Judges 6:5 (the Midianite oppression and call to Gideon) ‫י־א ְר ֶבּ ֙ה ָל ֔ר ֹב‬ ַ ‫וּבאוּ[ ְכ ֵ ֽד‬ ֤ ָ ] ‫יהם יָ בֹאוּ‬ ֶ֗ ‫יהם יַ ֲע ֜לוּ וְ ָא ֳה ֵל‬ ֶ֨ ֵ‫וּמ ְקנ‬ ִ ‫ִ֡כּי ֵה ֩ם‬ For they would come up with their livestock and their tents and they would come like locusts for multitude. (‫י־א ְר ֶבּ ֙ה ָל ֔ר ֹב‬ ַ ‫ ְכ ֵ ֽד‬means literally “according to the abundance of the locust in multitude”). II Chron 31:3. see: Psalm 11:6. (‫ ְמנָ ת‬n. if the guilty one is liable for flogging. the judge shall make him lie down and one shall smite him in his presence in accordance with his crime in number.f.

= “end”.) 9 Jeremiah 18:15 ‫עוֹלם ָל ֶל ֶ֣כת‬ ָ ֔ ‫יה ֙ם ְשׁ ִב ֵיל֣י‬ ֶ ‫י־שׁ ֵכ ֻ ֥חנִ י ַע ִ ֖מּי ַל ָ ֣שּׁוְ א יְ ַק ֵ ֑טּרוּ וַ יַּ ְכ ִשׁ ֤לוּם ְבּ ַד ְר ֵכ‬ ְ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ ‫לוּלה׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫נְ ִת ֔יבוֹת ֶ ֖דּ ֶרְך ֥ל ֹא ְס‬ For My people have forgotten Me.g. 2 He revealed to me a word that I might be comforted and showed me visions that I might not again be sorrowful. Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully pointed biblical Hebrew.” e. occurs only twice in the Hebrew Bible. path”. 3 Let me be a little while so that I may beseech G-d that He might have compassion and pity me. they make them to stumble) in their ways. The sentences contain ‘purpose’ clauses which should be rendered with as great a variety of constructions as possible.f. Suggested vocabulary and translations will be found at the end.PART THREE: SYNTAX 235 ֥ ִ instead of with the ending ath. (‫“ = ְשׁ ִביל‬way. cast up). 4 Give me from the tree of life that I might eat before I am cast out. see also Psalm 77:20). a way not levelled (lit. Annotate your translations to explain the constructions you have used. the ancient paths. . they burn incense to Vanity and have been made to stumble (lit.) (Note also ‫תּוֹמיְך‬ ‫תּוֹמְך‬ ֵ is an anomaly. 1 They will come to Jerusalem to take possession of the land of Abraham and live there for ever in safety. to walk in bypaths. ‫ ְק ָצת‬n. for I alone have sinned.

i. see also BDB p 292: ‫“ = ָח ַדל‬cease”.g.+ vav consec. see Exod 14:12.236 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Notes for ‘purpose’ sentences 1 ‫עוֹלם‬ ָ ‫ ֶא ֶרץ ַא ְב ָר ָהם ַבּ ֲעבוּר יֵ ְשׁבוּ ָשׁם ְל‬-‫רוּשׁ ַליְ ָמה ָל ֶר ֶשׁת ֶאת‬ ָ ְ‫יָ בֹאוּ י‬ .e. 9:14. your young men shall see visions”. ‫“ = ַמ ְראוֹת‬visions”. Gen 27:4. For “be sorrowful”.f.‫ָל ֶב ַטח‬ 2 For “visions”. pain. let go” > imperative m.‫אתי‬ ִ ‫יחנֵּ נִ י ִכּי ֲאנִ י ְל ַב ִדּי ָח ָט‬ ָ ִ‫ֹלקים וִ ַיר ֵחם א ִֹתי )וִ ַיר ֲח ֵמנִ י( ו‬ 4 See BDB p 382: ‫ ְבּ ֶט ֶרם‬/‫( ֶט ֶרם‬mostly + imperf.(‫למ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר לֹא יֵ ֶצר ִלי עוֹד‬ 3 For “let me be”. and see I Chron 4:10: ‫“ ְל ִב ְל ִ ֣תּי ָע ְצ ִ ֑בּי‬so that I should not be saddened”. See also BDB p 780: ‫“ = ָע ַצב‬hurt. > pl. e. and see Gen 32:8: ‫אד וַ ֵיּ ֶ֣צר ֑לוֹ‬ ֹ ֖ ‫ירא יַ ֲע ֛קֹב ְמ‬ ֧ ָ ִ‫“ וַ יּ‬and Jacob was greatly afraid and he was distressed”.‫ֶאגָּ ֵרשׁ‬ .sg. > pl. ‫“ = וַ יֵּ ֶצר לוֹ‬and it was narrow for him”. see BDB p 951: ‫“ = ָר ָפה‬sink. see BDB p 864: ‫( ָצ ַרר‬I) = “be narrow etc” > Qal imperf. relax” > Hiphil: “let drop. grieve”. see Gen 6:6: ‫ל־ל ֽבּוֹ‬ ִ ‫“ וַ יִּ ְת ַע ֵצּ֖ב ֶא‬and he was grieved to his heart” (see also Gen 34:7). see. and see BDB p 302: ‫ ִחזָּ יוֹן > ָחזָ ה‬n. ‫ֵתּן ִלי ֵמ ֵעץ ַה ַחיִּ ים ְל ַמ ַען א ַֹכל ֶט ֶרם‬ . 37:18. “he was in distress”. and see Joel 3:1: ‫יכם ֶחזְ י ֹנ֖ וֹת יִ ְר ֽאוּ׃‬ ֶ֔ ‫ֹלמוּן ַבּ ֣ח ֵוּר‬ ֔ ‫ֹלמוֹת יַ ֲח‬ ֣ ‫יכ ֙ם ֲח‬ ֶ ֵ‫“ זִ ְקנ‬your old men shall dream dreams. ‫ ֶא ְת ַפּ ֵלּל‬/‫יוֹמיִ ם( ְל ַמ ַען ֶא ְת ַחנֵּ ן‬ ַ ‫ֶה ֶרף ִמ ֶמּנִּ י ) ֲח ַדל ִמ ֶמּנִּ י( ֶרגַ ע )יוֹם אוֹ‬ ִ ‫ֶאל ָה ֱא‬ . ‫ ֶה ֶרף‬/‫ ַה ְר ֵפּה‬see Deut. see BDB p 909: ‫ ַמ ְר ָאה‬n.m. before that”. ‫“ = ֶחזְ י ֹנוֹת‬visions”.) = “not yet. ‫גָּ ָלה )וַ יְ גַ ל( ִלי ָדּ ָבר ְל ַמ ַען ֶאנָּ ֵחם וַ יַּ ְר ֵאנִ י ֶחזְ י ֹנוֹת ) ַמ ְראוֹת( ְל ִב ְל ִתּי‬ ַ ) ‫ָע ְצ ִבּי עוֹד‬ .

(ii) Highlighting in initial position in each clause the two persons or entities which are contrasted. (iii) Use of antonyms (opposites). antonyms and contrast (1-5) 1 Genesis 37:11 ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֽבר׃‬ ַ ‫אוּ־בוֹ ֶא ָ ֑חיו וְ ָא ִ ֖ביו ָשׁ ַ ֥מר ֶא‬ ֖ ְ‫וַ יְ ַקנ‬ And his brothers envied him. while in the second clause.PART THREE: SYNTAX 237 ANTITHESIS IN BIBLICAL HEBREW In English. ‫אוּלם‬ and ‫ ִכּי ִאם‬after negation).g. nevertheless. explanatory notes are provided with each verse. There are. Study the following biblical verses and analyse the various methods used to express antithesis and/or contrast. however. while. which is best translated by English “but”. Biblical Hebrew lacks this variety and often uses vav. The two clauses are connected by simple vav. (iv) Negation of first or second clause. yet. as demonstrated below. In the first clause. but his father guarded the matter. Note the chiastic structure of this verse. the verb precedes the subject (BA). antithesis and contrast are expressed by a variety of adversative particles (but. other devices in biblical Hebrew which may contribute to the expression of antithesis and contrast. on the other hand). I: Chiasmus. although other conjunctions ָ ְ‫ו‬/‫אוּלם‬ ָ /‫ ַאְך‬/ and also ‫ִכּי‬ are also used. as follows: (i) Chiasmus (the reversal in the second clause of the word order in the first clause). (e. the subject precedes the verb (AB). however. .

the contrasting elements are highlighted in initial position in each clause (‫“ ֵבּ֣ן ָ ֭ח ָכם‬a wise son” in the first clause. 3 Genesis 13:12 ‫ץ־כּ ָנ ַ֑ען וְ ֗לוֹט יָ ַשׁ ֙ב ְבּ ָע ֵ ֣רי ַה ִכּ ָ֔כּר‬ ְ ‫ַא ְב ָ ֖רם יָ ַ ֣שׁב ְבּ ֶ ֽא ֶר‬ Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan. Abram and Lot. expressed by biblical Hebrew simple vav. Again.238 2 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Genesis 41:54 ‫ל־א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ַ ֖ריִ ם ָ ֥היָ ה ָ ֽל ֶחם׃‬ ֥ ֶ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָר ֔צוֹת וּ ְב ָכ‬ ֣ ָ ‫וַ יְ ִ ֤הי ָר ָע ֙ב ְבּ ָכ‬ And there was famine in all the lands. are set in contrast by being highlighted in initial position in each clause. the place of famine (“all the lands”) comes at the end of the first clause. The two personages. while Lot dwelt among the cities of the valley. but the place of bread (“all the land of Egypt”) comes at the beginning of the second clause. Again. Note the chiastic structure. 4 Proverbs 10:1 ‫תּוּג֥ת ִא ֽמּוֹ׃‬ ַ ‫וּבן ְ֝כּ ִ֗סיל‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ח־אב‬ ֑ ָ ‫ֵבּ֣ן ָ ֭ח ָכם יְ ַשׂ ַמּ‬ A wise son makes a father glad but a foolish son is the grief of his mother. English “while”. ‫ ָר ָע ֙ב‬in the first clause and ‫ ָ ֽל ֶחם‬in the second clause. Note also the use of antonyms. The meaning here is not completely antithetical but rather contrastive. and ‫וּבן ְ֝כּ ִ֗סיל‬ ֥ ֵ “a foolish . but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. biblical Hebrew simple vav may be translated as “but”.

Simple vav connects the two clauses and may be rendered “but”. In this verse. 5 Psalm 1:6 ‫אבד׃‬ ֽ ֵ ֹ ‫י־יוֹד ַע ְי֭הוָ ה ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך ַצ ִדּי ִ ֑ קים וְ ֶ ֖ד ֶרְך ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים תּ‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ For the Lord knows the way of the righteous but the way of the wicked shall perish.PART THREE: SYNTAX 239 son” in the second clause) and biblical Hebrew simple vav may be translated “but. here rendered “but”. which are arranged in a chiastic structure. with ‫ ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך ַצ ִדּי ִ ֑ קים‬coming at the end of the first clause. The second clause is negated with ‫ לֹא‬and the antithesis is heightened by the chiastic structure. II: Antithesis by negation (after positive statement) (6-7) 6 Genesis 4:4. but to Cain and to his offering He had no respect. with the verb coming at the beginning of the first ֑ ָ ‫) ֣ל ֹא ָשׁ‬.5 ‫ל־מנְ ָח ֖תוֹ ֣ל ֹא ָשׁ ָ ֑עה‬ ִ ‫ל־קיִ ן וְ ֶא‬ ֥ ַ ‫ל־מנְ ָח ֽתוֹ׃ וְ ֶא‬ ִ ‫ל־ה ֶבל וְ ֶא‬ ֖ ֶ ‫הוה ֶא‬ ֔ ָ ְ‫וַ ִיּ ַ֣שׁע י‬ And the Lord had respect to Abel and to his offering. the two contrasting entities (antonyms) are ‫ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך ַצ ִדּי ִ ֑ קים‬ (“the way of the righteous”) and ‫“( ֶ ֖ד ֶרְך ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים‬the way of the wicked”). The second clause (‫ )וַ יִּ ַשׁע‬but at the end of the second clause (‫עה‬ clause is introduced with biblical Hebrew simple vav. whereas”. 7 Exodus 19:24 ‫ל־י ֶֶה ְר ֛סוּ ַל ֲע ֹ֥לת‬ ֽ ‫ית ַא ָ ֖תּה וְ ַא ֲה ֣ר ֹן ִע ָ ֑מְּך וְ ַהכּ ֲֹה ִנ֣ים וְ ָה ֗ ָעם ַא‬ ָ ‫וְ ָע ִ ֥ל‬ . and ‫ ֶ ֖ד ֶרְך ְר ָשׁ ִ ֣עים‬at the beginning of the second clause.

240 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And you shall come up. 9 Genesis 40:23 ‫ת־יוֹסף וַ יִּ ְשׁ ָכּ ֵ ֽחהוּ׃‬ ֵ֖ ‫ר־ה ַמּ ְשׁ ִ ֛ קים ֶא‬ ַ ‫וְ ֽל ֹא־זָ ַ ֧כר ַ ֽשׂ‬ The chief butler did not remember Joseph but he forgot him. you and Aaron with you. = “measurement”. Note the negation in the second clause and also the chiastic structure. but in the second ֽ ‫) ַא‬.m. = “brick”). the verb (‫ית‬ ָ ‫ )וְ ָע ִ ֥ל‬is followed by the subject. III: Antithesis after negation. in the first clause. here rendered “but”. the subject comes before the verb (‫ל־י ֶֶה ְר ֛סוּ ַל ֲע ֹ֥לת‬ second clause is introduced by biblical Hebrew simple vav. (‫ תּ ֶֹכן‬n. which may be rendered “but”. The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by vav consecutive. introduced by vav (conjunctive or consecutive) (8-10) 8 Exodus 5:18 ‫ת ֶכן ְל ֵב ִנ֖ים ִתּ ֵ ֽתּנּוּ׃‬ ֹ ֥ ְ‫וְ ֶ ֖ת ֶבן לֹא־יִ נָּ ֵ ֣תן ָל ֶכ֑ם ו‬ And straw will not be given to you. which may here be rendered “but”. measurement) of bricks you shall deliver. 10 Genesis 17:5 ‫ת־שׁ ְמָך֖ ַא ְב ָ ֑רם וְ ָה ָי֤ה ִשׁ ְמ ָ֙ך ַא ְב ָר ָ֔הם‬ ִ ‫וְ לֹא־יִ ָקּ ֵ ֥רא ֛עוֹד ֶא‬ . but the quantity (lit. ‫ ְל ֵבנָ ה‬n. The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by simple vav. Again. but let not the priests and the people break through to come up.f. the clause.

see GK 117i). 12 Genesis 45:8 ‫ֹלהים‬ ֑ ִ ‫ֹתי ֵ֔הנָּ ה ִ ֖כּי ָה ֱא‬ ֙ ִ ‫א־א ֶ֞תּם ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶ ֤תּם א‬ ַ ֹ ‫וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ֽל‬ And now it was not you who sent me here. The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by vav consecutive (‫)וְ ָה ָי֤ה‬. (For use of ‫ ֶאת־‬here. ‘as for Sarai your wife. . The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by ‫ִכּי‬ = “but”. but Sarah shall be her name’. 13 Genesis 32:29 ‫עוֹד ִשׁ ְמ ָ֔ך ִ ֖כּי ִאם־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל‬ ֙ ‫אמר ֤ל ֹא יַ ֲעק ֹ֙ב יֵ ָא ֵ ֥מר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֗יּ‬ And he said.PART THREE: SYNTAX 241 Your name shall no longer be called Abram but your name shall be Abraham. ‘your name shall no longer be called Jacob. you shall not call her name Sarai. but G-d. The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by ‫ִכּי‬ = “but”. IV: Antithesis after negation introduced by ‫ִאם‬ 11 ‫ ִכּי‬/‫( ִכּי‬11-14) Genesis 17:15 ‫ת־שׁ ָ ֖מהּ ָשׂ ָ ֑רי‬ ְ ‫א־ת ְק ָ ֥רא ֶא‬ ִ ֹ ‫ל־א ְב ָר ָ֔הם ָשׂ ַ ֣רי ִא ְשׁ ְתּ ָ֔ך ל‬ ַ ‫ים ֶא‬ ֙ ‫ֹלה‬ ִ ‫אמר ֱא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ִ ֥כּי ָשׂ ָ ֖רה ְשׁ ָ ֽמהּ׃‬ And G-d said to Abraham. here rendered “but”. but Israel’.

15 Genesis 28:19 ‫ם־ה ִ ֖עיר‬ ָ ‫אוּל֛ם ֥לוּז ֵשׁ‬ ָ ְ‫ית־אל ו‬ ֑ ֵ ‫ם־ה ָמּ ֥קוֹם ַה ֖הוּא ֵ ֽבּ‬ ַ ‫ת־שׁ‬ ֽ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָ ֛רא ֶא‬ ‫ָל ִראשׁ ָֹנֽה׃‬ And he called the name of that place Bethel. V: ‫ִכּי‬ ‫וְ אוּלָ ם‬/‫“ = אוּלָ ם‬but. 16 Genesis 48:19 (Jacob to Joseph. but Manasseh was the elder) ‫ם־הוּא‬ ֣ ַ‫ה־לּ ָ ֖עם וְ ג‬ ְ ֶ‫ם־הוּא יִ ְהי‬ ֥ ַ‫אמ ֙ר יָ ַ ֤ד ְע ִ ֽתּי ְבנִ ֙י יָ ַ ֔ד ְע ִתּי גּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ יְ ָמ ֵ ֣אן ָא ִ֗ביו וַ ֙יּ‬ ‫טֹן יִ גְ ַ ֣דּל ִמ ֶ֔מּנּוּ‬ ֙ ‫אוּלם ָא ִ ֤חיו ַה ָקּ‬ ָ ֗ ְ‫יִ גְ ָ ֑דּל ו‬ . but to my (own) country and to my kindred I will go’.242 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by ‫“ = ִאם‬but”. Jacob was blessing Ephraim with his right hand. howbeit” (15-16) This is a more pronounced adversative conjunction and need not follow a negative. 14 ‫ִכּי‬ Numbers 10:30 (Jethro to Moses) ‫ל־מוֹל ְד ִ ֖תּי ֵא ֵ ֽלְך׃‬ ַ ‫ל־א ְר ִ ֛צי וְ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ם־א‬ ֶ ‫אמר ֵא ָל֖יו ֣ל ֹא ֵא ֵלְ֑ך ִ ֧כּי ִא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬ And he said to him. but Luz was the name of the place at first. The first clause is negated by ‫ לֹא‬and the second clause is introduced by ‫“ = ִאם‬but”. ‘I will not go.

He shall not go up with us in battle’. except”. (‫ ָא ְמנָ ה‬adv. 22:20. yet (17-21) The use of ‫ ַאְך‬as an adversative must be distinguished from its use as an asseverative (= “surely. truly. he also shall become a people and he also shall be great.g. e. This is the only biblical example where ‫ ַאְך‬as an adversative introduces a nominal clause. Ex 31:13) and also from its use as a restrictive particle (= “only. but not the daughter of my mother. = “verily. so he was discharged. VI: ‫ = ַאְך‬however. indeed”). king of Gath. ‘I know that you are good in my eyes as an angel of G-d.PART THREE: SYNTAX 243 And his father refused and said. e. the daughter of my father. ‫ ַאְך‬here introduces a clause with a perfect verb (‫) ַאְך— ָא ְמרוּ‬. Gen 29:14. with his men. 18 I Samuel 29:9 ‫ל־דּוִ ד֒ יָ ַ ֕ד ְע ִתּי ִ ֣כּי ֥טוֹב ַא ָ ֛תּה ְבּ ֵע ַינ֖י ְכּ ַמ ְל ַ ֣אְך‬ ָ ‫אמר ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ישׁ וַ ֣יּ‬ ֮ ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֣ען ָא ִכ‬ ‫ֹלהים ַ ֣אְך ָשׂ ֵ ֤רי ְפ ִל ְשׁ ִתּ ֙ים ָ ֽא ְמ ֔רוּ ֽל ֹא־יַ ֲע ֶ ֥לה ִע ָ ֖מּנוּ ַבּ ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֑ ִ ‫ֱא‬ And Achish answered and said to David. I Sam 18:8). Numb 12:2.g. and she became my wife. David had fled to Achish. 17 Genesis 20:12 (Abraham to Abimelech) ‫י־לי ְל ִא ָ ֽשּׁה׃‬ ֖ ִ ‫ת־א ִ ֑מּי וַ ְתּ ִה‬ ִ ‫ת־א ִ ֙בי ִ֔הוא ַ ֖אְך ֣ל ֹא ַב‬ ָ ‫ם־א ְמ ָ֗נה ֲאח ִ ֹ֤תי ַב‬ ָ ַ‫וְ ג‬ And also indeed she is my sister. but the princes of the Philistines have said. and had been forced to join the Philistine army. certainly. but. ‘I know my son I know. indeed”. but now they were afraid he would betray them. but his younger brother shall be greater than him. .

Elijah asks her to give him first from her sparse provisions). 21 II Samuel 3:13 ֤‫אמר ֔טוֹב ֲא ִ֕ני ֶא ְכ ֥ר ֹת ִא ְתָּך֖ ְבּ ִ ֑רית ַ ֣אְך ָדּ ָ ֣בר ֶא ָ֡חד ָאנ ִֹכי֩ שׁ ֵֹ֨אל ֵמ ִא ְתָּך‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And he said. ֲע ִשׂי‬Qal fem. you shall make last’. David’s words to Abner. and for you and your son. 20 I Kings 17:13 (The widow from Zarephat.sg. but make me a small cake from there first and bring it out to me. sg. I will make a covenant with you. saying. ‫י־לי ֠ ִמ ָשּׁם‬ ֣ ִ ‫ל־תּ ְיר ִ֔אי ֖בֹּ ִאי ֲע ִ ֣שׂי ִכ ְד ָב ֵ ֑רְך ַ ֣אְך ֲע ִשׂ‬ ֣ ִ ‫הוּ ַא‬ ֙ ‫֤יה ֵא ִ יָּ֙ל‬ ָ ‫אמר ֵא ֶל‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫֣את ֔ ִלי וְ ָלְ֣ך וְ ִל ְב ֵ֔נְך ַתּ ֲע ִ ֖שׂי ָבּ ַא ֲחר ָֹנֽה׃‬ ְ ‫הוֹצ‬ ֵ ְ‫ֻע ֨ ָגה ְק ַט ָנּ֤ה ָב ִראשׁ ֹנָ ֙ה ו‬ And Elijah said to her. ‘do not fear. ‫ ַאְך‬here introduces a clause with a participle (‫ . ‘good. ‫( )שׁאל‬the only such example). .שׁ ֵֹ֨אל‬Qal m. ‫ ַאְך‬here introduces a clause with an imperfect verb (‫) ַאְך— ִתּ ְהיֶ ינָ ה‬. ‫)עשׂה‬. ‫ ַאְך‬here introduces a clause with an imperative (‫ . ‘let them be wives to the one who is pleasing in their eyes. about to request the return of Michal.244 19 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Numbers 36:6 ‫יהם‬ ֖ ֶ ֵ‫מר ַל ֥טּוֹב ְבּ ֵעינ‬ ֹ ֔ ‫הוה ִל ְבנ֤ וֹת ְצ ָל ְפ ָח ֙ד ֵלא‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ר־צָוּ֣ה י‬ ִ ‫ֶז֣ה ַה ָדּ ָ֞בר ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ‫יהם ִתּ ְה ֶי֥ינָ ה ְלנָ ִ ֽשׁים׃‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ִתּ ְה ֶי ֣ינָ ה ְלנָ ִ ֑שׁים ַ֗אְך ְל ִמ ְשׁ ַ ֛פּ ַחת ַמ ֵ ֥טּה ֲא ִב‬ This is the word which the Lord has commanded concerning the daughters of Zelophehad. but one thing I ask of you’. but let them be wives (only) to the family of the tribe of their father. go do according to your word.

that we saw the distress of his soul when he besought us and we did not listen. but”.‫רוֹמ ָאה הוא‬ ָ ‫ישׁנָ א ְד‬ ְ ‫יתי בב"ר ִל‬ ִ ‫ וְ ָר ִא‬. 23 II Chronicles 33:17 ‫ֲא ָבל֙ ֣עוֹד ָה ֔ ָעם ז ְֹב ִ ֖חים ַבּ ָבּ ֑מוֹת‬ But the people still sacrificed in the high places. 24 Genesis 42:21 ‫ל־א ִחינ ֒וּ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ָר ִ֜אינוּ ָצ ַ ֥רת נַ ְפ ֛שׁוֹ ְבּ ִה ְת ַ ֽחנְ נ֥ וֹ‬ ָ ‫ֲא ָב ֮ל ֲא ֵשׁ ִ ֣מים ׀ ֲאנַ ְח ֮נוּ ַע‬ ‫ֵא ֵל֖ינוּ וְ ֣ל ֹא ָשׁ ָ ֑מ ְענוּ‬ Truly we are guilty concerning our brother. VIII: ‫ ֲא ָבל‬in older biblical Hebrew (24-25) In older Hebrew ‫ ֲא ָבל‬has an asseverative force = “verily. of a truth”. but a great trembling fell on them and they fled into hiding.‫קוּשׁ ָטא‬ ְ ‫ ְבּ‬:‫ְכּ ַת ְרגּוּמוֹ‬ . 22 ‫ֲא ָבל‬ has an adversative force = Daniel 10:7 ‫שׁר ָהי֣ וּ ִע ִ֔מּי ֥ל ֹא‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ים ֲא‬ ֙ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ְר ָ֔אה וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁ‬ ַ ‫יתי֩ ֲא ִ֨ני ָדנִ ֵיּ֤אל ְל ַב ִדּ֙י ֶא‬ ִ ‫וְ ָר ִא‬ ‫ֽ יִּב ְר ֖חוּ ְבּ ֵה ָח ֵ ֽבא׃‬ ְ ‫יהם ַו‬ ֶ֔ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ְר ָ ֑אה ֲא ָ֗בל ֲח ָר ָ ֤דה גְ ד ָֹל ֙ה נָ ְפ ָל֣ה ֲע ֵל‬ ַ ‫ָר ֖אוּ ֶא‬ And I Daniel alone saw the vision and the men who were with me did not see the vision. Rashi comments on ‫ ֲא ָבל‬here as follows: = ‫ ֲא ָבל‬.PART THREE: SYNTAX 245 VII: ‫ ֲא ָבל‬in late biblical Hebrew (22-23) It is only in Late Biblical Hebrew that “howbeit.‫ְבּ ַרם‬ .

246 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW “It is to be understood as the Targum renders it: ‘in truth’. as in Genesis 42:21. II Kings 4:14. I have seen (a statement in) Bereishit Rabbah that in the Roman language (Latin) ‫= ֲא ָבל‬ ‫( ְבּ ַרם‬verum) = ‘truly.‫ֲא ָבל‬ ‫׀אנַ ְח ֮נוּ )מלכים ב ד יד( ֲא ָבל ֵבּן ֵאין ָלהּ‬ ֲ “This word implies confirmation of a statement. Do not forget chiasmus! Suggested translations will be found at the end.” 25 Genesis 17:19 (G-d to Abraham) ‫ֲא ָבל֙ ָשׂ ָ ֣רה ִא ְשׁ ְתּ ָ֗ך י ֶֹל ֶ֤דת ְל ָ֙ך ֵ֔בּן‬ Indeed. but Nathan the prophet and the mighty men and Solomon his brother he called not.” Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully pointed biblical Hebrew. Annotate your translation in each case to show how you have dealt with the contrast or antithesis. 2 Let us fall into the hand of the Lord. Each sentence contains a ‘contrastive’ or ‘antithetical’ construction. it may be possible to suggest more than one option per sentence. but let me not fall into the hand of man. Sarah your wife shall bear you a son. Rashi comments on ‫ ֲא ָבל‬here as follows: ‫ וכן )בראשית מב כא( ֲא ָב ֮ל ֲא ֵשׁ ִ ֣מים‬. indeed’.‫ לשון ֲא ִמ ַתּת ְדּ ָב ִרים‬. . 3 And Adonijah called all his brothers and all the men of Judah. 1 Your name will no longer be called Jacob but it will be Israel.

PART THREE: SYNTAX 247 4 Those who love G-d in truth will rejoice. 4 ‫ה' ֶבּ ֱא ֶמת‬-‫א ֲה ֵבי‬ ֹ ‫יִ ְשׁ ְמחוּ‬ :‫אבדוּ‬ ֵ ֹ ‫וְ ַח ָטּ ִאים וּפ ְֹש ִעים י‬ (‫ָעוֶ ל‬ ‫ ע ֵֹשׂי‬Deut 25:16. 32:29. Antithesis by negation after positive statement + chiasmus. or: ‫א ֲֹה ֵבי ה' ֶבּ ֱא ֶמת יִ ְשׂ ְמחוּ‬ . 2 :‫ ֶאפּ ָֹלה‬-‫וּביַ ד ָא ָדם ַאל‬ ְ '‫נָּ א ְביַ ד ה‬-‫נִ ְפּ ָלה‬ See: II Sam 24:14. 3 ‫נָ ָתן ַהנָּ ִביא‬-‫הוּדה וְ ֶאת‬ ָ ְ‫ ַאנְ ֵשׁי י‬-‫וּל ָכל‬ ְ ‫ ֶא ָחיו‬-‫ ָכּל‬-‫וַ יִּ ְק ָרא ֲאד ֹנִ יָּ הוּ ֶאת‬ ִ ִ‫ ַהגּ‬-‫וְ ֶאת‬   :‫ ְשֹׁלמֹה ָא ִחיו לֹא ָק ָרא‬-‫בּוֹרים וְ ֶאת‬ See: I Kings 1:9. and sinners and wrong-doers will perish. Antithesis after negation. ‫ פ ְֹשׁ ִעים‬Isaiah 1:28) Chiasmus + antonyms. Suggested translations for sentences with contrast and antithesis. Negation after positive statement + chiasmus. 15.10. but not as it was before. but the slave drove him away. 6 They will rebuild the house of G-d. 5 The son returned to his father’s house. 1 (‫( ִשׁ ְמָך יַ ֲעקֹב ִכּי ִאם\ ִכּי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל )יִ ְהיֶ ה ְשׁ ֶמָך‬-‫לֹא יִ ָקּ ֵרא עוֹד ) ֶאת‬ See: Gen 17:5.

5 :‫ָשׁב ַה ֵבּן ְל ֵבית ָא ִביו ַאְך גֵּ ֵרשׁ אֹתוֹ ָה ֶע ֶבד‬ 6 :‫אוּלם לֹא ַכּ ַבּיִ ת ָה ִראשׁוֹן‬ ָ ְ‫ֹלקים ו‬ ִ ‫ ֵבּית ָה ֱא‬-‫וּבנוּ ֶאת‬ ָ CAUSAL AND EXPLICATIVE CLAUSES Biblical Hebrew demonstrates the following methods of formulating causal and explicative clauses: 1 With the simple juxtaposition of two clauses. e. See explanatory notes at the end of the exercise.248 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW :‫אבדוּ‬ ֵ ֹ ‫וְ ַח ָטּ ִאים וּפ ְֹש ִעים י‬ Constrast: highlighting in initial position in each clause the two persons/entities in opposition. 2 With vav. 4 With ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ 5 With ‫יַ ַען‬/‫ִכּי‬ 6 With ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ 7 With other prepositions.g. ‫ַעל‬ ‫יַ ַען‬/‫יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬ ‫ ַתּ ַחת‬/(‫ֵע ֶקב ) ֲא ֶשׁר‬ Exercise: study the following biblical verses and discuss/analyse the various methods of formulating causal and explicative clauses in biblical Hebrew. 1 Genesis 17:14 ‫ת־בּ ַ ֣שׂר ָע ְר ָל ֔תוֹ וְ נִ ְכ ְר ָ ֛תה ַה ֶנּ ֶ֥פשׁ ַה ִ ֖הוא‬ ְ ‫וְ ָע ֵ ֣רל זָ ָ֗כר ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ֽל ֹא־יִ מּוֹל֙ ֶא‬ ‫יתי ֵה ַ ֽפר׃‬ ֖ ִ ‫ת־בּ ִר‬ ְ ‫יה ֶא‬ ָ ‫ֵמ ַע ֶ ֑מּ‬ . 3 With ‫( ִכּי‬commonly used).

for (because) you know the soul of the stranger. 5 Genesis 42:21 ‫ל־א ִחינ ֒וּ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ָר ִ֜אינוּ ָצ ַ ֥רת נַ ְפ ֛שׁוֹ ְבּ ִה ְת ַ ֽחנְ נ֥ וֹ‬ ָ ‫ֲא ָב ֮ל ֲא ֵשׁ ִ ֣מים ֲאנַ ְח ֮נוּ ַע‬ ‫ֵא ֵל֖ינוּ וְ ֣ל ֹא ָשׁ ָ ֑מ ְענוּ‬ Truly we are guilty concerning our brother. who/because we saw the distress of his soul when he besought us and we did not listen. (because) he has broken My covenant. for the waters were on the face of the whole land. . that soul shall be cut off from its people. 3 Genesis 3:14 (G-d to the serpent) ‫וּמ ֖כֹּל ַח ַיּ֣ת ַה ָשּׂ ֶ ֑דה‬ ִ ‫ל־ה ְבּ ֵה ָ֔מה‬ ַ ‫ת ָא ֤רוּר ַא ָתּ ֙ה ִמ ָכּ‬ ֒ ‫ית זֹּא‬ ָ ‫ִ ֣כּי ָע ִ ֣שׂ‬ Because you have done this. the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised. for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. 2 Exodus 23:9 ‫יתם ְבּ ֶ ֥א ֶרץ‬ ֖ ֶ ִ‫ת־נ ֶ֣פשׁ ַה ֔ ֵגּר ִ ֽכּי־גֵ ִ ֥רים ֱהי‬ ֶ ‫וְ ֵג֖ר ֣ל ֹא ִת ְל ָ ֑חץ וְ ַא ֶ֗תּם יְ ַד ְע ֶתּ ֙ם ֶא‬ ‫ִמ ְצ ָ ֽריִ ם׃‬ And you shall not oppress a stranger. 4 Genesis 8:9 ‫י־מיִ ם‬ ֖ ַ ‫ל־ה ֵתּ ָ֔בה ִכּ‬ ַ ‫ף־רגְ ֗ ָלהּ וַ ָ ֤תּ ָשׁב ֵא ָל ֙יו ֶא‬ ַ ‫וֹח ְל ַכ‬ ַ ֜‫יּוֹנה ָמנ‬ ָ ֨ ‫א־מ ְצ ָא ֩ה ַה‬ ָ ֹ ‫וְ ֽל‬ ‫ל־ה ָ ֑א ֶרץ‬ ָ ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֣י ָכ‬ ְ ‫ַע‬ And the dove did not find rest for the sole of her foot and she returned to him to the ark.PART THREE: SYNTAX 249 And the uncircumcised male. you are more cursed than all the cattle and than all the beasts of the field.

9 Numbers 20:12 ‫ישׁנִ י‬ ֵ֔ ‫א־ה ֱא ַמנְ ֶ ֣תּם ִ֔בּי ְל ַה ְק ִדּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־א ֲהרֹן֒ ַי ַ֚ען ל‬ ַ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֮ה ֶאל־מ ֶ ֹ֣שׁה וְ ֶ ֽא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ַ ‫יאוּ ֶא‬ ֙ ‫ְל ֵע ֵינ֖י ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל ָל ֵ֗כן ֤ל ֹא ָת ִ֙ב‬ ‫ל־ה ָ ֖א ֶרץ‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ָקּ ָ ֣הל ַה ֶ֔זּה ֶא‬ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר־נָ ַ ֥ת ִתּי ָל ֶ ֽהם׃‬ . 7 Genesis 22:16. ‘G-d has given me my reward. he will see it.250 6 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Genesis 30:18 ‫ישׁי וַ ִתּ ְק ָ ֥רא‬ ֑ ִ ‫ים ְשׂ ָכ ִ ֔רי ֲא ֶשׁר־נָ ַ ֥ת ִתּי ִשׁ ְפ ָח ִ ֖תי ְל ִא‬ ֙ ‫ֹלה‬ ִ ‫אמר ֵל ָ֗אה נָ ַ ֤תן ֱא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣תּ‬ ‫שכר׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ְשׁ ֖מוֹ יִ ָשּׂ‬ And Leah said. because I gave my maiden to my husband’ and she called his name Issachar. and to him I will give the land which he has trodden on. because he has wholly followed the Lord. 8 Deuteronomy 1:36 ‫ְך־בּהּ‬ ֖ ָ ‫ת־ה ָ ֛א ֶרץ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָ ֽדּ ַר‬ ָ ‫וֹ־א ֵ ֧תּן ֶא‬ ֶ ‫וּל ִ֞תי ָכּ ֵל֤ב ֶבּן־יְ ֻפנֶּ ֙ה ֣הוּא יִ ְר ֶ֔אנָּ ה וְ ֽל‬ ָ ֽ‫ז‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫וּל ָב ָנ֑יו ַ֕י ַען ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִמ ֵלּ֖א ַא ֲח ֵ ֥רי י‬ ְ Except Caleb the son of Yephunneh. I will surely bless you. your only son.17 ‫ידָך׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫ת־בּנְ ָך֥ ֶאת־יְ ִח‬ ִ ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֔זּה וְ ֥ל ֹא ָח ַ ֖שׂ ְכ ָתּ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ית ֶא‬ ָ֙ ‫ַי ַ֚ען ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ָע ִ ֙שׂ‬ ‫י־ב ֵ ֣רְך ֲא ָב ֶר ְכ ָ֗ך‬ ָ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ Because you have done this thing and you have not withheld your son.

PART THREE: SYNTAX 251 And the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron. therefore you shall not bring this congregation to the land which I gave to them’. to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel. ‘because you did not believe in Me. and it (the fire) shall devour them. 11 Jeremiah 5:14 ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֖בר ַה ֶזּ֑ה ִהנְ ִנ֣י נ ֵֹתן֩ ְדּ ָב ַ ֨רי ְבּ ֜ ִפיָך ְל ֵ֗אשׁ וְ ָה ָ ֥עם ַה ֶזּ֛ה‬ ַ ‫ַי ַ֚ען ַדּ ֶבּ ְר ֶ֔כם ֶא‬ ‫ֵע ִ ֖צים וַ ֲא ָכ ָ ֽל ַתם׃‬ Because you speak this word. (but) in the days of his son I will bring the evil on his house. 12 Genesis 22:18 ‫גּוֹי ֣י ָה ָ ֑א ֶרץ ֕ ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָשׁ ַ ֖מ ְע ָתּ ְבּק ִ ֹֽלי׃‬ ֵ ‫וְ ִה ְת ָבּ ֲר ֣כוּ ְבזַ ְר ֲע ָ֔ך ֖כֹּל‬ And all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in your seed because you have listened to My voice. and this people wood. I will not bring the evil in his days. 13 Numbers 25:13 ‫אֹלהיו‬ ָ֔ ‫עוֹל֑ם ַ֗תּ ַחת ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ִקנֵּ ֙א ֵ ֽל‬ ָ ‫וּלזַ ְר ֣עוֹ ַא ֲח ָ ֔ריו ְבּ ִ ֖רית ְכּ ֻה ַנּ֣ת‬ ְ ֙‫וְ ָ ֤היְ ָתה לּוֹ‬ ‫־בּ ֵנ֥י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬ ְ ‫וַ יְ ַכ ֵ ֖פּר ַעל‬ . 10 I Kings 21:29 [‫א־א ִבי ] ָא ִ ֤ביא‬ ָ ֹ ‫ית ִ ֽכּי־נִ ְכ ַנ֥ע ַא ְח ָ ֖אב ִמ ְלּ ָפ ָנ֑י ַ֜י ַען ִ ֽכּי־נִ ְכ ַנ֣ע ִמ ָפּ ַ֗ני ֽל‬ ָ ‫ֲ ֽה ָר ִ֔א‬ ‫יתוֹ׃‬ ֽ ‫ל־בּ‬ ֵ ‫ימי ְבנ֔ וֹ ָא ִ ֥ביא ָה ָר ָ ֖עה ַע‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ֽ ָה ָר ָע ֙ה ְבּיָ ָ֔מיו ִבּ‬ Have you seen that Ahab has humbled himself before Me? Because he has humbled himself before Me. behold I will make My words in your mouth as fire.

because he was zealous for his G-d and he made atonement for the children of Israel. 16 II Samuel 12:10 ‫ד־עוֹל֑ם ֵ ֚ע ֶקב ִ ֣כּי ְבזִ ָ֔תנִ י וַ ִתּ ַ ֗קּח‬ ָ ‫יתָך֖ ַע‬ ְ ‫א־ת ֥סוּר ֶ ֛ח ֶרב ִמ ֵבּ‬ ָ ֹ ‫וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ל‬ ִ ‫ת־א ֶשׁ ֙ת‬ ‫אוּר ָיּ֣ה ַה ִח ִ֔תּי ִל ְהי֥ וֹת ְלָך֖ ְל ִא ָ ֽשּׁה׃‬ ֵ֙ ‫ֶא‬ And now the sword will not depart from your house for ever. because he did this thing and because he had no pity.252 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And there shall be to him and to his seed after him a covenant of everlasting priesthood. because they have forsaken Me and have burned incense to other gods’. . 14 II Samuel 12:6 ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֣בר ַה ֶ֔זּה‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ִכּ ְב ָ ֖שׂה יְ ַשׁ ֵלּ֣ם ַא ְר ַבּ ְע ָ ֑תּיִ ם ֗ ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ָע ָשׂ ֙ה ֶא‬ ַ ‫וְ ֶא‬ ‫א־ח ָ ֽמל׃‬ ָ ֹ ‫וְ ַ ֖על ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽל‬ And he shall restore the lamb fourfold. all the words of the book which the King of Judah read. because you despised Me and took the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife. ‘behold I will bring evil upon this place and upon its inhabitants. 15 II Kings 22:16.17 ‫ל־ה ָמּ ֥קוֹם ַה ֶזּ֖ה וְ ַעל־יֽ ְֹשׁ ָ ֑ביו ֵ ֚את‬ ַ ‫הוה ִהנְ ִ֨ני ֵמ ִ ֥ביא ָר ָ ֛עה ֶא‬ ָ֔ ְ‫֚כֹּה ָא ַ ֣מר י‬ ֽ ָ ְ‫ל־דּ ְב ֵ ֣רי ַה ֵ֔סּ ֶפר ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָק ָ ֖רא ֶ ֥מ ֶלְך י‬ ‫רוּ‬ ֙ ‫שׁר ֲעזָ ֗בוּנִ י ַוֽ יְ ַק ְטּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫הוּדה׃ ַ ֣תּ ַחת ֲא‬ ִ ‫ָכּ‬ ‫אֹלהים ֲא ֵח ִ ֔רים‬ ֣ ִ ‫ֵל‬ Thus says the Lord.

and he has not kept back anything from me except you. because you are his wife. so shall you perish. because you will not listen to the voice of the Lord your G-d. . 19 II Samuel 3:30 ‫האל‬ ֧ ֵ ‫ת־ע ָשׂ‬ ֲ ‫ישׁי ָא ִ֔חיו ָה ְרג֖ וּ ְל ַא ְב ֵנ֑ר ַע ֩ל ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ֵה ִ֜מית ֶא‬ ֣ ַ ‫יוֹא ֙ב וַ ֲא ִב‬ ָ ְ‫ו‬ ‫יהם ְבּגִ ְב ֖עוֹן ַבּ ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֛ ֶ ‫ֲא ִח‬ And Joab and Avishai his brother killed Abner because he had slain Asahel their brother at Gibeon in war. 18 Exodus 17:7 ‫ל־ריב ְבּ ֵ ֣ני יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֗אל וְ ֨ ַעל נַ סּ ָ ֹ֤תם‬ ֣ ִ ‫יבה ַע‬ ֑ ָ ‫וּמ ִר‬ ְ ‫שׁם ַה ָמּ ֔קוֹם ַמ ָ ֖סּה‬ ֣ ֵ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָר ֙א‬ ‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ֙ה‬ And he called the name of the place Massah and Merivah because of the strife of the children of Israel and because they tried the Lord. 20 Genesis 39:9 ‫ם־אוֹתְך‬ ָ֖ ‫וּמה ִ ֥כּי ִא‬ ָ ‫א־ח ַ ֤שְׂך ִמ ֶ֙מּנִּ ֙י ְמ ֔א‬ ָ ֹ ‫ֵא ֶ֨יננּוּ גָ ֜דוֹל ַבּ ַ ֣בּיִת ַהזֶּ ֮ה ִמ ֶמּנִּ י֒ וְ ֽל‬ ‫־א ְשׁ ֑תּוֹ‬ ִ ‫שׁר ַא ְתּ‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ַבּ ֲא‬ There is none greater in this house than I.PART THREE: SYNTAX 17 253 Deuteronomy 8:20 ‫אב ֑דוּן ֵ ֚ע ֶקב ֣ל ֹא ִת ְשׁ ְמ ֔עוּן‬ ֵ ֹ ‫יכם ֵ ֖כּן ת‬ ֶ֔ ֵ‫גּוֹים ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר יְ הוָ ֙ה ַמ ֲא ִ ֣ביד ִמ ְפּנ‬ ִ֗ ‫ַכּ‬ ‫יכם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ‫ֹלה‬ ֵ ‫הו֥ה ֱא‬ ָ ְ‫ְבּ ֖קוֹל י‬ As the nations whom the Lord destroys from before you.

“Because you ‫ ְפּנֵ י‬-‫ ַמיִ ם ַעל‬-‫ ִכּי‬. expressing the reason for the soul being cut off. i. ‫יתי ֵה ַפר‬ constitute a causal clause. . so he did (it) by night.e. ‫יתם‬ 3 The causal clause is introduced by have done this”. while the second causal ֶ ִ‫גֵּ ִרים ֱהי‬-‫“ ִכּי‬for you were strangers”. clause is introduced by ‫ ִכּי‬. 2 The first causal clause is introduced by simple vav ‫וְ ַא ֶתּם יְ ַד ְע ֶתּם‬ “and you know”. 22 Judges 6:27 ‫יוֹמם וַ ַיּ ַ֥עשׂ‬ ֖ ָ ‫ת־אנְ ֵ ֥שׁי ָה ִ ֛עיר ֵמ ֲע ֥שׂוֹת‬ ַ ‫ת־בּית ָא ִ֜ביו וְ ֶא‬ ֵ֨ ‫שׁר יָ ֵר ֩א ֶא‬ ֣ ֶ ‫וַ יְ ִ֡הי ַכּ ֲא‬ ‫ָ ֽליְ ָלה׃‬ And it was. 4 The causal clause is introduced by ‫ ִכּי‬. for the words ‫ ַעל ָא ִחינוּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָר ִאינוּ ָצ ַרת נַ ְפשׁוֹ‬could be understood either as ‫ ִכּי‬. since he feared his father’s household and the men of the city from doing (it) by day. ‫ית זֹּאת‬ ָ ‫ ִכּי ָע ִשׂ‬. The causal clause is merely juxtaposed to the previous clause. ‫ ָה ָא ֶרץ‬-‫ָכל‬ “for the waters were on the face of the whole land”. “because you know”. with no expressed syntactical link.254 21 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Exodus 19:18 ‫הו֖ה ָבּ ֵ ֑אשׁ‬ ָ ְ‫וְ ַ ֤הר ִסינַ ֙י ָע ַ ֣שׁן ֻכּ ֔לּוֹ ֠ ִמ ְפּנֵ י ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יָ ַ ֥רד ָע ָל֛יו י‬ And the whole of Mount Sinai smoked because the Lord descended on it in fire. The last three words. 5 The relative construction ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬can have a weak causal sense and in this verse we see how such a development could arise. Explanatory notes to ‘causal and explicative clauses’ 1 ִ ‫ ְבּ ִר‬-‫“ ֶאת‬he has broken my covenant”.

“because 10 ‫ יַ ַען ִכּי‬introduces a causal clause here. 11 ‫ יַ ַען‬occurs here as a preposition with inf. 6 ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ introduces a causal clause here. ‫נָ ַת ִתּי‬-‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ 7 ‫ יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬introduces a causal clause here. because of (the fact that)” (ibid). ‫ית‬ ָ ‫“ יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ִשׂ‬because you have done”. ‫ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׁ ַמ ְע ָתּ ְבּק ִֹלי‬ “because you have listened to My voice”.pl.27). (See also: Gen 34:13.e. (Piel) plus suffix 2 m. ‫ישׁי‬ ִ ‫ִשׁ ְפ ָח ִתי ְל ִא‬ “because I gave my maiden”. i. you did not believe in Me”. see JM 170g: “for the special nuance of in recompense for the fact that or in the pejorative sense of in punishment for . ‫נִ ְכנַ ע ִמ ָפּנַ י‬-‫“ יַ ַען ִכּי‬because he has humbled himself before Me”. expressing the idea of reward/recompense. 12 ‫ ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶשׁר‬introduces a causal clause here. cstr. “in fact almost all the examples occur in texts evincing an elevated style (a divine or prophetic speech). ‫יַ ַען‬ ‫ ֶה ֱא ַמנְ ֶתּם ִבּי‬-‫יַ ַען לֹא‬ 9 introduces a causal clause here. ‫ יַ ַען ַדּ ֶבּ ְר ֶכם‬lit. Use of ‫יַ ַען ִכּי‬/‫ יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬/‫ יַ ַען‬denotes “a stronger or more precisely causal nuance”(JM 170f).” (ibid). ‫ יַ ַען‬alone as a conjunction occurs twenty-three times and ‫יַ ַען ִכּי‬ occurs seven times. 8 ‫ יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬introduces a causal clause here. = “because of your speaking”. “because you speak”. “for the reason of (the fact that). '‫יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר ִמ ֵלּא ַא ֲח ֵרי ה‬ “because he has wholly followed the Lord”.PART THREE: SYNTAX 255 “concerning our brother whose distress we saw” (taking ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬as a relative pronoun) or as “concerning our brother in that/because we saw the distress of his soul—” (taking ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬as a causal conjunction). ‫ יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר‬is used thirty-two times in the Hebrew Bible.

18 The preposition ‫ ַעל‬introduces two causal clauses in this verse. ‫ ִריב‬-‫“ ַעל‬because of the strife of”. 13 ‫ ֵע ֶקב‬and ‫ ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר‬which are practically ‫ ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר‬introduces a causal clause here. expressing the idea of retribution. . Pinchas ben Elazar. ‫ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶשׁר‬ 14 introduces the first causal clause. ‫“ ֵע ֶקב לֹא ִת ְשׁ ְמעוּן‬because you will not listen”. 17 ‫ ֵע ֶקב‬introduces the causal clause. 15 ‫ ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר‬introduces a causal retribution. expressing the idea of reward/recompense. clause here. expressing the idea of punishment. The parallel second causal clause. ‫“ ֵע ֶקב ִכּי ְבזִ ָתנִ י‬because you despised Me”. ‫ַעל‬ is the most common preposition for causality. is introduced by the preposition ‫ ַעל‬+ ‫ַעל ֲא ֶשׁר > ֲא ֶשׁר‬ + finite verb. ‫ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר ֲעזָ בוּנִ י‬ 16 ‫ ֵע ֶקב ִכּי‬introduces the causal clause.) “because of their trying/testing”. ‫ ָח ָמל‬-‫“וְ ַעל ֲא ֶשׁר לֹא‬and because he had no pity”. and the second causal clause is introduced by ‫ ַעל‬+ inf. ‫ ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה‬-‫“ ֵע ֶקב ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ֶאת‬because he did this thing”.pl. when the Book of the Law was found. ‫( וְ ַעל נַ סּ ָֹתם‬lit. The first causal clause is introduced by ‫ ַעל‬+ a noun.256 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW the fact that we use ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬ synonymous”. (Piel) + suffix 3 m. son of Aaron the priest. These are the words of Huldah the Prophetess during the reign of Josiah. expressing the idea of “because they have forsaken Me”. had stabbed the Israelite man with the Midianite woman. These are the words of David to Nathan the Prophet in response to the parable in which the rich man took the poor man’s lamb. cstr. ‫ַתּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר ִקנֵּ א‬ ‫“ ֵלאל ֹהָיו‬because he was zealous for his G-d”. expressing the idea of punishment. also expressing the idea of punishment.

3 m. 20 The nominal causal clause is introduced by ‫“ ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬because you are his wife”. Exercise: translate the following English sentences into fully pointed biblical Hebrew. 3 The judge acquitted him on the grounds that he was living in Egypt at the time that his wife was murdered. behold. . ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר יָ ֵרא‬ “since he feared”. 2 And when Asenath had ceased making confession to the Lord. -‫ַבּ ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ְתּ‬ clause. Compare use of -‫ַעל‬ ‫ ְדּ ַבר ֲא ֶשׁר‬in II Sam 13:22 and ‫ ַעל ִכּי‬in Judges 3:12. ‫“ ַעל ֲא ֶשׁר ֵה ִמית‬because he had slain”.PART THREE: SYNTAX 257 19 ֵ Hiphil. The sentences contain causal clauses which should be rendered with as great a variety of constructions as possible. The causal clause is introduced by ‫ ַעל ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ perf. Suggested translations will be found at the end. ‫)מות‬. I am hastening to accomplish this thing. 4 Because you have slain his anointed one. Gideon destroyed the Baal altar and Asherah belonging to his father. because this star rose as a messenger and herald of the light of the great day’. ‫ יָ ַרד‬introduces the causal ‫ ַבּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬.sg. 21 ‫ ִמ ְפּנֵ י ֲא ֶשׁר‬followed by Qal perf. (‫ה ִמית‬. the morning star rose out of heaven in the east. 1 Because the king’s heart is haughty. And Asenath saw it and rejoiced and said: ‘So the Lord G-d listened to my prayer. you also shall die. 22 Note the unusual use of ‫ ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬to introduce a causal clause.

‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪Suggested translations for sentences with causal clauses‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫יַ ַען גָּ ַבהּ ֵלב ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ) ִכּי יָ רוּם ְל ַבב ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך( ְמ ַמ ֵהר ֲאנִ י ַל ֲעשׂוֹת ֵאת‬ ‫ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה‪:‬‬ ‫)‪(see: II Chron 26:16‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫כּוֹכב‬ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְכּ ַכלּוֹת ) ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָח ְד ָלה( ָא ְסנַ ת ְל ִה ְתוַ דּ ֹת ַלה' ִהנֵּ ה ָע ָלה ַ‬ ‫ַהבּ ֶֹקר ֵמ ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִם ִמ ִמּזְ ָרח וַ ֵתּ ֶרא אֹתוֹ ָא ְסנַ ת )וַ ִתּ ְר ֵאהוּ( וַ ִתּ ְשׂ ַמח‬ ‫ֹלהים ֶאת‪ְ -‬תּ ִפ ָלּ ִתי ִכּי‪ֲ /‬א ֶשׁר‪/‬יַ ַען ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָלה‬ ‫ֹאמר‪ִ :‬כּי ָשׁ ַמע ה' ֱא‪ִ -‬‬ ‫וַ תּ ַ‬ ‫וּמ ַב ֵשּׂר אוֹר ַהיּוֹם ַהגָּ דוֹל‪:‬‬ ‫כּוֹכב ַהזֶּ ה ְכּ ַמ ְל ָאְך ְ‬ ‫ַה ָ‬ ‫)‪(see: Gen 41:45. Exod 2:6‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ִה ְצ ִדּיק אֹתוֹ ַהשּׁ ֵֹפט יַ ַען‪ַ /‬על ֲא ֶשׁר‪ֵ /‬ע ֶקב ִכּי‪ֵ /‬ע ֶקב ֲא ֶשׁר גָּ ר ְבּ ִמ ְצ ַריִם‬ ‫ְבּ ֵעת‪ֵ -‬ה ָה ֵרג‪ֵ /‬ה ָר ַצח ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‪:‬‬ ‫)”‪ְ = “at the time of her giving birth‬בּ ֵעת‬ ‫ִל ְד ָתּהּ ‪(see: Gen 38:27:‬‬ ‫ִכּי‪ַ /‬תּ ַחת ֲא ֶשׁר ָה ַרגְ ָתּ ֵאת ְמ ִשׁיחוֹ גַּ ם ַא ָתּה מוֹת ָתּמוּת‪:‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫דוֹלה‪:‬‬ ‫וַ יִּ גְּ שׁוּ ֵא ָליו וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחווּ ַא ַפּיִ ם ַא ְר ָצה ִכּי יָ ְראוּ אֹתוֹ יִ ְר ָאה גְּ ָ‬ ‫‪5‬‬ . Ezra 10:1.‫‪258‬‬ ‫‪FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW‬‬ ‫‪They approached him and bowed down to the ground.50. for they feared‬‬ ‫‪him greatly.

‘is it for nothing that Job fears G-d?’ . ‘shall I go and call for you a nursing woman from the Hebrews. am I my brother’s keeper?’ 2 Genesis 18:17 ‫ַוֽי ָ֖הו ֹה ָא ָ ֑מר ֽ ַה ְמ ַכ ֶ ֤סּה ֲאנִ ֙י ֽ ֵמ ַא ְב ָר ָ֔הם ֲא ֶ ֖שׁר ֲא ִ ֥ני ע ֶ ֹֽשׂה׃‬ And the Lord said. explanatory notes are found at the end. that she may nurse the child for you?’ 4 Job 1:9 ‫ֹלהים׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫אמר ַ ֽה ִח ָ֔נּם יָ ֵ ֥רא ִאיּ֖ וֹב ֱא‬ ֑ ַ ֹ ‫הו֖ה וַ יּ‬ ָ ְ‫וַ ַיּ ַ֧ען ַה ָשּׂ ָ ֛טן ֶאת־י‬ And the Satan answered the Lord and said. ‘I do not know. 1 Genesis 4:9 ‫אמ ֙ר ֣ל ֹא יָ ַ ֔ד ְע ִתּי ֲהשׁ ֵ ֹ֥מר ָא ִ ֖חי‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־קיִ ן ֵ ֖אי ֶ ֣ה ֶבל ָא ִ ֑חיָך וַ ֙יּ‬ ֔ ַ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ָאנֽ ִֹכי׃‬ And the Lord said to Cain. ‘shall I hide from Abraham that which I am about to do?’ 3 Exodus 2:7 ֮ ‫אמר ֲאח‬ ‫אתי ָל ְ֙ך ִא ָ ֣שּׁה ֵמ ֶ֔ינ ֶקת ִ ֖מן‬ ִ ‫ה ַה ֵא ֗ ֵלְך וְ ָק ָ ֤ר‬ ֒ ֹ‫ת־פּ ְרע‬ ַ ‫ל־בּ‬ ַ ‫ֹתוֹ ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣תּ‬ ‫ת־ה ָיּ ֶֽלד׃‬ ַ ‫ָה ִע ְב ִר ֹ֑יּת וְ ֵת ִ ֥ינק ָלְ֖ך ֶא‬ And his sister said to Pharoah’s daughter.PART THREE: SYNTAX 259 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BIBLICAL HEBREW Exercise: spot the ‘hey interrogative’ in the following biblical verses and deduce the rules for the pointing of the ‘hey interrogative’. ‘where is Abel your brother?’ and he said.

1 ‫“ ֲהשׁ ֵ ֹ֥מר ָא ִ ֖חי ָאנֽ ִֹכי‬am I my brother’s keeper? Hey int. pataḥ with a following dagesh forte (see below). in about ten passages. Less frequently. ‘is the Lord’s hand too short? Now you will see whether My word will befall you or not’. usually takes pataḥ without a following dagesh forte. GK 100k-n. 6 Numbers 11:12 ‫ם־אנ ִ ֹ֖כי יְ ִל ְד ִ ֑תּיהוּ‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ָ ֣עם ַה ֶ֔זּה ִא‬ ָ ‫יתי ֵ ֚את ָכּ‬ ִ ‫ֶה ָאנ ִ ֹ֣כי ָה ִ ֗ר‬ Have I conceived all this people or have I begotten them? 7 Genesis 24:5 (Eliezer to Abraham about Rebekah) ‫ל־ה ָ ֣א ֶרץ‬ ָ ‫ֹאבה ָ ֽה ִא ָ֔שּׁה ָל ֶ ֥ל ֶכת ַא ֲח ַ ֖רי ֶא‬ ֣ ֶ ‫אוּלי לֹא־ת‬ ֙ ַ ‫אמר ֵא ָל ֙יו ָה ֔ ֶע ֶבד‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫את ִמ ָ ֽשּׁם׃‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ָ ֖א ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ָ ֥צ‬ ָ ‫ת־בּנְ ָ֔ך ֶא‬ ִ ‫ַה ֑זּ ֹאת ֶ ֽה ָה ֵ ֤שׁב ָא ִשׁ ֙יב ֶא‬ And the servant said to him. . takes ḥatephpataḥ generally before non-gutturals with a firm vowel.260 5 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Numbers 11:23 ‫הו֖ה ִתּ ְק ָ ֑צר ַע ָ ֥תּה ִת ְר ֶ ֛אה ֲהיִ ְק ְרָך֥ ְד ָב ִ ֖רי‬ ָ ְ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹ֔שׁה ֲהַי֥ד י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬ ‫ם־ל ֹא׃‬ ֽ ‫ִא‬ And the Lord said to Moses. 2 ‫“ ֽ ַה ְמ ַכ ֶ ֤סּה ֲאנִ ֙י‬shall I hide?” Before a consonant with sheva (here ‫) ְמ‬ hey int. ‘perhaps the woman will not be willing to go after me to this land. shall I indeed bring your son back to the land from where you came out?’ Explanatory notes to ‘spot the hey interrogative’ For rules of ‘hey interrogative’ see: WHG p 80.

(GK 150 c. The hey int. Less frequently. pataḥ with a following dagesh forte. ‫שׁוּב‬. ‫ ָאנ ִֹכי‬-‫ֶה ָאנ ִֹכי— ִאם‬ 7 ‫“ ֶ ֽה ָה ֵ ֤שׁב ָא ִשׁ ֙יב‬Shall I indeed bring back?” Hey int.PART THREE: SYNTAX 3 ‫ַה ֵא ֗ ֵלְך‬ 4 ‫“ ַ ֽה ִח ָ֔נּם‬is it for nothing?” See above. hey int. ‫ם־ל ֹא‬ ֽ ‫“ ֲהיִ ְק ְרָך֥ ְד ָב ִ ֖רי ִא‬Will My Word befall you or not?” Note the disjunctive question. 5 ‫הו֖ה ִתּ ְק ָ ֑צר‬ ָ ְ‫“ ֲהַי֥ד י‬Is the Lord’s hand too short?” 261 “shall I go?” Before gutturals not pointed with qamets or ḥateph. Before non-gutturals hey int. 1 Numbers 13:18-20 ‫הוּא‬ ֙ ‫יה ֶה ָח ָ ֥זק‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ָע ֙ם ַהיּ ֵ ֹ֣שׁב ָע ֔ ֶל‬ ָ ‫ה־הוא וְ ֶא‬ ֑ ִ ‫ת־ה ָ ֖א ֶרץ ַמ‬ ָ ‫יתם ֶא‬ ֥ ֶ ‫ְוּר ִא‬ ‫טוֹבה‬ ֥ ָ ‫ר־הוּא י ֵ ֹ֣שׁב ָ֔בּהּ ֲה‬ ֽ ָ ‫ֲה ָר ֔ ֶפה ַה ְמ ַ ֥עט ֖הוּא ִא‬ ֙ ‫וּמה ָה ָ֗א ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ֣ ָ ‫ם־רב׃‬ ‫יוֹשׁב ָבּ ֵ֔הנָּ ה ַה ְבּ ַ ֽמ ֲח ִנ֖ים ִ ֥אם‬ ֣ ֵ ‫ר־הוּא‬ ֙ ‫וּמה ֶ ֽה ָע ִ ֗רים ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ֣ ָ ‫ם־ר ָ ֑עה‬ ָ ‫ִ ֖הוא ִא‬ . no 3. (Explanatory notes are provided at the end). abs.takes ḥateph-pataḥ. usually takes pataḥ without a following dagesh forte. in about ten passages. 6 ‫ ֶה ָאנ ִ ֹ֣כי‬The hey int. Remember that before a consonant with sheva hey int. takes segol before gutturals pointed with qamets or ḥateph-qamets. JM 161e). Note the disjunctive question. (GK 100l). introduced by ‫ ֲה‬in the first clause and by ‫ ִאם‬in the second clause. takes segol before gutturals pointed with qamets or ḥateph-qamets. takes pataḥ. Exercise: analyse the use of ‘hey interrogative’ in the following biblical verses. + inf.qamets. Hiphil.

‘shall a child be born to him that is a hundred years old? And shall Sarah. And what the land is that they dwell in. and the time was the time of the firstripe grapes. whether it is fertile or barren. whether in camps or in strongholds. 2 Genesis 17:17 ‫ה־שׁנָ ֙ה יִ וָּ ֔ ֵלד‬ ָ ‫אמר ְבּ ִל ֗בּוֹ ַה ְלּ ֶ ֤בן ֵמ ָ ֽא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־פּ ָנ֖יו וַ יִּ ְצ ָ ֑חק וַ ֣יּ‬ ָ ‫וַ יִּ ֧ ֹפּל ַא ְב ָר ָ ֛הם ַע‬ ‫ת־תּ ְשׁ ִ ֥עים ָשׁ ָנ֖ה ֵתּ ֵ ֽלד׃‬ ִ ‫ם־שׂ ָ ֔רה ֲה ַב‬ ָ ‫וְ ִ֨א‬ And Abraham fell upon his face and he laughed and he said in his heart. who is ninety years old. what it is. whether it is good or bad. and the people who dwell in it. give birth?’ 3 Genesis 37:32 (Joseph’s brothers to Jacob concerning Joseph’s coat) ‫ם־ל ֹא׃‬ ֽ ‫תנֶ ת ִבּנְ ָך֛ ִ ֖הוא ִא‬ ֹ ֧ ‫ר־נא ַה ְכּ‬ ָ֗ ‫ַה ֶכּ‬ Observe. whether they are strong or weak. few or many. And what the land is. is it your son’s coat or not? 4 I Samuel 10:24 ‫הוה ִ ֛כּי ֵ ֥אין‬ ָ֔ ְ‫ר־בּוֹ י‬ ֣ ‫שׁר ָ ֽבּ ַח‬ ֣ ֶ ‫ית ֙ם ֲא‬ ֶ ‫ל־ה ֗ ָעם ַה ְרּ ִא‬ ָ ‫ל־כּ‬ ָ ‫מוּאל ֶא‬ ֵ֜ ‫אמר ְשׁ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫ל־ה ָ ֛עם וַ יּ‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ָ ֑עם וַ יָּ ִ ֧רעוּ ָכ‬ ‫אמ ֖רוּ יְ ִ ֥חי ַה ֶ ֽמּ ֶלְך׃‬ ָ ‫מהוּ ְבּ ָכ‬ ֹ ֖ ‫ָכּ‬ . whether there are trees in it or not.262 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ם־איִ ן‬ ַ֔ ‫ֽשׁ־בּהּ ֵע ֙ץ ִא‬ ֥ ָ ‫ם־ר ָ֗זה ֲהֵי‬ ָ ‫וּמה ֠ ָה ָא ֶרץ ַה ְשּׁ ֵמ ָ֨נה ִ֜הוא ִא‬ ֣ ָ ‫ְבּ ִמ ְב ָצ ִ ֽרים׃‬ ‫כּוּרי ֲענָ ִ ֽבים׃‬ ֥ ֵ ‫יְמי ִבּ‬ ֖ ֵ ‫וּל ַק ְח ֶ ֖תּם ִמ ְפּ ִ ֣רי ָה ָ ֑א ֶרץ וְ ַ֨היָּ ִ֔מים‬ ְ ‫וְ ִ֨ה ְת ַחזַּ ְק ֶ֔תּם‬ And you shall see the land. and what are the cities in which they dwell. and you shall strengthen yourselves and take from the fruit of the land.

.‫ ָרב‬-‫ ַה ְמ ַעט הוּא ִאם‬. 2 Genesis 17:17 ‫ה־שׁנָ ֙ה‬ ָ ‫ ַה ְלּ ֶ ֤בן ֵמ ָ ֽא‬Note that hey int. 3 ‫ ֲה‬after ‫ וְ ִאם‬in a question which Genesis 37:32 ‫תנֶ ת‬ ֹ ֧ ‫ ַה ְכּ‬Hey int. ‫ת־תּ ְשׁ ִ ֥עים ָשׁ ָנ֖ה‬ ִ ‫ֲה ַב‬ Note repetition of implies disbelief (GK 150 g). ‘Long live the King’. ‘do you see him whom the Lord has chosen. .’ Explanatory notes to ‘analyse hey int. ‫ ַה ְבּ ַמ ֲחנִ ים ִאם ְבּ ִמ ְב ָצ ִרים‬. that there is none like him among all the people? And all the people shouted and said. in biblical verses’ 1 Numbers 13:18-20 Note five examples of disjunctive questions (see no 5 in preceding exercise and GK 150 c):.‫ ָרזָ ה‬-‫ַה ְשּׁ ֵמנָ ה ִהוא ִאם‬ Note also two examples of hey int. has pataḥ with following dagesh before consonant with sheva. with pataḥ with a following dagesh: ‫ ַה ְשּׁ ֵמ ֨ ָנה‬and ‫ ַה ְבּ ַ ֽמ ֲח ִנ֖ים‬.‫ ָר ָעה‬-‫טוֹבה ִהוא ִאם‬ ָ ‫ֲה‬ .‫ ַאיִ ן‬-‫ ָבּהּ ֵעץ ִאם‬-‫ ֲהיֵ שׁ‬. ‫ם־שׂ ָ ֔רה‬ ָ ‫ וְ ִ֨א‬Note disjunctive question. ‫ם־ל ֹא‬ ֽ ‫ ִא‬Note disjunctive question. has pataḥ with following dagesh before consonant with sheva.PART THREE: SYNTAX 263 And Samuel said to all the people. (GK 100 l).

with pataḥ before consonant with sheva with a following dagesh forte. II Kings 6:32). see also: I Sam 17:25. .264 4 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW I Samuel 10:24 ‫ית ֙ם‬ ֶ ‫“ ַה ְרּ ִא‬Do you see?” Note hey int. and my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are camping out in the field. I: Without any particle. but to you I should tell? c) II Samuel 11:11 ‫יהוּדה י ְֹשׁ ִ ֣בים ַבּ ֻסּ ֗כּוֹת וַ אד ִֹ֨ני‬ ֜ ָ ‫ל־דּ ִ֗וד ֠ ָה ָארוֹן וְ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֨אל ִ ֽו‬ ָ ‫אוּר ָ֜יּה ֶא‬ ִ ‫אמר‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ְ ‫יוֹאב וְ ַע ְב ֵ ֤די ֲאד ִֹ֨ני ַע‬ ‫יתי ֶל ֱא ֥כֹל‬ ֛ ִ ‫ל־בּ‬ ֵ ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֤י ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ֙ה ח ִֹ֔נים וַ ֲא ִ֞ני ָא ֧בוֹא ֶא‬ ָ֜ ‫ת־ה ָדּ ָ ֥בר‬ ַ ‫ם־א ֱע ֶ ֖שׂה ֶא‬ ֶ ‫ח ָ֙ך וְ ֵ ֣חי נַ ְפ ֶ֔שָׁך ִ ֽא‬ ֶ֙‫ם־א ְשׁ ִ ֑תּי ַ יּ‬ ִ ‫וְ ִל ְשׁ ֖תּוֹת וְ ִל ְשׁ ַכּ֣ב ִע‬ ‫ַה ֶזּֽה׃‬ And Uriah said to David. Study the following biblical verses and discuss the formation of interrogative sentences in biblical Hebrew. I have not told my father and mother. ‘the Ark and Israel and Judah dwell in booths. (GK 100 l. by the mere tone of voice (perhaps most common in animated speech) a) II Samuel 18:29 ‫אמר ַה ֶ֔מּ ֶלְך ָשׁ ֥לוֹם ַל ַנּ ַ֖ער ְל ַא ְב ָשׁ ֑לוֹם‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And the king said. even in resh. ‘is the young man Absalom safe?’ b) Judges 14:16 (Samson to his wife about the riddle) ‫וּל ִא ִ ֛מּי ֥ל ֹא ִה ַגּ ְ֖ ד ִתּי וְ ָ ֥לְך ַא ִ ֽגּיד׃‬ ְ ‫ִה ֵ֨נּה ְל ָא ִ ֧בי‬ Behold.

Note also ‫“ = ֲהיֵ שׁ‬is there?” and the negatives ‫ ֲהלֹא‬and ‫= ַה ֵאין‬ “is there not?” a) Genesis 24:58 ‫ם־ה ִ ֣אישׁ ַה ֶזּ֑ה‬ ָ ‫יה ֲה ֵת ְל ִ ֖כי ִע‬ ָ ‫אמ ֣רוּ ֵא ֔ ֶל‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ְר ֤אוּ ְל ִר ְב ָק ֙ה וַ יּ‬ And they called Rebekah and said to her. ‘is there not a woman among the daughters of your brothers or among all my people. ‘will you go with this man?” (‫) ֲה ֵת ְל ִ ֖כי‬ b) Genesis 24:23 (Eliezer to Rebekah) ‫ית־א ִ ֛ביְך ָמ ֥קוֹם ָ ֖לנוּ ָל ִ ֽלין׃‬ ָ ‫ֲה ֵי֧שׁ ֵבּ‬ Is there room in your father’s house for us to lodge? (‫־־י֧שׁ‬ ֵ ‫) ֲה‬ c) Judges 14:3 (Samson’s marriage) ‫י־א ָ ֤תּה‬ ַ ‫מּי ִא ָ֔שּׁה ִ ֽכּ‬ ֙ ִ ‫ל־ע‬ ַ ‫וּב ָכ‬ ְ ‫אמר ֜לוֹ ָא ִ ֣ביו וְ ִא ֗מּוֹ ַה ֵאין֩ ִבּ ְבנ֨ וֹת ַא ֶ ֤חיָך‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫הוֹל ְ֙ך ָל ַ ֣ ק ַחת ִא ָ֔שּׁה ִמ ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִ ֖תּים ָה ֲע ֵר ִ ֑לים‬ ֵ And his father and his mother said to him.PART THREE: SYNTAX 265 shall I then go into my house to eat and drink and to lie with my wife? By your life and the life of your soul. I will not do this thing’. that you go to take a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines?’ ( ֩‫)ה ֵאין‬ ַ d) Genesis 13:9 (Abraham to Lot) ‫ל־ה ָ֙א ֶר ֙ץ ְל ָפ ֶ֔ניָך‬ ָ ‫ֲה ֤ל ֹא ָכ‬ . GK 149). (note use of ‫ ִאם‬after expression of oath to express a negative. II: The simple question is often expressed by hey interrogative.

Genesis 27:21 ‫ם־ל ֹא׃‬ ֽ ‫ַ ֽה ַא ָ ֥תּה ֶז֛ה ְבּ ִ ֥ני ֵע ָ ֖שׂו ִא‬ Are you my son Esau or not? (‫לֹא‬-‫) ַה— ִאם‬ b) Joshua 5:13 (Joshua to the captain of the host of the Lord) ‫ם־ל ָצ ֵ ֽרינוּ׃‬ ְ ‫ֲה ָ ֥לנוּ ַא ָ ֖תּה ִא‬ Are you for us or for our adversaries? (‫) ֲה— ִאם‬ c) I Kings 22:15 ‫מת גִּ ְל ָ ֛עד ַל ִמּ ְל ָח ָ ֖מה‬ ֹ ֥ ‫ל־ר‬ ָ ‫הוּ ֲהנֵ ֞ ֵלְך ֶא‬ ֙ ְ‫יכי‬ ָ ֙ ‫אמר ַה ֶ֜מּ ֶלְך ֵא ֗ ָליו ִמ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫ִאם־נֶ ְח ָ ֑דּל‬ And the king said to him.266 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Is not all the land before you? (‫) ֲה ֤ל ֹא‬ III: The disjunctive or alternative question is put by hey interrogative in the first clause and by ‫וְ ִאם‬/‫ ִאם‬in the second clause (or ‫לֹא‬ a) ‫ ִאם‬if negative). ‘Micaiah. to see if the waters had abated from upon the face of the ground. shall we go against Ramot Gilead to war or shall we desist/leave off?’ (‫) ֲה— ִאם‬ IV: The indirect question is made in the same way a) Genesis 8:8 ‫אוֹת ֲה ַ ֣ קלּוּ ַה ַ֔מּיִם ֵמ ַ ֖על ְפּ ֵ ֥ני ֽ ָה ֲא ָד ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֙ ‫יּוֹנ֖ה ֵמ ִא ֑תּוֹ ִל ְר‬ ָ ‫ת־ה‬ ַ ‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַ ֥לּח ֶא‬ And he sent forth the dove from him. (‫“ = ֲה ַ ֣ קלּוּ‬if (they) had abated”) .

VI: ‫ִכּי‬ a) II Samuel 9:1 (David showed kindness to Mephiboshet. (‫לֹא‬-‫יח— ִאם‬ V: Note use of ‫( ַה ִאם‬twice only. finished” > Qal perf.PART THREE: SYNTAX 267 Genesis 24:21 (Abraham’s servant encounters Rebekah) b) ‫ם־ל ֹא׃‬ ֽ ‫הו֛ה ַדּ ְר ֖כּוֹ ִא‬ ָ ְ‫יח י‬ ַ ‫וְ ָה ִ ֥אישׁ ִמ ְשׁ ָתּ ֵ ֖אה ָל֑הּ ַמ ֲח ִ ֕רישׁ ָל ַ ֗ד ַעת ֽ ַה ִה ְצ ִ ֧ל‬ And the man was gazing at her. ‘is there yet any that is left of the House of Saul. that I may deal kindly with him for the sake of Jonathan?’ (‫שׁ־עוֹד‬ ֔ ֶ‫) ֲה ִ ֣כי י‬ . 1 pl. see BDB p 50) a) Numbers 17:28 (the people were in despair after so much death) ‫ַה ִ ֥אם ַ ֖תּ ְמנוּ ִלגְ וֽ ַֹע׃‬ Shall we ever have finished dying? [Note ‫“ = ָתּ ַמם‬be complete. keeping silence. (here): ‫( ַ ֖תּ ְמנוּ‬for ‫ ַתּמּוֹנוּ‬see GK 67 dd: aramaizing form).] b) Job 6:13 ‫ַה ִ֬אם ֵ ֣אין ֶעזְ ָר ִ ֣תי ִ ֑בי‬ (perhaps) “Is it that my help is not in me?” (see BDB p 50: “a forcible means of expressing that that which might be thought impossible is nevertheless the case”). lame son of Jonathan. son of Saul) adds force to the question ‫נוֹתר ְל ֵב֣ית ָשׁ ֑אוּל וְ ֶא ֱע ֶ ֤שׂה ִעמּוֹ֙ ֶ֔ח ֶסד‬ ֖ ַ ‫שׁ־עוֹד ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬ ֔ ֶ‫אמר ָדּ ִ֔וד ֲה ִ ֣כי י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫ַבּ ֲע ֖בוּר יְ הוֹנָ ָ ֽתן׃‬ And David said. to know whether the Lord ַ ‫) ֲה ִה ְצ ִל‬ had made his way prosperous or not.

b) Genesis 18:23 ‫ם־ר ָ ֽשׁע׃‬ ָ ‫ַה ַ ֣אף ִתּ ְס ֔ ֶפּה ַצ ִ ֖דּיק ִע‬ Will you indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked? (‫־־אף‬ ֣ ַ ‫)ה‬ ַ Study the following biblical verses and consider how answers to questions are formulated in biblical Hebrew. > ‫“ = ַה ַאף‬indeed? really?” ‫ ֻא ְמנָ ם‬adv. indeed”. BDB p 53). truly. BDB pp 64-65. = “verily. or by the use of some word suggested by it. yea”. (Question: ‫ ֲה ֵת ְל ִ ֖כי‬Answer: ‫) ֵא ֵ ֽלְך‬ . ‘will you go with this man?’ And she said. a) Genesis 24:58 ‫אמר ֵא ֵ ֽלְך׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ם־ה ִ ֣אישׁ ַה ֶזּ֑ה וַ ֖תּ‬ ָ ‫יה ֲה ֵת ְל ִ ֖כי ִע‬ ָ ‫אמ ֣רוּ ֵא ֔ ֶל‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ְר ֤אוּ ְל ִר ְב ָק ֙ה וַ יּ‬ And they called Rebekah and they said to her.268 b) FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW II Samuel 13:28 (Absalom plotting murder of Amnon) ‫֣יתי ֶא ְת ֶ֔כם‬ ִ ‫ֹכי ִצִוּ‬ ֙ ִ ‫ֲה ֗לוֹא ִ ֤כּי ָ ֽאנ‬ Is it not that I have commanded you? (‫ִ ֤כּי‬ ‫) ֲה ֗לוֹא‬ VII: The interrogative particle may be strengthened by other particles a) Genesis 18:13 ‫ַה ַ ֥אף ֻא ְמ ָנ֛ם ֵא ֵל֖ד וַ ֲא ִנ֥י זָ ַ ֽ קנְ ִתּי׃‬ Shall I indeed give birth although/seeing as I am old? (‫ֻא ְמ ָנ֛ם‬ ‫) ַה ַ ֥אף‬ (‫“ = ַאף‬also. ‘I will go’. I: The answer is usually made by repeating part of the question.

as my heart is with your heart?’ And Jehonadab said. . lame son of Jonathan. ‘I am’. (Question: ‫תּם‬ ֖ ֶ ‫ ַהיְ ַד ְע‬Answer: ‫)יָ ָ ֽד ְענוּ‬ d) II Samuel 9:2 (Ziba was servant to Mephiboshet.PART THREE: SYNTAX b) 269 Genesis 27:24 (Isaac to Jacob) ‫אמר ָ ֽאנִ י׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫אמר ַא ָ ֥תּה ֶז֖ה ְבּ ִנ֣י ֵע ָ ֑שׂו וַ ֖יּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֕יּ‬ And he said. c) ‫ ַא ָ ֥תּה ֶז֖ה ְבּ ִנ֣י ֵע ָ ֑שׂו‬and the answer ‫ָ ֽאנִ י‬ Genesis 29:5 (Jacob asking about Laban in Aram) ‫אמ ֖רוּ יָ ָ ֽד ְענוּ׃‬ ְ ֹ ‫ת־ל ָ ֣בן ֶבּן־נָ ֑חוֹר וַ יּ‬ ָ ‫אמר ָל ֶ֔הם ַהיְ ַד ְע ֶ ֖תּם ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ And he said to them. (Question: ‫יבא‬ ֖ ָ ‫ִצ‬ e) ‫ ַה ַא ָ ֥תּה‬Answer: ‫) ַע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך‬ II Kings 10:15 (Jehu to Jehonadab) ‫אמר יְ הוֹנָ ָ ֥דב ֵי֛שׁ וָ ֵי֖שׁ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ם־ל ָב ֶ֔בָך וַ ֨יּ‬ ְ ‫ת־ל ָב ְבָך֣ יָ ָ֗שׁר ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ְל ָב ִ ֙בי ִע‬ ְ ‫ֲהֵי֧שׁ ֶא‬ ‘Is your heart right. ‘are you really my son Esau?’ And he said. ‘your servant’. ‘do you know Laban son of Nahor?’ And they said. son of Saul) ‫אמר ַה ֶ ֧מּ ֶלְך‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ל־דִּו֑ד וַ ֨יּ‬ ָ ‫אוּ־לוֹ ֶא‬ ֖ ‫יבא וַ יִּ ְק ְר‬ ָ֔ ‫וּשׁ ֣מוֹ ִצ‬ ְ ‫וּל ֵ֨בית ָשׁ ֥אוּל ֙ ֶע ֶב ֙ד‬ ְ ‫אמר ַע ְב ֶ ֽדָּך׃‬ ֶ ֹ ‫יבא וַ ֥יּ‬ ֖ ָ ‫ֵא ָל֛יו ַה ַא ָ ֥תּה ִצ‬ The House of Saul had a servant whose name was Ziba and they called him to David and the king said to him. ‘are you Ziba?’ and he said. (The question is by tone of voice: corresponds to the question). ‘it is’. ‘we (do) know (him)’.

to Yael. a) Judges 12:5 ‫יטי‬ ֤ ֵ ‫אמ ֞רוּ ְפּ ִל‬ ְ ֹ ‫ת־מ ְע ְבּ ֥רוֹת ַהיַּ ְר ֵ ֖דּן ְל ֶא ְפ ָ ֑ריִם ְ ֽו ָהיָ ה ִ ֣כּי י‬ ַ ‫וַ יִּ ְל ֥כֹּד גִּ ְל ָ ֛עד ֶ ֽא‬ ‫אמר ֽל ֹא׃‬ ֽ ֶ ֹ ‫אמרוּ ֧לוֹ ַאנְ ֵ ֽשׁי־גִ ְל ָ ֛עד ַ ֽה ֶא ְפ ָר ִ ֥תי ַ ֖א ָתּה וַ ֥יּ‬ ְ ֹ ‫ֶא ְפ ַ ֙ריִ ֙ם ֶא ֱע ֔בֹ ָרה וַ ֨יּ‬ And Gilead captured the fords of the Jordan (which belonged) to Ephraim and it was. if anyone will come and ask you and say. ַ֖ (Question: ‫א ָתּה‬ b) ‫ ַ ֽה ֶא ְפ ָר ִ ֥תי‬Answer: ‫) ֽל ֹא‬ Genesis 19:2 (Lot to the angels) ‫יכם וְ ִה ְשׁ ַכּ ְמ ֶ ֖תּם וַ ֲה ַל ְכ ֶ ֣תּם‬ ֶ֔ ‫ינוּ וְ ַר ֲח ֣צוּ ַרגְ ֵל‬ ֙ ‫ל־בּית ַע ְב ְדּ ֶכ֤ם וְ ִ ֙ל‬ ֵ֨ ‫֣סוּרוּ ָ֠נא ֶא‬ ‫אמ ֣רוּ ֔לּ ֹא ִ ֥כּי ָב ְר ֖חוֹב נָ ִ ֽלין׃‬ ְ ֹ ‫ְל ַד ְר ְכּ ֶכ֑ם וַ יּ‬ . ‘there is not’. ֹ ֥ ‫ ֲהֵיֽשׁ־‬Answer: ‫) ָ ֽאיִ ן‬ (Question: ‫פּה‬ II: The negative reply to a simple question may be ‫“ = ל ֹא‬no”.270 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW (Question: ‫ ֲה ֵי֧שׁ‬Answer: ‫וָ ֵי֖שׁ‬ f) ‫) ֵי֛שׁ‬ Judges 4:20 (Sisera. wife of Heber the Kenite) ‫וּשׁ ֵא ֗ ֵלְך וְ ָא ַ ֛מר ֲהֵיֽשׁ־ ֥ ֹפּה ִ ֖אישׁ וְ ָא ַ ֥מ ְר ְתּ ָ ֽאיִ ן׃‬ ְ ‫ם־אישׁ ֜יָבוֹא‬ ִ֨ ‫וְ ָהיָ ֩ה ִא‬ And it shall be. ‘are you an Ephraimite?’ And he said. ‘is anyone here?’ then you will say. to deny. ‘no’. or decline”).“in answer to a question or request. the men of Gilead said to him. captain of Canaanite host. (see BDB p 519: ‫ לֹא‬. whenever the fugitives of Ephraim would say ‘let me cross’.

and you shall rise up early and go on your way. (Question: ‫ ֲהיִ ְק ָ ֑דּשׁ‬Answer: ‫ . will it become unclean?’ And the priests answered and said. but’. ‘if one who is unclean by a dead body touches any of these. but whatever he touched as well. And Haggai said. BDB p 519). . or wine or oil.PART THREE: SYNTAX 271 Please turn aside to the house of your servant. will it become holy?’ And the priests answered and said. ‫ִהנֵּ ה‬ (but less common) and III: The use of ‫ ֵכּן‬in biblical Hebrew (the common post-biblical usage of ‫“ = ֵכּן‬yes” is only perhaps hinted at in the Hebrew Bible. c) Haggai 2:12. ‘no. and stay the night and wash your feet. So with the people. see below). What was ceremonially impure infected not only the person in contact with it. ֽל ֹא‬Question: ‫מא‬ ֑ ָ ‫ ֲהיִ ְט‬Answer: ‫)יִ ְט ָ ֽמא‬ (for ‫ ֵהן‬see BDB p 243: sometimes = sometimes = “if”).13 (What was ceremonially holy hallowed what it touched but not more. (‫ לֹא‬is often followed by ‫‘ = ִכּי‬no: for. = “so. and with his skirt he touches bread or pottage. ‘No’. but we will spend the night in the street’. and they said. thus”). ‘it will become unclean’. or any food. (see BDB p 485: ‫ ֵכּן‬adv. the wicked can easily infect the righteous. ‫ל־ה ֨ ֶלּ ֶחם‬ ַ ‫ֵ ֣הן יִ ָשּׂא־ ִ֨אישׁ ְבּ ַשׂר־ ֜קֹ ֶדשׁ ִבּ ְכ ַ ֣נ ף ִבּגְ ֗דוֹ וְ נָ ַג֣ע ֠ ִבּ ְכנָ פוֹ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ל־כּ‬ ָ ‫ל־שׁ ֶמן וְ ֶא‬ ֛ ֶ ‫ל־ה ַ ֧יּ יִ ן וְ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ל־הנָּ ִ֜זיד וְ ֶא‬ ַ ‫וְ ֶא‬ ‫ל־מ ֲא ָ ֖כל ֲהיִ ְק ָ ֑דּשׁ וַ יַּ ֲענ֧ וּ ַהכּ ֲֹה ִנ֛ים‬ ֖ ֵ ‫א־נ ֶ֛פשׁ ְבּ ָכ‬ ֶ ‫אמר ַח ֔ ַגּי ִאם־יִ ַגּ֧ע ְט ֵמ‬ ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬ ‫ל־א ֶלּה ֲהיִ ְט ָ ֑מא וַ יַּ ֲענ֧ וּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫אמ ֖רוּ ֽל ֹא׃ וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫אמ ֖רוּ יִ ְט ָ ֽמא׃‬ ְ ֹ ‫ַהכּ ֲֹה ִנ֛ים וַ יּ‬ ‘If one carries holy meat in the skirt of his garment. but the righteous cannot so easily influence the wicked).

b) Exodus 10:14 ‫ה־כּן׃‬ ֽ ֵ ֶ‫מהוּ וְ ַא ֲח ָ ֖ריו ֥ל ֹא יִ ְֽהי‬ ֹ ֔ ‫א־היָ ה ֵכ֤ן ַא ְר ֶבּ ֙ה ָכּ‬ ָ֨ ֹ ‫֠ ְל ָפנָ יו ל‬ There was not before it locust like it and after it there will not be such. (‫א־היָ ה ֵכ֤ן‬ ָ֨ ֹ ‫ה־כּן—ל‬ ֽ ֵ ֶ‫יִ ְֽהי‬ such”). the men came to me but I do not know from where they are’. .272 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW a) Exodus 1:12 ‫יִפ ֑ר ֹץ‬ ְ ‫וְ ַכ ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר יְ ַענּ֣ וּ א ֹ֔תוֹ ֵ ֥כּן יִ ְר ֶ ֖בּה וְ ֵכ֣ן‬ But the more they afflicted them. (It is possible that in this verse ‫“ = ֵכּן‬yes”). ‘according as—so. and so we were in their eyes. the more they multiplied and increased. d) Joshua 2:4 (the two spies sent by Joshua) ‫אמר ֵ֗כּן ָ ֤בּאוּ ֵא ַ ֙לי‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ת־שׁ ֵנ֥י ָה ֲאנָ ִ ֖שׁים ַו ִֽתּ ְצ ְפּנ֑ וֹ וַ ֣תּ‬ ְ ‫וַ ִתּ ַ ֧קּח ֽ ָה ִא ָ ֛שּׁה ֶא‬ ‫ֽ ָה ֲאנָ ִ֔שׁים וְ ֥ל ֹא יָ ַ ֖ד ְע ִתּי ֵמ ַ ֥איִ ן ֵ ֽה ָמּה׃‬ And the woman took the two men and hid them and she said. c) ‫֥ל ֹא‬ “there was not such—there will not be Numbers 13:33 ‫יהם׃‬ ֽ ֶ ֵ‫ינוּ ֽ ַכּ ֲחגָ ִ֔בים וְ ֵ ֥כן ָהיִ ֖ינוּ ְבּ ֵעינ‬ ֙ ֵ֙‫וַ נְּ ִ ֤הי ְב ֵעינ‬ And we were in our own eyes as grasshoppers. thus’). ‘yes. (‫ ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר— ֵכּן‬lit.

verbal suffix instead of plural. ‘all right. she hid each one by himself so that they would not be found. = . i.g. see comment of Rashi for various explanations. may it be like your word’. 1 Will you build me a house? 2 Are they not written in the book? 3 Is the guilt mine or did I judge badly? 4 Will these things exist for us until the end? And will these things befall us always? Suggested translations for interrogative sentences 1 ‫ ִלּי ַביִ ת‬-‫ַה ַא ָתּה ִתּ ְבנֶ ה‬ (see: II Sam 7:5) 2 ‫תוּבים ַבּ ֵסּ ֶפר‬ ִ ‫ֲהלֹא ֵהם ְכּ‬ (see: I Kings 11:41 etc) 3 (‫ ָעוֶ ל ָשׁ ַפ ְט ִתּי )וְ ִאם ָעוֶ ל ָשׁ ַפ ְט ִתּי‬-‫ֶה ָאנ ִֹכי ָא ַשׁ ְמ ִתּי וְ ִאם ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט‬ (see: Psalm 82:2: ‫טוּ־עוֶ ל‬ ֑ ָ ‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְפּ‬ injustice.m. m. Exercise: translate the following English interrogative sentences into fully pointed biblical Hebrew.PART THREE: SYNTAX 273 (Note also ‫( = ַו ִֽתּ ְצ ְפּנ֑ וֹ‬lit) “she hid him”. unrighteousness).sg. suggested translations will be found at the end. ‫ד־מ ַ ֥תי‬ ָ ‫( ) ַע‬see also BDB p 732: ‫ ָעוֶ ל‬n.” See comment of Rashi here: ‫“ ְלשׁוֹן ַק ָבּ ַלת ְדּ ָב ִרים‬language of acquiescence”.e. e.) Note the use of ‫ ֵהן‬in Genesis 30:34: ‫ִכ ְד ָב ֶ ֽרָך׃‬ ‫אמר ָל ָ ֖בן ֵ ֑הן ל֖ וּ יְ ִ ֥הי‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬ “And Laban said.

(Mal 1:8 ‫)אוֹ ֲה‬. is that not evil? Offer it now to your governor. will he be pleased with you or will he show you favour? Says the Lord of Hosts. Numb 11:23) Note the use of the conjunction 14-15). and hence no doubt for euphonic reasons. the second member of a disjunctive question is introduced by ‫אוֹ‬. (BDB pp Occasionally. this is the only such occurrence without the euphonic reason explained in GK 150 g. See: GK 150 g: “The second member is introduced by ‫‘ אוֹ‬or’ in 2 K 6:27. Jb16:3. see: Gen 42:29. Malachi 1:8 (rebuke of priests) ‫י־תגִּ ֨שׁוּן ִעֵוּ֤ר ִלזְ ֨בֹּ ַח ֵ ֣אין ָ ֔רע וְ ִ ֥כי ַת ִגּ֛ישׁוּ ִפּ ֵ ֥סּ ַח וְ ח ֶֹל֖ה ֵ ֣אין ָ ֑רע‬ ַ ‫וְ ִ ֽכ‬ ‫הו֥ה ְצ ָב ֽאוֹת׃‬ ָ ְ‫יבהוּ ָ֜נא ְל ֶפ ָח ֶ֗תָך ֲהיִ ְר ְצ ָ֙ך ֚אוֹ ֲהיִ ָ ֣שּׂא ָפ ֶ֔ניָך ָא ַ ֖מר י‬ ֵ֨ ‫ַה ְק ִר‬ And if you offer the blind for sacrifice. to avoid the combination ‫” ִאם מ‬. 38:28. encounter. in each case before ‫מ‬. is it not evil? and if you offer a lame or sick animal. 31:36. “will he show you favour or will he lift up . befall’. Note then the occurrence of ‫ אוֹ‬to introduce the second member of a disjunctive clause in Malachi 1:8. (‫שּׂא ָפ ֔ ֶניָך‬ ֣ ָ ִ‫ֲהי‬ your face?” ‫) ֲה—אוֹ— ֲה‬. ‫ֲהיִ ְר ְצ ָ֙ך ֚אוֹ‬ lit. 44:29. ‫“ = אוֹ‬or” in biblical Hebrew.274 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 4 ‫ֲהיִ ְהיוּ ָלנוּ ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה ַעד ַא ֲח ִרית ַהיָּ ִמים וְ ִאם ִתּ ְק ֶרינָ ה ָלנוּ‬ ‫ָהרעוֹת ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָתּ ִמיד׃‬ ( ‫‘ = ָק ָרה‬meet.

See below for examples of the uses of Yiqtol/Imperfect for: continued/durative or repeated action in the sphere of past time. the ‘Perfect’. but also in the sphere of the present and the past. English pluperfect. may be used not only for the past. express not just ‘tense’ but also ‘aspect’ or ‘mood’. which has afformatives and is also termed ‘Qatal’. English future perfect. The ‘Imperfect’. which has both preformatives and afformatives and is also termed ‘Yiqtol’. ‘perfect of certainty’ and ‘prophetic perfect’. it may express the quality of an action as complete and finished. and may identify a situation or event as static or at rest. and its use in the sphere of future time. ‘perfect of experience’. it may express the quality of an action as incomplete or unfinished. may be used not only for the future. its use in the sphere of present time for repeated or durative action or for the expression of general truths and truths of experience. Thus. See below for examples of the uses of Qatal/Perfect for: English past. 275 . English present. but also for the present and even for the future. its use after certain particles for past action. which are traditionally called ‘Perfect’ and ‘Imperfect’. whatever the aspect. and identify a situation or event as fluid or in motion. the so-called ‘performative perfect’.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW It is generally agreed that the two forms in Biblical Hebrew.

‫ָע ָ ֽשׂה‬ Qal perf. 3 m. It is obvious from the context that the work of ‘doing’ was completed before G-d desisted from the work of creation. ‘had done’. . to indicate that one of two actions was completed before the other. perf. action completed at a time indicated by the narrative.sg. but continuing its effects into the present. c) Genesis 2:2 ‫אכ ֖תּוֹ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָע ָ ֽשׂה׃‬ ְ ‫ל־מ ַל‬ ְ ‫יעי ִמ ָכּ‬ ִ ֔ ‫וַ יִּ ְשׁבּ ֹ֙ת ַבּיּ֣ וֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב‬ And He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done.276 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW USE OF PERFECT/QATAL Exercise: in the following biblical verses. b) Genesis 4:6 (G-d to Cain) ‫וְ ָל ָ֖מּה נָ ְפ ֥לוּ ָפ ֶנֽיָך‬ And why has your face fallen? ‫נָ ְפ ֥לוּ‬ Qal perf. ‫נִ ָ ֖סּה‬ Piel.sg.pl. action finished in the past. I: Completed actions where English also uses past tenses a) Genesis 22:1 ‫ת־א ְב ָר ָ ֑הם‬ ַ ‫ֹלהים נִ ָ ֖סּה ֶא‬ ִ֔ ‫וַ יְ ִ֗הי ַא ַח ֙ר ַה ְדּ ָב ִ ֣רים ָה ֵ֔א ֶלּה וְ ָ ֣ה ֱא‬ And it was after these things that G-d tested Abraham. 3 m. 3 c. ‘he tested’. discuss/analyse uses of the Perfect/Qatal. the perfect is used to express the English pluperfect.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 277 d) Genesis 31:32 (Jacob to Laban) ‫ר־לָך֛ ָ ֥מה‬ ְ ‫ה ֶ ֣נ גֶ ד ַא ֵ ֧חינוּ ַ ֽה ֶכּ‬ ֒ ֶ‫ֹלה ֮יָך ֣ל ֹא יִ ְֽחי‬ ֶ ‫ת־א‬ ֱ ‫ִ֠עם ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ִתּ ְמ ָצ֣א ֶא‬ ָ ‫ִע ָמּ ִ ֖די וְ ַ ֽ ק‬ ‫ח־לְ֑ך וְ ֽל ֹא־יָ ַ ֣דע יַ ֲע ֔קֹב ִ ֥כּי ָר ֵ ֖חל גְּ נָ ָ ֽב ַתם׃‬ With whoever you will find your gods. ‫לוּ֩ ָח ֨ ֵפץ‬ ‘if He had desired’. ‫א־ל ַ ֤ קח‬ ָ ֹ ‫‘ ֽל‬He would not have taken’.pl. is used here in both the protasis and the apodosis of a hypothetical conditional sentence. English pluperfect. ‘if the Lord desired to kill us. ‘she had stolen them’. 3 f. The perf. father of Samson) ‫א־ל ַ ֤ קח ִמיָּ ֵ ֙ד ֙נוּ ע ָֹל֣ה‬ ָ ֹ ‫ית ֙נוּ ֽל‬ ֵ֙ ‫הו֤ה ַל ֲה ִמ‬ ָ ְ‫אמר ֣לוֹ ִא ְשׁ ֗תּוֹ לוּ֩ ָח ֨ ֵפץ י‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֧תּ‬ ‫וּמנְ ָ֔חה‬ ִ And his wife said to him. he shall not live. e) Judges 13:23 (the words of the wife of Manoah. ‫גְּ נָ ָ ֽב ַתם‬ Qal perf. He would not have taken from our hand a burnt offering and a meal offering’. 3 m. but Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.sg. + sf. II: Completed actions where English uses the present “expressing facts which were completed long before or conditions and attributes which were acquired long before. but of which the effects still remain in the present” (GK 106 d) . in front of our brothers identify what of yours is with me and take (it).

while Hebrew expresses rather the act which has resulted in it. i. although the perf.278 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW a) Genesis 14:22 (Abram and Melchizedek) ‫מ ִתי יָ ִ ֤די ֶאל־יְ הוָ ֙ה ֵ ֣אל ֶע ְלי֔ וֹן ק ֵֹנ֖ה‬ ֹ ֨ ‫ל־מ ֶלְך ְס ֑ד ֹם ֲה ִרי‬ ֣ ֶ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָ ֖רם ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ ֥מיִם וָ ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ And Abram said to the king of Sodom. i. ‘I love’. the verb ‫‘ ידע‬know’ is very often treated like a stative verb (JM 112a). English. ‘I raise my hand to the Lord. 1 c. 1 c.sg. an action completed in the immediate past. expresses the condition. stative verb. ‫ זָ ַ ֑ קנְ ִתּי‬is a stative verb. possessor of Heaven and Earth’. . ‘I have raised’ > ‘I raise’. ‫ יָ ַ ֖ד ְע ִתּי‬Qal perf. ‫ .e. ‫זָ ַ ֑ קנְ ִתּי‬ Qal perf. by its present tense.sg. of stative verbs can also be used for the past (JM 112 a. 1 c.b). ‘I do (not) know’. i.e. Most High G-d. Sometimes an active verb is treated like a stative verb. 1 c. c) Genesis 27:4 (Isaac) ‫ה־לי ַמ ְט ַע ִ֜מּים ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָא ַ ֛ה ְב ִתּי‬ ִ ֨ ‫וַ ֲע ֵשׂ‬ Make me tasty food as I love. ‘I am old’. b) Genesis 27:2 ‫מוֹתי׃‬ ֽ ִ ‫ה־נ֖א זָ ַ ֑ קנְ ִתּי ֥ל ֹא יָ ַ ֖ד ְע ִתּי י֥ וֹם‬ ָ ֵ‫אמר ִהנּ‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֕יּ‬ Behold now I am old. ‫ָא ַ ֛ה ְב ִתּי‬ Qal perf. when its meaning comes close to a stative meaning (JM 111h).sg. I do not know the day of my death.רוּם‬lit.sg. it describes a mental or physical condition. ‫מ ִתי‬ ֹ ֨ ‫ֲה ִרי‬ Hiphil perf.e. The primary meaning of stative verbs is that of the present.

being performed at the very moment of the utterance. Hence this use of the perfect is sometimes called ‘performative’ (JM 112f). ‫‘ . declaration to priest) ‫יּוֹם‬ ֙ ‫ל־הכּ ֵֹ֔הן ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר יִ ְה ֶי֖ה ַבּיָּ ִ ֣מים ָה ֵ ֑הם וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָ ֣תּ ֵא ֗ ָליו ִה ַגּ ְ֤ ד ִתּי ַה‬ ַ ‫את ֶא‬ ָ֙ ‫וּב‬ ָ ‫הו֛ה ַל ֲאב ֵ ֹ֖תינוּ ָ ֥ל ֶתת‬ ָ ְ‫ל־ה ָ֔א ֶרץ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר נִ ְשׁ ַ ֧בּע י‬ ָ ‫אתי ֶא‬ ֙ ִ ‫י־ב‬ ָ֙ ‫ֹלהיָך ִכּ‬ ֶ֔ ‫יהו֣ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫ַל‬ ‫ָ ֽלנוּ׃‬ And you will come to the priest who will be in those days and you shall say to him. ‫ָק ֜טֹנְ ִתּי‬ Qal perf.pl. is assumed to belong to the past. ‘we remember’.sg. “The qatal is used for an instantaneous action which.sg. ‫זָ ֙ ַכ ְר ֙נוּ‬ Qal perf. 1 c. ‫ זכר‬is treated like a stative verb. ‘I am small’. . ‘I declare this day to the Lord your G-d that I have come to the Land which the Lord swore to our fathers to give us’. f) Deuteronomy 26:3 (presentation of first-fruits at Sanctuary. 1 c. stative. e) Numbers 11:5 ‫אכל ְבּ ִמ ְצ ַ ֖ריִ ם ִח ָנּ֑ם‬ ֥ ַ ֹ ‫ת־ה ָדּ ֔ ָגה ֲא ֶשׁר־נ‬ ַ ‫זָ ֙ ַכ ְר ֙נוּ ֶא‬ We remember the fish which we ate in Egypt for nothing.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 279 d) Genesis 32:11 (Jacob praying before his meeting with Esau) ‫ת־ע ְב ֶ ֑דָּך‬ ַ ‫ית ֶא‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ֱא ֶ֔מת ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָע ִ ֖שׂ‬ ֣ ָ ‫וּמ ָכּ‬ ִ ‫ָק ֜טֹנְ ִתּי ִמ ֤כֹּל ַה ֲח ָס ִד ֙ים‬ I am too insignificant for all the kindnesses and all the truth which you have performed with your servant.נגד‬I declare’. (JM 112a). ‫ִה ַגּ ְ֤ ד ִתּי‬ Hiphil perf. 1 c.

‘performative’ perfect (see f above). but My people do not know the judgment of the Lord. this use of Qal perf.sg. ‫ָי ְֽ ד ָע ֙ה‬ Qal perf. III: Use of Perfect to express future actions “When the speaker intends by an express assurance to represent them as finished. These verbs express actions of frequent occurrence which are proved by experience. 3 c. Abraham bought the Cave of Machpelah from Ephron) ‫יה‬ ָ ‫ר־בּוֹ ְלָך֣ נְ ַת ִ ֑תּ‬ ֖ ‫א־אד ִֹנ֣י ְשׁ ָמ ֔ ֵענִ י ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ֙ה נָ ַ ֣ת ִתּי ֔ ָלְך וְ ַה ְמּ ָע ָ ֥רה ֲא ֶשׁ‬ ֲ ֹ ‫ֽל‬ . ‘(they) observe’. a) Genesis 23:11 (Ephron the Hittite to Abraham. ‫‘ . h) Jeremiah 8:7 ‫יס[ וְ ָע ֗גוּר ָשׁ ְמ ֖רוּ‬ ֙ ‫תר וְ סוּס ]וְ ִס‬ ֹ ֤ ְ‫יה ו‬ ָ ‫וֹע ֶ ֔ד‬ ֲ ‫ידה ַב ָשּׁ ַ֗מיִ ם ָי ְֽ ד ָע ֙ה ֽמ‬ ֣ ָ ‫ם־ח ִס‬ ֲ ַ‫גּ‬ ‫הוֽה׃‬ ָ ְ‫ת־ע֣ת בּ ָ ֹ֑אנָ ה וְ ַע ִ֕מּי ֣ל ֹא ָי ְֽ ד ֔עוּ ֵ ֖את ִמ ְשׁ ַ ֥פּט י‬ ֵ ‫ֶא‬ Even the stork in heaven knows her appointed times and the turtle and the swift and the crane observe the time of their coming. 3 f. ‫ָשׁ ְמ ֖רוּ‬ Qal perf.280 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW g) Deuteronomy 8:19 ‫אב ֽדוּן׃‬ ֵ ֹ ‫ַה ִע ֤ד ֹ ִתי ָב ֶכ ֙ם ַהיּ֔ וֹם ִ ֥כּי ָא ֖בֹד תּ‬ I testify against you today that you will surely perish. or as equivalent to accomplished facts” (GK 106 m). Therefore.עוד‬I take as witness’. ‫ַה ִע ֤ד ֹ ִתי‬ Hiphil perf.pl. ‘(she) knows’.sg. may be termed ‘perfect of experience’. 1 c.

pl. ‫תּי‬ ֙ ִ ‫נָ ַ֙ת‬ Qal perf. ‫“ . This use of perf. my lord. in the context of making a contract. from the river of Egypt to the Great River. d) Isaiah 5:13 ‫וּכבוֹדוֹ֙ ְמ ֵ ֣תי ָר ֔ ָעב וַ ֲהמוֹנ֖ וֹ ִצ ֵ ֥חה ָצ ָ ֽמא׃‬ ְ ‫י־ד ַעת‬ ֑ ָ ‫ָל ֵכ֛ן גָּ ָ ֥לה ַע ִ ֖מּי ִמ ְבּ ִל‬ .נתן‬I will give”. ‫“ . ‫גוע‬. ‫נָ ַ ֣ת ִתּי‬ Qal perf. ‘to your seed I will give this land. the Euphrates’. to you I (will) give it. b) Genesis 15:18 ‫תּי‬ ֙ ִ ‫מר ְלזַ ְר ֲע ָ֗ך נָ ַ֙ת‬ ֹ ֑ ‫ת־א ְב ָ ֖רם ְבּ ִ ֣רית ֵלא‬ ַ ‫הו֛ה ֶא‬ ָ ְ‫ַבּיּ֣ וֹם ַה ֗הוּא ָכּ ַ ֧רת י‬ ‫ר־פּ ָ ֽרת׃‬ ְ ‫ד־הנָּ ָ ֥הר ַהגָּ ֖ד ֹל נְ ַה‬ ַ ‫ת־ה ָ ֣א ֶרץ ַה ֔זּ ֹאת ִמנְּ ַ ֣הר ִמ ְצ ַ ֔ריִ ם ַע‬ ָ ‫ֶא‬ On that day. ‫גָּ ַו ְ֛ענוּ ָא ַ ֖ב ְדנוּ‬ Qal perf. The perfect is here used for an action that belongs to the near future. Contrast this use of ‫תּי‬ ֙ ִ ‫נָ ַ֙ת‬ with its use in Gen 23:11 (see a.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 281 No. the act of giving is after a lapse of some time. 1 c. is “to express facts which are undoubtedly imminent and therefore in the imagination of the speaker already accomplished” (GK 106 n). this use of perf. 1 c. may be termed “perfect of certainty”. 1 c. c) Numbers 17:27 (after Koraḥ’s rebellion) ‫מר ֵ ֥הן גָּ ַו ְ֛ענוּ ָא ַ ֖ב ְדנוּ ֻכּ ָ ֥לּנוּ ָא ַ ֽב ְדנוּ׃‬ ֹ ֑ ‫רוּ ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל ֶאל־מ ֶ ֹ֖שׁה ֵלא‬ ֙ ‫אמ‬ ְ ֹ ֽ‫וַ יּ‬ Behold.sg. we (will) perish.נתן‬I (will) give”. Here. where the act of giving took place almost immediately. hear me. the field I (will) give to you. ‫“ .sg. we (will) die. we (will) all perish. and the cave which is in it. above). the Lord made a covenant with Abraham saying.אבד‬we (will) die/perish”.

and Israel and Ephraim will stumble in their iniquity. 3 m. but a rhetorical device” (JM 112 h). since it occurs most frequently in the writings of the prophets.282 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Therefore My people have gone into captivity (will go into captivity) because they have no knowledge and their honoured (men) are men of hunger and their multitude is parched with thirst.g lit. where “the prophet so transports himself in imagination into the future that he describes the future event as if it had been already seen or heard by him”. ‫גָּ ָ ֥לה‬ Qal perf. (see above. (GK 106 n).sg. this use of the perf. e) Isaiah 25:8 ‫ל־פּ ִנ֑ים וְ ֶח ְר ַ ֣פּת‬ ָ ‫הו֛ה ִדּ ְמ ָ ֖עה ֵמ ַ ֣על ָכּ‬ ִ ְ‫וּמ ָ֨חה ֲאד ָֹנ֧י י‬ ָ ‫ִבּ ַלּ֤ע ַה ָ֙מּוֶ ֙ת ָל ֶ֔נ ַצח‬ ָ ‫יר ֵמ ַ ֣על ָכּ‬ ‫הו֖ה ִדּ ֵ ֽבּר׃‬ ָ ְ‫ל־ה ָ֔א ֶרץ ִ ֥כּי י‬ ֙ ‫ַע ֗מּוֹ יָ ִס‬ He will swallow up death for ever and the Lord G-d will wipe away tears from upon all faces and the reproach of His people He will remove from upon all the earth. but the sense is clearly in the future. a ‘prophetic perfect’. 3 m. ‘has gone into captivity’ > ‘will go into captivity’. d) f) Hosea 5:5 ‫וְ ָע ָנ֥ה גְ ֽאוֹן־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֖אל ְבּ ָפ ָנ֑יו וְ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֣אל וְ ֶא ְפ ַ ֗ריִם יִ ָ ֽכּ ְשׁ ֙לוּ ַבּ ֲעו ָֹ֔נם ָכּ ַ ֥שׁל‬ ‫הוּדה ִע ָ ֽמּם׃‬ ֖ ָ ְ‫גַּ ם־י‬ And the pride of Israel will testify in his face. lit. .s. ‘He has swallowed’. GK 106 n). ‫ִבּ ַלּ֤ע‬ Piel perf. Judah will also stumble with them. for the Lord has spoken. may be termed ‘prophetic perfect’ (JM 112 h. “This prophetic perfect is not a special grammatical perfect.

כלה‬until they shall have finished’ b) Isaiah 6:11 ‫יוֹשׁב‬ ֵ֗ ‫ם־שׁ ֨אוּ ָע ִ ֜רים ֵמ ֵ ֣אין‬ ָ ‫אמר ַע֣ד ֲא ֶשׁר֩ ִא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫ד־מ ַ ֖תי ֲאד ָֹנ֑י וַ ֡יּ‬ ָ ‫וָ א ַֹ֕מר ַע‬ ‫ים ֵמ ֵ ֣אין ָא ָ ֔דם וְ ָה ֲא ָד ָ ֖מה ִתּ ָשּׁ ֶ ֥אה ְשׁ ָמ ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֙ ‫וּב ִתּ‬ ָ And I said. ‘Judah will stumble’. ‫שׁל‬ ֥ ַ ‫ ָכּ‬follows the Niphal imperf. is finished in relation to another future action. ‫ וְ ָע ָנ֥ה‬and so the ֥ ַ ‫ ָכּ‬is here a ‘prophetic narrative sequence plus context demonstrate that ‫שׁל‬ perfect’. though future. a) Genesis 24:19 (Rebekah’s words to Abraham’s servant) ‫תּת׃‬ ֹ ֽ ‫ם־כּ ֖לּוּ ִל ְשׁ‬ ִ ‫אמר ַגּ֤ם ִלגְ ַמ ֶ ֙לּ ֙יָך ֶא ְשׁ ָ֔אב ַ ֥עד ִא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ְתּ ַכ֖ל ְל ַה ְשׁק ֹ֑תוֹ וַ ֗תּ‬ And she finished giving him to drink and she said. ‫. However.שׁאה‬ ‘until they will have . ‫לוּ‬ ֙ ‫יִכּ ְשׁ‬ ֽ ָ and the perf. + vav consec. 3 m. ‘how long Lord?’ And He said. “to express actions or facts. 3 c.pl. 3 c. IV: Use of Perfect in sense of Future Perfect. ‫‘ . and the ground will be ruined into a desolation’. which are meant to be indicated as existing in the future in a completed state” (GK 106 o). and houses without man. ‘for your animals also I will draw (water) until they shall have finished drinking’. that is. to indicate that an action. Qal perf.sg. ‫ם־שׁ ֨אוּ‬ ָ ‫ַע֣ד ֲא ֶשׁר֩ ִא‬ crashed into ruins’. ‘until cities will have crashed into ruins without inhabitants. ‘he has stumbled’.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 283 ‫ָכּ ַ ֥שׁל‬ Qal perf.pl. ‫ם־כּ ֖לּוּ‬ ִ ‫ַ ֥עד ִא‬ Piel perf. lit.

ענה‬they (continuously) afflicted’ . + vav consec. ‫ְת ֻס ֶ֙בּינָ ֙ה‬ Qal imperf. ‫‘ . see JM 113f) (i) Genesis 2:6 (description of earth before man) ‫ֽי־ה ֲא ָד ָ ֽמה׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ל־פּ ֵנ‬ ְ ‫ת־כּ‬ ָ ‫ן־ה ָ ֑א ֶרץ וְ ִה ְשׁ ָ ֖ קה ֶ ֽא‬ ָ ‫וְ ֵ ֖אד ַי ֲֽע ֶל֣ה ִמ‬ A mist was constantly rising and watering the face of the whole earth.סבב‬were surrounding’ (iii) Exodus 1:12 (Israel in Egypt) ‫יִפ ֑ר ֹץ‬ ְ ‫וְ ַכ ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר יְ ַענּ֣ וּ א ֹ֔תוֹ ֵ ֥כּן יִ ְר ֶ ֖בּה וְ ֵכ֣ן‬ The more they afflicted him. ‫יְ ַענּ֣ וּ‬ Piel imperf.pl. the more he multiplied and spread abroad. (ii) Genesis 37:7 ‫יכם וַ ִ ֽתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחֶו֖ין ָ ַל ֲא ֻל ָמּ ִ ֽתי׃‬ ֶ֔ ‫מּ ֵת‬ ֹ ֣ ‫וְ ִה ֵנּ֤ה ְת ֻס ֶ֙בּינָ ֙ה ֲא ֻל‬ And behold your sheaves were surrounding and bowed down to my sheaf.עלה‬was (constantly) rising’ ‫וְ ִה ְשׁ ָ ֖ קה‬ Hiphil perf. ‫‘ . 3 f.284 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW USE OF IMPERFECT/YIQTOL Exercise: in the following biblical verses discuss/analyse use of Imperfect/Yiqtol I: Sphere of past time a) To express actions.שׁקה‬was watering’. ‫‘ . events or states which CONTINUED throughout a longer or shorter period (GK 107) (labelled ‘durative action’. ‫‘ . ‫ ַי ֲֽע ֶל֣ה‬Qal imperf.

‘he used to pitch’ (iii) Numbers 9:18 (the fiery cloud upon the tabernacle) ‫הו֖ה יַ ֲחנ֑ וּ ָכּל־יְ ֵ֗מי ֲא ֶ֨שׁר יִ ְשׁ ֧כֹּן‬ ָ ְ‫ל־פּי י‬ ֥ ִ ‫עוּ ְבּ ֵנ֣י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֔אל וְ ַע‬ ֙ ‫הוה יִ ְס‬ ָ֗ ְ‫ל־פּי י‬ ֣ ִ ‫ַע‬ ‫ל־ה ִמּ ְשׁ ָ ֖כּן יַ ֲחנֽ וּ׃‬ ַ ‫ֶה ָע ָנ֛ ן ַע‬ .שׁקה‬they would water’ (ii) Exodus 33:7 ‫ן־ה ַמּ ֲח ֔ ֶנה‬ ֽ ַ ‫ה־לוֹ ִמ ֣חוּץ ַל ַֽמּ ֲח ֶ֗נה ַה ְר ֵח ֙ק ִמ‬ ֣ ‫א ֶהל וְ ָנ ָֽט‬ ֹ ֜ ‫ת־ה‬ ָ ‫וּמ ֶֹשׁ ֩ה יִ ַ ֨קּח ֶא‬ And Moses used to take the tent and pitch it outside the camp. for from that well they would water the flock. ‫‘ . see JM 113e) (i) Genesis 29:2 (Jacob reaches a well) ‫יה‬ ָ ‫אן ר ְֹב ִ ֣צים ָע ֔ ֶל‬ ֙ ֹ ‫ֹלשׁה ֶע ְד ֵרי־צ‬ ֤ ָ ‫וַ ַ֞יּ ְרא וְ ִה ֵנּ֧ה ְב ֵ ֣אר ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶ ֗דה וְ ִהנֵּ ה־ ָ֞שׁם ְשׁ‬ ‫ן־ה ְבּ ֵ ֣אר ַה ִ֔הוא יַ ְשׁ ֖קוּ ָה ֲע ָד ִ ֑רים‬ ַ ‫ִכּ֚י ִמ‬ And he looked and behold a well in the field and behold there were three flocks of sheep lying by it. either at fixed intervals or occasionally (GK 107) (labelled ‘repeated action’.פרץ‬he (continually) spread abroad’ b) 285 To express actions. events or states which were repeated in the past. + vav consec.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫יִ ְר ֶ ֖בּה‬ Qal imperf. ‫יִ ַ ֨קּח‬ Qal imperf. ‫‘ . ‫‘ .לקח‬he used to take’ ‫וְ ָנ ָֽטה‬ Qal imperf. at a distance from the camp.רבה‬he (continuously) multiplied’ ‫יִפ ֑ר ֹץ‬ ְ Qal imperf. ‫יַ ְשׁ ֖קוּ‬ Hiphil imperf. ‫‘ .

‫הוּ‬ ֙ ‫יִמ ָצ ֵ֙א‬ ְ Qal imperf. ‫ יַ ֲחנ֑ וּ‬Qal imperf. 3 m.שׁכן‬it) would abide’. 3 m. + sf.sg. (i) Deuteronomy 32:10 (G-d’s care of Israel) ‫מן‬ ֹ ֑ ‫תהוּ יְ ֵל֣ל יְ ִשׁ‬ ֹ ֖ ‫וּב‬ ְ ‫הוּ ְבּ ֶ ֣א ֶרץ ִמ ְד ָ֔בּר‬ ֙ ‫יִמ ָצ ֵ֙א‬ ְ He found him in a desert land and in a waste of howling of a desert (= in the howling waste of a desert). (ii) Job 3:3 ‫אבד י֖ וֹם ִאָוּ ֶ֣לד ֑בּוֹ‬ ַ ֹ ‫֣י‬ May the day perish on which I was born.sg.מצא‬he found him’. “Almost all instances belong to the elevated or poetic style” (ibid). ‫‘ .pl ‫‘ . (iii) Psalm 8:6 ‫ֹלהים וְ ָכ ֖בוֹד וְ ָה ָ ֣דר ְתּ ַע ְטּ ֵ ֽרהוּ׃‬ ֑ ִ ‫וַ ְתּ ַח ְסּ ֵ ֣רהוּ ְ ֭מּ ַעט ֵמ ֱא‬ .pl. ‫(‘ . ‫‘ .ילד‬I was born’. 3 m. c) Yiqtol with the value of Qatal “There are some yiqtols with no iterative or durative aspect.נסע‬they would journey’. ‫‘ . ‫ִאָוּ ֶ֣לד‬ Niphal imperf. 3 m. 3 m. which would be the expected form” (JM 113h). ‫ יִ ְשׁ ֧כֹּן‬Qal imperf.sg. 1 c.286 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW According to the command of the Lord the children of Israel would journey and according to the command of the Lord they would encamp. they would encamp.sg.חנה‬they would encamp’. ‫עוּ‬ ֙ ‫ יִ ְס‬Qal imperf. all the days that the Cloud would abide upon the Tabernacle. and thus having the value of qatal.

“(they) trembled”. not yet”.עטר‬you have crowned him’. Note the narrative sequence. “(it) has swallowed them”.12. ‫ ָאז‬+ imperf. i. see GK 107b for a different analysis. view these imperfects as part of the preceding category. 2 m. d) Imperfects after certain particles (‫“ = ָאז‬then”. (iv) Exodus 15:5. the Yiqtol form follows a Vayiqtol form. used of past action is even a little more common that ‫ ָאז‬+ perf. ‫ְתּ ַע ְטּ ֵ ֽרהוּ‬ Piel imperf.12. according to which these verbs (Ex. ‫“ = ֶט ֶרם‬before. ‫“ = ְבּ ֶט ֶרם‬before”. ‫ָ ֣אז ְיִב ֶנ֤ה‬ “Then he built” (‫יִבנֶ ה‬ ְ Qal imperf. These verbs from the Song of the Sea (see detailed analysis in Part Five of this book) are included by Jouon/Muraoka in the category of Yiqtol verbs having the value of Qatal verbs. However. GK views these verbs as expressing durative or continuous action in the past. see I . (i) Joshua 8:30 ‫יבל׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֑אל ְבּ ַ ֖הר ֵע‬ ֣ ֵ ‫יהו֖ה ֱא‬ ָ ‫הוֹשׁ ַע ִמזְ ֵ֔בּ ַח ַ ֽל‬ ֻ֙ ְ‫ָ ֣אז ְיִב ֶנ֤ה י‬ Then Joshua built an altar to the Lord G-d of Israel on Mount Ebal. 15:6. + sf.sg. ‫‘ . (JM 113i-k. c).15) are used in the sphere of past time “to express actions etc which continued throughout a longer or shorter period”. ‫וַ ְתּ ַח ְסּ ֵ ֣רהוּ‬. with no iterative or durative aspect (113h). (JM 113i). ‫)בנה‬.e.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 287 You have made him lack little of G-d and with glory and honour you have crowned him.sg.14 ‫יְכ ְסֻי ֑מוּ ִתּ ְב ָל ֵ ֖עמוֹ יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬ ַ “(They) have covered them”. 3 m. ‫“ = ַעד‬until”).14.

after ‫ת־ה ִמּ ֽלּוֹא׃ > ָאז‬ “Then he built the Millo”. used for a past action. surrounded the house. ‘before you came’. “is not conditioned by ‫” ָאז‬. however. e. after ‫ ָאז‬used of past action) suggests that this use of imperf. = ‘before’ is always (iii) Genesis 27:33 (Isaac to Esau) ‫וָ א ַ ֹ֥כל ִמ ֛כֹּל ְבּ ֶ ֥ט ֶרם ָתּ ֖בוֹא וָ ֲא ָב ֲר ֵכ֑הוּ‬ And I ate from all before you came and I blessed him. and imperf. the men of Sodom. ‫ ֶט ֶרם‬+ imperf.g. Gen 4:26: ‫הוֽה‬ on the name of the Lord”. ‫ְבּ ֶ ֥ט ֶרם ָתּ ֖בוֹא‬ past action. = ‘before’ is used of . at end of section. ‫ֶט ֶר ֮ם יִ ְשׁ ָכּב ֒וּ‬ ‘before they lay down’. See note on ‫ ָאז‬below. Compare e. Exod 15:15: ‫לּוּפ֣י ֱא ֔דוֹם‬ ֵ ‫“ ָ ֤אז נִ ְב ֲה ֙לוּ ַא‬then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed”. Joshua 10:33: ‫ ָאז ָע ָלה‬with II Kings 12:18: ‫ ָאז יַ ֲע ֶלה‬both meaning “then he went up”. See. Jouon/Muraoka (113i) conclude that this phenomenon (occurrence of same verb in both perf.288 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ַ ‫ָ ֖אז ָבּ ָנ֥ה ֶא‬ Kings 9:24 for same verb (‫ )בנה‬in perf. and not upon its gradual accomplishment or duration in the ָ ְ‫הוּחל ִל ְק ֖ר ֹא ְבּ ֵ ֥שׁם י‬ ַ֔ ‫“ ָ ֣אז‬then it was begun to call past. from young to old. (ii) Genesis 19:4 (two angels came to Sodom to Lot’s house) ‫ל־ה ַ֔בּיִ ת ִמ ַנּ ַ֖ער וְ ַעד־זָ ֵ ֑ קן‬ ַ ‫ֶט ֶר ֮ם יִ ְשׁ ָכּב ֒וּ וְ ַאנְ ֵ֨שׁי ָה ֜ ִעיר ַאנְ ֵ ֤שׁי ְסד ֹ֙ם נָ ַ ֣סבּוּ ַע‬ Before they lay down.g. the men of the city. GK 107c: “The perfect is used after ‫ ָאז‬when stress is to be laid on the fact that the action has really taken place. ‫ְבּ ֶט ֶרם‬ + imperf.

“poetic. I Sam 3:7 for perf. ‫. 2) For ‫ ָאז‬+ perf. I Kings 3:16. Piel imperf. Note on use of ‫“ = ָאז‬then. see: Gen 4:26. 3) For ‫ ָאז‬+ imperf. almost always + imperf. ‫גּוֹי‬ ֙ ‫ַעד־יִ ֥קֹּם‬ ‘until (the) nation had avenged itself’.כלה‬ ‘not yet’.). of past time. Joshua 10:12. ‫= ֶט ֶרם‬ ‫ ֶט ֶרם‬+ (v) Joshua 10:13 (the sun stood still to give the Israelites time to conquer the Amorites) ‫איְ ָ֔ביו‬ ֹ ֽ ‫גּוֹי‬ ֙ ‫וַ יִּ ֨דּ ֹם ַה ֶ֜שּׁ ֶמשׁ וְ יָ ֵ ֣ר ַח ָע ָ֗מד ַעד־יִ ֥קֹּם‬ And the sun was still and the moon stood until the nation had avenged itself of its enemies.sg. at that time” (whether temporally or logically. Qal imperf. occasionally used for past action. ‫ַעד . here.נקם‬ + imperf. next’) 1) For ‫ ָאז‬without a verb for past time. 1 c. Exod 4:26. but not in the sense of ‘subsequently. Deut 4:41. see: Exod 15:1. of past time. Num 21:17. .PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 289 (iv) Genesis 24:45 ‫את‬ ֙ ‫ל־ל ִ֗בּי וְ ִה ֵ֨נּה ִר ְב ָ ֤ קה י ֵֹצ‬ ִ ‫ֲאנִ י֩ ֶ֨ט ֶרם ֲא ַכ ֜ ֶלּה ְל ַד ֵבּ֣ר ֶא‬ I had not yet finished speaking to my heart and behold Rebekah was coming out. I Kings 8:1. ‫ֶ֨ט ֶרם ֲא ַכ ֜ ֶלּה‬ ‘I had not yet finished’. (see Gen 24:15. and perhaps nuance of purpose” (JM 113k). see Gen 12:6.

14 ‫את ַל ַשּׁ ָ֜בּת‬ ָ ‫ם־תּ ִ ֤שׁיב ִמ ַשּׁ ָבּ ֙ת ַרגְ ֔ ֶלָך ֲע ֥שׂוֹת ֲח ָפ ֶ ֖ציָך ְבּי֣ וֹם ָק ְד ִ ֑שׁי וְ ָק ָ ֨ר‬ ָ ‫ִא‬ ֖‫֗עֹנֶ ג ִל ְק ֤דוֹשׁ יְ הוָ ֙ה ְמ ֻכ ָ֔בּד וְ ִכ ַבּ ְדתּוֹ֙ ֵמ ֲע ֣שׂוֹת ְדּ ָר ֶ֔כיָך ִמ ְמּ ֥צוֹא ֶח ְפ ְצָך‬ ‫הוה‬ ָ֔ ְ‫וְ ַד ֵ ֥בּר ָדּ ָ ֽבר׃ ָ֗אז ִתּ ְת ַענַּ ֙ג ַעל־י‬ .290 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 4) For ‫ ָאז‬+ imperf. see: Isaiah 58:13. then he would gather him from his leprosy’. 5) For ‫ ָאז‬+ imperf. when you will come to my family”.e. Micah 3:4. with an accompanying logical force.14. of future time (usually where some emphasis is intended). of future time. Exod 12:48. II Kings 5:3 (Hebrew slave girl to Naaman’s wife) ‫שׁר ְבּשׁ ְֹמ ֑רוֹן ָ ֛אז יֶ ֱא ֥סֹף‬ ֣ ֶ ‫אמ ֙ר ֶאל־גְּ ִב ְר ָ֔תּהּ ַא ֲח ֵל֣י ֲאד ִֹ֔ני ִל ְפ ֵנ֥י ַהנָּ ִ ֖ביא ֲא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨תּ‬ ‫א ֹ֖תוֹ ִמ ָצּ ַר ְע ֽתּוֹ׃‬ And she said to her mistress. Note also ‫ ַא ֲח ֵל֣י‬from ‫“ ַא ֲח ַלי‬my wish”. 6) For ‫ ָאז‬expressing only logical sequence. II Kings 5:3.g. Joshua 1:8. ‫ָ ֛אז יֶ ֱא ֥סֹף א ֹ֖תוֹ‬ “then he would gather/heal him”. see: Isaiah 35:5. see: Gen 24:41. on condition that this has been done) you will be clear of my oath. implying the fulfilment of a condition. ִ ‫ֶא‬ e. Isaiah 58: 13. ‘would that my lord was before the prophet who is in Samaria. Genesis 24:41: ‫ל־מ ְשׁ ַפּ ְח ִ ֑תּי‬ ‫ָ ֤אז ִתּנָּ ֶק ֙ה ֵמ ָ ֣א ָל ִ֔תי ִ ֥כּי ָת ֖בוֹא‬ “then (i. see BDB p 25.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

291

If you will bring back your foot because of the Sabbath, from doing your
business on My holy day, and you will call the Sabbath a delight, holy of the
Lord, honoured, and (if) you honour it from doing your ways, from seeking
your desire and speaking a word; then you will delight in the Lord.

‫ָ֗אז ִתּ ְת ַענַּ ֙ג‬

‘then, (under those conditions), you will delight’

II: Sphere of present time
a)

Durative action, to express actions events or states which are
continued for a shorter or longer time.

(i) Genesis 24:31 (Laban to Abraham’s servant)

‫ָל ָ֤מּה ַת ֲעמ ֹ֙ד ַבּ ֔חוּץ‬
Why are you standing outside?
(ii) I Samuel 1:8

‫אכ ֔ ִלי וְ ָל ֶ֖מה‬
ְ ֹ ‫ישׁהּ ַחנָּ ֙ה ָל ֶ֣מה ִת ְב ִ֗כּי וְ ָ ֙ל ֶמ ֙ה ֣ל ֹא ֽת‬
ָ֗ ‫אמר ֜ ָלהּ ֶא ְל ָק ָנ֣ה ִא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬
‫יֵ ַ ֣רע ְל ָב ֵבְ֑ך‬
And Elkanah her husband said to her, ‘Hannah, why are you weeping and
why do you not eat and why is your heart sad?’
b)

Repeated action, to express actions, events or states which may
be repeated at any time or are customarily repeated.

(i) Deuteronomy 1:44

‫את ֶ֔כם וַ יִּ ְר ְדּ ֣פוּ ֶא ְת ֶ֔כם ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬
ְ ‫הוּא ִל ְק ַר‬
֙ ‫וַ יֵּ ֵ֨צא ָה ֱאמ ִ ֹ֜רי ַהיּ ֵֹ֨שׁב ָבּ ָ ֤הר ַה‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֶ ֖שׂינָ ה ַה ְדּב ִ ֹ֑רים‬

292

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

And the Amorites who dwell in that mountain came out to meet you and
pursued you as bees are accustomed to do.

‫ ַתּ ֲע ֶ ֖שׂינָ ה‬Qal imperf. 3 f.pl. ‫‘ ;עשׂה‬are accustomed to do’.
(ii) Genesis 32:33

‫ל־כּ֣ף ַהיָּ ֵ ֔רְך ַ ֖עד‬
ַ ‫ת־גּ֣יד ַהנָּ ֶ֗שׁה ֲא ֶשׁ ֙ר ַע‬
ִ ‫אכ ֨לוּ ְב ֵנֽי־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֜אל ֶא‬
ְ ֹ ‫ל־כּן ֽל ֹא־י‬
ֵ֡ ‫ַע‬
‫ַהיּ֣ וֹם ַה ֶזּ֑ה‬
Therefore the children of Israel do not eat the sinew of the vein which is
upon the hollow of the thigh, until this day.

‫אכ ֨לוּ‬
ְ ֹ ‫ֽל ֹא־י‬
c)

Qal imperf. ‫‘ ;אכל‬they do not (customarily) eat’.

Truths of experience or general truths

(i) Exodus 23:8

‫יס ֵלּ֖ף ִדּ ְב ֵ ֥רי ַצ ִדּי ִ ֽ קים׃‬
ַ ‫ִ ֤כּי ַה ֨שּׁ ֹ ַח ֙ד יְ ַעֵוּ֣ר ִפּ ְק ִ֔חים ִ ֽו‬
For the bribe blinds the clear-sighted and perverts the words of the
righteous.

‫יְ ַעֵוּ֣ר‬

Piel imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫‘ ;עור‬blinds’.

‫יס ֵלּ֖ף‬
ַ ‫ִ ֽו‬

Piel imperf. 3 m.sg. + vav conj. ‫‘ ;סלף‬perverts’.

(ii) Proverbs 15:20

‫בּוֹז֥ה ִא ֽמּוֹ׃‬
ֶ ‫וּכ ִ ֥סיל ָ֝א ָ ֗דם‬
ְ ‫ח־אב‬
֑ ָ ‫ֵ ֣בּן ָ ֭ח ָכם יְ ַשׂ ַמּ‬
A wise son makes a father glad but a foolish man despises his mother.

‫יְ ַשׂ ַמּח‬

Piel imperf. ‫(‘ ;שׂמח‬he) makes glad’.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

293

III: Sphere of future time
a)

From the standpoint of the speaker’s present time

(i) Exodus 6:1

‫אמר יְ הוָ ֙ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹ֔שׁה ַע ָ ֣תּה ִת ְר ֶ֔אה ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ֽ ֶא ֱע ֶ ֖שׂה ְל ַפ ְר ֑עֹה ִ ֣כּי ְב ָי֤ד‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫וּב ָי֣ד ֲחזָ ָ ֔קה יְ גָ ְר ֵ ֖שׁם ֵמ ַא ְר ֽצוֹ׃‬
ְ ‫ֲחזָ ָק ֙ה יְ ַשׁ ְלּ ֵ֔חם‬
And the Lord said to Moses, ‘now you will see that which I shall do to
Pharoah, for with a strong hand he will let them go and with a strong hand
he will drive them out of his land’.

‫ִת ְר ֶ֔אה‬

Qal imperf. ‫שׂה ;ראה‬
֖ ֶ ‫ ֽ ֶא ֱע‬Qal imperf. ‫ יְ ַשׁ ְלּ ֵ֔חם ;עשׂה‬Piel
imperf. + sf. 3 m.pl ‫שׁם ;שׁלח‬
֖ ֵ ‫ יְ גָ ְר‬Piel imperf. + sf. 3 m.pl. ‫גרשׁ‬.
(ii) I Kings 12:27 (Jeroboam I planning the calf worship)

‫וּשׁ ֔ ַל ִם ְו ָ֠שׁב ֵל֣ב‬
ָ ‫ִ ֽאם־יַ ֲע ֶל֣ה ָה ָע֣ם ַה ֶ֗זּה ַל ֲע ֨שׂוֹת זְ ָב ִ ֤חים ְבּ ֵבית־יְ הוָ ֙ה ִבּ ֣יר‬
‫הוּדה‬
֑ ָ ְ‫ל־ר ַח ְב ָ ֖עם ֶ ֣מ ֶלְך י‬
ְ ‫יהם ֶא‬
ֶ֔ ֵ‫ל־א ֣ד ֹנ‬
ֲ ‫ָה ָ ֤עם ַהזֶּ ֙ה ֶא‬
If this people will go up to perform sacrifices in the House of the Lord in
Jerusalem, then the heart of this people will turn back to their lord, to
Rehoboam.

‫יַ ֲע ֶל֣ה‬
b)

Qal imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫(‘ ;עלה‬it) will go up’.

To represent actions which may be regarded as future from some
standpoint in the past (corresponding to English: will, shall,
may, can, am to, would, should, might, could, was to).

(i) Genesis 43:7 (sons of Jacob speaking to Jacob)

‫יכם׃‬
ֽ ֶ ‫ת־א ִח‬
ֲ ‫הוֹרידוּ ֶא‬
֖ ִ ‫אמר‬
ַ֔ ֹ ‫וֹע נֵ ַ ֔דע ִ ֣כּי י‬
ַ ‫ֲהיָ ֣ד‬

294

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

Were we to know that he would say ‘bring down your brother?’

‫אמר‬
ַ֔ ֹ ‫‘ ִ ֣כּי י‬that he would say’
(ii) II Kings 3:27 (when the King of Moab saw that the war with Israel
was going against him, he offered up his son for a burnt-offering)

‫ר־יִמ ֹ֣לְך ַתּ ְח ָ֗תּיו‬
ְ ‫ת־בּנ֨ וֹ ַה ְבּ ֜כוֹר ֲא ֶשׁ‬
ְ ‫וַ יִּ ַקּ ֩ח ֶא‬
And he took his eldest son who was to reign after him.

‫ר־יִמ ֹ֣לְך‬
ְ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬

‘who was to reign’

(iii) II Kings 13:14

‫יָמוּת ֑בּוֹ‬
֖ ‫ת־ח ְלי֔ וֹ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬
ָ ‫ישׁ ֙ע ָח ָל֣ה ֶא‬
ָ ‫ֶו ֱֽא ִל‬
And Elisha became sick with the illness of which he was to die.

‫יָמוּת ֑בּוֹ‬
֖ ‫ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר‬
c)

‘of which he was to die’

Potential or permissive sense, to express what can or may
happen, or in a negative sense, what cannot or should not
happen.

(i) Genesis 2:16

‫אכל׃‬
ֽ ֵ ֹ ‫ץ־ה ָגּ֖ ן ָא ֥כֹל תּ‬
ַ ‫ִמ־־ ֥כֹּל ֵ ֽע‬
From every tree of the garden, you may indeed eat.

‫אכל‬
ֽ ֵ ֹ ‫ָא ֥כֹל תּ‬

Qal inf. abs. + Qal imperf. ‘you may indeed eat’.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

295

(ii) Genesis 42:37

‫יאנּוּ‬
֖ ֶ ‫ם־ל ֹא ֲא ִב‬
֥ ‫ת־שׁ ֵנ֤י ָבנַ ֙י ָתּ ִ֔מית ִא‬
ְ ‫מר ֶא‬
ֹ ֔ ‫ל־א ִ ֣ביו ֵלא‬
ָ ‫אוּבן ֶא‬
֙ ֵ ‫אמר ְר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
‫ֵא ֶל֑יָך‬
And Reuben spoke to his father saying, ‘my two sons you may put to death
if I do not bring him to you’.

‫ָתּ ִ֔מית‬

Hiphil imperf. ‫‘ ;מות‬you may put to death’.

(iii) Genesis 29:26

‫ירה׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫ירה ִל ְפ ֵנ֥י ַה ְבּ ִכ‬
֖ ָ ‫קוֹמנוּ ָל ֵ ֥תת ַה ְצּ ִע‬
֑ ֵ ‫אמר ָל ָ֔בן לֹא־יֵ ָע ֶ ֥שׂה ֵ ֖כן ִבּ ְמ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
And Laban said, ‘it ought not so to be done in our place, to give the
younger before the elder’.

‫ לֹא־יֵ ָע ֶ ֥שׂה ֵ ֖כן‬Niphal imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫‘ ;עשׂה‬it ought not so to be done’.
(iv) Genesis 32:13 (Jacob reminds G-d of His promise to multiply
Abraham’s seed)

‫וְ ַשׂ ְמ ִ ֤תּי ֶ ֽאת־זַ ְר ֲע ָ֙ך ְכּ ֣חוֹל ַה ָ֔יּם ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר לֹא־יִ ָסּ ֵ ֖פר ֵמ ֽר ֹב׃‬
And I shall place your seed as the sand of the sea which cannot be
numbered for multitude.

‫ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר לֹא־יִ ָסּ ֵ ֖פר‬

Niphal imperf. ‫‘ ;ספר‬it cannot be numbered’.

(v) I Kings 8:27 (Solomon praying at the dedication of the Temple)

‫וּשׁ ֵ ֤מי ַה ָשּׁ ַ֙מיִ ֙ם ֣ל ֹא‬
ְ ‫ל־ה ָ ֑א ֶרץ ֠ ִהנֵּ ה ַה ָשּׁ ַ֜מיִ ם‬
ָ ‫ֹלהים ַע‬
֖ ִ ‫ִכּ֚י ַ ֽה ֻא ְמ ָ֔נם יֵ ֵ ֥שׁב ֱא‬
‫יתי׃‬
ִ ‫י־ה ַ ֥בּיִ ת ַה ֶזּ֖ה ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ָבּ ִ ֽנ‬
ַ ‫יְכ ְל ְכּ ֔לוָּך ַ֕אף ִ ֽכּ‬
ַ

296

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

For will G-d indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, the heaven and the heaven
of heavens cannot contain You, how much less this house that I have built?

‫יְכ ְל ְכּ ֔לוָּך‬
ַ ‫֣ל ֹא‬

Polel imperf. 3 m.pl. + sf. 2 m.sg. ‫(‘ ;כול‬they) cannot
contain You’. (The English states the impossibility of the Heavens
containing G-d, whereas the Hebrew merely expresses the fact that they do
not habitually and there is no likelihood that they will contain Him).

VIEWS OF MEDIEVAL SCHOLARS ON USE OF PERFECT AND
IMPERFECT
1

Genesis 21:1

‫הו֛ה ְל ָשׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִדּ ֵ ֽבּר׃‬
ָ ְ‫שׁר ָא ָ ֑מר וַ ַיּ ַ֧עשׂ י‬
֣ ֶ ‫ת־שׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא‬
ָ ‫ַיהו֛ה ָפּ ַ ֥ קד ֶא‬
ָ ‫ֽו‬
And the Lord had remembered Sarah as He had said, and the Lord did to
Sarah as He had spoken.
Comment of Rashi on ‫( ָפּ ַקד‬Rashi recognizes the PLUPERFECT)

‫ָס ַמְך ָפּ ָר ָשׁה זוֹ ְל ַל ֶמּ ְדָך ֶשׁ ָכּל ַה ְמ ַב ֵקּשׁ ַר ֲח ִמים ַעל ֲח ֵברוֹ וְ הוּא ָצ ִריְך‬
:‫ וְ ָס ַמְך ֵליהּ‬,'‫ וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל וגו‬,‫ ֶשׁנֶּ ֱא ַמר‬,‫ הוּא נַ ֲענֶ ה ְתּ ִח ָלּה‬,‫ְלאֹתוֹ ָד ָבר‬
:‫ימ ֶלְך‬
ֶ ‫קוֹדם ֶשׁ ִר ָפּא ֵאת ֲא ִב‬
ֶ ‫ ֶשׁ ְפּ ָק ָדהּ ְכּ ָבר‬,‫ ָשׂ ָרה‬-‫וה' ָפּ ַקד ֶאת‬
Translation of Rashi
(Scripture) juxtaposes (this section to the preceding one) to teach you that
whoever requests mercy for his fellow, when he needs the same thing, (his
prayer) is answered first, as it is said (Gen 20:17), ‘and Abraham prayed (for
Abimelech etc)’ and it juxtaposes ‘and the Lord had remembered Sarah’, for
He had already remembered her, before He healed Abimelech.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

297

Explanation of Rashi
Rashi explains that ‫ ָפּ ַקד‬is a pluperfect; G-d had remembered Sarah, for Gd remembered Sarah before He healed Abimelech and family.
2

Exodus 4:21 (Rashi recognises the Future-Perfect)

‫ים‬
֙ ‫מּ ְפ ִת‬
ֹ ֽ ‫ל־ה‬
ַ ‫ה ְבּ ֶל ְכ ְתּ ָ֙ך ָל ֣שׁוּב ִמ ְצ ַ ֔ריְ ָמה ְר ֵ֗אה ָכּ‬
֒ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ֮ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
ִ ‫עה וַ ֲאנִ ֙י ֲא ַח ֵזּ֣ק ֶא‬
ֹ ֑ ‫יתם ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י ַפ ְר‬
‫ת־ל ֔בּוֹ וְ ֥ל ֹא‬
֖ ָ ‫ר־שׂ ְמ ִתּי ְביָ ֶ ֔דָך וַ ֲע ִשׂ‬
֣ ַ ‫ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫ת־ה ָ ֽעם׃‬
ָ ‫יְ ַשׁ ַלּ֖ח ֶא‬
And the Lord said to Moses, ‘when you go to return to Egypt, see all the
wonders which I shall have placed in your hand, and do them before
Pharoah, but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go’.

ַ֣
Comment of Rashi on ‫שׂ ְמ ִתּי‬
‫ ֶשׁ ֲה ֵרי לֹא ִל ְפנֵ י ַפּ ְרעֹה ִצוָּ ה‬,‫לֹא ַעל ָשֹׁלש אוֹתוֹת ָה ֲאמוּרוֹת ְל ַמ ְע ָלה‬
ָ ‫ַל ֲע‬
,‫ ולא ָמ ִצינוּ ֶשׁ ֲע ָשׂ ָאם ְל ָפנָ יו‬,‫שׂוֹתם ֶא ָלּא לפני ישראל ֶשׁיַּ ֲא ִמינוּ לוֹ‬
(‫ )שמות ז ט‬:‫ ְכּמוֹ‬,‫מוֹפ ִתים ֶשׁ ֲאנִ י ָע ִתיד ָלשׂוּם ְבּיָ ְדָך ְבּ ִמ ְצ ַריִם‬
ְ ‫ֶא ָלּא‬
‫ִכּי֩ יְ ַד ֵ֨בּר ֲא ֵל ֶכ֤ם ַפּ ְרע ֹ֙ה‬
‫ ְכּ ֶשׁ ְתּ ַד ֵבּר‬,‫ ֶשׁ ֵכּן ַמ ְשׁ ָמעוֹ‬,‫וְ ַאל ִתּ ְת ַמהּ על ֲא ֶשׁר ְכּ ִתיב ֲא ֶשׁר ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי‬
:‫ִעמּוֹ ְכּ ָבר ַשׂ ְמ ִתּים ְבּיָ ְדָך‬
Translation of Rashi
Not concerning the three signs mentioned above (earlier in Exod 4), for He
had not commanded to do them before Pharoah, but before Israel, that
they should believe him, and we do not find that he did them before
Pharoah, but, (G-d meant) the wonders which I will have placed in your
hand in Egypt, like: (Exod 7:9): ‘when Pharoah will speak to you etc’, and

lit.‫עוֹל ִמית ִמיִּ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ָ ‫ימנּוּ‬ ֶ ‫יְכ ֶסּנּוּ וְ יַ ֲע ִל‬ ַ Translation of Rashi He will cover it and hide it for ever from Israel. as indicated by Rashi’s comment. because they were not performed before Pharoah.sg. ‫ ) ִשׂים‬is a future-perfect. the water of the Nile turned to blood). = ‘he has swallowed’. G-d was not referring to the signs already mentioned in Exod 4 (Moses’ rod became a serpent. for this is what it means: when you will speak with him (Pharoah). Comment of Rashi on ‫ִבּ ַלּ֤ע‬ . however. 3 m. Explanation of Rashi ‫ִבּ ַלּע‬ is Piel perf. Rashi also suggests that G-d will destroy death only from Israel. but before Israel. 1 c. ‘I shall have put’.sg. . G-d referred to signs which Moses had not yet received. his hand became leprous.298 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW do not wonder that it is written ‫( ֲא ֶשׁר ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי‬Qal perf. 3 Isaiah 25:8 (Rashi. see Exod 7:9. the context suggests a future meaning. where he uses verbs in the future tense to explain the meaning of ‫ ִבּ ַלּע‬.). I shall have already placed them in your hand. Rather. Ibn Ezra and Radak recognise the Prophetic Perfect) ‫ל־פּ ִנ֑ים‬ ָ ‫הו֛ה ִדּ ְמ ָ ֖עה ֵמ ַ ֣על ָכּ‬ ִ ְ‫וּמ ָ֨חה ֲאד ָֹנ֧י י‬ ָ ‫ִבּ ַלּ֤ע ַה ָ֙מּוֶ ֙ת ָל ֶ֔נ ַצח‬ He has swallowed (will swallow) death for ever and the Lord G-d will wipe away tears from upon all faces. Explanation of Rashi The word ‫( ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי‬Qal perf.

. Comment of Radak on ‫ִבּ ַלּע‬ . Explanation of Radak Radak suggests that G-d will destroy only accidental death. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra suggests that Death will destroy them. not natural death.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 299 Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ִבּ ַלּע‬ ‫“ = ַיְב ַלּע א ָֹתם‬it will swallow them”. not that G-d will destroy death. 4 I Samuel 2:19 (use of Yiqtol in sphere of past time to express repeated action) ‫לוֹת ֙הּ‬ ָ ‫ימה ַ ֽבּ ֲע‬ ָ ‫ה־לּוֹ ִא ֔מּוֹ וְ ַה ַע ְל ָ ֥תה ֖לוֹ ִמיָּ ִ ֣מים יָ ִ ֑מ‬ ֣ ‫טֹן ַתּ ֲע ֶשׂ‬ ֙ ‫וּמ ִ ֤עיל ָק‬ ְ ‫ת־ז ַ֥בח ַהיָּ ִ ֽמים׃‬ ֶ ‫ישׁהּ ִלזְ ֖בֹּ ַח ֶא‬ ָ֔ ‫ת־א‬ ִ ‫ֶא‬ And his mother made him (used to make him) a little coat and she brought it up to him from year to year.‫יתה ִט ְב ִעית‬ ָ ‫יתה ִמ ְק ִרית לֹא ִמ‬ ָ ‫ ר"ל ִמ‬. accidental death. However. when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice.‫יב ֵטּל ַה ָמּוֶ ת‬ ַ ִ‫יַ ְשׁ ִחית ו‬ Translation of Radak He will destroy and nullify death that is. He uses verbs in the future to interpret ‫ ִבּ ַלּע‬. Ibn Ezra does confirm a future meaning.

but as he grew bigger.‫הוֹלְך וְ גָ ֵדל ֵכּן ַתּ ֲע ֶשׂה לו ְכּ ִמ ָדּתוֹ ְמ ִעיל‬ Translation of Radak Like ‘she made’ (Qal perf. The latter explanation is in line with that of modern grammarians (see above). it is simply the equivalent of the perf. 3 f. Explanation of Radak ‫ ַתּ ֲע ֶשׂה‬is Qal imperf. 5 ֵ Psalm 1:1. he used the imperf. here: either. so she made him a new coat according to his size. it expressed repeated action in the past.2 (Ibn Ezra on ‫עוֹמד‬ ‫‘ = זְ ַמן‬standing time’) ‫וּב ֶ ֣ד ֶרְך ַ ֭ח ָטּ ִאים ֥ל ֹא ָע ָ ֑מד‬ ְ ‫ַ ֥א ְ ֽשׁ ֵרי ָה ִ֗אישׁ ֲא ֶ ֤שׁר ֥ל ֹא ָה ַל ְ֮ך ַבּ ֲע ַ ֪צת ְר ָ֫שׁ ִ ֥עים‬ ְ ‫תוֹר ֥תוֹ יֶ ְה ֗ ֶגּה‬ ָ ‫הוה ֶ֫ח ְפ ֥צוֹ וּֽ ְב‬ ָ֗ ְ‫תוֹרת י‬ ֥ ַ ‫וּבמוֹ ַ ֥שׁב ֵ֝ל ִ֗צים ֣ל ֹא יָ ָ ֽשׁב׃ ִ ֤כּי ִ ֖אם ְבּ‬ ‫יוֹמם וָ ָ ֽליְ ָלה׃‬ ָ֥ Happy is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked and in the way of sinners does not stand and in the seat of scorners does not sit. but in the Law of the Lord is his delight and in His Law he meditates day and night. Or.) and there are many (examples) like it. Radak offers two explanations for the use of the imperf.‫ְכּמוֹ וְ ָע ְשׂ ָתה וְ ַר ִבּים ָכּמוֹהוּ‬ ֵ ‫ֶא ָחד ְל ַבד ֶא ָלּא ְכּמוֹ ֶשׁ ָהיָ ה‬   . = ‘she will make’.sg.300 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ֣ ‫ַתּ ֲע ֶשׂ‬ Comment of Radak on ‫ה־לּוֹ‬ ‫ או אמר ַתּ ֲע ֶשׂה ִכּי לא ָע ְשׂ ָתה לוֹ ְמ ִעיל‬. or. because she did not make him only one coat. ‫‘ = ָע ְשׂ ָתה‬she made’. she made him a new coat every time he outgrew the old one. .

the verbs are Qal perf.‫ָה ַלְך‬ ‫ימן אוֹת ְל ָכל ַה ְפּ ָע ִלים ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ֵהם‬ ַ ‫וּמ ְשׁ ַפּט ְלשׁוֹן ַהקּ ֶֹדשׁ ְל ַה ְכנִ יס ִס‬ ִ ְ – ‫ ָא ְמרוּ ִמן ָפּ ַעל‬. i. which contains a description of the Temple during Isaiah’s vision.‫)= הוֹ וֶה( יְ ַד ְבּרוּ ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ָע ָבר גַּ ם ֶבּ ָע ִתיד‬ ‫ וְ ָכ ָכה לֹא ָה ַלְך‬:‫קּוֹרא וְ ַה ַבּיִ ת יִ ָמּ ֵלא ָע ָשׁן‬ ֵ ‫ַאמּוֹת ַה ִסּ ִפּים ִמקּוֹל ַה‬ . in the first half of the verse. i. that is. Moreover. Likewise. ‫יִמּ ֵלא‬ ָ is Niphal imperf. in Psalm 1:1. as in Isaiah 6:4: “and the doorposts shook at the sound of the one calling and the Temple was filled with smoke”. is in the imperfect (‫)יֶ ְהגֶּ ה‬. Likewise. . to express continuation. ‫נוּע‬ second half of the verse. + vav consec.‫ ָע ָמד‬. ‘and they shook’). the ַ . while in the verb is ‫( וַ יָּ נֻ עוּ‬Qal imperf. repetition.e. duration. All these verbs express ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫זְ ַמן‬. “happy is the man who does not (habitually) walk—stand—sit. either perfect or imperfect may be used to express ‘standing time’. “who does not walk” and “in His Law he meditates”. they use either perfect or imperfect.‫ֲע ִת ִידים‬ ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫ וְ ַכ ֲא ֶשׁר יִ ְרצוּ ְל ַד ֵבּר ַעל זְ ַמן‬. but—he meditates”. ‫ ָה ִאישׁ‬. in other words. the ‘parallel’ verb.‫וּבת ָוֹרתוֹ יֶ ְהגֶּ ה‬ ְ Translation of Ibn Ezra It is the rule of the Holy Tongue to insert a sign to all verbs when they are ‘future’. for the expression of ‘standing time’ (also termed ‫)הוֹ וֶה‬. This may be illustrated in Isaiah 6:4. ‫ ָפּ ַעל‬becomes ‫יִפ ַעל‬ ְ and when they wish to speak in ‘standing time’.e. ‫ ָפּ ַעל‬becomes ‫יִפ ַעל‬ ְ . ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫ זְ ַמן‬.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫יֶ ְהגֶּ ה‬ 301 . ‫ָה ַלְך ָע ָמד‬ ‫ יָ ָשׁב‬while the ‘parallel’ verb in 1:2. the tenses are virtually interchangeable. ‘was being filled with’. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra explains that prefixes are placed before the verbal stem to indicate the ‘future’ in Hebrew.‫יִפ ַעל‬ ‫ כמו )ישעיה ו ד( וַ יָּ נֻ עוּ‬. with the same subject.‫ יָ ָשׁב‬.

e. because in the Holy Tongue there is no specific way to express ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ ‫ זְ ַמן‬and it is the custom of the Hebrews to mix their words.‫ וגללו‬.‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫ָה ִע ְב ִרים ְל ָע ֵרב ִדּ ְב ֵר‬ “Behold. it says ‫( וַ יָּ נֻ עוּ‬past tense) and behold ‫יִמּ ֵלא ָע ָשׁן‬ ָ (future tense.‫גוֹל ִלים‬ ְ ְ‫ו‬ ‫וע ִתיד‬ ָ ‫ ְל ִפי ֶשׁ ָכּל ָדּ ָבר ַההוֹ וֶה ָת ִמיד ְכּ ָבר ָהיָ ה‬.‫ ְל ִפי ֶשׁ ָהיְ ָתה ָה ֶא ֶבן גדולה‬.‫וּמגַ נְ ְדּ ִרין‬ ְ :‫ות ְרגּוּמוֹ‬ ַ .” (See also Ibn Ezra’s comments on: Isaiah 1:21. The Targumic rendering is ‫וּמגַ נְ ְדּ ִרין‬ ְ (a participle). to its place. standing time).‫ ְרגִ ִילים ָהיוּ ְל ֵה ָא ֵסף‬. 6 Genesis 29:3 (Rashi on ‫הוֹ וֶה‬ ‫) ְלשׁוֹן‬ ‫ת־ה ֶ֙א ֶ ֙בן ֵמ ַעל֙ ִ ֣פּי ַה ְבּ ֵ֔אר וְ ִה ְשׁ ֖קוּ‬ ָ ‫ל־ה ֲע ָד ִ ֗רים וְ גָ ֲל ֤לוּ ֶא‬ ָ ‫פוּ־שׁ ָמּה ָכ‬ ֣ ָ ‫וְ נֶ ֶא ְס‬ ‫ל־פּי ַה ְבּ ֵ ֖אר ִל ְמק ָ ֹֽמהּ׃‬ ֥ ִ ‫ת־ה ֶ ֛א ֶבן ַע‬ ָ ‫ת־ה ֑צּ ֹאן וְ ֵה ִ ֧שׁיבוּ ֶא‬ ַ ‫ֶא‬ And all the flocks were (customarily) gathered there and they would roll the stone from upon the mouth of the well and they would water the sheep and they would return the stone to the mouth of the well.‫וּב ְלשׁוֹן ָע ָבר‬ ִ ‫ָע ִתיד‬ . i. Frequentative action may be expressed differently in either fu- .‫להיות‬ Translation of Rashi They were accustomed to being gathered there. because the stone was big.‫ונאספו‬ ‫ ָכּל ְלשׁוֹן הוֹ וֶה ִמ ְשׁ ַתּנָּ ה ְל ַד ֵבּר ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן‬. Comment of Rashi on ‫ונאספו‬/‫וגללו‬ . Hosea 6:1).302 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Ibn Ezra’s comment on Isaiah 6:4 makes the same point: ‫פּוֹעל עתיד והוא זמן‬ ַ ) ‫יִמּ ֵלא ָע ָשׁן‬ ָ ‫והנֵּ ה‬ ִ ‫פּוֹעל ָע ָבר‬ ַ ‫וְ ִהנֵּ ה ָא ַמר וַ יָּ נֻ עוּ‬ ‫עוֹמד והנה ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט‬ ֵ ‫ימן ַעל זְ ַמן‬ ֶ ‫עומד( ַבּ ֲעבוּר ֶשׁ ֵאין ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ַה‬ ָ ‫קּוֹדשׁ ִס‬ . And they used to roll (the stone).

and rose up early in the morning and offered burnt offerings according to the number of them all. abs. form in the perf. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that the Niphal perf.‫עוֹשׂה‬ ֶ ‫ְכּמוֹ ָהיָ ה‬   . because all continuous action has already been and will be in the future. Thus Job used to do all the days. or participle. Rashi terms this usage ‫ ְלשׁוֹן הוֹ וֶה‬and states that either perf. ‘perhaps my sons have sinned and cursed G-d in their heart’. when Rashi deems such forms to have the force of a frequentative or customary action.2).‫ ָמ ָחר ְכּ ֶשׁ ָכּ ַתב ְבּ ָד ָבר ַההוֹ וֶה וְ ָת ִדיר‬. imperf. Job sent and sanctified them. for repeated action in the past) ‫יְמי ַה ִמּ ְשׁ ֶ֜תּה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַל֧ח ִאיּ֣ וֹב ַוֽ יְ ַק ְדּ ֵ֗שׁם וְ ִה ְשׁ ִ ֣כּים ַבּבּ ֶֹק ֮ר‬ ֵ֨ ֩‫יפוּ‬ ֽ ‫וַ יְ ִ֡הי ִ ֣כּי ִה ִקּ‬ ‫וּב ֲר ֥כוּ‬ ֵ ‫אוּלי ָח ְט ֣אוּ ָב ַ֔ני‬ ֙ ַ ‫ם ִכּ֚י ָא ַ ֣מר ִאיּ֔ וֹב‬ ֒ ‫ֹלוֹת ִמ ְס ַ ֣פּר ֻכּ ָלּ‬ ֮ ‫וְ ֶה ֱע ָל֣ה ע‬ ‫ל־היָּ ִ ֽמים׃‬ ַ ‫ֹלהים ִבּ ְל ָב ָ ֑בם ָכּ ָ֛כה יַ ֲע ֶ ֥שׂה ִאיּ֖ וֹב ָכּ‬ ֖ ִ ‫ֱא‬ And it was when the days of feasting had completed their circuit.. ‫ וְ נֶ ֶא ְספוּ‬expresses the idea of repeated or continuous action in the past and likewise ‫( וְ גָ ֲללוּ‬Qal perf. 7 Job 1:5 (Rashi on use of imperf. inf. + vav)..). for Job said. or to have the force of long continuance. Comment of Rashi on ‫יַ ֲע ֶשׂה‬ ‫ ְפּ ָע ִמים ֶשׁ ָכּ ַתב‬.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 303 ture (imperf. or imְ Rashi often applies the term ‫ הוֹ וֶה‬to a perf. may be used for ‫לשׁוֹן הוֹ וֶה‬.‫וּפ ָע ִמים ְלשׁוֹן ָע ִתיד‬ ְ ‫בּוֹ ְלשׁוֹן ָע ָבר‬ . Compare Ibn Ezra’s explanation of ‫זְ ַמן‬ ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ (on Psalm 1:1.) or past (perf. + vav.

Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains that the imperf./yiqtol). He used to take his tent and pitch it outside the camp. hear me. 9 Genesis 23:11 (Ephron To Abraham) (Rashi on use of perf.304 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation of Rashi ‫ יַ ֲע ֶשׂה‬has the meaning of ‫עוֹשׂה‬ ֶ ‫היָ ה‬.‫נוֹטהוּ ִמחוּץ ַל ַמּ ֲחנֶ ה‬ ֵ ְ‫לוֹק ַח ָא ֳהלוֹ ו‬ ֵ – ‫ְלשׁוֹן הוֹ וֶה הוּא‬ Translation of Rashi ‫ יִ ַקּח‬is ‫( ְלשׁוֹן הוֹ וֶה‬used here of repeated action in the past). the field I (will give) (have given) to you. future (imperf. or the imperf. at times it uses past tense (perf. 8 Exodus 33:7 (Rashi on repeated action in the past) ‫ן־ה ַמּ ֲח ֔ ֶנה‬ ֽ ַ ‫ה־לוֹ ִמ ֣חוּץ ַל ַֽמּ ֲח ֶ֗נה ַה ְר ֵח ֙ק ִמ‬ ֣ ‫א ֶהל וְ ָנ ָֽט‬ ֹ ֜ ‫ת־ה‬ ָ ‫וּמ ֶֹשׁ ֩ה יִ ַ ֨קּח ֶא‬ And Moses used to take the tent and pitch it outside the camp./qatal) and at times. ‫ יַ ֲע ֶשׂה‬expresses repeated action here and that for this usage. can be used. either the perf.ָ ‘used to do’.) ‫א־אד ִֹנ֣י ְשׁ ָמ ֔ ֵענִ י ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ֙ה נָ ַ ֣ת ִתּי ֔ ָלְך‬ ֲ ֹ ‫ֽל‬ No my lord. Comment of Rashi on ‫יִ ַקּח‬ . Comment of Rashi on ‫נָ ַת ִתּי‬ :‫יה ָלְך‬ ָ ‫ֲה ֵרי ִהיא ְכּמוֹ ֶשׁנְּ ַת ִתּ‬ . at a distance from the camp. When Scripture writes after the event about a continuing or repeated action.

‫מוּכן הוּא ֶא ְצ ִלי‬ ָ Translation of Rashi The money is ready with me and I wish that I had already given it to you. since Abraham’s next words are ‘take (it) from me’. Explanation of Rashi The verb ‫( נָ ַת ִתּי‬Qal perf. Rashi comments that it is as though he has given over the field. Comment of Rashi on ‫נָ ַ֜ת ִתּי‬ :‫ וְ ַה ְלוַ אי נָ ַת ִתּי ָלְך ְכּ ָבר‬. Hence. ‫ נָ ַת ִתּי‬as a wish.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 305 Translation of Rashi See it is as though I have given it to you.) ‫נָ ַ֜ת ִתּי ֶכּ ֶ֤סף ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ֙ה ַ ֣קח ִמ ֶ֔מּנִּ י‬ I have given/am about to give/am giving the money for the field. Explanation of Rashi Rashi explains the Qal perf. . for it can hardly refer to the past. ‫ )נתן‬is problematic in that Ephron has not yet given over the field. Modern grammarians suggest that we have here the use of perfect to express future actions. 11 Psalm 27:10 (Ibn Ezra on the interchangeability of the tenses) ‫ֽיהו֣ה ַי ַֽא ְס ֵ ֽפנִ י׃‬ ָ ‫י־א ִ ֣בי וְ ִא ִ ֣מּי ֲעזָ ֑בוּנִ י ַו‬ ָ ‫ִכּ‬ For my father and my mother have forsaken me. but the Lord will gather me (has gathered me). 10 Genesis 23:13 (Abraham to Ephron) (Rashi on use of perf.

The tenses thus seem to be used interchangeably. that is.sg. even though it is imperf.306 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ַי ַֽא ְס ֵ ֽפנִ י‬ ‫ ְכּ ֶד ֶרְך )בראשית כג‬. ‘I raise my hand to the Lord.sg.‫וְ ַא ָתּה ֲא ַס ְפ ַתּנִ י ָתּ ִמיד‬ ‫ ֵעגֶ ל ְבּח ֵֹרב‬-‫יג( נָ ַת ִתּי ֶכּ ֶסף ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ַקח ִמ ֶמּנִּ י )ותהלים קו יט( יַ ֲעשׂוּ‬ ‫וַ יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחווּ ְל ַמ ֵסּ ָכה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra (‫ יַ ַא ְס ֵפנִ י‬has the meaning of ) ‘you have gathered me continually’.. like Gen 23:13. where ‫ ֵעגֶ ל ְבּח ֵֹרב‬-‫ יַ ֲעשׁוּ‬means ‘they made a calf at Horeb’. 12 Genesis 14:22 (Rashi on use of perf. ‘I am about to give you the money of the field’ and Psalm 106:19. Psalm 106 being a historical psalm in which the psalmist gives an overview of the early history of Israel. for English present) (Abram and Melchizedek) ‫מ ִתי יָ ִ ֤די ֶאל־יְ הוָ ֙ה ֵ ֣אל ֶע ְלי֔ וֹן ק ֵֹנ֖ה‬ ֹ ֨ ‫ל־מ ֶלְך ְס ֑ד ֹם ֲה ִרי‬ ֣ ֶ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָ ֖רם ֶא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֥יּ‬ ‫ָשׁ ַ ֥מיִם וָ ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ And Abram said to the king of Sodom. ‫ )נתן‬expresses near future and in Psalm 106:19. + sf. possessor of Heaven and Earth’. . the Qal imperf. this is quite clear from the context. ‫ יַ ֲעשׁוּ‬is used of past action.‫ואם הוא לשון עתיד‬ ִ . ‫)אסף‬ expresses continuous action in the past. where ‫( נָ ַת ִתּי‬Qal perf. most High G-d. even though the imperf. ‘they made a calf at Horeb and bowed down to a molten image’. 3 m. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra explains that ‫( יַ ַא ְס ֵפנִ י‬Qal imperf. 1 c. is used. as in Gen 23:13.

take from me’. 1 c. the perfect is used for the English present. (to be understood as an English present).sg. as though the act is already completed.(‫)בראשית כב טז‬ . Similarly. Explanation of Rashi In all these examples.‫לאל ֶעליון‬ ֵ ‫ ֵמ ִרים אני את יָ ִדי‬. to avenge) my wound.‫ ָק ֵחהוּ ִמ ֶמּנִּ י‬.‫נוֹתן אני לך כסף השדה‬ ֵ (‫)בראשית כג יג‬ Translation of Rashi ‫( ֲה ִרימ ִֹתי‬Hiphil perf. hear my voice. ‘by Myself I have sworn’ (Gen 22:16).‫בוּעה‬ ָ ‫ְלשׁוֹן ְשׁ‬ ‫וכן נָ ַת ִתּי ֶכּ ֶסף ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ַקח ִמ ֶמּנִּ י‬ ֵ . women of Lemech.e.‫ נִ ְשׁ ָבּע ֲאנִ י‬.PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 307 ֹ ֨ ‫ֲה ִרי‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫מ ִתי‬ ‫ וְ ֵכן ִבּי נִ ְשׁ ַבּ ְע ִתּי‬. take from me’. ‫ = רום‬lit. ‘I have given the money of the field. ‘Ada and Tsila. even a boy for my bruise’. . Similarly. 13 Genesis 4:23 (Ibn Ezra on interchangeability of tenses) (The War Boast of Lemech) ‫שׁי ֔ ֶל ֶמְך ַה ְא ֵז֖נָּ ה ִא ְמ ָר ִ ֑תי‬ ֣ ֵ ְ‫קוֹלי נ‬ ִ ֔ ‫אמר ֜ ֶל ֶמְך ְלנָ ָ֗שׁיו ָע ָ ֤דה וְ ִצ ָלּ ֙ה ְשׁ ַ ֣מ ַען‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֨יּ‬ ‫תּי ְל ִפ ְצ ֔ ִעי וְ ֶי ֶ֖לד ְל ַח ֻבּ ָר ִ ֽתי׃‬ ֙ ִ ְ‫ִ ֣כּי ִ ֤אישׁ ָה ַ ֙רג‬ And Lemech said to his wives. (Gen 23:13). I would kill a man for (i. ‘by Myself I do swear’. listen to my words. ‘I am giving the money of the field. ‘I am raising my hand to G-d Most High’. (to be understood as an English present). ‘I have raised’) is an expression of oath (to be understood as an English present).

noting the crescendo effect in the parallel structure of the verse. ‫ נָ ַת ִתּי‬means “I am about to give. but why should Lemech boast of killing a child? Rather. Ibn Ezra again refers to Gen 23:13. I am giving” (see above. for your love is better than wine. 12). As regards this interchangeability of tenses.‫וְ ֵה ֶפְך ַה ָדּ ָבר‬ . and likewise.‫ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra The word ‫( ָה ַרגְ ִתּי‬I killed) is in place of ‫( ֶא ֱהרוֹג‬I would kill). Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵקנִ י‬ .‫מוּרת ֶא ֱהרוֹג‬ ַ ‫וּמ ַלּת ָה ַרגְ ִתּי ְתּ‬ ִ . 11. nos 10. “I gave (would/will give) (Gen 23:13) the money of the field”.) “I would kill”. “(not only) would I kill a man for my wound. (but even) a boy for my bruise”. 14 Song of Songs 1:2 (Ibn Ezra on the interchangeability of tenses) ‫י־טוֹבים דּ ֶ ֹ֖דיָך ִמָיּֽ יִ ן׃‬ ִ֥ ‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵ ֙קנִ ֙י ִמנְּ ִשׁ ֣יקוֹת ֔ ִפּיהוּ ִ ֽכּ‬ May he kiss me (according to Ibn Ezra.‫וְ ַאל ִתּ ְת ַמהּ ַבּ ֲעבוּר ֶשׁ ָא ַמר יִ ָשּׁ ֵקנִ י ְל ָד ָבר ָע ָבר ִכּי ֵכן ֶדּ ֶרְך ַה ִמּ ְק ָרא‬ (‫ָאז יָ ִשׁיר מ ֶֹשׁה )שמות טו א( יַ ֲעשׁוּ ֵעגֶ ל ְבּח ֵֹרב )תהלים קו יט‬ ‫גוֹים‬ ִ֨ ‫ֹלהים ָ ֤בּאוּ‬ ִ֡ ‫ )תהלים עט א( ִמזְ ֗מוֹר ְל ָ֫א ָ ֥סף ֱ ֽא‬. ‘he has kissed me’) with the kisses of his mouth.308 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ֙ ִ ְ‫ָה ַ ֙רג‬ Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫תּי‬ ‫וכמוֹהוּ )בראשית כג יג( נָ ַת ִתּי ֶכּ ֶסף‬ ָ .) as “I killed”. we should take ‫ ָה ַרגְ ִתּי‬as in place of ‫( ֶא ֱהרוֹג‬Qal imperf. One might translate ‫ָה ַרגְ ִתּי‬ (Qal perf. where the Qal perf. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra responds to a problem in the text.

O G-d. ‘then sang Moses’ (Exod 15:1). ‫עשׂה‬. 3 m. they have defiled (i. Ibn Ezra also compares Ps 106:19. as in Ps 79:1. ‘they defiled’) and ‫( ָשׂמוּ‬Qal perf. and the opposite. + sf. and he compares Exod 15:1. Ibn Ezra also brings an example of the opposite phenomenon. will defile) Your holy temple.sg. lit. ‫( ִט ְמּאוּ‬Piel perf. 15 Isaiah 42:16 (Rashi on the prophetic perfect) (The return of the exiles) ‫ים‬ ֩ ‫יבוֹת ֽל ֹא־יָ ְד ֖עוּ ַא ְד ִר ֵיכ֑ם ָא ִשׂ‬ ֥ ‫הוֹל ְכ ִ ֣תּי ִעוְ ִ ֗רים ְבּ ֶ ֙ד ֶר ְ֙ך ֣ל ֹא יָ ָ ֔דעוּ ִבּנְ ִת‬ ַ ְ‫ו‬ ֖ ִ ‫ישׁוֹר ֵ ֚א ֶלּה ַה ְדּ ָב ִ ֔רים ֲע ִשׂ‬ ‫יתם וְ ֥ל ֹא‬ ֔ ‫ים ְל ִמ‬ ֙ ‫וּמ ֲע ַק ִשּׁ‬ ֽ ַ ‫יהם ָל ֗אוֹר‬ ֶ֜ ֵ‫ַמ ְח ָ֨שְׁך ִל ְפנ‬ ‫ֲעזַ ְב ִ ֽתּים׃‬ . e. ‘then Moses sang’. where ‫( יָ ִשׁיר‬Qal imperf. whereby a perfect refers to the future. where the verbs ‫( ָבּאוּ‬Qal perf. ‘they came’). will come) into Your inheritance. ‘they placed’) are all ‘prophetic perfects’. Jerusalem has not yet been invaded and defiled. ‘A psalm of Asaph.e.נשׁק‬lit. ‫ .e. for that is characteristic of biblical language. ‘they made’. ‫בוא‬ lit. ‫ ִשׂים‬lit. 1 c. Explanation of Ibn Ezra Ibn Ezra understands ‫( יִ ָשּׁ ֵקנִ י‬Qal imperf. nations have come (i. they have made (i. since at the time of writing.g. ‘he will kiss me’) as referring to the past. lit. e. And many such examples. lit.e. ‘they made a calf at Horeb’ (Ps 106:19).PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW 309 ‫רוּשׁ ַל ִ֣ם ְל ִע ִיּֽים׃ וְ ַר ִבּים‬ ָ ְ‫ת־ה ַיכ֣ל ָק ְד ֶ ֑שָׁך ָ ֖שׂמוּ ֶאת־י‬ ֵ ‫ְ ֽבּנַ ֲח ָל ֶ֗תָך ִ ֭ט ְמּאוּ ֶא‬ . ‘they will make’) refers to a past action.g. will make) Jerusalem (into) ruins’ (Ps 79:1).‫ָכּמוֹהוּ‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra Do not be surprised that it says ‫ יִ ָשּׁ ֵקנִ י‬for a past action. where ‫( יַ ֲעשׁוּ‬Qal imperf. referring to the future. ‘he will sing’) is understood as referring to the past.sg.

‫ֶא ֱע ֶשׂה‬ Translation of Rashi I will do. present or future. 2 The participle itself does not express time. have done them) and I will not forsake them (lit. Explanation of Rashi ִ ‫( ֲע ִשׂ‬Qal perf. THE USE OF PARTICIPLES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW The main characteristics of the active participle are as follows: 1 The participle is often used to imply continuity.‫בוּאה ְל ַד ֵבּר ַעל ֶה ָע ִתיד ְכּ ִאילוּ ָעשׂוּי‬ ָ ְ‫ ֵכּן ְלשׁוֹן נ‬. GK 106n). 3 Participles may function as: verbs. these are the things which I will do (lit. adjectives or nouns. III d. have not forsaken them).sg.pl. Use of Perfect to express future actions. . and this may be: past. ֖ ִ ‫ֲע ִשׂ‬ Comment of Rashi on ‫יתם‬ . Thus is the language of prophecy. see also JM 112h.310 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW And I will lead the blind by a way they did not know. I will guide them in paths they did not know. to speak about a future action as if it had already been done. and crooked places (into) a level plain. + sf. the time setting is indicated by the context in which the participle occurs. ‫ )עשׂה‬as a Rashi has identified ‫יתם‬ ‘prophetic perfect’ (see above. 1 c. 3 m. I will make darkness light before them.

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

311

Exercise: identify the participle forms in the following biblical verses
and discuss their use and function.; explanatory notes are added.
I:
1

verbal function (1-6)
Genesis 37:16 (Joseph to the man)

‫ת־א ַ ֖חי ָאנ ִ ֹ֣כי ְמ ַב ֵ ֑קּשׁ‬
ַ ‫ֶא‬
I am seeking my brothers.

‫ְמ ַב ֵ ֑קּשׁ‬

Piel part. m.s.g. verbal function, expressing continuous action in
the present.
2

I Samuel 1:12

‫יה׃‬
ָ ‫ת־פּ‬
ֽ ִ ‫הו֑ה וְ ֵע ִ ֖לי שׁ ֵ ֹ֥מר ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫וְ ָהיָ ֙ה ִ ֣כּי ִה ְר ְבּ ָ֔תה ְל ִה ְת ַפּ ֵלּ֖ל ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י י‬
And it was as she prayed much before the Lord, that Eli watched her
mouth.

‫שׁ ֵ ֹ֥מר‬
3

Qal part. m.sg. verbal function, expressing continuity in the past.

Genesis 37:2

‫ת־א ָח ֙יו ַבּ ֔צּ ֹאן‬
ֶ ‫ע־ע ְשׂ ֵ ֤רה ָשׁנָ ֙ה ָה ָ֨יה ר ֶ ֹ֤עה ֶא‬
ֶ ‫ן־שׁ ַ ֽב‬
ְ ‫יוֹסף ֶבּ‬
ֵ֞
Joseph, being seventeen years old, was tending the flock with his brothers.

‫ָה ָ֨יה ר ֶ ֹ֤עה‬

The verb ‫ ָהיָ ה‬sometimes precedes the participle in its verbal
function to express continuous action in the past. See also, e.g. Gen 4:17; I
Sam 2:11.
4

Genesis 6:17

‫ל־ה ָ֔א ֶרץ‬
ָ ‫ת־ה ַמּ ֥בּוּל ַ֙מיִ ֙ם ַע‬
ַ ‫וַ ֲא ִ֗ני ִהנְ נִ י֩ ֵמ ִ֨ביא ֶא‬

312

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

Behold I will bring the flood of waters upon the earth.

‫ִהנְ נִ י֩ ֵמ ִ֨ביא‬

Hiphil part. m.sg. ‫ ;בוא‬use of participle in its verbal
function to express imminent (Divine) action. See Driver S R: A Treatise on
the Use of Tenses in Hebrew and some other syntactical questions. OUP
1892. Eerdmans 1998, p 168: “The participle is used—of future time which
it represents as already beginning: hence, if the event designated can only in
fact occur after some interval, it asserts forcibly and suggestively the
certainty of its approach. In the latter case, however, its use is (naturally)
pretty much restricted to announcements of the Divine purpose.” For
further examples, see e.g.Gen 18:17; 19:13; 20:3.
5

Genesis 18:1

‫א ֶהל ְכּ ֥חֹם ַהיּֽ וֹם׃‬
ֹ ֖ ‫ח־ה‬
ָ ‫ֹלנ֖י ַמ ְמ ֵ ֑רא וְ ֛הוּא י ֵ ֹ֥שׁב ֶ ֽפּ ַת‬
ֵ ‫הוה ְבּ ֵא‬
ָ֔ ְ‫וַ יֵּ ָ ֤רא ֵא ָל ֙יו י‬
And the Lord appeared unto him at the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat (lit.
and he was sitting) at the entrance of the tent in the heat of the day.

‫וְ ֛הוּא י ֵ ֹ֥שׁב‬

‘and he was sitting’; i.e. ‘when, as, while he was sitting’.

This is an example of a circumstantial clause, which “expresses some circumstance or concomitant of the principal action or statement” (A B
Davidson, Hebrew Syntax, T & T Clark. p 186) “In such a clause the subj.
is naturally prominent, hence it stands first, the order being - vav, subj.,
pred. This simple vav may need to be rendered variously, as if, while, when,
seeing, though—.” For further examples, see, e.g. Gen 19:1; Isaiah 6:1. For
examples of circumstantial clauses with forms other than participles, see,
e.g. Gen 18:13; 24:56.
6

II Kings 17:32

‫הו֑ה‬
ָ ְ‫וַ יִּ ְהי֥ וּ יְ ֵר ִ ֖אים ֶאת־י‬

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

313

They were fearing the Lord.

‫‘ וַ יִּ ְהי֥ וּ יְ ֵר ִ ֖אים‬and they were fearing’. Qal part. m.pl. ‫ יָ ֵרא‬and preceded by
the verb ‫ ָהיָ ה‬in Qal imperf. + vav consec. Compare no 3 above, Gen 37:2.
See Driver S R ‘A Treatise on the Use of Tenses etc’; pp 169-170:
“Occasionally, the idea of duration conveyed by the ptcp. is brought into
fuller prominence, and defined more precisely, by the addition of the
substantive verb. —But altogether the more frequent use of the combination is
characteristic of the later writers - in the decadence of a language, the older
forms are felt to be insufficient, and a craving for greater distinctness
manifests itself: the rarer, however, its occurrence in the earlier books, the
more carefully it deserves notice.” Hence, there are many examples in II
Kings 17, which describes the mixed forms of worship in Israel after the
Assyrian exile in 722 BCE.
II: Adjectival function (7-8)
7

Deuteronomy 4:24

‫ֹלהיָך ֵ ֥אשׁ א ְֹכ ָל֖ה ֑הוּא‬
ֶ֔ ‫הוה ֱא‬
֣ ָ ְ‫ִכּ֚י י‬
For the Lord your G-d is a consuming fire.

‫ֵ ֥אשׁ א ְֹכ ָל֖ה‬

Active part. Qal f.sg.
(agrees in number and gender).
8

‫ָא ַכל‬

qualifying the fem. noun,

‫ֵ ֥אשׁ‬

Genesis 13:5

‫אן־וּב ָ ֖ קר וְ א ָֹה ִ ֽלים׃‬
ָ ֹ ‫ת־א ְב ָ ֑רם ָהָי֥ה צ‬
ַ ‫ם־ל ֔לוֹט ַהה ֵֹלְ֖ך ֶא‬
ְ ַ‫וְ ג‬
And also to Lot, who went with Abram, there were flocks and herds and
tents.

314

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

‫ ַהה ֵֹלְ֖ך‬Qal part. + def. art. The part. + def. art. function as a relative clause,
“who went” (lit. ‘the one going’). This usage is common; see, e.g. Gen 35:3:
‫ֹתי ְבּי֣ וֹם ָ ֽצ ָר ִ֔תי‬
֙ ִ ‫“ ָהעֹ ֶנ֤ה א‬who answers me on the day of my “distress”.
III: Noun function (9-10)
9

Isaiah 19:20

‫ילם׃‬
ֽ ָ ‫יע וָ ָ ֖רב וְ ִה ִצּ‬
ַ ‫מוֹשׁ‬
֥ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּי־יִ ְצ ֲע ֤קוּ ֶאל־יְ הוָ ֙ה ִמ ְפּ ֵנ֣י ֹֽל ֲח ִ֔צים וְ יִ ְשׁ ַ ֥לח ָל ֶ ֛הם‬
For they will cry to the Lord because of (the) oppressors and He will send
them a saviour and will plead and will deliver them.

‫ֹֽל ֲח ִ֔צים‬

Qal part. m.pl. ‫‘ ;לחץ‬oppressors’.

‫יע‬
ַ ‫מוֹשׁ‬
ִ֥

Hiphil part. m.sg. ‫‘ ;ישׁע‬a saviour’.

10 Jeremiah 18:6

‫ן־א ֶ ֥תּם ְבּיָ ִ ֖די ֵ ֥בּית יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ ֽאל׃‬
ַ ‫יּוֹצר ֵכּ‬
ֵ֔ ‫ִה ֵנּ֤ה ַכ ֨חֹ ֶמ ֙ר ְבּ ַי֣ד ַה‬
Behold, as the clay is in the potter’s hand, so are you in my hand, O house
of Israel.

‫יּוֹצר‬
ֵ֔ ‫ַה‬

‘The potter’; Qal part. m.sg. ‫‘ = יצר‬form, fashion’.

THE FORM AND USE OF THE JUSSIVE IN BIBLICAL HEBREW
The lengthened form of the imperfect is termed cohortative (usually occurs
only in 1st pers. sg. or pl. e.g. ‫נִ ְשׁ ְמ ָרה‬/‫ ) ֶא ְשׁ ְמ ָרה‬and the shortened form
of the imperfect is termed jussive (usually occurs in 2nd or 3rd pers.). In the
strong verb, the form of the jussive is the same as that of the imperfect and
is therefore recognized only by its context, except in Hiphil (indicative:
‫ ;יַ ְק ִטיל‬jussive: ‫)יַ ְק ֵטל‬. However, in weak verbs, the jussive often takes a
shortened form of the imperfect. The jussive is used to express a command

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

315

or a desire that something should/should not happen and is often strengthened with the addition of ‫נָ א‬. It is often translated by English ‘may’, ‘let’.
e.g. Genesis 47:4: ‫בוּ־נ֥א ֲע ָב ֶ ֖דיָך ְבּ ֶ ֥א ֶרץ גּֽ ֶֹשׁן׃‬
ָ ‫“ וְ ַע ָ ֛תּה ֵי ְֽשׁ‬And now please
let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen”. The negative before a
jussive is ‫ ַאל‬.

Exercise: identify the Jussive in the following biblical verses and analyse/discuss its function; explanatory notes are added.
1

Genesis 33:14 (Jacob to Esau)

‫ר־נ֥א ֲאד ִֹנ֖י ִל ְפ ֵנ֣י ַע ְב ֑דּוֹ‬
ָ ‫יַ ֲע ָב‬
Please let my lord pass before his servant.

‫ר־נ֥א‬
ָ ‫יַ ֲע ָב‬

Shortened form of ‫( יַ ֲעבֹר‬Qal imperf. ‫ )עבר‬due to makkef
and consequent loss of accent. Strengthened with ‫נָ א‬. ‘Please let him pass’.
2

Genesis 41:33

‫ל־א ֶרץ ִמ ְצ ָ ֽריִ ם׃‬
֥ ֶ ‫יתהוּ ַע‬
֖ ֵ ‫ישׁ‬
ִ ִ‫וְ ַע ָתּ ֙ה יֵ ֶ ֣רא ַפ ְר ֔עֹה ִ ֖אישׁ נָ ֣בוֹן וְ ָח ָכ֑ם ו‬
And now let Pharoah look out a discerning and wise man and set him over
the land of Egypt.

‫יֵ ֶ ֣רא‬

Shortened from ‫ יִ ְר ֶאה‬Qal imperf. ‫‘ ;ראה‬let him see’.

‫יתהוּ‬
֖ ֵ ‫ישׁ‬
ִ ִ‫ו‬

Qal imperf. ‫ ִשׁית‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. + vav conj. ‘and let him put,
set him’ (same form as ordinary imperf. + sf.).
3

Genesis 44:18

‫ר־נא ַע ְב ְדָּך֤ ָד ָב ֙ר ְבּ ָאזְ ֵנ֣י ֲאד ִֹ֔ני‬
ָ֨ ‫אמ ֮ר ִ ֣בּי ֲאד ֹנִ י֒ יְ ַד ֶבּ‬
ֶ ֹ ‫הוּדה וַ יּ‬
֗ ָ ְ‫וַ יִּ ֨ ַגּשׁ ֵא ֜ ָליו י‬
‫ל־י ַ֥חר ַא ְפָּך֖ ְבּ ַע ְב ֶ ֑דָּך‬
ִ ‫וְ ַא‬

316

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

And Judah drew near to him and he said, ‘O my lord, please let your servant
speak a word in the ears of my lord, and let not your anger burn against
your servant’.

‫יְ ַד ֶבּר־ ָ֨נא‬

Shortened from ‫( יְ ַד ֵבּר‬Piel imperf. ‫ )דבר‬due to makkef and
strengthened with ‫נָ א‬.

‫ל־י ַ֥חר‬
ִ ‫וְ ַא‬

‫ יִ ַחר‬is shortened from ‫( יֶ ֱח ֶרה‬Qal imperf. ‫‘ = ָח ָרה‬burn, be
kindled’) and made negative with ‫ ַאל‬. ‘And let it not burn’.

4

Genesis 44:33

‫ם־א ָ ֽחיו׃‬
ֶ ‫ב־נ֤א ַע ְב ְדּ ָ֙ך ַ ֣תּ ַחת ַה ַ֔נּ ַער ֶ ֖ע ֶבד ַ ֽלאד ִֹנ֑י וְ ַה ַנּ ַ֖ער ַי ַ֥על ִע‬
ָ ‫וְ ַע ָ֗תּה ֵ ֽי ֶשׁ‬
And now please let your servant dwell instead of the lad as servant to my
lord, and let the lad go up with his brothers.

‫ב־נ֤א‬
ָ ‫ֵי ֶֽשׁ‬

Shortened from
let him dwell’.

‫ַי ַ֥על‬
5

‫( יֵ ֵשׁב‬Qal imperf. ‫ )ישׁב‬due to makkef. ‘Please

Shortened from ‫( יַ ֲע ֶלה‬Qal imperf. ‫‘ ;) ָע ָלה‬let him go up’.
Numbers 6:25,26

‫יח ֶנּֽ ךָּ ׃‬
ֻ ‫הו֧ה ׀ ָפּ ָנ֛יו ֵא ֶל֖יָך ִ ֽו‬
ָ ְ‫יָ ֵ֨אר י‬
‫הו֤ה ׀ ָפּנָ ֙יו ֵא ֔ ֶליָך וְ יָ ֵ ֥שׂם ְלָך֖ ָשׁ ֽלוֹם׃‬
ָ ְ‫יִ ָ֨שּׂא י‬
May the Lord make His face to shine on you and be gracious to you; May
the Lord lift up His countenance to you and give you peace.

‫יָ ֵ֨אר‬

Shortened from ‫( יָ ִאיר‬Hiphil imperf. ‫‘ )אור‬may He cause to shine”

‫וְ יָ ֵ ֥שׂם‬

Shortened from
place/put’

‫יָ ִשׂים‬

(Qal imperf.

‫ִשׂים‬

+ vav conj.) ‘may He

PART FOUR: USE OF TENSES IN BIBLICAL HEBREW

317

ֻ ‫ ִ ֽו‬have the forms of ordinary imperfs. but carry a
(note that ‫יִ ָ֨שּׂא‬and ָ‫יח ֶנּֽ ךּ‬
jussive meaning here.)
6

Deuteronomy 20:5

‫יתוֹ‬
֑ ‫ת־ח ָד ֙שׁ וְ ֣ל ֹא ֲחנָ ֔כוֹ יֵ ֵלְ֖ך וְ יָ ֣שׁ ֹב ְל ֵב‬
ָ ִ‫י־ה ִ֞אישׁ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ָבּ ָנ֤ה ַ ֽבי‬
ָ ‫ִ ֽמ‬
Who is the man who has built a new house and has not dedicated it? Let
him go and return to his house.

‫יֵ ֵלְ֖ך‬

Qal imperf.

‫‘ ;הלך‬he will go’, but here with jussive meaning, ‘let

him go’.

‫וְ יָ ֣שׁ ֹב‬

Shortened from ‫( יָ שׁוּב‬Qal imperf. ‫ שׁוּב‬+ vav conj.) ‘and let him

return’.
7

I Samuel 1:23

‫בי ַעד־גָּ ְמ ֵלְ֣ך א ֹ֔תוֹ ַ ֛אְך‬
֙ ִ ‫ישׁהּ ֲע ִ ֧שׂי ַה ֣טּוֹב ְבּ ֵע ַ֗יניִ ְך ְשׁ‬
ָ֜ ‫אמר ָל ֩הּ ֶא ְל ָק ֨ ָנה ִא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬
‫ת־דּ ָב ֑רוֹ‬
ְ ‫הו֖ה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫יָ ֵ ֥ קם י‬
And Elkanah her husband said to her, ‘do what is good in your eyes, stay
until you wean him, but may the Lord establish His word’.

‫יָ ֵ ֥ קם‬

Shortened from

‫יָ ִקים‬

(Hiphil imperf.

‫)קום‬

‘may He raise up,

establish’.
8

Psalm 27:9

‫ט־בּ ַ֗אף ֫ ַע ְב ֶ ֥דָּך‬
ְ ‫ל־תּ‬
ַ ‫ל־תּ ְס ֵ֬תּר ָפּ ֶ֨ניָך ׀ ִמ ֶמּנִּ ֮י ַ ֽא‬
ַ ‫ַא‬
Do not hide Your face from me and do not turn away Your servant in
anger.

‫ל־תּט‬ ַ ‫ ַתּט ַ ֽא‬is shortened from ‫( ַתּ ֶטּה‬Hiphil imperf. Hiphil. turn. (longer form > ‫ַתּ ְס ִתּיר‬ ‫ )סתר‬to express prohibition/negative command. ‫‘ = נטה‬bend. ‘do not turn away’. . ‘do not hide’.318 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ל־תּ ְס ֵ֬תּר‬ ַ ‫ ַאל ַא‬+ shortened imperf. incline’).

but it is also the case that some features of ‘poetic’ or ‘elevated’ style may be found in parts of the Bible normally considered to be ‘prose’. Part One. Gillingham. The Poems and Psalms of the Hebrew Bible. OUP. Excursus E. pp 157-159. 1981. Kugel. such as the Song of the Sea (Exodus 15) or the Song of Deborah (Judges 5). James L. The main grammatical features of ‘elevated style’ are the focus of this section and they are presented here to facilitate the student’s grasp of the plain meaning of the ‘poetic’ sections of the Hebrew Bible. S E. However. Abingdon Press Nashville. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Parallelism and its History. Introductory remarks It is difficult to define what we mean by Biblical Hebrew poetry. 319 . Robert. C L. Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico – Roma 1996. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Poetic Hebrew. 1995. 1994. this is a complex topic and the student is referred to the Bibliography for further study. Jouon Paul.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE Bibliography: Alter. Seow. It is true that some parts of the Bible are traditionally regarded as ‘poetry’. Basic Books Inc. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Muraoka T. Press. New York. pp 11-12. The Idea of Biblical Poetry. A summary outline of these features is followed by a more detailed treatment of some features. Yale Univ. 1985.

320

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

Finally, an analysis of some grammatical features of the Song of the Sea
(Exodus 15:1-18) is presented.

A SUMMARY OUTLINE OF THE GRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF
‘ELEVATED STYLE’.
1

Frequent absence of: definite article, relative pronoun (‫ ) ֲא ֶשׁר‬and
marker of definite direct object (‫ ;) ֵאת‬none of these occur in the Song
of the Sea after verse one, i.e. Exodus 15:2-18.

2

Brevity and terseness of expression. For example: Psalm 8:5:

‫ן־א ָ ֗דם ִ ֣כּי ִת ְפ ְק ֶ ֽדנּוּ׃‬
ָ֝ ‫וּב‬
ֶ ‫י־תזְ ְכּ ֶ ֑רנּוּ‬
ִ ‫ה־אנ֥ וֹשׁ ִ ֽכּ‬
ֱ ‫ָ ֽמ‬
‘What is man that You should remember him and (what is) the son of man
that You should visit him?’ The interrogative pronoun ‫ ָמה‬in line one has
to be mentally repeated in line two.
3

Freedom in use of tenses. For example, Psalm 38:12:

‫חק ָע ָ ֽמדוּ׃‬
ֹ ֥ ‫רוֹבי ֵמ ָר‬
ַ֗ ‫מדוּ וּ ְ֝ק‬
ֹ ֑ ‫א ֲה ַ֨בי וְ ֵר ֗ ַעי ִמ ֶ ֣נּ גֶ ד נִ גְ ִ ֣עי יַ ֲע‬
ֹֽ
‘My lovers and my friends stand afar from my plague; and my kinsmen
stand at a distance’. Note the variation of tenses in two balancing lines,
imperf. ‫ יַ ֲעמֹדוּ‬in line one, and perf. ‫ ָע ָ ֽמדוּ‬in line two.
4

Variable word order. For example, Numbers 23:7:

‫י־ק ֶדם‬
֔ ֶ ‫ְך־מוֹא ֙ב ֵ ֽמ ַה ְר ֵר‬
ָ
‫ן־א ָרם יַ נְ ֵ֨חנִ י ָב ָל֤ק ֶ ֽמ ֶל‬
ֲ ֠ ‫ִמ‬
‘From Aram Balak has guided me, the King of Moab from the mountains
of the East’. Line one has: circumstance + verb + subject; line two has:
subject + circumstance, with omission of verb, which has to be supplied
mentally.

PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE
5

321

Some vocabulary which is typical of poetry. For example,

‫ ֱאנוֹשׁ‬for ‫‘ = ָא ָדם‬man’; ‫ ָחזָ ה‬for ‫‘ = ָר ָאה‬see’; ‫ ָא ָתה‬for ‫‘ = בוא‬come’.
6

Endings ḥireq-yod and vav-ḥolem (ḥireq compaginis, see below) on
nouns, adjectives and participles; longer forms of prepositions, e.g.
‫ ֱא ֵלי‬for ‫ ֶאל‬and ‫ ֲע ֵדי‬for ‫ ַעד‬.

7

Longer pronominal suffixes, ‫ ֵ◌מוֹ‬/‫ָמוֹ‬/‫( מוֹ‬see below).

8

Unassimilated energic nun (see below).

9

Use of: word-pairs, rhyming, repetition, alliteration and chiasmus.

(‘chiasmus’ is the reversal in the second line of the word-order in the first
line).
10

Parallelism – a feature which is concentrated in the ‘poetic’ books, but
in fact is to be found throughout the Bible. Parallelism of clauses
means that the second clause corresponds in some way to the first
clause; the second clause is a continuation of the first clause, often
“particularizing, defining, expanding or even contrasting with the
meaning” (Kugel, 1981, p 8). For example, Psalm 145:10: ‫יוֹדוָּך ְי֭הוָ ה‬
֣
‫וּכה׃‬
ָ ‫ל־מ ֲע ֶ ֑שׂיָך וַ ֲ֝ח ִס ֶ ֗ידיָך ָיְב ֲר ֽכ‬
ַ ‫‘( ַמ ֲע ֶשׂיָך ; ָכּ‬Your works’) is parallel
to ‫ידיָך‬
ֶ ‫‘( ֲח ִס‬Your pious ones’) and ‫‘( יוֹדוָּך‬they will praise You’) is
parallel to ‫כוּכה‬
ָ ‫‘( ָיְב ֲר‬they will bless you’). Note also the chiasmus:
line A has verb + subject; line B has subject + verb (reversal of order).
The second line is not, however, a mere restatement of the first line in
ֶ ‫ ֲח ִס‬refers to a smaller, more pious group
different words. Rather, ‫ידיָך‬
than ‫שׂיָך‬
֑ ֶ ‫ל־מ ֲע‬
ַ ‫ ָכּ‬while ‫כוּכה‬
ָ ‫ ָיְב ֲר‬expresses a closer relationship to Gd than ‫יוֹדוָּך‬. This progression can be conveyed in English by
translating the conjunction vav as ‘but’; “O Lord, all Your works
praise You, but, Your pious ones bless You”.

322

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW
Genesis 21:1:

‫הו֛ה ְל ָשׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא ֶ ֥שׁר ִדּ ֵ ֽבּר׃‬
ָ ְ‫שׁר ָא ָ ֑מר וַ ַיּ ַ֧עשׂ י‬
֣ ֶ ‫ת־שׂ ָ ֖רה ַכּ ֲא‬
ָ ‫ַיהו֛ה ָפּ ַ ֥ קד ֶא‬
ָ ‫ֽו‬
‘And the Lord remembered Sarah as He had said and the Lord did for
Sarah as He had spoken’.
This is an example of parallelism in a ‘prose’ section of the Bible. The verb
‫ ָפּ ַקד‬in line A is parallel to ‫ וַ ַיּ ַ֧עשׂ‬in line B, but note the small chiastic
arrangement, ‫ַיהו֛ה ָפּ  ַ ֥קד‬
ָ ‫ ֽו‬subject + verb, ‫הו֛ה‬
ָ ְ‫ וַ ַיּ ַ֧עשׂ י‬verb + subject.

ENERGIC NUN AND UNASSIMILATED ENGERGIC NUN (SEE
GK 58 I, K, L; WHG PP 130-131)
There are alternative forms of the verbal suffix on the singular imperfect
which have energic nun assimilated before the suffix. These forms give
greater emphasis to the verb and are especially frequent in pause. For example, ‘he will guard me’ may be either ‫( יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֵרנִ י‬no energic nun) or
‫ יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרנִּ י‬where the energic nun is assimilated into the nun of the verbal
suffix, which therefore has dagesh forte. Note also that the tsere under the
resh has modified to segol under the influence of the tone. Likewise, ‘he
will guard you’ may be either ‫( יִ ְשׁ ָמ ְרָך‬no energic nun) or ָ‫ יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרךּ‬with
dagesh forte in the final caph to indicate the assimilated energic nun and
segol under the resh due to the tone. The other forms are: ‘he will guard
him’, ‫( יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֵרהוּ‬no energic nun) or ‫( יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרנּוּ‬with assimilated energic nun)
and ‘he will guard her’, ‫( יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶר ָה‬no energic nun) or ‫( יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרנָּ ה‬with
assimilated energic nun). These contracted forms with energic nun (where
the nun is assimilated to the following consonant) are quite frequent even in
prose. However, there are also uncontracted forms, where the nun is not
assimilated and these forms are rare, occurring only in poetic or elevated
style. e.g. Psalm 72:15:‫יְב ֲר ֶ ֽכנְ ֽהוּ׃‬
ָ ‫ל־היּ֗ וֹם‬
ַ֝ ‫‘ ָכּ‬all the day he will bless him’;
ָ without energic nun).
(instead of ‫יְב ְר ֵכהוּ‬

PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE

323

Exercise: in the following biblical verses, identify the verbal suffixes
with Energic Nun, both contracted and uncontracted.; explanatory notes are found at the end.
1

Leviticus 1:3

‫יבנּוּ‬
֑ ֶ ‫ן־ה ָבּ ָ ֔קר זָ ָ ֥כר ָתּ ִ ֖מים יַ ְק ִר‬
ַ ‫ִאם־ ע ָֹל֤ה ָק ְר ָבּנוֹ֙ ִמ‬
If his offering is a burnt-offering of cattle, he shall offer an unblemished
male.
2

Numbers 23:25

‫ם־בּ ֵ ֖רְך ֥ל ֹא ְת ָב ֲר ֶ ֽכנּוּ׃‬
ָ ַ‫ל־בּ ְל ֔ ָעם גַּ ם־ ֖קֹב ֣ל ֹא ִת ֳקּ ֶ ֑בנּוּ גּ‬
ִ ‫אמר ָבּ ָל ֙ק ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֤יּ‬
And Balak said to Balaam, ‘you shall indeed not curse him and you shall
indeed not bless him’.
3

Exodus 15:2

‫ֹלהי ָא ִ ֖בי וַ ֲאר ְֹמ ֶ ֽמנְ הוּ׃‬
֥ ֵ ‫ֶז֤ה ֵא ִ ֙לי וְ ַאנְ ֵ֔והוּ ֱא‬
This is my G-d and I will adorn Him (or, build Him a dwelling), the G-d of
my father and I will extol Him.
4

Deuteronomy 32:10

‫הוּ ֣יְבוֹנְ ֵ֔נהוּ יִ ְצּ ֶ ֖רנְ הוּ‬
֙ ְ‫מן יְ ֽסֹ ְב ֶ֙בנ‬
ֹ ֑ ‫תהוּ יְ ֵל֣ל יְ ִשׁ‬
ֹ ֖ ‫וּב‬
ְ ‫הוּ ְבּ ֶ ֣א ֶרץ ִמ ְד ָ֔בּר‬
֙ ‫יִמ ָצ ֵ֙א‬
ְ
‫ישׁוֹן ֵעינֽ וֹ׃‬
֥ ‫ְכּ ִא‬
He found him in a desert land, in the howling waste of a wilderness, He
encompassed him, attended him, kept him as the apple of His eye.

324
5

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW
Jeremiah 5:22

֙‫ר־שׂ ְמ ִתּי חוֹל‬
֤ ַ ‫יראוּ נְ ֻאם־יְ ָ֗הו ֹה ִ ֤אם ִמ ָפּנַ ֙י ֣ל ֹא ָת ִ֔חילוּ ֲא ֶשׁ‬
֜ ָ ‫א־ת‬
ִ ֹ ‫אוֹתי ל‬
ִ֨ ‫ַה‬
‫יוּכלוּ וְ ָה ֥מוּ גַ ָלּ֖יו‬
‫גְּ ֣בוּל ַל ָ֔יּם ָח‬
ָ֔ ‫שׁוּ וְ ֣ל ֹא‬
֙ ‫ק־עוֹל֖ם וְ ֣ל ֹא יַ ַע ְב ֶ ֑רנְ הוּ וַ ִיּ ְֽתגָּ ֲע‬
ָ
‫וְ ֥ל ֹא יַ ַע ְב ֻ ֽרנְ הוּ׃‬
Will you not fear Me? Says the Lord, Will you not tremble at My presence?
I have placed sand as a boundary for the sea, an everlasting statute and
none may pass it; its waves toss themselves, but cannot prevail, they roar,
but they cannot pass it.
Explanatory notes to exercise on energic nun
1

‫יבנּוּ‬
֑ ֶ ‫יַ ְק ִר‬

Hiphil imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫ קרב‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. assimilated energic
nun. The form without energic nun would be ‫יבהוּ‬
ֵ ‫‘ ; יַ ְק ִר‬he shall offer
it’.

2

‫ִת ֳקּ ֶ ֑בנּוּ‬

Qal imperf. 2 m.sg. ‫ קבב‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. assimilated energic
nun. Note that inf. abs. ‫ קֹב‬precedes the negative. ‘You shall curse
him’.

‫ְת ָב ֲר ֶ ֽכנּוּ‬

Piel imperf. 2 m.sg.
‘You shall bless him’.
3

‫וַ ֲאר ְֹמ ֶ ֽמנְ הוּ‬

4

‫הוּ‬
֙ ְ‫יְ ֽסֹ ְב ֶ֙בנ‬

‫ ברך‬+ sf. 3 m.sg.

assimilated energic nun.

Polel imperf. 1 c.sg. ‫ רום‬+ vav conj. + sf. 3 m.sg.
unassimilated energic nun. ‘I will extol/exalt Him’.

Polel imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫ סבב‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. unassimilated
energic nun. ‘He encompasses/surrounds him’. (Note use of imperf.
for continuous action).

‫יִ ְצּ ֶ ֖רנְ הוּ‬

Qal imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫ נצר‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. unassimilated energic
nun. ‘He watches, guards, keeps him’.
Note also: ‫‘ = בין‬discern’ > Polel (only here): ‘he attentively considers him’.

PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE

325

‫ ִאישׁוֹן‬n.m. = ‘pupil of eye’
‫‘ = יָ ַשׁם‬be desolate’ > ‫ יְ ִשׁימוֹן‬n.m. ‘waste, wilderness’
‫ יְ ֵלל‬n.m. = ‘howling’ (of beasts); lit: ‘in a waste of howling of a desert’
(‫יְ ִשׁימוֹן‬
5

‫תהוּ יְ ֵלל‬
ֹ ‫וּב‬
ְ )

‫יַ ַע ְב ֶ ֑רנְ הוּ‬

Qal imperf. 3 m.sg. ‫ עבר‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. unassimilated
energic nun. ‘He shall pass it’. Note also: ‫ יַ ַע ְב ֻ ֽרנְ הוּ‬Qal imperf. 3 m.pl.
‫ עבר‬+ sf. 3 m.sg. ‘they shall pass it’; see GK 60e: “Suffixes are also
appended in twelve passages to the plural forms in ‫( ”וּן‬for Paragogic
Nun, see GK 47m: “Instead of the plural forms in ‫ וּ‬there are, especially in the older books, over 300 forms with the fuller ending ‫( וּן‬with
Nun paragogicum), always bearing the tone.”)

‫ ִחיל‬,‫( חוּל‬BDB p 296) = ‘whirl, dance, writhe’
> Qal imperf. ‫‘ ָתּ ִחילוּ‬be in severe pain, anguish’

‫‘ = גָּ ַעשׁ‬shake, quake’ > Hithpael: ‘shake back and forth, toss’
‫‘ = ָה ָמה‬murmur, growl, roar’
RARE FORMS OF PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES OF THE VERB AND
NOUN
With regard to rare forms of pronominal suffixes of the verb, see GK 58g:
“The forms ‫ ֵמוֹ‬,‫ ָמוֹ‬,‫ מוֹ‬occur 23 times, all in poetry (except Ex 23:31)”.
With regard to pronominal suffixes of the noun, see GK 91l: “The termination ‫ ֵ◌מוֹ‬like ‫מוֹ‬and ‫ ָמוֹ‬, occurs with the noun (as with the verb 58g)
almost exclusively in the later poets—and cannot, therefore, by itself be
taken as an indication of archaic language. On the other hand there can be
no doubt that these are revivals of really old forms. That they are consciously and artificially used is shown by the evidently intentional accumula-

326

FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW

tion of them, e.g. in Ex 15:5,7,9; Ps 2:3,5; 140:4,10, and also by the fact—
that in Ex 15 they occur only as verbal suffixes, in Dt 32 only as noun suffixes.”

Exercise; in the following biblical verses, identify the rare forms ,‫מוֹ‬

‫ ֵ◌מוֹ‬,‫ָמוֹ‬

of the pronominal suffixes of the verb (with the perf.

imperf. and imperat.); explanatory notes are added.
I:

Examples with Perfect

a) Exodus 15:10

‫רוּחָך֖ ִכּ ָ ֣סּמוֹ ָי֑ם‬
ֲ ‫נָ ַ ֥שׁ ְפ ָתּ ְב‬
You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them.

‫ִכּ ָ ֣סּמוֹ‬

Piel perf. 3 m.sg. ‫ כסה‬+ sf. 3 m.pl. ‘(it) covered them’.

b) Exodus 23:31

‫ִ ֣כּי ֶא ֵ ֣תּן ְבּיֶ ְד ֶ֗כם ֵ ֚את י ְֹשׁ ֵב֣י ָה ָ֔א ֶרץ וְ גֵ ַר ְשׁ ָ ֖תּמוֹ ִמ ָפּ ֶנֽיָך׃‬
For I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall
drive them out before you.

‫וְ גֵ ַר ְשׁ ָ ֖תּמוֹ‬

Piel 2 m.sg. ‫ גרשׁ‬+ sf. 3 m.pl. + vav consec. ‘and you will
drive them out’. Note that this is the only example in prose rather than
poetry.
c) Psalm 73:6

‫ָ ֭ל ֵכן ֲענָ ַ ֣ ק ְתמוֹ גַ ֲאָו֑ה‬
Therefore pride is their necklace.

‫ֲענָ ַ ֣ ק ְתמוֹ‬

Qal 3 f.sg. ‫ ענק‬+ sf. 3 m.pl. ‘(it) is necklace for them’ ( =

3 m.sg. ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬+ sf.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 327 ‫) ָענְ ָקה א ָֹתם‬. see WHG p 123.sg. ‘(it) swallowed them’. II: Examples with Imperfect a) Exodus 15:7 ‫אכ ֵל֖מוֹ ַכּ ַ ֽקּשׁ׃‬ ְ ֹ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ַלּ ֙ח ֲח ֣ר ֹנְ ָ֔ך י‬ You sent forth Your anger. noun ‫‘ = ֲענָ ק‬neck’). my appetite will be full of them. my hand will dispossess (destroy) them. ‘(it) will dispossess/destroy them’. b) Exodus 15:9 ‫ישׁמוֹ יָ ִ ֽדי׃‬ ֖ ֵ ‫תּוֹר‬ ִ ‫ֲא ַח ֵלּ֣ק ָשׁ ָל֑ל ִתּ ְמ ָל ֵ ֣אמוֹ נַ ְפ ִ֔שׁי ָא ִ ֣ריק ַח ְר ִ֔בּי‬ I will divide (the) spoil. c) Exodus 15:12 ‫יְמינְ ָ֔ך ִתּ ְב ָל ֵ ֖עמוֹ ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ֣ ִ ‫ית‬ ָ֙ ‫נָ ִ֙ט‬ You stretched forth Your right hand. 3 m.pl. 3 m. ‘(it) consumed them’. it consumed them like stubble. ‫ִתּ ְב ָל ֵ ֖עמוֹ‬ Qal 3 f. the earth swallowed them. . ‫אכ ֵל֖מוֹ‬ ְ ֹ‫י‬ Qal 3 m. ‫ בלע‬+ sf.pl.pl. ‫ִתּ ְמ ָל ֵ ֣אמוֹ‬ Qal 3 f.sg. ‫ ירשׁ‬+ sf.pl. 3 m.sg. ‘(it) will be full of them’ ‫ישׁמוֹ‬ ֖ ֵ ‫תּוֹר‬ ִ Hiphil 3 f. I will draw my sword. Compare ‫‘ ָשׁ ְמ ָרה א ָֹתם = ְשׁ ָמ ָר ַתם‬she guarded them’. ‫ אכל‬+ sf. (The verb ‫ ָענַ ק‬is a denominative from the masc.

pl.‫ ְכּמוֹ‬.sg.328 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW d) Exodus 15:15 ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ ָ ֑ר ַעד‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫מוֹאב י‬ ָ֔ ‫ֵא ֵיל֣י‬ As for the leaders of Moab. ‘he will terrify/dismay them’. See GK 103k: “The syllable ‫— ִמן‬in—‫ ַכּמוֹנִ י‬is. ‫ַיְב ֲה ֵ ֽלמוֹ‬ Piel 3 m. ‫ ֵא ֵל֣ימוֹ‬for ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫= ֲא ֵל‬ “to them”.sg. ‫וְ ִת ָטּ ֙ ֵעמוֹ‬ Qal 2 m. ‫ אחז‬+ sf. ‘You will bring them’. 3 m.sg. ‫ְתּ ִב ֵ֗אמוֹ‬ Hiphil 2 m. 3 m. + vav conj. so that ‫ ְבּמוֹ‬. in poetry.pl.pl. ‘and you will plant them’. 3 m.” . hence. ‘(it) seized them’.sg. ‫ נטע‬+ sf. f) Psalm 2:5 ‫ָ ֤אז יְ ַד ֵבּ֣ר ֵא ֵל֣ימוֹ ְב ַא ֑פּוֹ וּֽ ַב ֲחרוֹנ֥ וֹ ַיְב ֲה ֵ ֽלמוֹ׃‬ Then He will speak to them in His anger and in His wrath He will terrify them. e) Exodus 15:17 ‫ְתּ ִב ֵ֗אמוֹ וְ ִת ָטּ ֙ ֵעמוֹ֙ ְבּ ַ ֣הר נַ ֲח ָ ֽל ְת ָ֔ך‬ You shall bring them and You shall plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance. Note also the ‫ מוֹ‬suffix on the preposition ‫ ֶאל‬. equivalent in meaning to ‫בּ ְכּ ְל‬. ‫ בהל‬+ sf.‫ְלמוֹ‬ ְ Poetry is appear as independent words. here distinguished from prose by the use of longer forms. ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫י‬ Qal 3 m. ‫ בוא‬+ sf. 3 m. trembling seized them. appended to the three simple prefixes ‫ ְבּ ְכּ ְל‬even without suffixes.pl.

+ vav conj. m. ‘cause them to wander’.‫ ָמוֹ‬of the pronominal suffixes with the noun. ‫ֲהנִ ֵיע֣מוֹ‬ Hiphil imperat. 3 m. 3 m.pl. .sg.sg.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 329 g) Psalm 22:5 ‫ְ ֭בָּך ָבּ ְט ֣חוּ ֲאב ֵ ֹ֑תינוּ ָ֝בּ ְט ֗חוּ ַו ְֽתּ ַפ ְלּ ֵ ֽטמוֹ׃‬ Our fathers trusted in You. bring them down’. they trusted and You delivered them. delivered them’. ‫ידמוֹ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫הוֹר‬ ִ ְ‫ו‬ Hiphil imperat. ‫ַו ְֽתּ ַפ ְלּ ֵ ֽטמוֹ‬ Piel 2 m. 3 m. ‫ נוע‬+ sf. Explanatory notes are added.pl. ‘and You III: Example with Imperative a) Psalm 59:12 ‫ידמוֹ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫הוֹר‬ ִ ְ‫ֲהנִ ֵיע֣מוֹ ְ ֭ב ֵח ְילָך ו‬ Cause them to wander with Your might and bring them down. + sf.sg. 1 Psalm 2:3-5 ‫יכה ִמ ֶ ֣מּנּוּ ֲעב ֵ ֹֽתימוֹ׃‬ ָ ‫רוֹתימוֹ וְ נַ ְשׁ ִ ֖ל‬ ֑ ֵ ‫וֹס‬ ְ ‫ת־מ‬ ֽ ‫ ְ ֽננַ ְתּ ָקה ֶא‬3 ‫ג־למוֹ׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫יוֹשׁב ַבּ ָשּׁ ַ ֣מיִ ם יִ ְשׂ ָ ֑חק ֲ֝אד ָֹ֗ני יִ ְל ַע‬ ֵ֣ 4 ‫ ָ ֤אז יְ ַד ֵבּ֣ר ֵא ֵל֣ימוֹ ְב ַא ֑פּוֹ וּֽ ַב ֲחרוֹנ֥ וֹ ַיְב ֲה ֵ ֽלמוֹ׃‬5 Let us tear apart their bonds and let us cast from us their cords. identify the rare forms .‫מוֹ‬ ‫ ֵ◌מוֹ‬. m. ‫פלט‬ + vav consec. ‘and Exercise: in the following biblical verses. ‫ירד‬ + sf.pl.

‫רוֹתימוֹ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫וֹס‬ ְ ‫ֽמ‬ ‘their bonds’. ‫ִענְּ ֵבי‬ n. Then He will speak to them in His anger.32. and in His burning wrath He will terrify them. = ‘grape(s)’ > pl. Deuteronomy 32:27. (= ‫אסר‬ ֵ ֹ ‫ > )מ‬pl. GK 20 h: . ‫ ֵענָ ב‬n. and He shall say.) ָצ ֵר‬ ֙‫ֲענָ ֵ֙במוֹ‬ ‘their grapes’. treat as foreign). rope > pl. their clusters are bitter (lit.m. ‫מוֹסר > ָא ַסר‬ ֵ n.m.m. Note dagesh forte dirimens in nun of ‫ ִענְּ ֵבי‬and see GK 20 c: “a dagesh is sometimes strengthened merely for the sake of euphony—”. = twisted cord. (the) rock in whom they trusted? who would eat the fat of their sacrifices. & f.m. see GK 103k. ‫ ֲעב ִֹתים‬/‫ֲעבֹתֹת‬ ‫‘ ָל ֶהם = ָלֽמוֹ‬to them’ (GK 103k). foe’ > pl. their grapes are grapes of poison. ‫ָצ ֵ ֑רימוֹ‬ ‫ָצ ִרים‬ ‘their adversaries’ (= ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫ַצר .330 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW He who sits in the heavens laughs. where are their gods.38 ‫י־רוֹשׁ ַא ְשׁ ְכּ ֹ֥לת ְמר ֹ ֖ר ֹת ָלֽמוֹ׃‬ ֔ ‫פֶּ ֽן־יְנַכּ ְ֖רוּ צ ֵ ָ֑רימוֹ ֲענָ ֵ֙במוֹ֙ ִענְּ ֵב‬ ‫אכלוּ‬ ֵ֔ ֹ ‫ֹלהימוֹ ֖צוּר ָח ָ ֥סיוּ ֽבוֹ׃ ֲא ֶ֨שׁר ֵ ֤ח ֶלב זְ ָב ֵ֙חימוֹ֙ י‬ ֑ ֵ ‫וְ ָא ַ ֖מר ֵ ֣אי ֱא‬ Lest their adversaries misinterpret (lit. ‫ > ֲענָ ִבים‬cstr. note the rare suffix on prepositions as well as nouns. the Lord mocks them.37. ‫מוֹסרוֹת‬ ְ ‫ֲעב ֵ ֹֽתימוֹ‬ ‘their cords’. = ‘adversary. ‫ ֲעבֹת > ָע ַבת‬n. ‫ֵא ֵל֣ימוֹ‬ 2 = ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫‘ ֲא ֵל‬to them’. bitter clusters to them).

‫ עֹז‬n.” ‫ָלֽמוֹ‬ = ‫‘ ָל ֶהם‬to them’ ‫ֹלהימוֹ‬ ֑ ֵ ‫ֱא‬ = ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫ֹלה‬ ֵ ‫‘ ֱא‬their gods’ ֙‫זְ ָב ֵ֙חימוֹ‬ = ‫יהם‬ ֶ ‫‘ זִ ְב ֵח‬their sacrifices’ For ‫‘ ָחסוּ = ָח ָ ֥סיוּ‬they sought refuge’ (‫) ָח ָסה‬. It is the ‫ ִ◌י‬which is found in the cst. JM 93l: “The paragogic vowel ‫ ִ◌י‬. see GK 75 Verbs ‫ > ל"ה‬GK 75 u: “The original yod sometimes appears even before afformatives beginning with a vowel—. state of the biliteral nouns of kinship ‫ ֲח ִמי ֲא ִחי ֲא ִבי‬. JM 93: Paragogic vowels. Because of its ordinary use and of its origin this ‫ ִ◌י‬can be called i of the construct state. at first to express the construct state in the strict sense or in the loose sense.” 3 Psalm 89:18 ‫י־ת ְפ ֶ ֣א ֶרת ֻע ָזּ֣מוֹ ָ ֑א ָתּה‬ ִ ‫ִ ֽכּ‬ For You are the glory of their strength. This vowel is called ḥireq compaginis (linking i) because it is usually found in nouns in the cst.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 331 “when a consonant with sheva is strengthened by dagesh forte dirimens to make the sheva more audible. and therefore in close link with other nouns. = ‘strength’ ḤIREQ COMPAGINIS See GK 90: Real and Supposed Remains of Early Case-endings. then as a purely rhythmic vowel. ‫ֻע ָזּ֣מוֹ‬ ‘their strength’. This ‫ ִ◌י‬was used in poetry in nouns.m.” . state. adjectives and especially participles.

state the ḥireq compaginis is only found in participial forms. state: a form such as ‫ ק ְֹט ִלי‬had thus the advantage of expressing the cst.sg. state clearly”. ‫א ְֹס ִ ֤רי‬ Qal part. 2 Zechariah 11:17 ‫עֹזְ ִ ֣בי ַה ֔צּ ֹאן‬ ‘that leaves the flock’. 1 Genesis 49:11 (Judah) ‫ירוֹ[ וְ ַלשּׂ ֵֹר ָ ֖ קה ְבּ ִנ֣י ֲאתֹנ֑ וֹ‬ ֔ ‫א ְֹס ִ ֤רי ַלגֶּ֙ ֶ ֙פן ִעיר ֹה ] ִע‬ Binding his foal to the vine and to the choice vine his ass’s colt.. m.m. spot the Ḥireq Compaginis in nouns. explanatory notes are added. for example ‫ק ֵֹטל‬. ‘binding’. cstr. See JM 93n: “In participles the ‫ ִ◌י‬of the cst. ‫‘ ְבּ ִנ֣י ֲאתֹנ֑ וֹ‬the son (colt) of his ass’. See GK 90 m: “otherwise than in the cstr. This is because on the one hand a participle preceding a substantive is often put in the cst. adjectives and participles. from ‫ ֵבּן‬n.sg. on the other hand because a participle. note also the instances where a preposition is inserted between the cstr.332 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Exercise: in the following biblical verses. usually retains ֵ in the cstr. state and its genitive.). . m. ‫ ְבּנִ י‬instead of ‫ ֶבּן‬. state is rather frequent. 3 Deuteronomy 33:16 ‫ְוּר ֥צוֹן שׁ ְֹכ ִנ֖י ְס ֶנ֑ה‬ And the good will of Him that dwells in the bush. The regular form would be ‫א ֵֹסר‬. ‫עֹזְ ִ ֣בי‬ for ‫( עֹזֵ ב‬Qal part. evidently with the object of giving them more dignity”.

PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE ‫שׁ ְֹכ ִנ֖י‬ 4 333 for ‫‘ שׁ ֵֹכן‬dwelling’.sg. who was constructing for himself a rock sepulchre). cstr. ‫ַר ָ ֣בּ ִתי ֔ ָעם‬ ‘abounding in people’. great’. = ‫ ַר ַבּת‬.sg. fem. m. ‫ַר ָבּ ִתי‬ ‫ ַר ָבּה‬. ‫רוֹם ִק ְב ֔רוֹ ח ְֹק ִ ֥ קי ַב ֶ ֖סּ ַלע ִמ ְשׁ ָ ֥כּן ֽלוֹ׃‬ ֙ ‫ח ְֹצ ִ ֤בי ָמ‬ Hewing out his tomb on high. for ‫‘ ח ֵֹקק‬cutting in’ 6 Lamentations 1:1 ‫גּוֹים‬ ִ֗ ‫יר ַר ָ ֣בּ ִתי ֔ ָעם ָהיְ ָ ֖תה ְכּ ַא ְל ָמ ָנ֑ה ַר ָ ֣בּ ִתי ַב‬ ֙ ‫ֵא ָיכ֣ה יָ ְשׁ ָ ֣בה ָב ָ ֗דד ָה ִע‬ ‫תי ַבּ ְמּ ִדינ֔ וֹת ָהיְ ָ ֖תה ָל ַ ֽמס׃‬ ֙ ִ ‫ָשׂ ָ ֙ר‬ How does the city sit solitary. Shebna. state before a preposition. she has become like a widow. from adj. . many.‫‘ = ַרב‬much. ‫ֽשׁ ֹ ְכנִ ֙י‬ 5 Note the cstr. for ‫‘ ח ֵֹצב‬hewing out’ ‫ח ְֹק ִ ֥ קי‬ Qal part. Isaiah 22:16 (Isaiah denounces a powerful official of King Hezekiah. Jeremiah 49:16 ‫ֽשׁ ֹ ְכנִ ֙י ְבּ ַחגְ ֵו֣י ַה ֶ֔סּ ַלע‬ Dwelling in the clefts of the rock. that was full of people. she has become a vassal. cutting in a dwelling place for himself in the rock. ‫ח ְֹצ ִ ֤בי‬ Qal part. she that was great among the nations and princess among the provinces. m.

pass. fem. with ḥireq compaginis before a preposition. cstr. state and its genitive. note cstr. part. from ‫ ְמ ֵל ָאה‬. which is cstr. See JM 93o: “There is a probable example of the passive participle in Gn 31:39—: this probably is the only example of paragogic ‫ ִ◌י‬in prose. relation.6. righteousness lodged in her. ‫ ָשׂ ַרת = ָשׂ ָר ִתי‬.7. = ‘full’. = ‘princess’.f. f. adj. note the preposition between the cstr.9 ‫ימי ֵמ ָע ָ ֣פר ָ ֑דּל‬ ֣ ִ ‫ילי ִל ְר ֑אוֹת ְמ ִ ֽ ק‬ ֥ ִ ‫יהי ָל ָ ֽשׁ ֶבת׃ ַ ֽה ַמּ ְשׁ ִפּ‬ ֥ ִ ‫ַ ֽה ַמּגְ ִבּ‬ ‫יבי ֲע ֶ ֬ק ֶרת ַה ַ֗בּיִת‬ ִ֨ ‫וֹשׁ‬ ִ ‫ֽמ‬ . which does not nullify the cstr. and now murderers. ‫גנב‬. 9 Psalm 113:5. 7 Genesis 31:39 ‫גְּ ֻנ ְֽב ִ ֣תי י֔ וֹם וּגְ ֻנ ְֽב ִ ֖תי ָ ֽליְ ָלה׃‬ Stolen by day or stolen by night.” 8 Isaiah 1:21 ‫זוֹנה ִק ְר ָי֖ה נֶ ֱא ָמ ָנ֑ה ְמ ֵל ֲא ִ ֣תי ִמ ְשׁ ֗ ָפּט ֶצ ֶ֛דק יָ ִ ֥לין ָ ֖בּהּ וְ ַע ָ ֥תּה‬ ָ ֔ ‫יכ ֙ה ָהיְ ָ ֣תה ְל‬ ָ ‫ֵא‬ ‫ְמ ַר ְצּ ִ ֽחים׃‬ How the faithful city has become a harlot. ‫‘ ְמ ֵל ֲא ִ ֣תי ִמ ְשׁ ֗ ָפּט‬full of judgment’.334 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫גּוֹים‬ ִ֗ ‫ַר ָ ֣בּ ִתי ַב‬ ‘great among the nations’. ‫ ְמ ֵל ַאת = ְמ ֵל ֲא ִ ֣תי‬cstr. from ‫נוּבה‬ ָ ְ‫גּ‬. from ‫ ָשׂ ָרה‬n. Again. ‫גְּ נֻ ַבת = גְּ ֻנ ְֽב ִ ֣תי‬. of ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬adj.sg. ‫תי ַבּ ְמּ ִדינ֔ וֹת‬ ֙ ִ ‫‘ ָשׂ ָ ֙ר‬princess among the provinces’. = ‘stolen’. she that was full of judgment.

—.7. ‫‘ ְבּנוֹ ְבעֹר‬son of Beor’ (Num 24. m.’ and it was so.3.” 10 Genesis 1:24 ‫תּוֹצא ָה ָ֜א ֶרץ ֶנ ֶ֤פשׁ ַחיָּ ֙ה ְל ִמ ָ֔ינהּ ְבּ ֵה ָ ֥מה וָ ֶ ֛ר ֶמשׂ‬ ֵ֨ ‫ֹלהים‬ ִ֗ ‫אמר ֱא‬ ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֣יּ‬ ‫י־כן׃‬ ֽ ֵ ‫תוֹ־א ֶרץ ְל ִמ ָינ֑הּ ַוֽ יְ ִה‬ ֖ ֶ ְ‫וְ ַ ֽחי‬ And G-d said. 1:24 ‫תוֹ־א ֶרץ‬ ֖ ֶ ְ‫—וְ ַ ֽחי‬the poetic form may have been chosen to avoid ‫ ֶא ֶרץ‬-‫ ַחיַּ ת‬. See JM 93r: Paragogic Vowel ֹ ‫ו‬: “This vowel is found only in a few nouns in the construct state. ‘let the earth bring forth living creature after its kind. See GK 90m: “We must distinguish. m.sg.sg. in the late Psalms. In Gn. m. 113:5. Raises (the) poor from (the) dust.קום‬ ִ֨ ‫וֹשׁ‬ ִ ‫ ֽמ‬Hiphil part. e.” ִ ‫הוֹשׁ‬ ִ ‫ִ◌י( ְל‬ See also JM 93o: “The ‫ ִ◌י‬is simply incorrect in Ps 113:8 ‫יבי‬ brought about by the preceding and following paragogic ‫) ִ◌י‬.g. —It is used in some cases in the cst. Who makes low to see. and passages in which the i added to the participle with the article merely serves as an ornamental device of poetic style. between passages in which the participle nevertheless does stand in close connexion. however.15). 114:8. ‫יהי‬ ֥ ִ ‫ַ ֽה ַמּגְ ִבּ‬ ‫ימי‬ ֣ ִ ‫ְמ ִ ֽ ק‬ Hiphil part.sg. ‫ישׁב‬. notably ‫ ַחיָּ ה‬animal. —Finally we find ‫ ַחיְ תוֹ‬7 times (one of which occurs in a prose passage).שׁפל‬ Hiphil part. (poetic and archaic texts). He makes the barren of the house to dwell. after its kind.גבהּ‬ ֥ ִ ‫ ַ ֽה ַמּ ְשׁ ִפּ‬Hiphil part. 123:1.9.sg. ‫. which may have been thought too harsh (but vs 25: . cattle and creeping things and animals of the earth. m. ‫יבי . ‫ילי . state instead of ‫ ִ◌י‬for reasons unknown. Instead of ‫( ְבּנִ י‬Gn 49:11) we find ‫‘ ְבּנוֹ ִצפּוֹר‬son of Zipor’ (Num 23:18).6.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 335 Who dwells on high.

added Nun.) ‫נוֹ־מיִ ם‬ ֽ ָ ְ‫ְל ַמ ְעי‬ Note paragogic ֹ ‫ו‬.‫ יִ ְק ְטלוּ‬we often find a ‫ ן‬called paragogic nun. The total of 305 examples are pretty widely spread in the Old Testament. (the) flint into a fountain of water. explanatory notes are added. . Aramaic influence. and metre. In reality the ‫ ן‬belongs to primitive forms and is found in Ugaritic. i.” 11 Psalm 114:8 ‫נוֹ־מיִ ם׃‬ ֽ ָ ְ‫ם־מיִ ם ַ֝ח ָלּ ִ֗מישׁ ְל ַמ ְעי‬ ֑ ָ ַ‫ַהה ְֹפ ִ ֣כי ַה ֣צּוּר ֲאג‬ Who turns the rock into a pool of water.f. Aramaic etc. This explains why one finds forms with ‫ וּן‬especially in pause (in major and intermediate pauses). Vulg. m. m.e. GK 47m. LXX. JM 44e: “Added to the sufformative ‫ וּ‬of the 3rd pers. cf. 1 Exodus 15:14 ‫ָ ֽשׁ ְמ ֥עוּ ַע ִ ֖מּים יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬ The people hear and quake. Pesh. But see JM 93r: “Instead of ‫נוֹ־מיִ ם‬ ֽ ָ ְ‫ְל ַמ ְעי‬ Ps 114:8 one should phps read the plural ‫( ְל ַמ ְעיְ נֵ י‬cf.—. pl. and 2nd pl.336 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫ ַחיַּ ת ָה ָא ֶרץ‬with the article). a deliberate archaism.sg. Arabic. in both prose and poetic texts. noting its occurrence with and without the pause. ‫ ִתּ ְק ְטלוּ‬.” PARAGOGIC NUN See JM 44e.. The reasons for the presence of a form with ‫ וּן‬can be the antiquity of a text. ‫ַהה ְֹפ ִ ֣כי‬ ‘who turns’ = ‫( ַהה ֵֹפְך‬Qal part. But the usual reason seems to be preference for a fuller and more emphatic form. Ps 79.).” Exercise: study the occurrence of Paragogic Nun in the following biblical verses.2 ‫ ֶא ֶרץ‬-‫ ְל ַחיְתוֹ‬. m.

i. ‫> יְ ַל ְמּדוּ .e. Genesis 18:29 ‫יִמּ ְצ ֥אוּן ָ ֖שׁם ַא ְר ָבּ ִ ֑עים‬ ָ ‫אוּל֛י‬ ַ . ‫ . 3 m. 3 m.למד‬ (retention of pausal vowel + paragogic nun).רגז‬this form occurs in pause and the pausal vowel of the 2nd syllable (qamets) is retained. ָח ֵסר‬not in pause.pl. ‫יִ ְלק ֹ֑טוּן‬ Qal imperf. ‫יִ ְרגָּ זוּן > יִ ְרגָּ זוּ > יִ ְרגְּ זוּ‬ 2 Psalm 104:28 ‫ִתּ ֵ ֣תּן ָ ֭ל ֶהם יִ ְלק ֹ֑טוּן ִתּ ְפ ַ ֥תּח ָי ְֽ ד ָ֗ך יִ ְשׂ ְבּ ֥עוּן ֽטוֹב׃‬ You give to them. 4 ‫( יְ ַל ֵמּדוּ‬in pause) > ‫יְ ַל ֵמּדוּן‬ Genesis 18:28 ‫יק ֙ם ֲח ִמ ָ֔שּׁה‬ ִ ‫וּלי יַ ְח ְס ֞רוּן ֲח ִמ ִ ֤שּׁים ַה ַצּ ִדּ‬ ַ ‫֠א‬ Perhaps the fifty righteous ones will lack five. Deuteronomy 4:10 ‫יהם יְ ַל ֵמּ ֽדוּן׃‬ ֖ ֶ ֵ‫ת־בּנ‬ ְ ‫וְ ֶא‬ And their sons they will teach. ‫> יִ ְלקֹטוּ > יִ ְל ְקטוּ‬ ‫יִ ְלקֹטוּן‬ ‫יִ ְשׂ ְבּ ֥עוּן‬ 3 Qal imperf.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 337 ‫יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬ Qal imperf.pl.pl. ‫ . 3 m. ‫ . You open Your hand.לקט‬this form occurs in pause and the pausal vowel of the 2nd syllable (holem) is retained.pl. i. 3 m. ‫ . they are sated with good.שׂבע‬not in pause. 3 m.e. ‫יַ ְח ְס ֞רוּן‬ 5 Qal imperf. ‫יְ ַל ֵמּ ֽדוּן׃‬ Piel imperf.pl. they gather in.

חזה‬retention of archaic yod of ‫ ל"ה‬verbs. ‫יֶ ֱחז֤ וּ‬ without paragogic nun in the same verse but not in pause suggests that it was “the pause especially which exerted an influence on the restoration of this older and fuller termination”. ‫יִמּ ְצ ֥אוּן‬ ָ 6 Niphal imperf.338 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Perhaps forty will be found there. 7 Isaiah 26:11 ‫ת־עם‬ ָ ֔ ‫שׁוּ ִקנְ ַא‬ ֙ ֹ ‫הו֛ה ָ ֥ר ָמה יָ ְדָך֖ ַבּל־יֶ ֱחזָ י֑ וּן יֶ ֱחז֤ וּ וְ יֵ ֨ב‬ ָ ְ‫י‬ O Lord. ‫ . ‫ . to the sufformative ‫ י‬of the second pers. here to avoid a hiatus before ’aleph (GK 47m).pl. (when) Your hand is lifted up. they will not see. ‫> ִתּ ְד ָבּ ִקי > ִתּ ְד ְבּ ִקי‬ ‫ִתּ ְד ָבּ ִקין‬ . ‫ . 2 f.מצא‬not in pause.sg.מות‬some examples may be due to euphonic reasons. ‫ . paragogic nun in pause. f.דבק‬see JM 44f: “Similarly. 8 Ruth 2:8 ‫וְ ֥כֹה ִת ְד ָבּ ִ ֖ קין ִעם־נַ ֲער ָ ֹֽתי‬ But stay close to my maidens. Numbers 16:29 ‫ל־ה ָא ָד ֙ם יְ ֻמ ֣תוּן ֵ֔א ֶלּה‬ ֽ ָ ‫ם־כּ ֤מוֹת ָכּ‬ ְ ‫ִא‬ If these shall die like the death of any man. (GK 47m). 3 m.pl.” Note the retention of the pausal vowel. ‫יְמ ֣תוּן‬ ֻ Qal imperf. 3 m. ‫ִת ְד ָבּ ִ ֖ קין‬ Qal imperf. Qal imperf. one sometimes adds a paragogic Nun. sg. ‫ַבּל־יֶ ֱחזָ י֑ וּן‬ ‘they will not see’. they will see and be ashamed (Your) zeal for (the) people.

imperf. for which other works may be consulted. horse and its rider He has cast into the sea’. ‫ָ ֣אז יָ ִ ֽשׁיר‬ “Then (Moses) sang”. p 75) suggests that the Song of the Sea “may be the oldest piece of sustained poetry in the Hebrew Bible” and it certainly contains a concentration of grammatical features of “elevated” or “poetic” style. after certain particles and note on use of ‫ ָאז‬. see Part Four of this grammar book. ‘I will sing to the Lord. This section will present a verse-by-verse analysis of these grammatical features but will not encompass a complete analysis of all the literary features which characterize biblical “poetry”.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 339 A GRAMMATICAL OVERVIEW OF THE SONG OF THE SEA (EXODUS 15:1-18) (based on both medieval and modern scholarship) Nahum Sarna (The JPS Torah Commentary. for use of imperf. but will be explained again or the student will be referred back to the relevant section. saying. A number of these grammatical features have already been dealt with separately in Parts Four and Five of this book. Exodus 15:1 ‫מר‬ ֹ ֑ ‫אמ ֖רוּ ֵלא‬ ְ ֹ ‫את ַ ֽלײ וַ יּ‬ ֙ ֹ ‫ירה ַהזּ‬ ֤ ָ ‫ת־ה ִשּׁ‬ ַ ‫וּב ֵ֨ני יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵ֜אל ֶא‬ ְ ‫ָ ֣אז יָ ִ ֽשׁיר־מ ֶֹשׁ ֩ה‬ ‫אה גָּ ָ֔אה‬ ֹ ֣ ָ‫ָא ִ ֤שׁ ָירה ֽ ַלײ ִ ֽכּי־ג‬ ‫֥סוּס וְ ר ְֹכ ֖בוֹ ָר ָ ֥מה ַב ָיּֽם׃‬ Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song to the Lord and they spoke. . for He is surely exalted. in sphere of past time.

Imperfect instead of perfect. = ‘cast.‫לוֹמר ְלשׁוֹן ָע ִתיד ַתּ ַחת ָע ָבר ִעם ִמ ַלּת ָאז‬ ַ ‫קּוֹדשׁ‬ ֶ ‫ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט ְלשׁוֹן ַה‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra: It is the custom of the Holy Language to use imperfect instead of perfect after the word ‫ָאז‬ 2 Comment of Ibn Ezra in his shorter commentary on the Pentateuch ‫משׁה׃ ָע ִתיד ַתּ ַחת ָע ָבר וְ ַעל ַדּ ְע ִתּי ֶשׁהוּא ַהזְּ ַמן ָה ֶא ְמ ָצ ִעי‬ ֶ ‫ָאז יָ ִשׁיר‬ ‫אמרוּ ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ָע ָבר וְ ָע ִתיד‬ ָ ‫וְ ֵאין ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ַהקּ ֶֹדשׁ ִס‬ ְ ֹ ‫ימן ָע ָליו ַעל ֵכּן י‬ Translation of Ibn Ezra Then sang Moses. It is my opinion that it is ‫ ַהזְּ ַמן ָה ֶא ְמ ָצ ִעי‬and there is no method (to express) it in the Holy Language. + Qal perf.sg. 3 m. ‫ָר ָמה‬ Qal perf. abs. shoot’. Explanation of Ibn Ezra’s comments ‫ַהזְּ ַמן ָה ֶא ְמ ָצ ִעי‬ . Views of medieval scholars on ‫יָ ִ ֽשׁיר‬ 1 ‫ָ ֣אז‬ Comment of Ibn Ezra in his longer commentary on the Pentateuch . 3 m. be lifted up.340 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW ‫אה גָּ ָ֔אה‬ ֹ ֣ ָ‫ג‬ Qal inf. Part Five of this grammar book). ‫‘ = גָּ ָאה‬rise up. therefore they use past or future.sg. exalted’. Notice the ‘parallelism’ of clauses (see summary outline of the grammatical features of ‘elevated style’.

when he saw the miracle. i. that is. for ‫ ָאז יָ ִשׁיר‬expresses an action that happened once only.2 are presented and the concept of ‫זְ ַמן‬ ‫עוֹמד‬ ֵ is explained. to express continuation. 3 Comments of Rashi ‫ ָל ַמ ְדנוּ‬--. duration. followed by the actual uttering of the song. RAMBAN (see glossary) criticizes Rashi and points out that there are future forms which refer to past actions which happened only once (e. here indicates the Messianic era.” According to the midrashic interpretation brought by Rashi. repetition.e. expressed by ‫מר‬ ֹ ֑ ‫אמ ֖רוּ ֵלא‬ ְ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬i. that is the plain meaning. Explanation of Rashi Rashi suggests that ‫ ָאז‬here indicates the thought/intention to sing. Psalm . the use of the imperf.. either perfect or imperfect may be used to express ‘standing time’. But (according to) the midrashic explanation. where Ibn Ezra’s comments on Psalm 1:1. future tense) indicates the intention. in the future. “Then Moses intended/decided to sing—and they spoke. the time of the revival of the dead. indicating continuous action (for which a past or future may be used).e. views of medieval scholars on use of perf. Moses will sing—.‫משׁה׃ ָאז ְכּ ֶשׁ ָר ָאה ַהנֵּ ס ָע ָלה ְבּ ִלבּוֹ ֶשׁיָּ ִשׁיר ִשׁ ָירה‬ ֶ ‫ָאז יָ ִשׁיר‬ ‫ישּׁב ְפּשׁוּטוֹ ֲא ָבל ִמ ְד ָרשׁוֹ‬ ֵ ַ‫ֶשׁ ַהיּוֹ״ד ַעל ֵשׁם ַה ַמּ ֲח ָשׁ ָבה נֶ ֶא ְמ ָרה זֶ הוּ ְלי‬ ‫תּוֹרה‬ ָ ‫בּוֹתינוּ ז״ל ִמ ָכּאן ֶר ֶמז ִל ְת ִחיַּ ת ַה ֵמּ ִתים ִמן ַה‬ ֵ ‫ָא ְמרוּ ַר‬ Translation of Rashi Then sang Moses. Then.g. from here there is an allusion in the Torah to the revival of the dead. our rabbis of blessed memory said. and imperf. it arose in his heart that he would sing a song—we learn that the yod (i. ‫עוֹמד‬ Four. no 5.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 341 ֵ ‫ – זְ ַמן‬see Part another term used by Ibn Ezra for ‘standing time’. saying—.e.” Rashi argues that ‫ ָאז יָ ִשׁיר‬is not an imperf. “then.

melody’. 1 c. Translation according to interpretation of Ibn Ezra G-d is my strength and the song of (my strength) and has become to me a salvation. 1 c. state would be ‫זִ ְמ ַרת‬ (pataḥ under resh. see GK 80g and see II Chron 31:3. build Him a dwelling). is ‫( ֻעזִּ י‬see Jeremiah 16:19). The form with qamets-ḥateph ‫ ָע ִזּ֤י‬occurs only here and in the same phrase in Isaiah 12:2 and Psalm 118:14. ‫ זִ ְמ ָרת‬is a strange form. the G-d of my father and I will extol Him. .342 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW 106:19: ‫‘ יַ ֲעשׂוּ ֵעגֶ ל ְבּח ֵֹרב‬they made a calf at Horeb’). this is the G-d of my father and I will extol Him. ‫ זִ ְמ ָרה‬n. Exodus 15:2 ‫ישׁוּעה‬ ֑ ָ ‫י־לי ִ ֽל‬ ֖ ִ ‫ָע ִזּ֤י וְ זִ ְמ ָר ֙ת ָ֔יהּ ַוֽ יְ ִה‬ ‫ֶז֤ה ֵא ִ ֙לי וְ ַאנְ ֵ֔והוּ‬ ‫ֹלהי ָא ִ ֖בי וַ ֲאר ְֹמ ֶ ֽמנְ הוּ׃‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ֱא‬ Translation according to interpretation of Rashi The strength and the vengeance of G-d has become to me a salvation.sg.f.sg. not qamets). ‫וּמנָ ת‬ ְ ‫ ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך‬. endings do include ‫ָת‬. Hence. although rarer fem. the expected form in cstr. the narrator places himself at the point of time he desires in order to convey the event realistically. Ramban seems to conclude that the tenses are interchangeable.m. would be ‫זִ ְמ ָר ִתי‬ (ḥireq yod at end) = ‘my song’. this is my G-d and I will adorn Him (or. ‘song. The form with sf. ‫ עֹז‬n. this is usual in prophecy. might’. this is my G-d and I will build Him a dwelling. = ‘strength. the usual form of ‫ עֹז‬+ sf.

Rashi also takes ‫ זִ ְמ ָרת‬as a noun in cstr. suggesting that although ‫ֻעזִּ י‬ (with qibbus) is noun + sf. state = ‘song of’ and he regards ‫ ָע ִזּ֤י וְ זִ ְמ ָר ֙ת ָ֔יהּ‬as elliptical. Rashi then understands the verse: “the strength of and the vengeance of G-d has become to me a salvation”. ‫( ָעזִּ י‬with qamets-ḥateph) is a noun without a suffix.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 343 IBN EZRA states that there is no difference between ‫ ָע ִזּ֤י‬and ‫ ֻעזִּ י‬and that ‫‘ = ָע ִזּ֤י‬my strength’. adorn’ > “I will beautify/adorn Him” (BDB p 627) (ii) based on ‫( נוה‬II) – a denominative derived from ‫ נָ וֶ ה‬n. RASHI takes an altogether different view. Ḥireq Compaginis). the word ‫ ָעזִּ י‬pulls itself and another with it (i. as if it was written. ‫וְ ַאנְ ֵ֔והוּ‬ (i) can be understood in two different ways: based on ‫( נוה‬I) – only found in Hiphil = ‘beautify. ‘my strength and the song of my strength’. prune’ (see Levit 25:4 and BDB p 274). i.e. = ‘abode of shepherd. state.. is understood twice over) according to the custom of the Holy Language.m. but with an extra ḥireq-yod ‫( ִ◌י‬see above. but connects it with a different root ‫‘ = זמר‬trim. See Ibn Ezra’s following comment: ‫מוֹשׁ ֶכת ַע ְצ ָמהּ וְ ַא ֶח ֶרת ִע ָמּהּ ְכּ ִמ ְשׁ ַפּט ְלשׁוֹן‬ ֶ ‫וּל ִפי ַד ְע ִתּי ֶשׁ ִמּ ַלּת ָעזִּ י‬ ְ ‫ַהקּ ֶֹדשׁ ְכּ ִאילוּ ָכּתוּב ָעזִּ י וְ זִ ְמ ַרת ָעזִּ י יָ הּ‬ “And in my opinion. noun in cstr.e. He also takes ‫ זִ ְמ ָרת‬as a fem. suggesting that we need to understand the word ‫ ָע ִזּ֤י‬a second time. . ‫‘ ָעזִּ י וְ זִ ְמ ַרת ָעזִּ י יָ הּ‬Gd is my strength and the song of my strength’. habitation’ > “I will build Him a dwelling” (BDB p 627).

shoot.m.sg. ‘This is my G-d—and (this is) my father’s G-d—. ‫ ִמ ְב ָחר‬n. these forms are rare.k. ‫‘ יָ ָ ֣רה‬throw. with unassimilated Energic Nun (see Energic Nun. while IBN EZRA brings only the latter view. which must be understood a second time. + sf. ‘officer’. Exodus 15:4 ‫ַמ ְר ְכּ ֥בֹת ַפּ ְר ֛עֹה וְ ֵח ֖ילוֹ יָ ָ ֣רה ַב ָיּ֑ם‬ ‫ם־סוּף׃‬ ֽ ַ‫וּמ ְב ַ ֥חר ָ ֽשׁ ִל ָ ֖שׁיו ֻט ְבּ ֥עוּ ְבי‬ ִ The chariots of Pharoah and his army He threw into the sea. the reader is left to deduce the climactic ascent in the parallel structure here.sg.e. the choicest of his officers were sunk in the Reed Sea.j. but also my father’s G-d. 3 c. ‫ ָשׁ ִלישׁ‬n. . but also I will extol Him. above).344 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW RASHI brings both views.’ The ellipsis is pointed out by Ibn Ezra: ‫‘ זֶ ה יְ ָשׁ ֵרת ַבּ ֲעבוּר ַא ֵחר‬this serves a second time’. cast’. ‫‘ ָט ַבע‬sink’ > Pual perf. Note also the ellipsis of the word ‫זֶ ה‬. not only is He my G-d. 1 c. which is derived from the Aramaic Targum. i. occurring only in poetic or elevated style (GK 58 i. 3 m.רום וַ ֲאר ְֹמ ֶ ֽמנְ הוּ‬ Polel imperf. ‫.pl. + vav conj. (but also) He is the G-d of my father and I will extol Him”. ‫‘ ֻט ְבּ ֥עוּ‬they were sunk’.l).m. the second line adds something: “(Not only) is He my G-d and I will adorn Him. not only will I adorn Him. ‘choicest. ‫ֹלהי ָא ִ ֖בי וַ ֲאר ְֹמ ֶ ֽמנְ הוּ‬ ֥ ֵ ‫ֶז֤ה ֵא ִ ֙לי וְ ַאנְ ֵ֔והוּ ֱא‬ Note the terseness of expression typical of poetic style. Part Five. best’.

deep’ ‫( ְכּמוֹ‬BDB p 455) functioning here as a poetic synonym of ‫‘ = ְכּ‬like. ַ Comment of Rashi on ‫יְכ ְס ֻי ֑מוּ‬ ‫והיּו״ד ָה ֶא ְמ ָצ ִעית יְ ֵת ָירה בוֹ ֶוד ֶרְך ִמ ְק ָראוֹת ְבּ ַכְך ְכּמוֹ‬ ַ ‫ְכּמוֹ יְ ַכסּוּם‬ (‫וּב ָ ֽ ק ְרָך֤ וְ ֽצ ֹאנְ ָ֙ך יִ ְר ְבּ ֻ֔ין) ְדּ ָב ִרים ח יג‬ ְ ( ‫יתָך) ְתּ ִה ִלּים לו ט‬ ֑ ֶ ‫ִי ְ֭רוְ יֻ ן ִמ ֶ ֣דּ ֶשׁן ֵבּ‬ ‫והיו״ד ָה ִראשׁוֹנָ ה ֶשׁ ַמּ ְשׁ ָמ ָעהּ ְלשׁוֹן ָע ִתיד ַכְּך ָפּ ְר ֵשׁהוּ׃ ֻט ְבּעוּ ְביַ ם‬   ‫אוֹתן‬ ָ ‫יכסּוּ‬ ַ ִ‫סוּף ְכּ ֵדי ֶשׁיַּ ְחזְ רוּ ַה ַמּיִ ם ו‬ .pl. poetic) ‫צוּלה > צול‬ ָ ‫ ְמ‬n. ‘depth.f. all in poetry (except Ex.f. Note also the ‫ מוּ‬ending instead of the rare suffix ‫ מוֹ‬and see GK 58g: “The forms ‫ ֵ◌מוֹ ָמוֹ מוֹ‬occur 23 times. (& m) ‘deep. as’ ‫יְ ַכ ְסֻי ֑מוּ‬ Piel imperf. 23:31)”. ‫ כסה‬with retention of original yod (see GK 75u: verbs lamed-hey were originally either lamed-vav or lamed-yod and “the original yod sometimes appears even before afformatives beginning with a vowel”).PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 345 Exodus 15:5 ‫יְכ ְסֻי ֑מוּ‬ ַ ‫מת‬ ֹ ֖ ֹ‫ְתּה‬ ‫מוֹ־א ֶבן׃‬ ֽ ָ ‫צוֹֹלת ְכּ‬ ֖ ‫יָ ְר ֥דוּ ִב ְמ‬ The depths covered them. 3 m. sea’ (usu. ‫ ְתּהוֹם‬n. RASHBAM suggests that the ‫ מוּ‬form is due to assonance with the ֻ sound earlier in the verse. they sank in the deep like stone.

‫ ָר ָבה‬but has retained the archaic yod and also has paragogic nun). 3 m. 3 m. see above. this is typical of Biblical Hebrew.) explain it thus: ‘they were sunk in the Reed Sea in order that the waters should return and cover them’. but has retained the archaic yod and also has pargogic nun). + sf.pl. like: Deut 8:13: ‘your cattle and your sheep will multiply’ ( ‫ יִ ְרבּוּ = יִ ְר ְבּ ֻ֔ין‬Qal imperf. (i. which leads to ellipsis of thematic connections. ‫רוה‬. 3 m. m. glorious’. and Psalm 36:9: “they are abundantly satisfied with the fatness of Your house” (‫יִ ְרווּ = ִי ְ֭רוְ יֻ ן‬. 3 m. ‫)כסה‬ and the middle yod is superfluous.sg. – ‫יָ ָרה‬ ‫) ֻט ְבּעוּ יָ ְרדוּ‬. Rashi makes explicit the thematic connection which is not expressed in the biblical text in actual words). Exodus 15:6 ‫יְמינְ ָך֣ ײ נֶ ְא ָדּ ִ ֖רי ַבּ ֑כֹּ ַח‬ ִֽ ‫אוֹיֽב׃‬ ֵ ‫יְמינְ ָך֥ ײ ִתּ ְר ַ ֥עץ‬ ִֽ Your right hand. crushes (the) enemy. Note the preposition inserted between the cstr. Rashi has joined the beginning of v 5 to the end of v 4 in a relation of effect and cause. ‘they will cover them’. this accords with the notion that biblical Hebrew poetry is characterized by terseness.pl. O Lord. Qal imperf. the fact that the verb is imperf. state and its genitive (‫‘ נֶ ְא ָדּ ִ ֖רי ַבּ ֑כֹּ ַח‬glorious in strength’). And as for the first yod (i.e.e.pl. ‫ָר ַעץ‬ ‘shatter’ (only Exod 15:6 and Judges 10:8) . while all the other verbs in vv 4-5 are perf. Your right hand. for the ḥireq compaginis. ‫‘ אדר‬majestic. (Rashi’s explanation also accounts for the fact that ‫יְכ ְס ֻי ֑מוּ‬ ַ is imperf.pl. glorious in strength. ‫נֶ ְא ָדּ ִ ֖רי‬ Niphal part. O Lord.346 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Translation and Explanation of Rashi Like ‫יְכסּוּם‬ ַ (Piel imperf. and consequently. Part Five of this book.

‘Your right hand. perhaps drawing attention to G-d’s supreme power. tear down’. 3 m. see Ezekiel 2:9) The words ‫ַבּ ֑כֹּ ַח‬ ‫ נֶ ְא ָדּ ִ ֖רי‬could be taken in two possible ways: (i) as addressed to G-d > ‘Your right hand. .m. it consumed them like stubble. Note the assonance created by the repetition of ‫ָך‬. ‘right hand’ (also n. ‫ נֶ ְא ָדּ ִ ֖רי ַבּ ֑כֹּ ַח‬refers back to ֣‫יְמינְ ָך‬ ‫יָמין‬ ִ is also found as masculine (Ezekiel 2:9).f. is glorious in power. shatters (the) enemy’. You sent forth Your burning anger. and use of the rare suffix form ‫ ֵ◌מוֹ‬in ‫אכ ֵל֖מוֹ‬ ְ ֹ ‫אכ ֵלם = י‬ ְ ֹ ‫( י‬imperf. You overthrew those who rose up against You.sg. ‫ ַקשׁ‬n. since (ii) alternatively. Your right hand. Exodus 15:7 ֖‫וּב ֥ר ֹב גְּ אוֹנְ ָך‬ ְ ‫ַתּ ֲה ֣ר ֹס ָק ֶ ֑מיָך‬ ‫ְתּ ַשׁ ַלּ ֙ח ֲח ֣ר ֹנְ ָ֔ך‬ ‫אכ ֵל֖מוֹ ַכּ ַ ֽקּשׁ׃‬ ְ ֹ‫י‬ And in the greatness of Your majesty.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 347 ‫יָמין‬ ִ n. Psalm 92:10. O Lord. O Lord. O Lord. You who are glorious in power. i. = ‘burning (of anger)’. break. shatters (the) enemy’. (This is the view of Ibn Ezra and it accords with a pattern of repetitive parallelism found elsewhere. Your right hand. ‫ָחרוֹן > ָח ָרה‬ n. ‫‘ = ָה ַרס‬throw down.pl.m.g. Note also use of imperf.e. e. in all the verbs to express repetition and continuity. 93:3. ֽ ִ ‘your right hand’.) (GK 58g). + sf. 94:3).m. O Lord. 3 m. = ‘stubble’.

the floods stood upright like a heap. ‫‘ נִ ְצּ ֥בו‬stood upright’. + sf. empty out) my sword. ‫ > ָע ַרם‬Niphal: ‘be heaped up’. ‫= ָק ָפא‬ ‘thicken.pl. 3 m. ָמ ֵלא‬ occurrences of the ‫ מוֹ‬ending: ‫אמוֹ‬ ‫ישׁמוֹ‬ ֖ ֵ ‫תּוֹר‬ ִ Hiphil imperf. ‫ > נָ ַצב‬Niphal perf. ‫‘ = נֹזְ ִ ֑לים‬waters.pl. 3 f. ‘I will pursue. my appetite will be full of them. ‫ירשׁ‬. floods’. I will divide (the) spoil. ‫ > ִריק‬Hiphil = ‘empty out’. ‫ > נָ זַ ל‬Qal part. ‘heap’ (of waters). Note alliteration of letter ’aleph (‫שּׂיג ֲא ַח ֵלּ֣ק‬ ֖ ִ ‫אוֹי֛ב ֶא ְר ֥דּ ֹף ַא‬ ֵ ‫ ) ָא ַ ֥מר‬and three parallel clauses all ending in ‫)נַ ְפ ִ֔שׁי ַח ְר ִ֔בּי יָ ִ ֽדי( ִ◌י‬. 3 m. ‫. the depths congealed in the heart of the sea. I will draw (lit. Exodus 15:9 ‫אוֹי֛ב ֶא ְר ֥דּ ֹף ַא ִ ֖שּׂיג ֲא ַח ֵלּ֣ק ָשׁ ָל֑ל‬ ֵ ‫ָא ַ ֥מר‬ ‫ישׁמוֹ יָ ִ ֽדי׃‬ ֖ ֵ ‫תּוֹר‬ ִ ‫ִתּ ְמ ָל ֵ ֣אמוֹ נַ ְפ ִ֔שׁי ָא ִ ֣ריק ַח ְר ִ֔בּי‬ The enemy said.sg. my hand will dispossess (destroy) them’. overtake’ Exodus 15:10 ‫רוּחָך֖ ִכּ ָ ֣סּמוֹ ָי֑ם‬ ֲ ‫נָ ַ ֥שׁ ְפ ָתּ ְב‬ . Note also two ֣ ֵ ‫ ִתּ ְמ ָל‬Qal imperf.m. + sf.348 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Exodus 15:8 ‫וּח ַא ֙ ֶפּ ֙יָך ֶנ ֶ֣ע ְרמוּ ַ֔מיִ ם‬ ַ ‫וּב ֤ר‬ ְ ‫מוֹ־נ֖ד נֹזְ ִ ֑לים‬ ֵ ‫נִ ְצּ ֥בוּ ְכ‬ ‫ב־יֽם׃‬ ָ ‫מת ְבּ ֶל‬ ֹ ֖ ֹ‫ָ ֽק ְפ ֥אוּ ְתה‬ And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were piled up. ‫ > נשׂג‬Hiphil = ‘reach. I will overtake. congeal’. ‫ נֵ ד‬n.

‫עוֹפ ֶרת‬ ֶ ֔ n. = ‘lead’. Exodus 15:11 ‫מ ָכה ָ ֽבּ ֵא ִל ֙ם ײ‬ ֹ ֤ ‫י־כ‬ ָ ‫ִ ֽמ‬ ‫מ ָכה נֶ ְא ָ ֣דּר ַבּ ֑קֹּ ֶדשׁ‬ ֹ ֖ ‫ִ ֥מי ָכּ‬ ‫נוֹרא ְת ִה ֹּ֖לת ֥ע ֹ ֵשׂה ֶ ֽפ ֶלא׃‬ ָ֥ Who is like You. broken up by the imper- . the earth swallowed them. doing wonders. Piel perf.pl. (Qal ‫)נטה‬. (Qal ‫ בלע‬+ Note that ‫ית‬ sf. ָ֙ ‫ נָ ִ֙ט‬is perf. (the) sea covered them.sg. as it were. 3 m. ‫כסה‬.pl. demonstrating the customary variation of tenses in ‘poetry’. rare form. typical of ‘poetry’. among the gods? Who is like You. Notice the repetition (‫ָכּמ ָֹכה‬ ‫ ָכמ ָֹכה ִמי‬-‫) ִמי‬. (‫נוֹרא‬ ָ > Niphal participle. Exodus 15:12 ‫יְמינְ ָ֔ך ִתּ ְב ָל ֵ ֖עמוֹ ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬ ֣ ִ ‫ית‬ ָ֙ ‫נָ ִ֙ט‬ You stretched out Your right hand. See GK 107d: “Also those actions etc which might be regarded in themselves as single or even momentary are. ‫)מוֹ‬. majestic in holiness? Fearful in praises. 3 m.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 349 ‫עוֹפ ֶרת ְבּ ַ ֖מיִם ַא ִדּ ִ ֽירים׃‬ ֶ ֔ ‫ָ ֽצ ֲל ֙לוּ ַ ֽכּ‬ You blew with Your wind. O Lord. 3 m. ‫)יָ ֵרא‬. Note ‫ מוֹ‬ending on ‫סּמוֹ‬ ֣ ָ ‫(‘ ִכּ‬it) covered them. + sf.m. they sunk like lead in the mighty waters. while ‫ ִתּ ְב ָל ֵ ֖עמוֹ‬is imperf.

which is the Holy Habitation. And it is correct in my eyes that the Holy Habitation is Mount Sinai. and I have already mentioned why the Prophets use the perfect to refer to the future. Hence. poetic description. and there the Torah was given to Israel. ‫עמוֹ‬ ֖ ֵ ‫ ִתּ ְב ָל‬represents the Egyptians in a vivid.‫קוֹדשׁ‬ ֶ ‫רוּשׁ ַליִ ם ֶשׁהוּא נְ וֵ ה‬ ָ ְ‫יאם ֶאל י‬ ֵ ‫ֶשׁ ַה ֵשּׁם יַ נְ ֵחם ַעד ֶשׁיְּ ִב‬ ‫קּוֹדשׁ הוּא ַהר ִסינַ י ֶשׁ ָשּׁם יַ ַע ְבדוּ ֵאת ַה ֵשּׁם וְ ָשׁם נִ ְתּנָ ה‬ ֶ ‫ְבּ ֵעינַ י ֶשׁנְּ וֵ ה ַה‬ ‫תּוֹרה ְליִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬ ָ Translation of Ibn Ezra You have led/will lead in Your lovingkindness: it is the opinion of all the commentators that this verb refers to the future. where they will serve G-d.350 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW fect into their component parts.‫ית ְב ַח ְס ְדָּך׃ ַעל ַדּ ַעת ָכּל ַה ְמּ ָפ ְר ִשׁים ֶשׁהוּא ָדּ ָבר ָע ִתיד‬ ָ ‫נָ ִח‬ ִ ‫ִהזְ ַכּ ְר ִתּי ָל ָמה יְ ַד ְבּרוּ ַהנְּ ִב‬ ‫ וְ ַה ַטּ ַעם‬. .” Exodus 15:13 ‫ית ְב ַח ְס ְדָּך֖ ַעם־ז֣ וּ גָּ ָ ֑א ְל ָתּ נֵ ַ ֥ה ְל ָתּ ְב ָעזְּ ָך֖ ֶאל־נְ ֵו֥ה ָק ְד ֶ ֽשָׁך׃‬ ָ ‫נָ ִ ֥ח‬ You. and so pictured as gradually completing themselves. You have guided (them) in Your strength to Your holy habitation. as being swallowed up one after another. Comment of Ibn Ezra on ‫ית‬ ָ ‫נָ ִ ֥ח‬ ‫וּכ ָבר‬ ְ . in Your mercy.‫יאים ִבּ ְלשׁוֹן ָע ָבר ַתּ ַחת ָע ִתיד‬ ‫ וְ ַהנָּ כוֹן‬. have led (the) people whom You have redeemed. The meaning here is that G-d will guide them until He brings them to Jerusalem.

parallel to ‫ית‬ Exodus 15:14 ‫ָ ֽשׁ ְמ ֥עוּ ַע ִ ֖מּים יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬ ‫ִ ֣חיל ָא ַ֔חז י ְֹשׁ ֵ ֖בי ְפּ ָ ֽל ֶשׁת׃‬ The people heard and quaked.ַ See also: Isaiah 42:24. + paragogic nun. Psalm 74:2: ‫ר־ציּ֗ וֹן ֶז֤ה ׀ ָשׁ ַ֬כנְ ָתּ ֽבּוֹ‬ ִ֝ ‫‘ ַה‬Mount Zion wherein You dwell’. which is characteristic of prophetic. ָ ‫ נָ ִח‬and therefore also prophetic perfect. Habakkuk 1:11: ‫כֹּחוֹ‬ ‫‘ זוּ‬this his strength’ (ii) a relative.f. JM 44e. Note also: ‫א ְל ָתּ‬ ֑ ָ ָ‫“ ַעם־ז֣ וּ גּ‬the people whom You have redeemed”. e. 2 m. ‫ָרגַ ז‬ writhing. ‫= נחה‬ ‘lead. 2 m. guide (to a watering-place) > perf.g. Note retention of pausal . ‫ ִחיל‬n. 1b: “The relative particle ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬is absent from the oldest poetic texts and is uncommon in standard poetry. e. quake > ‫( יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬Qal imperf. elevated style. (‫ )נהל‬in Piel: lead. See also Seow p 157. see above and GK 47m. anguish be agitated. Instead.pl. one finds asyndetic (unmarked) relative clauses. ‫ זוּ‬is a pronoun used in ‘poetic’ language. it can be: (i) a demonstrative. trembling took hold of the inhabitants of Philistia.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 351 Explanation of Ibn Ezra’s comment Ibn Ezra has clearly understood the verb ‫ית‬ ָ ‫( נָ ִח‬Qal perf.g. e.m.g. and ‫ זוּ זוֹ זֶ ה‬used in its place”. ‫ – נֵ ַ ֥ה ְל ָתּ‬here.sg. guide’) as a Prophetic Perfect. quiver. Exod 15:13 (here) and Exod 15:16: ‘the people whom You have acquired’ ‫ית‬ ָ ‫עם־ז֥ וּ ָק ִ ֽנ‬. 3 m.sg. see BDB p 262 and GK 138g.).

instead of ‫מוֹאב‬ ָ ‫אחז ֵאי ֵלי‬ ֵ ֹ ‫‘ ַר ַעד י‬trembling took hold of the leaders of Moab’ i. all the inhabitants of Canaan melted away. ‫שׁ ְמ ֥עוּ‬ ֽ ָ ‫יִ ְרגָּ ז֑ וּן‬ ‫ יִ ְרגָּ זוּן > יִ ְרגָּ זוּ > יִ ְרגְּ זוּ‬Note also variation of Exodus 15:15 ‫לּוּפ֣י ֱא ֔דוֹם‬ ֵ ‫ָ ֤אז נִ ְב ֲה ֙לוּ ַא‬ ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ ָ ֑ר ַעד‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫מוֹאב י‬ ָ֔ ‫ֵא ֵיל֣י‬ ‫מגוּ ֖כֹּל י ְֹשׁ ֵ ֥בי ְכ ָנ ַֽען׃‬ ֹ ֕ ָ‫נ‬ Then the chiefs of Edom were terrified.)אחז‬ ֹ ֕ ָ‫( נ‬Niphal perf. trembling took hold of them. effect is to juxtapose ‫לּוּפ֣י ֱא ֔דוֹם‬ . Note variation of tenses: ‫לוּ‬ ֙ ‫( נִ ְב ֲה‬Niphal perf. ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ . The ֵ ‫ ַא‬and ‫מוֹאב‬ ָ֔ ‫ ֵא ֵיל֣י‬. Note also rare suffix form ‫ מוֹ‬on ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ‬ ‫ָ ֤אז נִ ְב ֲה ֙לוּ‬ see GK 107c for ‫ ָאז‬+ perf. ‘it will take hold of them’. ֲ ֹ ֽ‫ = י‬lit. in sphere of past time). the leaders of Moab. the text has first the extrapolated object (‫מוֹאב‬ ָ֔ ‫ ) ֵא ֵיל֣י‬followed by verb + suffix (referring back to the extrapolated object) followed by subject.352 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW vowel in second syllable.e. (see note on ‫ ָאז‬in Part Four of this book. ‫מגוּ . ‫)מוג‬. tenses. use of imperf.)בהל‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫( י‬Qal imperf. subject + verb + object. ‫אח ֵז֖מוֹ ָ ֑ר ַעד‬ ֲ ֹ ֽ‫מוֹאב י‬ ָ֔ ‫ֵא ֵיל֣י‬ Note use of extrapolation.

all the inhabitants of Canaan melted away. where the final letter is not a mater lectionis. Your people pass. but even the leaders of Moab trembled. in fact. see JM 93c-i: Paragogic vowel ‫ ָ֫◌ה‬. is no longer so considered in the light of Ugaritic. in the greatness of Your arm they will be silent like stone.“This unstressed vowel. O Lord. its use is purely rhythmic. which also attests to a form such as arsh “to the ground”. It is mainly used to indicate direction towards. In poetry sometimes it could have been used out of metrical necessity:—This is rather frequent . or destination to. note the climactic ascent in the parallel structure.” Exodus 15:16 ‫ימ ָת ֙ה וָ ֔ ַפ ַחד‬ ָ֙ ‫יהם ֵא‬ ֤ ֶ ‫ִתּ ֨ ֹפּל ֲע ֵל‬ ‫רוֹעָך֖ יִ ְדּ ֣מוּ ָכּ ָ ֑א ֶבן‬ ֲ ְ‫ִבּגְ ֥ד ֹל ז‬ ‫ַעד־יַ ֲע ֤בֹר ַע ְמּ ָ֙ך ײ‬ ‫ית׃‬ ָ ‫ַ ֽעד־יַ ֲע ֖בֹר ַעם־ז֥ וּ ָק ִ ֽנ‬ Fear and dread will fall upon them. terror’. “Not only were the chiefs of Edom terrified. plus the ellipsis of the thematic connection (compare 15:5). until the people pass. a place. but a consonant.” (93c) “Sometimes the ‫ ָה‬no longer has its original force.PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 353 Finally in 15:15. whom You have acquired For the form ‫ימ ָת ֙ה‬ ָ֙ ‫‘ ֵא‬fear. until. formerly thought to be a vestige of the old determinate accusative.

noun ‫ימה‬ ָ ‫ ֵא‬.g. vv 7-11. where we have the ending ‫ ָָתה‬.354 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW in the feminine. A repetition marks the conclusion of each section: v6 ‫יְמינְ ָך ײ‬ ִ —‫יְמינְ ָך ײ‬ ִ v 11 ‫ִמי ָכמ ָֹכה— ִמי ָכמ ָֹכה‬ v 16 ‫ַ ֽעד־יַ ֲע ֖בֹר— ַ ֽעד־יַ ֲע ֖בֹר‬ And there is a simile before each repetition. vv 17-18. (see also GK 90c. vv 12-16 + conclusion. In some cases this form seems to have been chosen to avoid the contact of two stressed syllables:— ָ֙ ‫ ֵא‬from the fem. e. v5 ‫ ָא ֶבן‬-‫ְכּמוֹ‬ ‘like stone’ v 10 ‫עוֹפ ֶרת‬ ֶ ‫ַכּ‬ ‘like lead’ v 16 ‫ָכּ ָא ֶבן‬ ‘like stone’ Exodus 15:17 ‫ְתּ ִב ֵ֗אמוֹ וְ ִת ָטּ ֙ ֵעמוֹ֙ ְבּ ַ ֣הר נַ ֲח ָ ֽל ְת ָ֔ך‬ ‫ָמ ֧כוֹן ְל ִשׁ ְב ְתָּך֛ ָפּ ַ ֖ע ְל ָתּ ײ‬ ‫ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ ײ כּוֹנְ נ֥ וּ יָ ֶ ֽדיָך׃‬ .” (93i) as in ‫ימ ָת ֙ה וָ ֔ ַפ ַחד‬ g). ‫‘ ֶעזְ ָ ֣ר ָתה‬help’ (= ‫( ) ֶעזְ ָרה‬Ps 44:27). exhibiting parallelism of thought. ‫שׁוּע ָתה‬ ָ ֔ ְ‫‘ י‬salvation’ (= ‫שׁוּעה‬ ָ ְ‫( )י‬Ps 3:3) Note the repetition: ‫ַ ֽעד־יַ ֲע ֖בֹר— ַעד־יַ ֲע ֤בֹר‬ The Song of the Sea divides naturally into three sections: vv 1-6. Compare.

their omission is characteristic of biblical Hebrew poetry. (in) (the) establishment. O Lord.‫ָפּ ַע ְל ָתּ‬ ‫ִמ ְ֕קּ ָדשׁ ײ׃ ַה ַטּ ַעם ָע ָליו זָ ֵקף גָּ דוֹל ְל ַה ְפ ִרידוֹ ִמ ֵתּ ַיבת ַה ֵשּׁם ֶשׁ ְלּ ַא ֲח ָריו‬ ‫ַה ִמּ ְקּ ָדשׁ ֲא ֶשׁר כּוֹנְ נוּ יָ ֶדיָך ײ׃‬ Translation of Rashi The Sanctuary below is placed exactly opposite (‫ ) ְמ ֻכוָּ ן ְכּנֶ גֶ ד‬the (Divine) Throne above. (which) You have made for Your dwelling.e. Mt Moriah. (in) (the) Sanctuary. i. referring to ‘the mountain of Your inheritance’ ‫ ַהר נַ ֲח ָל ְתָך‬i. meaning that ‫ ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬is not in cstr. O Lord. as follows: ‫ָמכוֹן ְל ִשׁ ְב ְתָּך׃ ִמ ְק ָדּשׁ ֶשׁל ַמ ָטּה ְמ ֻכוָּ ן ְכּנֶ גֶ ד ִכּ ֵסּא ֶשׁל ַמ ְע ָלה ֲא ֶשׁר‬ . to separate it from the Divine Name after it. which is exactly opposite G-d’s dwelling on High (‫ ) ְל ִשׁ ְב ְתָּך‬which (to be supplied) ‘You (G-d) have made’ (‫) ָפּ ַע ְל ָתּ‬. not .PART FIVE: POETIC HEBREW/ELEVATED STYLE 355 You will bring them in and You will plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance. which (‫ ) ֲא ֶשׁר‬You have made. Explanation of Rashi Rashi takes ‫ ָמכוֹן‬as ‫( ְמ ֻכוָּ ן‬exactly opposite). Rashi notes that the accent on the word ‫ ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬is disjunctive. ‫ ) ֲא ֶשׁר‬and the definite article (‘the’) have to be supplied in translation. (which) Your hands have established. O Lord. the site of the Temple. Note that the relative pronoun (‘which’. The Sanctuary which (‫ ) ֲא ֶשׁר‬Your hands have established. The accent on the word ‫ ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬is zakeph gadol.e. state (indicated also by qamets under the dalet. RASHI’s comments on this verse supply the word ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬twice.

‫ בוא‬+ rare sf. + vav conj.pl. Note the dagesh forte dirimens in the koph of more audible” (GK 20h) ‫“ ִמ ְקּ ָ ֕דשׁ‬to make the sheva . form 3 m.sg. ֙‫וְ ִת ָטּ ֙ ֵעמוֹ‬ Qal imperf. 2 m.356 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW pataḥ) and therefore the sense is not ‘the sanctuary of the Lord’. ‫ נטע‬+ rare sf.pl. 2 m. but ‘Lord’ is vocative (‘O Lord’) and one must supply the relative pronoun ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬before ‫כּוֹנְ נוּ‬. form 3 m. ‫ְתּ ִב ֵ֗אמוֹ‬ Hiphil imperf.sg.

1910. (BDB). Randall Garr (Eerdmans Publishing Co. Revised by John McFadyen. Translated by John Elwolde.B. (Edinburgh. 1951). C. W. 1998). Hebrew Syntax 3rd edition. 1952). (New York. T & T Clark. Hebrew Grammar.B. S.R. 357 . 1994). M. David Kimhi’s Hebrew Grammar (Mikhlol) systematically presented and critically annotated. William. An Introductory Grammar of Rabbinic Hebrew. (Oxford University Press. Clarendon Press. Davidson’s Introductory Hebrew Grammar – Syntax.R. T & T Clark.P. Revised in accordance with the twenty-eighth German edition by A. An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. 1901). edition with new Introduction by W. Basic Books Inc. G.C. (Brill. Gibson. Canaanite Myths and Legends (Edinburgh: T & T Clark. 1985). Kautzsch. Davidson A. (New York. R. Driver. A. A Treatise on the Use of Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical Questions. Bloch Publishing Company. 1999). Gillingham. 1956).E. Fourth Edition. 1994). Cowley. Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning.A. As edited and enlarged by the late E. Briggs.E. Second English Edition. (Oxford. 1932). (Edinburgh. The Poems and Psalms of the Hebrew Bible. Robert The Art of Biblical Poetry. Alter. (Oxford. Driver.BIBLIOGRAPHY Driver. T & T Clark. S. the Clarendon Press. (Edinburgh. Chomsky. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. J.L. Fernandez. Brown. Twenty-fourth edition. F. (GK). Gesenius. Davidson. S.

The Pentateuch and Haftorahs. Vallentine. 2007).S. English translation and commentary. Darton. Michigan. T. 1926). Literary History of Hebrew Grammarians and Lexicographers. T & T Clark. P. 1996. The Idea of Biblical Poetry.) (JM). Second Edition. (London. (Grand Rapids. ‘Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain’ in The Sephardi Heritage. Martin. Soncino Press. Essays on the History and Cultural Contribution of the Jews of Spain and Portugal. (Roma. (Continuum. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. Lambdin. Page H. N. Davidson’s Introductory Hebrew Grammar.Muraoka. (Nashville. 1991). Commentary by Nahum M Sarna. (Philadelphia. Twentyseventh edition. 1926). Basics of Biblical Hebrew Grammar. Michigan. 1992). vol. Sarna.M. (London. Oxford University Press. Clarendon Press. Parallelism and Its History. ed. 1969). The Jewish Publication Society.H. 1993). 2001. Seow. The Traditional Hebrew Text with the new JPS Translation. 1995). Subsidia Biblica – 14/1. James L.L. J. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. C. Segal. Miles V. ed. 1973). 1981). (Oxford. A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew. Sarna. N.D. (Grand Rapids. M. Humphrey Milford. and Van Pelt. Gary D. Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Hebrew text. Barnett R. Longman and Todd. The JPS Torah Commentary Exodus.O. Biblical Hebrew. Kugel.M. Kelley. . Jouon.358 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Hertz. Translated and Revised by T. (Yale University Press. An Introductory Grammar. Revised Ed. Pratico. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Abingdon Press. (London. James D. Zondervan. Hirsch. 2 Volumes.H. (London. H. Mitchell 1964). I: The Jews in Spain and Portugal before and after the Expulsion of 1492: 323-366. William B Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Silbermann. (Winona Lake. translated into English and annotated. Eisenbrauns. (WHG). P. (WHG). (Oxford. 1990). The Function of Niphal in Biblical Hebrew. M. 1959). Clarendon Press. (Studia Semitica Neerlandica. 1991).M. Rosenbaum. Michael. Second Edition. Bruce K. Waltke. . 1929). A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax.BIBLIOGRAPHY 359 Siebesma. O’Connor. A. the Silbermann Family by arrangement with Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. ed. J.A. Weingreen. 5 vols. Van Gorcum. Ind. Pentateuch with Targum Onkelos. (Jerusalem. Haphtaroth and Rashi’s Commentary.

.

280. 126. 125. 99. 117. 138. 214. 90. 203 GK (Gesenius). 145. 234. 338. 29. 236. 35. 39. 322. 42. 140. 180. 110 Denominative. 274. 142. 32. strong. 25. 196. 357 Hammershaimb. 281 dagesh (weak. 356. 148. 179 Completed action. 75. 154. 210. 154. 345. 26. 312. 258 Causative. 190. 263. 218. 194. 58. 59. 120. 181. 183 361 . 121. 76. 143. 186. 188. 137.INDEX accent (conjunctive. 130. 357. 59. 31. 358 Declarative. 89. 199. 283. 27. 155. 227. 343 Esther. E. 172. 264. 330. 85 final root letter. 95. 152. 204. 64. 155. 120. 91. 30. 75. 121. retraction of). 87. 81. 116. 213. 322. 336 Aramaic. 158. 332. 142. 74. 225 Aphel. 221. 336. 56. 45. 344. 72. 303 Contrast/contrastive. 332. 206. Driver. 58. 151. 67 Cohortative. 47. 180. 30. 351. 237. 50. 260. 22. 331. 40. 82. 145. 277. 85. 65. 268. 290. 73. 179. 81. 92. 344 Brown. 331 causal clause. 330. 156 Amos. 263. 288. 129. 342. 55. 89. 80. 287. 302 Genitive. 241. 129. 254. 285. 231. 200. 246. 80. 150. 201.. 42. 72. 178. 33. 156. 30. ix. disjunctive. 137. 61. 325. 69. 70. 58. 336. 284. 134. 122. 160. 181. 282. 40. 93. 157. 205. 79. 143 Frequentative action. 74. 147. 160 Durative action. 67. 143. 357 Christian France. 265. 228 Ellipsis/elliptical. 23. 145. 111. 52. forte. 63. 25. 37. 158. 355 Accusative (object). 267. 20. 109 Chiasmus/chiastic structure. 93. 320. 261. 356 Davidson. 55. 85 Dictionary. 85 Ezekiel. 33. 328. 63. 240. 199. 230. 113. 36. 73. 29. 150. 22. 185. Briggs (BDB). 351. 314. 264. 349. 260. 178. 56. 89 Arabic. 87. 270. 271. 26. 204. 196. 247 Chomsky. 119. 158. 188. 274. 100. 109 first root letter. 238. 354. 130. 256. 343. 182. 73. 142. 159. 78. 84. 179. 357 Case-endings. 79. 187. 218. 119. 281. 62. 149. 232 Estimative. 138. 135. 151. 184. 352. 261. 100. 144. 185. 187. 31. 347 Factitive. 188. 277 Continuity/continuance. 310. 74. 92. 352 Amidah. 276. 228. 111. 222 compensatory lengthening. 140. 239. dirimens). 325. 267. 255. 137. 59. 116. 335. 173. 238. 273. 291 Ecclesiastes. 49. 33. 93. 73. 120. 169. 41. 200 Gerundial. 257. 36. 125. 196 Gerundive. 229. 345. 25. 347. ix. 217. 163. 76. 30.

72. 343. 125. 84. 149. 281. 139. 58. 116. 25. 149. 290. 147 Micah. 44. 251. 72. 204. 16. 77. 107. 90. 136. 42. 215. 206. 255. 31. 105. 93. 134. 284. 302. 28. 125 Hithpael imperative. 52. 228 Negative purpose. 342. 351 Imperfect. 205. ix. 33. 41. 332. 63. 85. 301. 342. 178. 16. 84 Inwardly transitive. 206. 130. 301. 92. 66. 351 Isaiah of Trani. 282. 121. 65. 40. 143. 261. 302. 306. 341. 310. 95. 50. 207. 235. 213. 358 Lamed. 39. 137. 72. 309. 134. 75. 36. 79. 57. 184. 201. 154. 129. 157. 183. 151. 212. 40. 157. 159 Jeremiah. 100. 114. 137. 336. 109. 76 Lamentations. 216. 87. 358 Job. 176. 221. 86. 182. 333. 340. 119. 98. ix. 125. 147 Hithpael imperfect. 131. 113. 303 Joseph Kara. 84. Judah ibn. 114. 44. 353. 263. 217. 314. 302. 147. 64. 137 Hithpolel. 180. 193. 212. 333. 123. 76 Lamed-hey. 233. 58. 126 Ithpael. 190. 207. 116. 58. 203. 201. 146. 32. 344. 174. 228 . 314 Keri. 65. 331. 211 Hiphil imperfect. 60. 218. 75. 67. 115. 308. 113. 62. 219. 111. 23. 117. 334. 284. 264 Hiphil imperative. 94. 232. 159. 230. 205 medieval scholars. 219. 85. 130. 108. 142. 149. 153. 137. 160. 218. 92. 177. 129. 233. 183. 340. 165.362 FURTHER BIBLICAL HEBREW Ḥayyūj. 60. 148 Hithpael perfect. 294. 327. 138. 133. 341 Metathesis. 298. 347. 205. 335. 351. 309. 106. 189. 181. 115. 282. 208. 234. 24. 299. 108. 187. 275. 161. 40. 210. 85. 150. 342 JM (Jouon/Muraoka). 286. 210. 210. 202. 313. 145 Hithpael participle. 259. 338. 150. 35. 93. 137. 112. Jonah ibn. 206. 333 maqqef. 180. 200. 120. 32. 66. 96. 212. 124. 298. 156. 77. 34. 47. 186. 307. 229 Jussive. 156. 129. 211. 279. 147. 140. 81. 256 Intensive. 52. 107. 334. 66. 91. 283. 105. 211. 208. 156. 119. 117. 337 Hophal imperfects/imperfects of hophal. 133. 75. 141. 138. 61. 209. 39. 286. 90. 85. 255. 145. 179. 126 Hiphil participle. 303. 324. 127. 221. 70. 108. 300. 27. 173. 187. 213. 150 negative purpose. 105. 278. 185. 77. 289. 109. 46. 127. 111 Isaiah. 76. 219. 24. 175. 155. 143. 75. 169. 45. 103. 97. 261. 340 infinitive construct. 56. 290 middle root letter. 40. 168. 305. 144. 219. 340 infinitive absolute. 63. 280. 229. 96. 181. 106. 130. 287. 302 Ibn Barun. 192. 79. 55 Janaḥ. 158. 42. 159. 101. 312. 17. 218. 36. 267. 350. 62. 158 Hey interrogative. 73. 82. 126. 261. 95. 296. 26. 148 holem. 102. 108. 172. 193. 163. 224. 138 Ketiv. 87. 87. 134. 17. 228. 74. 139. 123. 208. 214. 174. 76. 107. 338. 285. 128. 130. 160 Ibn Ezra (Abraham). 260. 195. 66. 74. 158. 33. 137. 104. 131. 150. 232. 282. 124. 139. 152 Hosea. 130. 247. 209. 125. 118. 26. 213. 324. 227. 119. 212. 120 Lambdin. 194. 19.

100. 349 Niphal perfect. 232. 344 Privative. 336. 208. 49. 302. 217. 65. 146. 273. 160. 55. 336. 149. 92. 63. 155 qamets (hateph). 67. 122. 154. paragogic). 155 pause (pausal vowel). 40. 299 . 342. 275. 142. 157. 26. 276. 201. 355 Qatal. 354 Passive. 74. 343. A. 297. 76. 57. 222 virtual doubling. 305. 152. 355. 148. 284. 76. 298. 25. 33. 326. 64 triconsonantal. medial. 64. 85. 246. 275. 221. 287 qibbus. 286. 215. 25. 149. Menaḥem ibn. 158. 120. 66. 343 Radak (David Kimhi). 45. 72. 338. 73. 89. 299. 336. 184 Ruth. 159 tsere. 150. 344. 27. 73. 151 Piel perfect. 207. 296. 74. 72. 319 Targum. 137. 286. 159 Rashi. 55. 337. 156 patach/patah (hateph. 53. 352 Perfect. 97. 92. 161 Siebesma. 182. 359 Reciprocal. 341. 29. 323. 205. 123. 338 Saruq. 99. 93. 28. 36. 322. 353 Vav (consonantal. 359 Song of Deborah. 209. 155 Purpose. 322. 58. 40. 216. 359 third root letter. 297. 287. 84. 54. 295. 47. 145 Repeated action. 92. 50. 80 Poetic Hebrew. 93. 245. 200 Tolerative. 291 Rubinstein. 93 Polel. 123 Piel imperative. 136. 338. 261. 298. 15 Niphal imperative. 59. consecutive). 309. 92 Qal passive. 322 Ugaritic. 307. 92. 34. 140. 306. 65. 61. 200. 319 Polal. 92. 141. 62 Nithpael. 155. 345. 64. 62. 157 Parallelism (of clauses). 89. 304. 210. 73. 40. 347. 54. 58. conjunctive. 303. 344 Old French. 137. 56. 124. 25. 51. 144. 214. 32. 92 Yiqtol. 72. 41. 275. 39. 133. 322 Shadal (Luzzatto). 131. 219. 300 Ramban (Nahmanides). 137. 145.. 298. 261. 48. 81 Pual perfect/perfects of pual. 63. 187 Qal infinitive absolute. 67. 276. 133. 27 Niphal infinitive construct. 72. 74. 26. 144. 155. 342 Rashbam. 322. 74 Piel infinitive construct. 324. 45. 67. 210. 59. 74. 124. 209. 161. 58. 60. 88. 66. 143.INDEX Niphal. 188 Qal imperative. furtive). 283. 154. 185. 26. 99. 27 Niphal participle. 48. conjunction. 157. 157. 185. 140 Nun (energic. 340. 28. 120 Niphal infinitive absolute. 342. 206. 346. 160. 337. 351 permissive hiphil. 40. 211. 59. 100. 137 Piel participle. 59. 210. 185. 159. 67. 63 Niphal imperfect. 246. 310. 325. 43. 57. 58. 86. 310. 343. 125. 59. 87. 62. 363 155. 55. 88. 201. 31. 158 segol. 26. 63. 132 Reflexive. 35. 199. 280. 183.