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(Vice Principal)

KENDRIYA VAIDYALAYA NO.-1, Dehu Road Pune (Maharashtra)


„Tattwam Pushan Apavrinu’ means that golden vessel covers the face of the truth. Oh God nourished! Remove this cover, so that votary and seeker of the truth may see Him.’
COGNITIVE MAP “The aim of education is not the acquisition of information although important, or acquisition of technical skills, though essential in modern society, but the development of that bent of mind, that attitude of reason, that spirit of democracy which will make us responsible citizens.” Dr. Sarvpalli Radhakrishnan. The anecdote from the present education system tells many a thing for each one of us who have an iota to do for teaching of children in school. The NCFSE 2000, NCF 2005 and other committees on education have also illustrate that children‟s life at school must be linked to their life outside from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape the outdated education system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. Emphasizing on teaching Geography for carry forward the vision and ideals of innovation, it is felt that a Geography Teacher has a limited idea of how strategies can be used to motivate their students to develop cognitive ability. Use of the innovative practices as a teaching instrument in classroom has increased universally at all levels in the past few decades. This initiative encourages the use of cognitive strategies as a transactional tool both to compliment and supplement traditional text and resources materials. A common view is that strategies can only be used in higher learning or as means of research. However, the range of potential of strategies is much greater and higher than the general views. It is well known that the present state of the process of learning and schooling stands on the colonial legacies and promotes „rote learning‟ and „you read method‟. These traditional curriculum transactional methods have degraded pupil‟s interest in learning geography. The purpose of this innovative practice is to give some ideas on how strategies can be introduced into teaching geography and abolish „rote learning‟ and „you read method‟ and make geography more interesting and joyful. During 24 years of teaching, I had occasions to study and understand problems that confront humanities students. One of the areas of academic deficiency in the

students of geography, which as a teacher, I constantly came across is with regards to knowledge, understanding and skills. I also came across that most of the geography students go on reading and writing without understanding the terminologies and concepts. While teaching the lesson of Human and Physical Geography in senior secondary classes, every year I felt that most of the students face problem in understanding the concept of the topics and theories. It was my worry to deliver the topics more interestingly and joyfully, so that they could easily understand the concepts and terminologies. At this juncture it has been felt that the cognitive strategy is much useful for intrinsic programming. It is a glaring deficiency which needs to be rectified in senior secondary stage. I have conceived the ideas and taken up this challenge and have made efforts to teach the subject of „Geography‟ at cognitive level, which have not only made the subject interesting, but there is also a larger participation from the students. In this regard, it is the deep felt need to use experiences and strategies learnt over the years. In the very beginning of text book of class xi, under the chapter “Geography as a Discipline” and sub title „Geography as an Integrating Discipline‟, Geography is described as a discipline of synthesis. The relationship of Geography with other sciences is established as interdependencies. This concept is very complex and not easily understood by the new comer students of class xi. In the interest of discipline a cognitive strategy was framed. Day-1: The lesson “Geography as a Discipline” was introduced us ing discussion and questioning technique based on the previous knowledge. The essential and unit terminology were discussed using the previous knowledge of geography of the students. Students were asked how much they know about geography. A questionnaire was distributed to the new comer students to test their interest in geography. The questions were:-

vki dks Hkwxkksy i<]us ls D;k ykHk gksxk\

What are the advantages to you by studying geography?

vki nwljs fo’k; ds Nk=ksa fdl izdkj vyx jgksxs\

In what way are you different from students of other discipline? (Freedom was given to the students to write the answer as per their wish and choice )

Day-2: The students were asked to read out their answers. A number of answers were very interesting and related to the day to day life and many were funny and

fuss. The deep and big variation in the previous knowledge of the students of class xi provides a clue; first to identify the weakened areas and secondly to honestly motivate new comer geography students for strengthening the Humanity Stream in the school. It was student‟s enthusiasm and inquiry that inspired me to take up the cognitive strategy to prove the heuristic approach. HYPOTHESIS: After a successful transaction of heuristic approach, namely cognitive strategy, it is assumed that: Cognitive skills and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to attain mastery over fundamental knowledge of the subject.  Cognitive Ideas and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to transfer the knowledge in an easy way.  Cognitive teaching- learning and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to meet the challenges of the 21stcentury.  Cognitive Innovative tact and tactics dilute the „rote learning‟ and „you read‟ method.  Cognitive strategies are the constructive approach with prime importance to create the teaching- learning environment in the class.  Cognitive norms and strategies in an innovative way have helped the teacher to manage the class in rainbow manner and pattern. POPULATION: This innovative experimental study of 27 students (12 boys, 15 girls) studied in senior secondary XI class at KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA No.-1, Sector-30, Gandhinagar, Gujrat were chosen as the population for carried out the experiment. For this innovative experiment the memory test was selected as a tool for equating the entire experiment. TAXONOMY OF COGNITIVE STRETAGIES: The geographical concepts were selected from NCERT geography textbook prescribed for class XI considering the previous knowledge of the students that can be understood by self–learning. FIVE geographical concepts were selected in the innovative experiment. CLASSROOM EXPERIMENT: The experiment was carried out in a phase manner in regard of probe the hypotheses.


SRTATEGY ADOPTED TO CREATE INTRESTE IN GEOGRAPHY SUBJECT AND PROVE “Cognitive skills and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to attain mastery over fundamental knowledge of the subject.” „Establishing Relationships‟ While teaching Geography and its relation with other subjects, it was felt that students faced difficulty in establishing the relationship of Geography with other subjects, like History, Economics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology. They are of the impression that the subjects taught in school are totally indifferent by content and subject in nature. Hence, how can they have a relationship with each-other? Relation of Geography with modern sciences

In order to this, an informal class test was conducted and found out of that out of 27stdents (12 boys, 15 girls) only 7(3 boys & 4 girls) were able to write the appropriate answer. Henceforth it was decided to establish the relationship of geography with other subjects among this syndicate through cognitive strategies. To develop cognitive domain in the syndicate‟s mind, ‘Delegation’ strategy was designed to attempt a spatial synthesis of geography with regard to the relationship with other modern sciences.

STEP-1 Firstly, the class was divided into three groups, namely, delegates of Biology, delegates of Physics and delegates of Chemistry. A delegation under the leadership of the Minister of Geo- Bio Relation Development Ministry, Government of Geography Relation sent to the country of Bio-laboratory to do the study of correlated topics in Botany-Zoology and submit the report before the house (class). Likewise the Ministers of Geo-Phy and Geo-Chemi, were asked to visit the respective countries of Phy-laboratory and Chemi-laboratory for the same. The delegates were made to visit the respective country (labs).

STEP-2 After one week, one by one all the three Ministers read out the conformity of common contents and study in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. They explained what kind of relationship Geography has with these modern sciences. STEP-3 On the next day, the students were reshuffled into two groups and renamed, like(1) Historians, and (2) Economist. Group leaders were asked to write down the common contents of History and Economics with the concerned of the group members and compared it with contents of Geography and its field. Both the groups had done the job very sincerely and wrote down the common topics/ study material assigned to them very clearly. STEP-4 After two days, the groups were asked to read out the common content list establishing the relation of their subject with Geography and vice –versa. The deliberations took place in the presence of Economics and History teacher. Their comments were also invited. Both were explained the relation of History and Economics respectively. The innovator teacher also explained the close relation of Geography with all the modern sciences with the help of day to day and home related examples. INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA To test the significance of difference in the post-test scores of the students taught geographical concepts by Traditional Methods and „Delegation Method.‟ Method n Question Attended Question Significance Not attended Negative Positive

Traditional Method 27 16(59.25%) 11(40.74%) Delegation 27 25(92.59%) 02(7.40%) Method

The obtained % of delegation method in „question not attended‟ is statically significant because it is much lower from Traditional Method. From this, it can be inferred that the „delegation‟ method influence the students comprehending the concept in establishing relationship of geography with other modern sciences. EXPERIMET NUMBER-2

TRATEGY ADOPED TO STRENTHEN THINKING ABILITY AND PROVE “Cognitive Innovative tact and tactics dilute the rote learning and you read method.” „Big Bang Theory ‟ In the chapter “The Origin and Evolution of the Earth”, „The Big Bang Theory‟ has been discussed. It is one of the modern theories and difficult to understand. After the using „you read method‟, the lesson „Origin of the Earth‟ had been over, a question was framed in the first unit test with other questions. While question wise analysis of the answer sheets, it was shocking that only three students (1boy&2girls) attempted the question framed on „Big Bang‟ theory and none‟s answer was appropriately correct. When the reason was found, it was again shocking for the teacher. The syndicate answer was: - “Sir, the concept of the „Big Bang theory‟ was not clear.” From the above answer, it is evident that you read method or question- answer method does not help to motivate the geography students towards higher learning. It was the embarrassment, enthusiasm and curiosity that inspired the teacher to took up BRITH DAY BALOON BURST cognitive strategy to prove the heuristic approach.


The cognitive plan was prepared in different phases. Phase 1 Permission has been taken from the principal to celebrate a birth day in the class with full zeal and enthusiasm. Prepared a student (boy) to celebrate his coming birth day in the class with due permission of the parents. Phase 2 On the birthday of the selected student along with other preparations, a big birth day balloon was filled with sparkles, thermo Cole‟s bolls and small balloons with the name of planets for bursting on the occasion, was hanging from the fan. Phase 3 As usual Birth day was celebrated in the geography period. Like the birth day party at home, the syndicate enjoys all sort of enjoyment. Phase 4 It was a crucial phase because it was a spontaneous balloon burst phase. Unlike the explosions, the sparkles, thermo Cole‟s bolls and balloons were spread here and there.

Teacher‟s statement: Dear students, unlike the explosions of the balloon, it might be the explosion of the big bang from singularity to plurality. As you have gathered all small things and put it into the balloon. Similarly in the beginning, all matter forming the universe existed in one place in the form of a “tiny ball” with all super power. With the help of inner pressure so called Endogenic force of the air and outer pressure so called Exogenic force of the fan‟s wind, the sparkles, thermo Cole‟s bolls and balloons were spread here and there. You have enjoyed the situation. The teacher confirmed the Big Bang theory and explained the origin of the earth. INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA To test the significance of difference in the post-test scores of the students taught geographical concepts by Traditional Methods and „Balloon burst Method.‟



Question Attended 10(27%)

Question not attended 17(73%)


Traditional Method



Balloon method





Highly motivated

The obtained zero % of balloon burst method in „question not attended‟ is statically significant because it was came down from 17 to NIL from Traditional Method. From this, it can be inferred that the „balloon burst method‟ method influence the students comprehending the geographical concept in order to improve students achievement in geography at the senior secondary level. Thus the hypotheses “Innovative tact and tactics dilute the rote learning and you read method” and helps the students as well as teacher. EXPERIMET NUMBER-3

Strategy adopted to develop problem solving ability and proved Cognitive Ideas and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to transfer the knowledge in an easy way.

„Rhythm of seasons‟

The Problem Solving skills and strategies in an innovative way have helped students to attain mastery over fundamental knowledge of the subject. Day 1: This terminology was introduced using discussion and questioning technique. STEP-1 Firstly, the literal meaning of the unusual and unnoticed word „Marching‟ was simplified while using its synonym word „changing‟. Then it was explained with the help of life experience before the students that every year we observe three seasons, like – →The summer, the meteorologists called it – the hot weather season. It usually starts from the month of March and goes up to June. (May- Jun is very hot, hence your Vidhyalaya remains closed) →The rainy Season, the meteorologists called it the Southwest Monsoon Season usually starts in from the month of June and goes up to SeptemberOctober.(Your first assessment test conducted) →The winter, the meteorologists called it Cold Weather Season, usually starts from the month of November and goes up to March. (The New Year begins and your season ending examination started). ;& nbsp; & nbsp;

It is in this cyclic manner every year. It is because the earth revolves round the sun. In due course there is variation in the distance of the earth from the Sun. Due to this, there is variation in the insulation on the globe and we observe these three seasons. Day-2 STEP-2 For these slow achievers the „Problem Solving Teaching Method was used. An interface question was asked. Suppose you are the demigod ‘Vishnu’. Due to some reason, if another demigod ‘Brahama’ became angry with you and tried to stop revolving the earth round the sun, what would happen? INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA
Method n Question Attended 05(18.5%) Question not attended 22(81.48%) Significance




Questioning Problem Solving

26 25

15(57.69%) 23(92%)

11(22.30%) 02(8%)

Negative Self regulatory

Interesting statement of a student: Sir! First of all it should have never happened! It is beyond the imagination of an ordinary human being. But if it is so, there are no seasons. If there are no seasons, no food varieties are there. If there are no seasons, there is no change in daily life. Sir, only one type food, one type cloth, and one type enjoyment will be available. Sir lets pray together that our heavenly demigods should not anger each-other, please.

EXPERIMET NUMBER-3 STRATEGY ADOPTED TO IMPROVE COGnITIVE THInKInG AnD PROVED “STRATEGIES in an innovative way have helped teacher to manage the class in RAInbOw MAnnER AnD PATTERn.” Using Drama as effective teaching for Climate ‘Drama as a teaching instrument in the classroom has increased cognitive development at all level. Drama as an effective teaching-learning tool provides a variety of rainbow manner for both –teacher and taught.’ This initiative encourages teacher to use the drama as a transactional tool for both complement and supplement traditional classroom teaching methods. Henceforth, Geography lesson ‘World Climate and Climate Change’ has been decided to teach with the help of Drama as an educational innovative teaching aid. STAP-1 Geographer- Koeppen and Treiwardha made as narrators and the ClimatesTropical, Dry Climate, Warm Temperate, Cold Snow Forest Climate, Cold Climate and High land made as characters of the drama and the text convert into dialect. STAP-2 The class divided into four groups and a one - act drama enacted by the each group in English only. STAP-3 Than to fulfill the objectives of using drama, the class was divided into two groups of 14 students and the act enacted in both the languages (Hindi& English) simultaneously involving all sort of dramas. INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA Method traditional methods n Question attended 27 02(8%) Question attended 25(92%) not Significance Highly Negative

Act in English 27 05(18.5%) Act in both 27 22(81.84%) language

22(81.48%) 05(18.5%)

Negative Rainbow manner

Data of post test conducted after performing bilingual one-act drama shows that:1. 84% students improved in overall climatic concept. 2. 54% students improved in reading section. 3. 100% students learnt the characteristics of the climate that they act as actor. 4. After sharing the climatic characteristics of each climate each-other, students have very good understanding of climate.

LIMITATION  It depends on the commitment, creativity and capacity of the geography teacher to incorporate in all the topics.  Though it is a time consuming process, still it can be an effective method to abolished ‘you read method’ and established a new one as per the recommendations of NCF2000&2005.  It was experimented on the geography classes within the purview of the teacher, therefore, it should not be necessary that it may result oriented in all the classes at all the levels.  Some time class went out of control and became noisily and disturbed neighboring classes. SCOPE * The cognitive strategy carried out on a particular topic can be circulated to all the other schools, so that an innovative teaching-learning atmosphere can be created. * A home made cognitive strategy will be useful for the especially for the humanities subjects such as civics, disaster management and geography. CONLUSION: The finding that the class XI, performed better in comprehending the geography concepts when they were taught by different cognitive strategies with innovative experiment ideas like- „Delegation‟, „Birthday balloon burst‟, „Problem solving‟ and one act play leads to conclude that the geography teachers in senior secondary classes should plan innovative experiment for cognitive development in the subject and allow the students to think in their mother tongue. In anticipation of my Innovative paper on “USAGE OF COGNITIVE SRATEGIES IN GEOGRAPHY TEACHING” (AN INNOVATIVE APROACH IN CLASSROOM TEACHING FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT) is being concluded with the following remarks: Self appraisal Cognitive strategies as discussed in the innovative paper were developed and practiced as a regular feature of the innovator teacher since 1994.

UTILITY: For the learner  Even social science and humanities subjects articulate children think, reason, analyze and cognitive map.  The learner started discovering new ideas and strategies in learning geography.  The exercises in classroom were completed with great vigour and enthusiasm.  Enable to engage students in creativity. For Society *The method(s) is cost effective, as it does not involve money or gadgets. * It is applicable to all the schools. * Enable students to create interest in social useful productive work. For Teacher  It is well suited for heterogeneous group of students.  Provide solutions to many classroom problems like boredom; enactive learning, etc.  Divergent thinking could be accomplished without much strenuous efforts.

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1. Innovations in School Education (Secondary Education) NCERT 2004-05. 2. Use of Problem Solving Model in Geography Teaching, BR PARMAR,
awarded by NCERT in 2007. 3. Torrance P.E. 1970, Encouraging Creativity in Classroom, Dubuque , Lowe.

4. Tripathi, S.N. 1995, Creativity, the Nature and Concept. NCERT.

5. Parmar B.R. 1997, Creating Goodwill Feelings through
Teaching (Hindi BAS NCERT)


6. Singh J.P. 2000, Creativity in Geography; Scope and Activity (JIE NCERT) 7. Aggrawal I.P. 2000, Fostering Creativity through Science Teaching
in Schools (JIE NCERT)

8. Mrs. S Ragunathan, 1998, Geography Game, the Geography Teachers,
India , Chennai.

9. NCERT TEXT BOOK FOR CLASS XI- Part-1 & 2 of Geography. 10. Journal of Indian Education- Vol . XXX February 2005, NCERT


I certify that the USAGE OF COGNITIVE STRATEGIES IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY( AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN CLASSROOM TEACHING FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT)is an Original and unpublished work of the undersigned which has not been sent to any other competition for consideration. It is further certified that the references quoted from other sources do not violate the copyright laws.

Signature BR PARMAR Date:16-3-11


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fVªok/kkZ & ¼nwljh rjQ ls xkrk gqvk½ ( Koeppen and Treiwardha appears with

Wonder, Wonder, Wonder Somewhere heavy Thunder Cry, Cry, Cry, Cry Somewhere wet and dry Some where heavy rain Somewhere big -big hail See the cloud in the sky Till then, all of you bye -bye.

dksiu ¼g¡lrk gqwvk½ gk gk fg gh gq gw gs gS tyok;q ds ckjs esa tkuks HkkbZ eSa vki lcls iw¡Nw ,d loky dn~nw ihyk vkSj VekVj D;ksa gS yky!! nksuksa ,d lkFk& geus ij[kk rkieku vkSj ekih o"kkZ gok esa ij[kh vknzZrk vkSj fHkUu fHkUu o"kkZ ou ij[k dj] ifjHkkf"kr dj nh geus tyok;q dgha xehZ] dgh lnhZ] deky dh tyok;qAA Å".k ckbZ& gyks] eSa Å".k dfVcU/kh; tyok;q ;gk¡ gw¡A eq>s vaxzsth esa Vªksfidy DykbesV dgrs gSaA eSa /kjrh ij edj js[kk vkSj ddZ js[kk ds chp ikbZ tkrh g¡wA eSa lky Hkj Å".k o vknzZ jgrh gw¡] D;ksafd iwjs o"kZ lw;Z dh fdj.ksa esjs Åij lh/kh iM+rh gSA lw;Z dh fdj.ks lh/kh iM+us ds dkj.k esjs 'kjhj dk rkieku vf/kd cM+ tkrk gSA eSa ges’kk ilhus esa rjcrj jgrh gw¡A esjs 'kjhj dk rkikUrj cgqr de jgrk gSA esjs 'kjhj ij ?kus o Å¡ps lnkcgkj o`{k ik;s tkrs gSaA 'kjhj ij nyny jgrk gSA jsaxus o tgjhys tkuoj esjs 'kjhj ij fopj.k djrs jgrs gSaA dksiu egksn; ;s vHkh tks cd cd djds x;s gSa u] bUgksaus eq>s rhu Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk gS&

Å".k dfVca/kh; vknzZ tyok;qA dwV v{kj esa eq>s Af dgrs gSaA Å".k dfVca/kh; ekulwu tyok;qA dwV v{kj esa eq>s Am dgrs gSaA Å".k dfVca/kh; vknzZ o 'kq"d tyok;A dwV v{kj esa eq>s Aw dgrs gSaA
Don‟t worry brothers and sisters; I am translating myself in English. So that you can easily understand me. I am tropical humid climate existing between Tropic of cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The Sun over heads throughout the year above me and makes me hot and humid. I am having very low annual range of temperature I am full of rainfall through out the year. Koeppen sir divided me into three parts, namely – Excuse me; I am translating myself in English. My well known character is very low rainfall, which is not adequate for the growth of plants. That is why I am having very less and short forest. I cover very large latitudes from 15º - 60º north and south of the equator. His holiness, Koeppen sir divided me into four parts. – My First part known as subtropical steppe. Second one called subtropical desert. The third one is known by mid latitude steppe and fourth mid latitude desert. I think, now those who do not know Hindi very well, fully understood me. Okay. Tropical Wet Climate. People generally call me in short for ‘Af’.Okay.

eS 'kq"d tyok;q ;gk¡ gw¡A esjh fo’ks"krk ;g gS fd eq>s ilhuk vkrk gh ugh gSA bl dkj.k ouLifr Hkh de] nwj nwj o dVhyh gksrh gSA esjk foLrkj Hkwe/; js[kk ls 15º ls 60º mRrj o nf{k.k v{kka’kksa ij gSA 15º ls 30º ds fuEu v{kka’kksa esa eq> ij miks".k dfVca/kh; mPp ok;qnkc ik;k tkrk gSA ftlds dkj.k rkieku fxj tkrk gS vkSj eq>s ilhuk ugha vkrk gSA dgha dgha ioZrksa ls f/kjh gksus ds dkj.k leqnz dh vknzZ ious esjs rd ugha igw¡prh gS] vkSj eSa I;klh gh jg tkrh gw¡A dksiu egksn;] ftUgksaus u tkus D;ksa sjs VwdM+s dj fn;s gS] us eq>s pkj miHkkxksa esa ck¡Vrs gSaA esjk igyk Hkkx gS & miks".k dfVca/kh; LVsih ?kkl ds eSnkuA nwljk gS miks".k dfVca/kh; e:LFky tks ges’kk egk}hi ds nf{k.k esa QSys gSaA rhljk Hkkx gS e/; v{kka’kh; LVsih ?kkl dh isfV;k¡ rFkk esjk pkSFkk Hkkx gS e/; v{kka’kh; e:LFky A
'kq"d rkbZ& Good morning to you all.

dks".k HkkbZ &ueLrs A eq>s igpkuksa eSa gw¡ dks".k 'khrks".k tyok;qA esjk foLrkj 35º ls 50º v{kka’kksa ds e/; gSA eSa xzh"e _rq esa euHkkou gksrh gw¡A dksiu egksn; us esjs pkj miHkkx fd;s gSaA igyk gS & vknzZ miks".k dfVcU/k vFkkZr lfnZ;ksa esa 'kq"d vkSj xfeZ;ksa esa Å".kA nwljk gS& Hkw&e/; lkxjh; tyok;qA ugha le>s] vjs Qy vkSj jlnkj o`{k eq> ij [kwc mxrs gSaA rhljk gS & vknzZ miks".k dfVcU/kh; vFkkZr 'kq"d _rq dh vuqifLFkfr rFkk lqgkouh 'khr _rqA pkSFkk gS & leqnzh if’peh rVh;A vjs vkidks rks gj ckr crkuk iM+rh gSA esjk dqN va”k leqnz ds if’pe dh vksj ik;k tkrk gSA gk¡ clA
Namaste! You aren‟t recognizing me? I am dry humid c limate. I cover 35º to 50º latitudes. I have very attractive summer season. Koeppen Sir gave me four pet names. One is Mediterranean climate. Here I am famous for juice fruits. Second one is humid cold-dry. That means in winter I am wet and in summer I am dry. Third one is absence of dry seasons and cold season is attractive. Last one is western coast climate. 'khry ch%& Good morning Geography students. Cold Snow Forest Climate speaking here. I occur in the large continental area in the northern hemisphere between 40º - 70º north latitudes in Europe, Asia and North America . I am divided into two parts by Koeppen Sir- one is „Df‟ that means cold with humid winter and Second is „Dw‟ that means cold with dry winter.

vaxzsth esa cksyh] blfy, fgUnh tkuus okys eq>ssa le> ugha ik;s gksaxsA blfy, eSa vius ckjs esa nks 'kCn fgUnh esa Hkh cksy nsrh gw¡A eSa mRrjh xksyk)Z esa 40º ls 70º v{kk’kksa ds chp ;wjksi] ,f’k;k vkSj mRrjh vesfjdk ds foLr`r }hih; {ks=ksa esa ikbZ tkrh gw¡A dksiu

egksn; us eq>s nks uke fn;s gS& igyk & Df vFkkZr vknzZ tkM+ksa ls ;qDr B.Mh tyok;q vkSj nwljk Dw vFkkZr 'kq"d tkM+ksa ls ;qDr B.Mh tyok;qA 'khr lkabZ%&vjs lkabZ dsMks gky FkkabZA lqUV;ks vkgsA esjh vU; cguksa dh rqyuk esa esjk dksbZ vfLrRo ugha gSA ysfdu lkabZ ;kn j[kuk eSa nqfu;k dh lcls T;knk txg ?ksjdj cSBh gw¡A eSa 70º v{kka’k ls /kzqoksa dh vksj ikbZ tkrh gw¡A eSa ges’kk lQsn pknj vks<+ cSBh jgrh gw¡A ouLifr dk uke ughaA [ksrksa dk dksbZ dke ughaA esjs nks izdkj gS & Vq.Mªk vkSj fgeVksihA Vw.Mªk cksys rks jsafM;j&bXyw okyk Hkkx vkSj fge Vksih cksys rks ekm.V ,ojsLV dh pksVhA igpkuksa eSa dkSu gw¡ \ gk¡ eSa /kzqoh; tyok;q gw¡A

I exist pole wards beyond 70º latitude. I am nothing before my sisters. But I have covered a very large part of the earth. I am two types –Tundra and Ice Cap. Who am I? Tundra means, an area where Randears and Igloo are found and the cap means Mount Everest . Yes, I am Polar Climate. mPp jkbZ%& Hello, Highland Climate speaking here. What! You have not heard about me? Why? Let me tell you all about myself. I am governed by topography. In high mountains, large changes in mean temperature occur over short distances. The form of precipitation also changes according to the height. In nutshell, I can say that I have all the characters of my all sisters. That is why Koeppen sir, did not divide me.

eSa mPp Hkwfe tyok;q cksy jgh gw¡A D;k dgk\ vkius igys esjs ckjs esa ugha lquk\ D;ksa\ D;k ckr gS\ vkids dku ugha D;k\ dksbZ ckr ugha] eSa] vius ckjs esa vkidks crkrh gw¡A eSa Hkwfe dh vk—fr ls fu;af=r gksrh gw¡A Å¡ps ioZrksa ij FkksM+h&FkksM+h nwfj;ksa ij e/;eku rkieku esa Hkkjh ifjorZu vk tkrk gSA mPp Hkwfe;ksa ij o"kkZ ds izdkjksa esa Hkh ifjorZu vk tkrk gSA eSa vius ckjs esa la{ksi esa dgw¡ rks dg ldrh gw¡ fd eq> esa lHkh cguksa dh fo’ks"krk,¡ gSA dksiu egksn; us eq>s mi Hkkxksa esa ugha ck¡VkA gk---- gk---- gk---- A dksiu % ueLdkjA vknkcA o.kDdeA lr Jh vdkyA ueLdkjk A jke]jke A t; Jhdz".k A
Koppen:- Good morning, Good evening, Good night.