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Issue 2 | Autumn/Winter 2009

Produced by Dstl on behalf of the Defence Technology and Innovation Centre

Defence Reporter

Defence Reporter is a free e-mail service providing citations of recently published defence science and technology literature. Defence Reporter is produced by the MOD (UK) Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) on behalf of the Defence Technology and Innovation Centre (DTIC). Defence Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by Dstl on behalf of DTIC to help readers obtain recent information on developments in defence science and technology. Published quarterly, Defence Reporter provides an update of reports, with unclassified citations, which have been added to the MOD’s ATHENA Collection.
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Sample citation The components for a typical citation, as they appear in Defence Reporter, are illustrated below: Collection system identifier Title
R0001C6D0 Airframe Structural Integrity Research and Technology Strategy - Phase 2 Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2009) Within this report, Phase 2 of the task raised by CASD-ASI to develop a Structural Integrity Research and Technology Strategy is described. Additionally, development of fatigue data management systems to support several inservice aircraft fleets and expansion of low-cost Operational Loads Measurement capability development tasks are detailed.

Publisher, year of publication Abstract

© Crown Copyright Dstl, 2009

R0001EF81 FINAL SUMMARY REPORT . may be predictive of later complications such as MODS. and radiation doses assessed by the use of local dosimetry in the dockyards at Clyde and Rosyth have been included where appropriate. as a consequence of systemic inflammation. radiation doses assessed by the use of local electronic approved dosimetry in the dockyard at Devonport. and that mitochondrially targeted therapeutics may be of benefit in these cases. Part 2 Land. some references may contain formatting and/or punctuation irregularities. How to request reports Reports from MOD’s Scientific Reports Collection can be requested from Knowledge and Information Services Tel: 01980 613971 Email: DefenceReporter@dstl.CoA for the Assessment Phase Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2009) This paper represents a Concept of Analysis (CoA) for the Assessment Phase (AP) Combined Operational Effectiveness & Investment Appraisal (COEIA) for the ISTAR Information Integration and Management (I3M) Project. R0001EC82 DABINETT’s ISTAR Information Integration & Management (I3M) Project . a simple blood test could be developed to predict patients at risk of SIRS and its complications. Measurement of mitochondrial function may indicate those at risk of SIRS and MODS enabling more accurate triage and more appropriate treatment. R0001EC81 Guidelines for ISTAR System Concept Development IST_06_07_708_19 Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2008) This working paper proposes guidelines for the conduct of ISTAR system concept development research within R0001EA35 Adobe Materials Testing and Assessment Dstl Farnborough (GB) (2009) This report was produced to provide advice to troops on Adobe structures in Afghanistan. Part 3 Air. R000203BF Dosimetry Statistics 2008 Dstl Alverstoke (GB) (2009) This report contains an analysis of the results from radiation dosemeters worn during 2008 and assessed by the Dstl Approved Dosimetry Service. with aggressive resuscitation soon after wounding. The data is presented in the format used in the Twelfth Report of the House of Commons Defence Committee.gov. I3M is the first equipment based project within DEC(ISTAR)’s DABINETT Programme that aims to improve the end-to-end intelligence process through the delivery of a series of projects. R0001EC03 Draft Geospatial And Temporal Requirements Part 0 (Introduction) Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2009) This document is a draft introduction (Part 0) to DEFSTAN 09-100. and Part 5 Interfaces). This document introduces the DEFSTAN. captures cross domain accuracy requirements and specifies the error definitions to be used. These studies were conducted to determine if platelet mitochondrial activities could be used to predict mitochondrial function in critical organs such as liver kidney and heart following severe injuries. If so. The study has involved triaxial testing of a range of Adobe materials and has considered the use of London Clay as a surrogate material for Adobe bricks and compound walls. Part 4 Interoperability.Defence Reports This section provides details of scientific and technical reports added to the MOD’s Scientific Reports Collection in the last quarter. In addition.uk Note: The report citations listed in this publication have been generated using an automated document scanning process. It addresses their ability to provide protection against small arms threats and provides preliminary advice on mouse-holing. As a result.Platelet Mitochondrial function as an early marker of a systemic inflammatory response Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2008) Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and consequent multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are a potential problem for injured military personnel where. many patients may survive an initial traumatic injury and thus be at risk of systemic inflammatory complications. There is literature evidence to suggest that mitochondrial complex impairment. 2 . Farnborough (GB) (2008) This document describes the experiments and tests to be carried out the for new hyperspectral unmixing alogrithms developed for the EMRS DTC project “Deconvoluted invariant sub-pixel detection”. DEFSTAN 09-100 records the Geospatial and Temporal Reference measurement accuracy requirements across all MoD domains (Part 1 Maritime. R0001F015 Deconvoluted invariant sub-pixel detection : experimental design document QinetiQ. A relationship between platelet and tissue mitochondrial complex activities was not demonstrated and these studies and the literature evidence suggest that the measurement of mitochondrial complex activities in isolated tissue samples is unlikely to provide a reliable early indication of systemic inflammation.

The guidelines proposed are consistent with the TLCM and research management process and are designed to ensure that concept development research conducted meets the needs of DEC(ISTAR) to support the capability planning process. Building on a previous assessment. J2M Release 1. Two main research strands are recommended namely the development of techniques to validate existing data and techniques to analyse this data to produce indicators and warnings of possible rogue behaviour. to determine the impact of Javelin training on these ranges.0 Statement of Requirements Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2009) This document is the Statement of Requirements for support for the continuing development of a simulation model. initial lessons identified. Construction activities to facilitate the use of Javelin would also impact the state. This data 3 . the environmental information for the ranges was obtained and an assessment made of the potential impacts. R0001FDBC Rapid Acquisition of Adaptable Systems Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2008) This report assess the relative merits of the three high tempo acquisition approaches: evolutionary. R0001EFB6 Joint Intelligence Model (J2M) Release 2. R0001FC46 Meeting the Through-Life Capability Challenge Aircraft Integrity Programme Guidance . airborne emissions or restricted materials was deemed to not pose any impact to the estate. and managing through life. R0001FC7B Standard for the Generic File Format Version Dstl Famborough (GB) (2009) This document defines a standard for a format used for the storage and the interchange of digitised underwater acoustic time-series data between systems.2. Applying the Integrated Land Management Plans (ILMP) and the recommendations from the Dstl assessments will ensure that no detrimental impacts are created. The background to each lesson identified is described and conclusions and recommendations are detailed. Lulworth and Castlemartin. R00020453 Initial Ageing Aircraft Systems Audits . R0001FE63 Javelin Anti-Tank Guided Weapon System: Environmental Impact Appraisal (EIA) For Lulworth and Castlemartin Ranges Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2005) Dstl assessed two additional ranges.0. DE&S to assist in meeting the airframe integrity through-life capability management challenges. Malvern (GB) (2007) This report describes activities carried out under the Maritime Wide Area Surveillance (MWAS) care and maintenance programme and provides a plan for the future research programme aimed at developing techniques to find fix and track a single vessel of interest and provide situational awareness of vessels within an area of interest. once the implications of the Haddon-Cave inquiry report have been digested and an implementation plan is in development. recommendations that were initially identified within the Ageing Aircraft Research and Development paper are included in this report to help MAEI to keep track of recommendations captured within their reporting matrix. R0001F807 Maritime Wide Area Surveillance (MWAS) Progress Report Malvern Technology Centre. It is recommended that reprioritisation of the work programme for Phases 3 and 4 (FY 10/11 and 11/12) should be undertaken in early 2010. J2M Release 2. systems that can be readily adapted to meet future requirements and/or evolving technology.the Dstl ISTAR Systems Engineering (ISE) research programme. A brief description of the tasks undertaken since the beginning of the programme (April 2009) is detailed and a recommended plan for the remainder of this financial year has been assembled for MAEI’s review and endorsement. but none are anticipated. The aim of the guidelines is to ensure that a consistent and suitably rigorous approach is adopted for concept development research undertaken on the ISE programme.Phase 1 Outline Plan DstI Porton Down (GB) (2009) This report details the Phase 1 output of the task sponsored by MAE11. R0001EFA5 Joint Intelligence Model (J2M) Release 1. which are of conservation importance. primarily from the VC10 Integrated Systems and Structures Age Exploration programme. Principal impacts would arise from detonation away for the designated targets on lands. For completeness.2 Statement of Requirements Dstl Portsdown West (GB) (2009) This document is the Statement of Requirements for support for the continuing development of a simulation model. pre-planned incremental and short lifecycle as mechanisms for acquiring. Within this report. Alteration from noise. are detailed.Lessons Identified Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2009) At the inaugural meeting of the MOD / Industry Systems Airworthiness Advisory Group it was agreed that lessons identified during the initial Ageing Aircraft Systems Audits should be collated to update policy and to identify best practice.

The demonstrator’s assembly and subsequent characterisation is discussed. In future work it is intended to derive the marginalisations of the Wishart distribution required for the prediction of moving target indication performance. DEMON data. These components have been used to good effect to complement each other and to ensure timely completion of the client request to provide guidance on the Force Mix required to meet Australia’s maritime patrol and response requirements. and the capability and budget analysis. R0001F093 UDRC internal strand project on Multibeam SAR: progress report 1 Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2009) The UDRC signal processing project reported on here is aimed at providing a useful theory to enable the development of three beam along track SAR interferometer systems. recording system condition and tracker information that is required in the analysis of the acoustic data. The principles employed are found to be consistent with good military experimental 4 . © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F16D Analysis Methods used in the AIR 7000 Force Mix Study Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The analysis methods used in the AIR 7000 Force Mix Study are described. R0001EC86 Strategic Balance of Investment Study Data and Assumptions Paper 5 Dstl Farnborough (GB) (2009) This paper describes the Mathematical Programme formulation used in the Strategic Balance of Investment study to construct optimal cost-effective force mixes. such as platform dynamics. These models were used in conjunction with a plume dispersion model to examine the risks associated with wearing air permeable CBR protective clothing. grey-scale data and directional-colourcoded data. to inform IPE fabric development programs and allow assessment of aerosol protection requirements. The data set contains targets comparable to those faced by coalition forces in current operational engagements and comprises of Synthetic Aperture RADAR and Hyperspectral data. The document defines a standard that is general in so far that digitised data from various sources can be represented in the format. a system capable of passing both power and communications ultrasonically through a metal plate. and compared with performance predictions made using numerical modelling. It is recommended that the large data volumes collected be fully exploited to enhance the state-of-theart for airborne landmine and lED detection. radar analysis. The AEF approach is being explored as a potential means of wirelessly powering in situ structural health monitoring systems embedded within aircraft and other high value assets. This report evaluates the effectiveness of the analysis methods used in the study. bearingpower data. The key components of die study include the stakeholder workshops. Improvements are suggested which will be implemented in the proposed AEF Demonstrator Mk-H. R0001FC6E Acoustic Electric Feedthrough Demonstrator Mk-I Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report outlines the development and characterization of the DSTO Acoustic Electric Feedthrough (AEF) Laboratory Demonstrator Mk-I. complex spectrogram data. power spectrogram data.includes raw acoustic data. A method is defined for diagonalising the 3x3 sample covariance matrix arising from a three-beam SAR ATI and the corresponding Wishart probability density function is derived. It also includes non-acoustic data. The covariance matrix of the signals received across the antennas in the array is the fundamental object of interest for moving target indication and its eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be used as effective moving target detection metrics. this work demonstrates the potential of data fusion to enhance the ability of single sensor systems to detect landmine and lEDs. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F7A1 Study on Aerosol Penetration Through Clothing and Individual Protective Equipment Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Aerosol particles can readily penetrate through air permeable fabrics. These fulfil the stated aims of the UDRC project. Firstly SAR and HSI data was fused to reduce the false alarm rate whilst retaining a high P(D) for surface landmines. which passes power ultrasonically through a 5 mm thick aluminium plate. the mission analysis and force mix determination. Secondly for buried targets results from different spectral processing techniques were fused to provide either a reduced false alarm rate at low probability of detection or alternatively an improved probability of detection at higher false alarm rates. However it is also tightly specific in order to reduce the complexity of the interfaces of the various systems that interchange data. Two fusion architectures have been investigated. Despite a challenging data set. R0001F598 Wide Area Airborne Multi-sensor Data: A summary of decision level fusion for IED and mine detection Dstl Porton Down (GB) (2009) This report details work undertaken by Dstl to investigate the viability of airborne sensors for detecting landmines and lEDs. Air flow and aerosol deposition models were used to determine skin deposition rates of aerosols through up to two fabric layers.

including advantages and disadvantages.4c to 3. data and resource constraints imposed on the study. used in commercially available equipment currently employed for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TlCs). even if only as a metamodel for a more complex combat simulation. This code has undergone extensive development. These standards are based largely on the Nutrient Reference Values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for Australia and New Zealand. although a small decline was observed for head girth. This report examines whether attrition is adequately modelled by such Markov processes. Secular increases in body dimensions of RAAF aircrew have implications for health. Nutritional standards are recommended for fresh (i.2. the relevant variables that determine the types and quantities of foods necessary to support ADF training and operationsand the current state of knowledge about nutritional requirements.2005 Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The aim of this study was to quantify the secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) aircrew between 1971 and 2005. but include specific Military Nutrient Reference Values for certain key nutrients. and suggests areas of research that will help fill the gaps in our knowledge. including height. It will be shown that improvements to the NTCS code from version to version result in significant changes in computed IR signatures. since 1997. Such channels should always be taken into 5 .4c to 3. A set of benchmark test cases was developed to track the development of NTCS since 1997 paying particular attention to the effect on the computed IR signature of a test target. Small secular increases were observed for most body dimensions. mass and body mass indices. In addition.e. the results from these benchmark tests are presented for NTCS versions from 2. clothing design and sizing. © Commonwealth of Australia R00020377 Body Size Changes of Royal Australian Air Force Aircrew: 1971 . © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E98B Australian Defence Force Nutritional Requirements in the 21st Century (Version 1) Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report addresses the determinants of military nutritional requirements-that is. In this report. It is also recommended that details of the NTCS version and parameters used are specified when presenting NTCS results.2 Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) is a commercial code accepted as the NATO standard for ship Infrared (IR) signature modelling. © Commonwealth of Australia R000204C2 Comparison of an Agent-based Model of Disease Propagation with the Generalised SIR Epidemic Model Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Social contacts are an important channel for the propagation of disease through a population and should be considered in conjunction with traditional epidemic diffusion. A brief description of the well-known.g. LOWTRAN/MODTRAN) and choice of solar scattering flag also influence the computed IR signature. secular changes were not always uniform across the distribution. In addition to code changes. Timing information was also assessed as part of this study and reveals increases in run-time requirements as NTCS has evolved. caution should be exercised when comparing results from different versions of NTCS. other parameters such as choice of environmental data generation software (e. and humanequipment fit.design as outlined in the GUlDEx given the time. In light of these results. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FC70 Benchmark Testing of Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) Development from Version 2. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E987 A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report provides a review of the open-source literature (unclassified) and information obtained from manufacturers regarding the technologies. in conjunction with measurement trials. in-barracks or garrison) feeding and for combat ration packs. commercial-off-the-shelf instruments that employ these technologies is also provided. The additional Wiener term can be regarded as representing the impact of the wider environment on attrition rates. These secular changes (except for head girth) were not independent of changes in overall body size. It shows that the distribution of battle casualties is consistent with that obtained when attrition is modelled as an Ito process. © Commonwealth of Australia R00020099 Application of Black Scholes Complexity Concepts to Combat Modelling Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Lanchester’s equations are commonly used as the basis for force-on-force combat models. It also includes recommendations on nutritional standards for ADF rationing systems.

dealing with the input scenery data. S&T. Its purpose is to inform attempts to improve Australian arrangements. In this technical note we consider the design and implementation of persistence in Annex against the background of two 6 . greater strategic coordination of national security capability management supported by national security S&T providers. particularly the military/civilian divide. The review was undertaken to inform the S&T Companion Review to the Defence White Paper. (b) national innovation.particularly towed or self-propelled side-scan sonar that images underwater objects. growing acknowledgement of the critical national role of niche Defence S&T capabilities. The analysis shows that Canada and the UK and. including Defence. and an increasing focus on cross-departmental collaboration. © Commonwealth of Australia R00020376 The Design and Implementation of Persistence in the Annex System Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Orthogonal persistence in operating systems has been a topic of research for a number of years. and planned analysis of the simulation results. a ‘generic’ mission planner and post-mission analysis tool for unmanned underwater systems . Defence S&T is seen increasingly as a unique. the reader is referred to DSTO-TN-0887. In particular. UK and Canada. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001ED81 Design of a Foliage Penetrating LADAR Simulation Tool Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) A simulation tool was developed using MATLAB and its Graphical User Interface Development Environment (GUIDE) to simulate aspects of an airborne foliagepenetrating Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) system in scenarios designed to contribute towards the military operational use of such a system. based on lessons learned overseas. UK and Canadian approaches to the development. growing use of programmatic (or problem-based) approaches to funding. Primary insights indicate that there is: increasing effort to improve the alignment and consistency of policies and strategies for (a) national (or homeland) security.account for a realistic estimation of a long-term impact of a disease outbreak (natural or malicious) and for the best response options. which can amount to several hundred contacts for some MCM missions. coordination and harnessing of science and technology for national security capability. © Commonwealth of Australia R000204C0 Design and Evaluation of the MINT ACS SeeTrack Exchange (MINSTE) Concept Demonstrator Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) MINSTE is a computer program that automates data exchange between MINT ACS (MINe Warfare TACtical Software) used by the RAN for planning and assessment of naval mine countermeasures (MCM) and SeeTrack. the US. and one that should not be quarantined for Defence needs alone. “User Guide for MINT ACS SeeTrack Exchange (MINSTE)”. This paper describes our recent experience in developing a simple agent-based model to simulate disease propagation through a social network and validating the results of the agent-based simulation by reconciling it with a well-known mathematical model. This document describes the MINSTE concept design and development within the context of current and emerging RAN requirements for mine warfare mission planning and reporting in networkenabled and joint operations. and the promotion of enduring S&T “communities of practice”. have implemented orthogonal persistence as an essential part of their design. Amongst these we can count the Annex software system developed at DSTO. and the relative roles of Defence and non-Defence S&T providers. modelling the sensor and platform flight path. from a low base. such as national security. the simulation tool is intended for conducting analysis on how best to task the aircraft and position the sensor. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FC6F Defence Science and Technology Support for National Security: An International Review Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) A critical review of open source literature enables comparison of the US. MINSTE was developed by DSTO with opensource software in order to reduce operator overheads by automating data entry for reported mine-like objects. and to help generate a longer-term vision for S&T support to whole-of-nation strategic challenges. and (c) Defence S&T. information sharing. growing recognition of the need to overcome departmental stovepipes. as well as research projects. For a more detailed discussion on the installation and use of MINSTE. management and exploitation of S&T in national security. This document describes the (mid-2008) status of S&T input to the national security systems of the US. and critical component of the national response. by contextualising Defence S&T contributions to national security goals outside strict support of Defence objectives. development. the mechanisms by which science and technology (S&T) support is harnessed. This document provides an overview of the graphical user interface and software including: the design challenges. Several commercial. are all moving to increase the application and integration of niche Defence S&T capability into national S&T programs for counter-terrorism and national (or homeland) security.

The study shows that a network of piezoelectric transducers embedded in the bond-line of the patch provides a robust basis for the detection of notch growth. orthogonally persistent operating systems. human judgements of corpora similarity were obtained as a gold standard. Initial development of the concept targets the problem of cracking at Forward Auxiliary Spar Station (PASS) 281. The present work extends that examination to conceptual issues regarding interpretation of Lanchester’s Equations and to additional parameters beyond those examined previously. This type of repair is being developed as a means of mitigating the strict certification requirements currently placed on bonded repairs to primary aircraft structure. As a first approximation to this problem. The upper frequency limit of the antenna is discussed and a method for extending the low frequency cut-off is presented. suggesting that a statistical technique could provide results that are comparable to human judgements. © Commonwealth of Australia R0002009A Fractal Effects in Lanchester Models of Combat Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Lanchester’s Equations are one of the most misunderstood and misused models of combat. a prototype ASP was developed and then applied to a metal coupon which was notched to simulate cracking.66. with a correlation of approximately 0. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FF53 Giselle: A Mutually Orthogonal Triple Twin-loop Ground-symmetrical Broadband Receiving Antenna for the HF Band Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report describes development of a tri-axial mutually orthogonal broadband twin-loop receiving antenna for the HF band. It is also useful for ensuring comparability between studies on document analysis conducted across classified and unclassified domains. Finding similar corpora is necessary for the design of certain user studies investigating text processing. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E985 A Feasibility Study into the Active Smart Patch Concept for Composite Bonded Repairs Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2008) This report describes an experimental investigation into a novel form of composite bonded repair called the Active Smart Patch (ASP). with 77% shared variance in overall similarity judgements. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001EDF9 The Effects of Selected Modelling Parameters on the Computed Optical Frequency Signatures of Naval Platforms Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) An investigation has been carried out into the effects of wireframe detail and model sub-processing on the predicted optical frequency (OF) signature of a platform. The three twin-loops have been arranged so that they exhibit the same distributed parameters between themselves and ground. Although there are complexities associated with the X to the power 2 technique that need to be examined in further research. yet they remain in widespread use as the combat mechanism behind many simulation systems. and as a potentially cost-efficient means of providing structural integrity assurance where lack of access precludes conventional nondestructive inspection. this study provides extremely promising results. This background is used to highlight the approach taken by the Annex system. Previous work by the author examined the impact of a fractal distribution of forces on Lanchester’s theory of combat. The findings indicated a high level of agreement between the participants. The ASP represents an important conceptual advancement over conventional repair technology by incorporating into a patch a network of embedded piezoelectric elements that provides a diagnostic facility for structural health. These were then compared to the values provided by Kilgarriff’s (2001) chi-square (X to the power 2) statistic. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F1FF Human Dimensions of Corpora Comparison: An Analysis of Kilgarriff’s (2001) Approach Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) There is a distinct lack of tools that provide a comprehensive measure of the similarity between corpora. They also have to be processed using subdivisions of very similar size. In this study. This report describes the results of that investigation. based on the same method of facet subdivision. Overall it is concluded that to be able to compare the computed OF signatures of different platforms with validity. The description given discusses the current Annex prototype and explores the directions persistence in Annex will take in the future as a result of lessons learned.other capability-based. The results of the X to the power 2 measure also correlated well with the human results. The antenna noise factor is calculated from measured data. the models of the platforms have to incorporate the same level of wireframe detail. © Commonwealth of Australia 7 . and the reasons why such an approach was used.28 in the F-111 Lower Wing Skin. especially in internally-heated regions such as their stacks.

Brief summaries and references are provided on the aircraft fatigue research and associated activities of research laboratories. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001EDFF Performance of the Tin-Free Antifouling Coating International Ecoloflex in DSTO/RAN Trials Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) A national and global ban on the application of antifouling paints containing tributyltin (TBT) is being introduced because of the detrimental effects of TBT on non-target marine species. Additionally. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F177 Strategic Workforce Planning in Defence: A Pilot Study using the ACTIFELD Methodology Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report investigates the application of the ACTIFELD strategic analysis technique to Defence planning. Airborne concentrations in the breathing zones of the operators were found to be <1 /200th (<0. brush and roller application of the paints in a simulated enclosed space showed airborne isocyanate concentrations <3 ng/ m3. © Commonwealth of Australia R00020378 Reporting Solid Particle Contamination in Helicopter Hydraulic Fluids Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This report recommends a method for reporting solid particle contamination for Australian Defence Force (ADF) helicopters and associated ground support equipment. © Commonwealth of Australia R0002009B A Review of Australian and New Zealand Investigations on Aeronautical Fatigue During the Period April 2007 to March 2009 Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This document has been prepared for presentation to the 31st Conference of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue scheduled to be held in Rotterdam. and long term effectiveness on vessels operating in temperate and tropical Australian waters. This was the best performance seen from a copperbased antifouling coating to date and offered the RAN an alternative to TBT-based systems. Within this program. and trials on Navy ship hulls. in the open air. Similarly. The review covers fatigue-related research programs as well as fatigue investigations on specific military and civil aircraft. From the geometric relationships. 25th and 26 May 2009. that covers initial development of the strategic question through to issues of implementation. by roller and brush. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E989 Personnel Exposure to Airborne Isocyanates and Solvents During Shipboard Painting with 2-Pack Polyurethane Paints Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2008) Shipboard and laboratory trials were conducted to determine personnel exposure to airborne solvents and isocyanates during the application. The pilot study demonstrated the utility of employing the ACTIFELD technique in analysing strategic Defence planning 8 . DSTO. supported by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). undertook a comprehensive program in an attempt to find alternative products that would match or approach the antifouling performance and effective life of TBT-based systems. did not show detectable levels of isocyanates. personnel should be protected from dermal exposure to the liquid paints. This method is efficient and the performance is robust against large measurement errors. consistent ablation characteristics. on a hot day with a slight wind. The ACTIFELD methodology utilises a combination of pre-existing operations research techniques within an overarching framework or investigative process. The evaluation program included static immersion trials.R0001F1FE Landmark-based Navigation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) We present a method for estimating the position and orientation of a ground vehicle in an environment with landmarks. the Netherlands. There appeared to be a greater risk from paint solvent respiratory exposure than from airborne isocyanates. which forms the basis for our optimisation problem. of 2-pack polyurethane paints. recommended limits for solid particle contamination are provided that can be used where no Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) advice exists or where the OEM advice is less conservative than the limits recommended herein. we derive a set of linear equations with a quadratic constraint. 24 h after curing. We also extend the problem to associating two sets of measurements taken at two successive locations to improve the navigation accuracy. dynamic flow testing. The dust produced during light sanding of the polyurethane paint. and aerospace companies in Australia and New Zealand during the period April 2007 to March 2009. the Akzo Nobel coating Ecoloflex demonstrated antifouling efficacy.1 ng/m3) of the 8 h time-weighted average (TWA) exposure levels for isocyanates during the application of hiterthane 987 LSALGP and Interthane 864 LSANSP on a RAN vessel. Although it appeared that respiratory protection from airborne isocyanates was not required with brush/roller applications. universities.

which decouples the responses of a rate sensitive material. it also provided an indication of the commitment required from stakeholders. the Commonwealth tasked the Defence Science and Technology Organisation to conduct a series of five tie-bar fitting static strength tests. Intended as an imaging system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Basis of the model is a general Maxwell-type viscoelastic model. Numerical illustrations demonstrate agreement of the CTH calculations with calculations available in the literature. require the decoupling of the shear from volumetric response in a material model used. Although the results of each test have been reported separately.e. In 2005 a Commonwealth. It was devised as an alternative to stabilised ball turrets fitted with electro-optic and infrared cameras. The methodology provides an iterative and flexible process that assists in maintaining an audit trail of decisions and provides a range of outputs that are meaningful and useful to the Defence client. aggregating. such as LS-DYN A and CTH. not suitable for implementation in the hydrocodes. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FF5E Synthetic Electronic Imaging System Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The Synthetic Electronic Imaging System employs electronic components to combine multiple images processed with internal data from the vehicle on which the system is mounted to yield established video images without resorting to complicated optics or a stabilised platform. This process will involve resolving. this report provides an overview of the test program. To verify this finding. A schematic of implementation in CTH is briefly described. and MJU50/B) at different points on the CMD. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F204 Static Ejection Tests with VICON 78 Infrared Countermeasure Dispensing System for Black Hawk Helicopter Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The VICON 78 chaff/flare Countermeasure Dispensing (CMD) System is an integral part of the overall Electronic Warfare Self Protection (EWSP) package for the S-70A-9 Black Hawk platform and has suffered high failure rates while firing the MJU-50/B infrared countermeasure flare during Stores Clearance in August 2008. The formulation provides the thermodynamic consistency for the case of small deviatoric elastic deformations and unrestricted volumetric response. This enabled the calculation of more representative yield strength values. thus. This report describes the development of the Synthetic Electronic Imaging System and assembly of a simple concept demonstrator in 2005. The secondary objective was to determine a level of confidence in the CMD hardware to fire a particular flare type (PW118 Mk3). which will provide greater confidence in any future conclusions drawn from the test program. A trial was conducted during November and December 2008 at the Proof and Experimental Establishment (P&EE) at Port Wakefield to determine the extent and nature of the problem The primary objective was to measure set back force and impulse loads due to various flare types (PW118 Mk3. is not originally decoupled and. This report surveys the key principles underlying research in the field of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning.Program Review and Further Analysis of Test Results Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The tie-bar fitting is a key component of the Super Sea sprite helicopter main rotor blade retention system. M211. DSTL-22. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001F1FD Tensile Testing of the SH-2G(A) Super Seasprite Tiebar Fitting . © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FF5F Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) As part of the information fusion task we wish to automatically fuse information derived from the text extraction process with data from a structured knowledge base. A constitutive model is formulated. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FC6C Thermodynamically Consistent Decoupled ShearVolumetric Strain Model and CTH Implementation Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Many hydrocodes.problems. DSTL-39. which.into a single comprehensive description of an individual or event. in particular Defence workforce planning. it may be employed in any manned or Unmanned System (UMS) where situation awareness is aided by the use of an imaging system. zero or less). Linear regression analysis was also conducted to remove the effects of grip slippage from the results of the first two tests.via the methodologies of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning . It represents an initial step in deciding upon a Knowledge Representation and Reasoning system for our information fusion task. Whilst the pilot study highlighted the benefits of the approach. © Commonwealth of Australia 9 .commissioned analysis of the tie-bar fitting indicated that it had a margin of safety on the design ultimate load close to the lower limit of acceptability (i. however. All the objectives were successfully met. integrating and abstracting information .

individual differences did significantly influence results. However. Although the re-ranking provided by the LSA techniques ordered the documents in a significantly more efficient manner. the main obstacle to a faster uptake of the technology is the lack of widely accepted inspection standards and calibration blocks applicable to phased arrays. The next generation of such devices may include detectors at more than one absorption band. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E986 The Use of Systemic-Functional Linguistics in Automated Text Mining Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Systemic-functional linguistics is a linguistic framework for the analysis of grammatical and semantic information in text. Research on the role of colour in object and scene recognition is reviewed. The main disadvantages are that (i) phased-array systems are more expensive to purchase. with specific reference to the inspection of thicksection welds. Misleading. showed a clear impairment in the recognition of complex urban scenes. The main advantages offered by phased arrays over conventional systems are increased sensitivity. its application in computational work. no significant differences were found in user performance with regards to accuracy. This study examined two methods of using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to improve the results retrieved using a keyword-based technique using sentence or document context. This report outlines essential features of the theory. representative of current generation NVDs. However. false or “unnatural” coloration. Pilots remarked that the 3D audio display helped them to look in the direction of the threat and improved their situation awareness of the relative threat direction while manoeuvring. The use of unnatural colour renderings in next-generation NVDs may lead to further impairment in scene recognition with consequences for situational awareness and effective navigation. most notably in regards to participants’ scores on a comprehension test. may impair scene recognition and situational awareness. The current generation of devices uses a single sensitivity band in either the infrared or near-infrared range. time taken or documents accessed for the different techniques. providing the basis for further grammatical and semantic text processing. This study therefore highlights the importance of examining the impact of individual differences in any information retrieval system. Spatial audio is being considered for integration in F-35 and F/A-18E/F. and are evaluated with respect to human colour sensitivity. An experimental investigation of the effect of green monochrome imagery with altered surface reflectances. © Commonwealth of Australia R00020461 Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for the Inspection of ThickSection Welds Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Ultrasonic phased arrays will eventually replace conventional ultrasonic methods in many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. which is a by-product of colour NVDs. Testing demonstrates high accuracy in predicting word functions in unseen text in co-training with other grammatical information. © Commonwealth of Australia R000204C1 The Use of a Context-Based Information Retrieval Technique Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Since users are faced with an ever increasing amount of data. Whilst proper training can overcome the majority of these disadvantages. Different schemes for representing spectral contrast are described. fast and effective retrieval of required information is of vital importance.R000204BE Towards Understanding the Role of Colour Information in Scene Perception using Night Vision Devices Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) Aviation Night Vision Devices (NVDs) are used to enable air operations under conditions of low illumination. coverage and speed. These errors did not cause confusion additional to that caused by the visual display. (ii) operation and data interpretation are more difficult and (iii) there can be greater difficulty in achieving good ultrasonic coupling due to the larger probe dimensions. © Commonwealth of Australia 10 . © Commonwealth of Australia R0001FF11 Trial of a 3D Audio Display of Radar Warning Receiver Tones in the RAAF F-111 Simulator Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) This study examined the utility of a spatial audio display for threat warning in the RAAF F-111 simulator. and develops a grammatical annotation scheme-word functions to enrich a mixed text corpus of newspaper articles and e-mails. The available evidence suggests that natural colour plays a useful role in scene recognition when objects and surfaces have prototypical colours. This has the potential to enhance the segmentation of different surfaces and features in the visual scene. with a potential role in automated text mining. the transition to phased arrays is not without its pitfalls and challenges. and the rationale for use in automated text mining. In this report we present a summary of the advantages and limitations of phased-array ultrasonics in NDE. Colour can be used to display contrast between sensor bands. for machine learning of semantically-oriented grammatical patterns. Fifty participants retrieved information using a standard keyword technique and the two LSA techniques. with the caveat that extensive manoeuvring resulted in predictable errors from the RWR.

the reader is referred to DSTO-GD-0574. A demonstration of how a change in surface colour affects the visible signature of the ship is also shown. The VST is a collection of commercial. The software can logically be divided into image generation and probability of detection (POD) modelling codes. Formal specification and system modelling activities in the HiVe Modeller are supported through an Isabelle/HOL implementation of the HiVe Mathematical Toolkit. One such risk analysis technique employs a lognormal probability distribution to model the likelihood of cracking (or failure) in the fleet with respect to hours. © Commonwealth of Australia R000204BF User Guide for MINTACS SeeTrack Exchange (MINSTE) Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The computer program MINTACS SeeTrack Exchange (MINSTE) interface was developed to support the automated data transfer to the RAN Mine Warfare Tactical Decision Aid MINTACS from SeeTrack. has been developed to model and evaluate the visible signatures of maritime platforms. All of these stand-alone programs are integrated through DSTO developed software and procedures. The final example is the creation and initial assessment of a disruptive pattern for a water craft on a river. to produce a software suite. 11 . This repository is known as the ATHENA Collection and is made available to MOD and Industry through a variety of products and services. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001E9DC The Visible Signature Modelling and Evaluation ToolBox Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2008) A new software suite. The ocean modelling is supplied by HYDROLIGHT. a postmission analysis tool for data collected by towed or self-propelled (unmanned) side-scan sonar systems in support of military operations such as reconnaissance of sea routes for detection of mine-like objects. “Design and Evaluation of the MINTACS SeeTrack Exchange (MINSTE) Concept Demonstrator”. In another example. This template allows the quick and simple determination of probability distributions of cracking (or failure) which may be used to assess the life of aircraft structures. For further information about Defence Reporter. A key part of this is the provision of advanced high assurance analysis tools in the form of the HiVe Modeller component. In one example. or to provide feedback. The appearance of an item in Defence Reporter does not constitute an endorsement by Dstl or MOD.gov. visible imagery of a ship is presented for different times of day and various observer perspectives. © Commonwealth of Australia Project ATHENA is a DTIC-funded project run by Dstl to provide MOD with a central repository for storing scientific and technical (S&T) reports of current and past research programmes and projects. the Visible Signature ToolBox (VST). This report describes support for the Z Mathematical Toolkit within the HiVe Mathematical Toolkit. Disclaimer: Defence Reporter is compiled from various news sources and research reports and is offered as a service by Dstl Knowledge and Information Services solely for informational purposes. This technique was programmed into Microsoft Excel to create a simple and easy to use template. the visible signature of a submarine is examined under various conditions. The VST can be utilised to model and assess visible signatures of maritime platforms. © Commonwealth of Australia R0001EDF8 Z Support in the HivE Mathematical Toolkit Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) The HiVe project is an ambitious research programme aimed at providing DSTO and the Australian Defence Department with the world’s most advanced assurance tools. For a general overview of MINSTE design principles and objectives. probabilistic approaches may be used to calculate the risk of cracking (or failure) over the life of the aircraft or fleet. An outline of the theory behind the probabilistic approach is provided as well as a comprehensive user guide to the template. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the VST.R0002009C User Guide to the Aircraft Cumulative Probability Chart Template Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) (AU) (2009) To ensure aircraft structural integrity is maintained to an acceptable level. off-the-shelf software and DSTO developed programs and procedures. This document is a detailed technical user manual for the MINSTE software program.uk Tel: 01980 614948 Acknowledgements This publication was supported by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) of Australia who have provided report citations for inclusion in Defence Reporter. CAMOGEN (CAMOuflage GENeration) and CAMEOSIM (CAMouflage Electro-Optic SIMulation) provide the image generation. please contact: DefenceReporter@dstl. whereas ORACLE provides the POD analysis capability.