# Modifications of Rankine Cycle 1.

Reheat Rankine Cycle Increasing Boiler pressure increases thermal efficiency but moisture content also increases at turbine (which is problem for turbine blades). Solution to this problem: 1. Superheating the vapor (which is limited to maximum service temperature of turbine) 2. Splitting into two turbine-stages and reheat between them.

Total heat input (if kinetic energy and potential energy differences are negligible) qin = qboiler + qreheat = (h3 − h2 ) + (h5 − h4 ) Total work output (if kinetic energy and potential energy differences are negligible) wout = wHigh turbine + wLow turbine = (h3 − h4 ) + (h6 − h5 )
Increasing reheat stages, gives limited improvement in thermal efficiency but heating approaches to isothermal process, e.g. one stage reheat increases the efficiency 3-4 %, two stages reheat increase 1,5- 2%. Three stages reheat increase 0.75-1%... so on.

Optimum thermal efficiency in reheat is obtained when 1) substance is supercritical fluid 2) one fourth (1/4) of boiler pressure.

There are two kinds of FHW. This diminishes efficiency. after substance comes from pump (2) it enters boiler. This extra device not only increases the efficiency but also removes the trapped air in cycle. Regenerative Rankine Cycle If we look at T-s diagram of ideal rankine cycle. To overcome this drawback. This process is called as “regeneration”.2. Open Feedwater heater For Open FWH adiabatic analysis Close Feedwater Heater Total heat input qin = (h5 − h4 ) (if kinetic energy and potential energy differences are negligible) Fraction of flow that extracted to OFWH • y= m6 • m5 Total heat output (if kinetic energy and potential energy differences are negligible) qout = (1 − y )(h7 − h1 ) Total work output (if kinetic energy and potential energy differences are negligible) wout = y (h5 − h6 ) + (1 − y )(h5 − h7 ) = y (h7 − h6 ) + h5 − h7 Total work input win = w pumpI + w pumpII = (1 − y )υ1 ( P2 − P1 ) + yυ3 ( P4 − P3 ) ② . we can “bleed” the flow from turbine and heat it before reentering boiler. the other close feedwater heater. this extra device “regenerator” or “feedwater heater (FWH)”. which is a expensive and flows do not mix and also high effective. inexpensive. But until a certain point (2’) temperature stays low. which is basically mixing chamber. One is open feedwater heater. we can easily see that.

that is. electricity.g. Gas turbine (Brayton cycle): Waste energy is used for heat source of gas turbine 2. Waste energy of Brayton cycle is used for energy source of Rankine cycle. Variations of Cogeneration: 1. work. If both expansion valve and pump are closed than pressure inside heater will drop to zero and flow will go to 7. 2. Generally there are two types of cogeneration plants: 1. if expansion valve is opened.. Cogeneration is obtained between these two extremes.e. Combined Cycle Binary Cycle ③ . car motor’s waste energy can be used to heat inside the car. than waste energy will be maximum. etc) using one source. One uses other waste energy for energy source. Topping cycle: Produces electricity first that waste energy (as taken from condenser) is used for heating. Bottoming cycle: Produces very high energy (for such as steel industry. 4. heating. glass industry). So no work output is produced and maximum heat is reached. 3. than cycle operates as ordinary Rankine cycle. High temperature Fuel Cells. e. In such Rankine Cycle. Thermal efficiency can be used as “utilization factor”. than waste energy is used to produce electricity. how efficiently used waste energy. all flow will go to 5. So waste energy can be used. Binary Vapor cycle. Two vapor cycles are used.Combinations of Rankine Cycle: Combined Heat and Power (Cogeneration) Cogeneration means producing more than one energy (i. Combined Gas and Vapor Cycle (Rankine + Brayton Cycle). This is cogeneration.