Internetworking Overview

Table of contents

Chapter 1

Introduction to Internetworking

Chapter 2

LAN Technologies

Chapter 3


Chapter 4


Chapter 5

WAN Technologies

Chapter 6


Chapter 7

Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite


Chapter 1 Introduction to Internetworking .

Chapter 1 Introduction to Internetworking Chapter Objectives .At the end of this chapter students will be able to describe: – The difference between LANs and WANs – Internetworking Concepts – The role of the Standards Organisations – Proprietary & De-Facto Standards – The OSI .7 Layer Model – Repeaters Vs Bridges/Switches Vs Routers Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 1-1 .

file servers. 10 Mbps for Ethernet. With the advent of new technologies such as ATM. This implies that no special routing capabilities are required for communications traffic travelling from one device to another. and it will reach its destination. speeds in excess of 100 Mbps are now possible. and application servers. High communication speeds LANs were developed with speeds in excess of 1 Mbps for example 4Mbps and 16Mbps for Token Ring. for example.Local Area Networks (LANs) Method of connecting computer devices to enable users to share resources. just put the information on the LAN. Very low Error rate Most LAN protocols do little or no error checking and this is one of the design elements that permits their higher speeds. office building or campus High communications speeds (Mbps) Very low error rate A single cable system or medium for multiple attached devices Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 Resource sharing The following are commonly shared and available for all users on a LAN to access: printers. Single cable system or medium for multiple attached devices All devices function as if they were adjacent to each other. mail servers. 1-2 . database servers. typically a single building or campus. and improvements to existing ones such as Fast and Gigabit Ethernet. printers & file servers. Geographically bounded. Geographically bounded LAN technologies are designed to be used within an area of restricted size. for example.

Wide Area Networks (WANs) Method of connecting networks and computer devices to enable users to share resources. mail servers. This requires both additional bits in the transmitted frame and additional processing time at both ends. for example. Distance There are no distance limitations in WANs. Lower speeds Wide area analogue communications typically experience approximately one error in 10^6 bits transmitted. file servers. Also the financial cost of high speeds WANs prevents them from being widely implemented. 1-3 . No distance limitations Speed lower than that of a LAN Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 Resource sharing WANs connect together LANs so that the network resources of each LAN are available to all users irrespective of their location . In a typical WAN protocol stack. Typically these resources include printers. Web Services. This additional overhead contributes to reducing the speed available on WANs. and application servers. error checking takes place at multiple levels of the stack. database servers.

or a mixture of the two. Companies typically have a mix of computing and communication systems that come from different vendors and have widely differing characteristics. 1-4 . Network C Network D Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 Internetworking refers to the connecting together of two or more networks. It is vital to connect all of an organisation’s data networks together so that information sources and decision makers can communicate without unnecessary delay. either LANs. Normally user’s rapid access to information is a major requirement. The equipment may be sited at disparate locations around the world and the end-users will normally have a variety of different requirements.Internetworking Concepts Network A Network B Internetworking is the connection of multiple LANs or Network Segments together. WANs.

an internetworking device will be required to allow them to communicate. • The greater the number of devices on a network the poorer the performance as they are all competing for the same limited amount of bandwidth. coaxial cable. it may be cheaper to segment the network and interconnect them with fiber optic devices. • There are distance limitations on all LAN types. If the distance between two devices exceeds this. • Rather than run a network backbone cable from one building to another.Why Internetwork? Interconnect individual department LANs Interconnect between buildings . 1-5 . an Ethernet network based on thick-wire coaxial cable cannot exceed 500m and continue to operate. • If a network is segmented into smaller networks then the probability of one corrupt device bringing down the network is reduced • Internetworking devices can be configured to prevent users in one particular area accessing information in another. for example.cost reasons Physical distance between devices is too great Reduce the load and improve performance Reliability Security Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 • Historically each department in an organisation sets up its own computer system and method of sharing information. As networks evolved it soon became obvious that there were many advantages to sharing information between departments. for example.

1-6 . data communications industry. ATM.3 Ethernet standard and IEEE 802.Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ANSI .is best known for developing the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven layer model. should develop.are formed when a number of big companies form partnerships to determine how a new technology concept.plays a large role in international standards development in the WAN. International Standards Organisation (ISO) .International Telecommunications Union (formerly known as CCITT) IEEE . The ISO has issued over 5000 standards. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) .g X25 protocol Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) .International Standards Organisation Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 International Telecommunications Union (ITU) .is responsible for the LAN standards such as IEEE 802. for example. Forums .is primarily responsible for standardising anything that happens in the U.5 Token Ring standard. The ITU is responsible for all the V & X series recommendations e.Standards Organisations ITU .S.American National Standards Institute FORUMS ISO . The members of the ISO are from the national standards organisations of the 89 member countries.

and Novell Netware. The main drawback to proprietary products in a network is that if any additions or changes are required in the network. products from the same manufacturer have to be purchased. 1-7 . SNA De-Facto – Not ratified by ISO – Widely used in industry – Supported by large number of manufacturers – Example: TCP/IP Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 Any technology that can only be acquired through one manufacturer is classed as proprietary. The main de-facto system used in many networks is TCP/IP. However a standard attains de-facto status if it is used widely by the industry. and the products (hardware or software) can be purchased from a range of suppliers. DECnet. A “De-facto” protocol/standard is one which is not ratified as part of the Open Systems model as designed by the ISO. so that the same protocols can be used. DECnet. Examples of proprietary protocols include IBM SNA.Proprietary & De-Facto Standards Proprietary Standards – Not ratified by ISO – Manufacturer specific – Examples: Novell.

Co-ordinates interaction between end-to-end application processes. Transmits/Receives on the network medium Ericsson Systems Expertise The Physical Layer defines the type of medium. and the virtual circuit/connection services. The Presentation layer translates data formats so that devices with different “languages” can communicate The Application Layer interfaces directly with the application programs running on the devices. The Session Layer establishes two-way communication between applications running on different devices on the network. and resource sharing.OSI . and the transmission rates available for the network. The Data Link Layer defines how the network medium is accessed: which protocols are used. the packet/framing methods. 1-8 .7 Layer Model APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA LINK PHYSICAL 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 Interfaces directly with application programs running on the devices. It provides services such as file access and transfer. The Transport Layer handles the task of reliable message delivery and flow control between applications on different devices. Switches and routes information to the appropriate network device. Provides code conversion and data reformatting. the transmission method. The Network Layer standardises the way in which addressing is accomplished between linked networks. Transfers units of information to the other end of the physical link. peer-to-peer communication among applications. Provides end-to-end data integrity and quality of service.

The Data Link Layer defines the format of telephone numbers. etc. for example. ordering tickets by credit card. At this point you can carry out the required transaction . The Application Layer can now be used as you are speaking to and understanding the person you’ve called. the next town. It prevents both people from speaking at the same time. The Transport layer arranges the data timeslots in order so that they are delivered in sequence. The Network Layer determines where your call is going. or another country. 1-9 . for example. Determines where your call is going Format of telephone numbers and busy signals Copper & Fiber Optic Cabling. Ericsson Systems Expertise The Physical layer is the cabling. The Session Layer manages the conversation.Prevents both people speaking Ensures the voice message is delivered correctly. This layer provides a sequence of numbers that indicates to the system the unique identity of the other phone you are trying to reach. The Presentation Layer would be the equivalent of a built-in translator so that a French person could speak in French but be heard in English by an English speaker and vice-versa.7 Layer Model Analogy to Telephone System APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA LINK PHYSICAL 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 The conversation . French and English speaker Dialogue Management . and busy signals. These parameters determine how you access the telephone lines from your phone. microwave dishes and satellites used throughout the world to link a phone to all other devices on the telephone system. It also includes the wiring into your house or office and the phone hardware. for example. whether it is to the next building. Order tickets by credit card Built in translator.OSI .

Repeaters operate at the Physical layer.OSI . it will not try to understand its meaning. They receive transmissions (bits) on a LAN segment and regenerate the bits to boost a degraded signal and extend the length of the LAN segment. 1-10 .7 Layer Model & Internetworking Devices SYSTEM A A P Data SYSTEM B A P Data Data Data Data Data S S T Data T Data N D Data Data Router Bridge Repeater D N Data Data 101100011110101010010 101100011110101010010 Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 Each layer operates independently of the others using a method referred to as encapsulation. They connect networks into internetworks that are physically unified. the application data originally sent by the sending device will arrive at the receiving application. At the sending device each layer receiving data from the layer above will process the data. The layer below will simply treat the data as a data block. At the receiving device the reverse happens. The block will be processed by the layer. add its own protocol header and transfer the data block to the layer below. Ultimately. but in which each network retains its identity as a separate network environment. the first layer processes its peer header and then passes the data to the layer above which carries out the same action. Bridges operate at the Data link layer. Routers operate at the network layer. When the data arrives. They connect network environments into logical and physical single internetworks. which adds its own protocol header and then passes the larger data block to the layer below.

Collision Domain . Two devices on either side of a bridge can put traffic on the LAN simultaneously and they will never collide with each other. Single Broadcast Domain Single Collision Domain Single Broadcast Domain Two Separate Collision Domains Two Separate Broadcast Domains Two Separate Collision Domains Ericsson Systems Expertise 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 To understand one of the key differences between internetworking products it is essential to appreciate what a collision domain and a broadcast domain is and the effect that each of the products has on these domains. In addition to this they stop network broadcast traffic. They do not in anyway reduce network collisions or broadcast traffic.D.D. Repeaters only regenerate the signal. for example. C.If a device sends out a Network layer broadcast.D.If two devices within the domain attempt to transmit simultaneously the packets will collide and re-transmission will occur.D. it will be received by all devices within the same broadcast domain. Network Segment B B. (Note: A LAN switch is effectively a high-speed bridge and the details in this chapter apply to both devices) Routers like bridges reduce the number of collisions. thus reducing the amount of traffic on each segment. Broadcast Domain . Network Segment B B.D.D. 1-11 . Bridges (and Switches) reduce the number of collision on the network by breaking the network into smaller segments. Network Segment B B. ARP request.Repeaters v Bridges/Switches v Routers Network Segment A Network Segment A Network Segment A REPEATER BRIDGE or SWITCH ROUTER C. C.

and discussed their differences. We looked at the OSI 7 Layer model and spoke about its importance in internetworking. namely repeaters.Summary In Chapter One we discussed the difference between LANs and WANs and the reasons behind why an enterprise might want to internetwork. 1/038 13 LZUBB 108116/12 Ericsson Systems Expertise 1-12 . bridges and routers. We looked at 3 different internetworking devices. and the consequences of using one rather than the other. We discussed the different Standards Organisations. and the difference between proprietary and de-facto standards.


Chapter 2 LAN Technologies .

Chapter 2 LAN Technologies l Chapter Objectives .After completing this chapter you will understand the essentials of: l l l l l l Ethernet and its access media Carrier Sense Multiple Access /Collision Detection access method Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet FDDI Wireless LANs Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 2-1 .

A network that uses a bus topology usually consists of a single cable to which network devices are attached. ATM. •Star - a central hub with nodes stretching outwards. for example. if the concentrator fails to operate then none of the devices on the network can communicate. for example. for example.Network Topologies •Bus - one continuous piece of cable. and so on until a cable connects the final device to the first. In a network that uses a ring topology the computers are arranged in a closed loop. In a star topology all network devices are attached to a central point usually called a concentrator. Token Ring. as all information must pass through the concentrator. and all devices can receive the signal. Any device attached to a bus can send a signal down the cable. 2-2 . Ethernet. The star topology has one single point of failure. A cable connects the first device to a second device. Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 The topology of a network concerns the physical configuration of the devices and the cables that connect them. another cable connects the second device to a third device. Ethernet is a typical network technology that employs the bus topology.two ends of cable meet to form a complete circle. All information being passed around the network will pass through each network device. •Ring .

What is Ethernet? The Oxford Dictionary defines it as: “A system of communication for local area networks by coaxial cable that prevents simultaneous transmission by more than one station.Bus Topology Sending device (transmits bits of a frame) Signal propagates along the entire cable Bus Destination device (receives a copy of each bit) Example: Ethernet Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LUZBB 108116/3 A network that uses a bus topology usually consists of a single cable to which network devices are attached. Each device will check the message to determine if it is the required destination. 2-3 . and all devices can receive the signal. The Ethernet technology is a broadcast network which means that if a device wants to send a message over the network to another device. then all the devices connected to that network will also receive the message. then the message will be passed further into the device for processing. Any device attached to a bus can send a signal down the cable.” Ethernet is a typical network technology that employs the bus topology. If it is.

these include 10Base5. The maximum cable length is 185m and devices must have a space of 0. and is sometimes called cheapnet.Ethernet Access Media Name 10Base5 10Base2 10baseT 10BaseF Cable Thick Coaxial Thin Coaxial Twisted Pair Fibre Optic Max Segment length 500 m 185 m 100 m 2 km Nodes per segment 100 30 1024 1024 Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 There are several different Ethernet access media available.5m between them. On the other hand. or thin-wire Ethernet. This value refers to the impedance of the cable. This type of cable is easier to install than the thicker cable. 2-4 . Most baseband coaxial cable use a special 50-ohm cable. 10Base2 is smaller and more flexible than 10base5. This is also referred to as thick Ethernet. The original medium for Ethernet is 10Base5. the thinner cable suffers from greater noise resistance and attenuation. Roughly speaking. 10Base2 10BaseT and 10BaseF. 10Base5 denotes the following: 10Mbps operation. impedance is the measure of the voltage which must be applied to the cable to achieve a given signal strength. This is coaxial cable that is 1/2 inch in diameter with a centre wire. baseband signalling and a maximum segment span of 500 (5*100) meters.

and these can be utilised when deploying LANs. It is cheaper and easier to isolate problems. For example if the cable from the station to the hub fails it does not affect the other stations. The IEEE standard describing twisted pair is 10BaseT. This alternative is expensive due to the cost of the connectors and terminators but it has excellent noise immunity and is ideal when running between buildings or widely separated network devices 2-5 . as is the case with coaxial cable. The main reason why twisted pair is becoming so popular is because virtually all office buildings are equipped with spare twisted pairs. 10baseF uses fibre optic cable. One driving force behind this is that twisted pair is less expensive than coaxial cable.A LAN may be constructed entirely of twisted pair. There has been an increasing interest in the use of twisted pair as a transmission medium for LANs in recent years.

they will both listen. This means that any device can gain access to the network at any time. If two devices want to transmit simultaneously.CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection Listen Wait Send & Listen Access All Terminals Detect Calculate Send Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). If it hears nothing. hear no sound and transmit. a collision will then occur. it first listens to the network. The device must then wait for a random amount of time for the cable to become idle again before retransmitting the frame. If a device wants to transmit data. To avoid multiple collisions Ethernet requires each device to delay after a collision before attempting to retransmit. 2-6 . then it will transmit. However if the devices begin to transmit at the same time again another collision will occur. The main drawback to CSMA/CD is that it is impossible to calculate how long a device will have to wait before it can transmit.

The receiving device recalculates the number and. they can determine if an error has occurred. are next. This field contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. which is used for error checking. multicast or broadcast. in this way. If the data is insufficient to fill up the frame (minimum size 64 bytes) then it will be filled out with padding bits. This frame is used to synchronise the frame reception parts of all stations on the LAN. The destination and source addresses. The final field is frame check sequence. The preamble tells the receiving station that the frame is coming. both 6 bytes long. 2-7 . The type field specifies which layer protocol should receive the data when Ethernet processing is complete. The source address is always unicast but the destination address can be either unicast. The data field is next. The next field is the start of frame.Ethernet Frame Format Number of bytes: 7 1 s f 6 6 2 Type 46-1500 Data 4 fcs Preamble o Destination Source Address Address SOF = Start of frame FCS = Frame check sequence Minimum frame size = 64 bytes Maximum frame size = 1518 bytes Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 The preamble is a field with an alternating pattern of ones and zeros. The sending device calculates a number and sends it to the receiving device.

Fast Ethernet l Faster version of Ethernet .FDDI). Fast Ethernet is backwards compatible so there is no need to change existing hardware and thus the cost of increased bandwidth is reduced to a reasonable price. Since the bit-time is reduced from 100nsec to10nsec it takes less time to transmit or receive data thus resulting in faster speeds. Fast Ethernet runs at 100Mbps as opposed to 10Mbps of Ethernet. Now we will look at solutions used to speed up the transmission rates. for example. The perfect solution is to upgrade to Fast Ethernet.100mbps l Identical frame format to Ethernet l Backwards compatible l Bit time is reduced from 100nsec to 10nsec Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 To date we have been discussing conventional Ethernet. Fast Ethernet is good if you want to upgrade the general performance of your network. its access media and one method used to overcome the problem of only a single station having access to the LAN at a time. but if you have a specific high bandwidth requirement such as video conferencing perhaps gigabit Ethernet would be a better choice. Many organisations want faster networks but do not want to change all their hardware (which would be the case if they were to use alternative technologies. 2-8 .

FX uses two optical fibres. It is a lower cost alternative. 100Base . To achieve 100mbps over lower-quality cable.T4 uses four twisted pair lines between nodes.4 or 5) UTP cabling. 100Base . They all use two physical links between nodes. 100Base .T4 is a four-pair system for both voice and data grade (category 3. with data transmission making use of three pairs in one direction at a time. one for transmission and one for reception.Fast Ethernet Transmission Media Name 100 Base-TX 100 Base-T4 100 Base-FX Cable Type 2 pair (category 5 UTP or STP) 4 pair UTP cable Fibre Optic Cable Max Segment Length 100 m 100 m 2000 m Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 There are a number of different transmission media which can be used for Fast Ethernet. 100Base . 2-9 . one for transmission and one for reception.TX is a two-pair system for data grade (category 5) UTP or STP cabling.

Gigabit Ethernet is a familiar technology so investments in hardware and personnel are protected. The demand for gigabit speeds in the backbone is driven by the rapid deployment of Fast Ethernet to the desktop. Like Fast Ethernet. support real-time voice and video traffic.10 fold increase in speed on Fast Ethernet l Compatible with existing Ethernet Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 Gigabit Ethernet is the next step in Ethernet. It was originally designed to transport data traffic over packet-based networks and Gigabit Ethernet is the next logical step. It is also more sophisticated than Fast Ethernet and therefore will require more training and support. Gigabit Ethernet is attractive for 2 main reasons: • It preserves Ethernet simplicity. 2-10 . It is a misconception that gigabit per second traffic is required to justify gigabit Ethernet. This is commonplace in enterprises. it is also backward compatible. In fact gigabit Ethernet makes sense anywhere users simply require more than 100mbps throughput. however.Gigabit Ethernet l Latest extension to Ethernet l 1000mbps . • It supports a very high bandwidth. It runs at a speed of 1000mbps which is a 10-fold increase on Fast Ethernet. and it cannot deliver specific bit rates or deliver Quality of Service (QOS). Gigabit Ethernet does not.

The main problem with it is that it uses different wiring and different hubs from Ethernet. It is used as a backbone to connect copper LANs and it is also used for high-speed office networks. 2-11 . It is used because of its reliability and its capacity.FDDI Ethernet Token Ring 100mbps FDDI Ring Workstation Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 Fibre Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). is a high performance fibre optic LAN running at 100Mbps.

The major difference is that a device can put a new token onto the ring as soon as it has finished transmitting. All devices on the network are connected to the primary ring. Data travels on the primary ring in a counter-clockwise direction. that is. 2-12 . the device must have the token in order to transmit.FDDI SECONDARY PRIMARY Thru State 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 Wrap State Ericsson Systems Expertise The protocol for FDDI is modelled on the token ring. When a break on the primary ring occurs. The primary ring carries the token. data and control information. When both rings are fully functional a “thru” state exists. Similarly if a device on the ring fails. This means that in a large ring several tokens can coexist. The secondary ring is generally used for automatic recovery in the event of a ring failure. also forming a wrap state. the devices on either side of it join the primary and secondary rings together. Data travelling on the secondary ring rotates clockwise. the devices on either side of the break join the primary and secondary rings in a configuration called “wrap” state.

if failure occurs. it is possible to use one of the links as a backup link. the removal of a station from the network. It can attach to both the primary and secondary rings and can participate in ring wrapping if failure occurs. This is called dual homing. router Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/12 Network devices which connect to an FDDI network are divided into two categories: concentrators and end stations There are two types of end stations available in FDDI: Single Attachment Stations (SAS) and Dual Attachment Stations (DAS).g.Single Attachment/Dual Attachment Stations SAS concentrator concentrator DAS concentrator Back-up link concentrator Primary link SAS Dual homed station e. Since there are two connections in Dual Attachments. 2-13 . that is. The Single Attachment Station contains one FDDI attachment. The Dual Attachment Station contains two FDDI attachments. and is often used for mission-critical situations. A DAS can be connected directly to the FDDI network or a concentrator. and therefore does not participate in wrapping. It is connected to one ring. normally the primary ring.

FDDI Number of bytes 8 preamble 1 1 2/6 2/6 SA <4500 DATA 4 FCS ED 2 FS SD FC DA SD = Start-frame delimiter FC = Frame control DA = Destination address SA = Source address 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/13 FCS = Frame-check sequence ED = Ending delimiter FS = Frame status Ericsson Systems Expertise The preamble synchronises the frame with each station’s clock. The frame check sequence is the field that checks whether the data has been received correctly. as the name suggests. The information field contains information related to the control operation. FDDI is more flexible and it contains no priority or reservation bits. indicates the start of the frame. The frame status take care of acknowledgement so that the sending device knows if the frame as been read or not and if not. The end delimiter marks the end of the frame. etc The destination address specifies which station the frame is destined for. The start delimiter. why. A comparison between this frame and the Token Ring frame shows that they are very similar. 2-14 . The frame control bit tells what kind of frame this is: data or control. The source address gives the address of the sending device. However.

A typical wireless LAN consists of a transmitter/receiver (transceiver). or as an alternative for. The adapters are implemented as PC cards in laptops and palmtop computers. and one or more end-users. With radio transmission multiple carriers can coexist in the same space without interfering with each other provided the information is transmitted on different frequencies. For example. using radio frequency (RF) technology. colleges.This process is known as modulation of the carrier by the data being transmitted. either radio or infrared.Wireless LANs (wLAN) l What are they and how do they work ? l Features l Configurations l Technologies Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/14 A wireless LAN is a flexible data communications system implemented as an extension to. 2-15 . hospitals. A single access point can support multiple users from a distance of 30m-100m . as network cards in desktop computer. also called an access point (AP). to communicate between two points. buffers and transmits data between the wireless LAN and the wired network. Wireless LANs use electromagnetic waves. Wireless LANs are also a cost-effective solution for extending networks in older buildings. End-users access the wireless network via wireless LAN adapters. At its simplest an access point receives. and to assist decision making in remote locations. a wired LAN. or are integrated into hand-held computers. wLANs are particularly useful in the following contexts: in logistics. Wireless LANs are becoming widely recognised as a general purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers. Data being transmitted is superimposed on the carrier signal and can be accurately extracted at the receiving end.

3. at remote locations prior to the installation of entire networks. Typical wireless LANs have a coverage of 30m to 100m and the range can be extended through microcells and mobility achieved via roaming. The wireless network can go where wire cannot. It is worth noting here that state-of-the-art V. shared server services. This is almost thirty times slower than the wireless LAN. Wireless LANs can be configured in a wide variety of application-specific configurations. This is sufficient to provide throughput for e-mail.Features of Wireless LANs l Mobility and Coverage l Throughput l Simplicity and Reliability l Interference and Compatibility l Security l Reduced Cost of Ownership Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/15 The Features of a wireless LAN are: 1. 2-16 .90 modems operate at 56. Throughput: Bit rates for the most widespread commercial wireless LANs are approximately 1. Internet access. Simplicity and Reliability: Installation is quick and easy and there is no need to pull cables through walls and ceilings.6 Mbps. multi-user databases and multi-user application access. Mobility and Coverage: Wireless LANs give users real-time access to information anywhere in the organization. enhance their reliability. Troubleshooting and pre-configuration.6 Kbps of throughput. 2.

Reduced Cost-of Ownership: While initial costs may be higher than for a wired LAN. Due to the simplicity of alterations to the network. can transmit at the same frequency and cause interference to the system.e. 6. Generally a user must be a recognised member of the network to use it. i. 2-17 . Wireless LANs eliminate the direct costs of cabling and labour. LANs from different manufacturers. overall installation costs and life-cycle expenses can be significantly lower for two reasons. Another concern is co-location of proprietary wireless LANs. Sophisticated encryption techniques are used to achieve very high levels of security. it is extremely difficult for “eavesdroppers” to listen in on wireless LAN traffic. Security: Since wireless technology is rooted in military applications. 5. Some interfere with others while some coexist without interference. the indirect costs of user downtime and administration are significantly reduced. Interference and Compatibility: Due to the lack of licensing in wireless LANs other unrelated products. such as microwave ovens.4.

In many real-world applications a single access point can service 15-50 client devices. Multiple Access Points and Roaming: This is a variation of the client access point topology.Configurations for Wireless LANs Client and Access Point AP Peer -to -Peer Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/16 Wireless LANs have two main configurations Peer-to-Peer: Two PCs with wireless adapter cards can set up an independent network when they are within range of each other. Extension Points and Directional Antennae: As the names suggest an extension point extends a network to areas where normal coverage is extremely difficult. Client and Access Point: Access point installation can effectively double the range at which devices can communicate. These are also variations on the client-access point topology. This is the most basic configuration for a wireless LAN.Access point range is typically 100 m indoors and 300 m outdoors. 2-18 . An access point is connected to a wired network and can accommodate many clients. The coverage of the access point is extended by installing more than one access point. The ability to move about the network without interruption is known as roaming. thus ensuring blanket coverage of the required area. Directional antennae are used to extent the network between two buildings which are geographically separated.

provided the receiver knows the parameters of the spread spectrum signal transmission.Wireless LAN Technologies l Narrowband l Spread Spectrum . 2-19 . i. The main drawback for the customer is licensing. more bandwidth is used than for narrowband transmission but the signal produced is louder and easier to detect. If a receiver is not tuned to the right frequency then the signal is received as background noise. To all other receivers the FHSS appears as short noise pulses. integrity and security. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS): This technology uses a narrowband carrier which changes frequency in a pattern known to both the transmitter and receiver. called a chip. each site employing narrowband radio must have a license. Crosstalk is avoided by carefully coordinating different users on different channels.e.Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) . There are two types of spread spectrum radio signals: FREQUENCY HOPPING and DIRECT SEQUENCE. The longer the chip the better the chance of recovering the original data. the net effect of which is to maintain a single logical channel.Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) l Infra-Red Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/17 Narrowband: Such a radio system transmits and receives information on a specific frequency. The radio frequency is maintained as narrow as possible so as to pass the information only. algorithms in the receiver can recover the original data without re-transmission. for each bit to be transmitted. Even if one or more bits is damaged during transmission. Spread Spectrum: Spread spectrum is designed to trade bandwidth efficiency for reliability. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS): DSSS generates a redundant bit pattern.

To all other receivers DSSS appears as low-power wideband noise and is ignored by narrowband receivers. This is not practical for mobile users. Infra-Red (IR): Infra-red uses very high frequencies to carry data. Directed systems are very limited in range (typically 1 m) and are used for personal area networks and sometimes for specific wireless LAN applications. Diffuse (or reflective) IR systems do not need line-of-sight but cells are limited to individual rooms. 2-20 . The main disadvantage of this technology is that the bigger the chip used the more bandwidth is needed. IR cannot penetrate opaque objects and is thus directed (line-of-sight) or diffuse.

We examined their characteristics and compared their speed and their frame format.Summary In Chapter 2 we discussed the media used to implement Ethernet and Fast Ethernet and looked at some of their limitations. Gigabit Ethernet and FDDI. We discussed CSMA/CD media access method. We discussed high speed LAN technologies of Fast Ethernet. We also introduced the topic of Wireless LANs and looked at their implementation. We looked at the frame formats for Ethernet and FDDI. Ericsson Systems Expertise 2/038 13 LZUBB 108116/18 2-21 .

Chapter 3 Bridging .

Topics include: – The different types of bridges – Transparent bridging operation – Bridging loops – The Spanning Tree protocol – The advantages & disadvantages of bridges – LAN switches Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 3-1 . Bridging l Chapter Objectives .Chapter 3.At the end of this chapter students will know when and how to use bridges and switches in an internetwork.

Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 Transparent bridging Transparent bridging was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). – Frames are forwarded one hop at a time towards the destination l Source-Route Bridges – Developed by IBM for use in Token Ring Networks – The entire route to a destination is predetermined prior to sending of data. Source-route bridging (SRB) Source-route bridging (SRB) was developed by IBM for use in Token Ring networks. the source sends an explorer frame to determine where the destination is located. It is referred to as transparent bridging because the presence of the bridges is transparent to other network devices. The bridges do not alter the data frame. The address of the bridge is never the source or destination for a frame.Types of Bridges l Transparent Bridges – Developed by DEC for use in Ethernet Networks. To discover a route to the destination. 3-2 . With SRB the source places the complete source-to-destination route in the frame header of all inter-LAN frames. It is most often found in Ethernet networks in which bridges pass frames along one hop at a time based on tables associating end nodes with bridge interfaces.

A bridge learns addresses and forwards traffic as follows: (Note: Assume that the source and destination addresses are located on different bridged networks. which was the original target address. except the one where it was received. 3-3 . The bridge updates this table every time a device sends a frame. It learns which devices can be reached on each of its interfaces by monitoring the source MAC address of all incoming frames. This is called flooding. and neither address is known to the bridge) The bridge notes the source address and updates its tables. Forwarding & Filtering 5 1 A BRIDGE B C 4 6 2 3 Source Address table Address Interface 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 B 5 B 6 B 7 C 8 C 9 C 8 7 9 Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 Learning When a transparent bridge is first turned on. it forwards the frame out every interface. If the bridge does not know where the destination address is. It maintains a database of these learned MAC addresses and their associated interfaces in a table. If a reply comes back the bridge examines the source address. it forwards frames on the associated interface. It forwards the frame out to all interfaces. and adds the entry to its table. Forwarding If a bridge knows where a destination address is. The bridge forwards all subsequent communication between the devices.Transparent Bridging Operation Learning. and deletes entries of devices not heard from within a specified time period. it knows nothing about the network topology.

The bridge receives this packet on interface B.Destination 4 Source 4 . or filters. A bridge learns addresses and filters traffic as follows: (Note :Assume that the source and destination devices are located on the same segment and only the destination address is unknown.) The sources sends a frame to the destination.Transparent Bridge Operation Example 5 1 A BRIDGE B C 4 6 2 3 Source 1 . The bridge sees the frame and floods the frame out all interfaces (except the incoming one). as it already knows where device 1 is.Destination 1 8 7 9 Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 Filtering A bridge will not forward a frame if the source and destination addresses are in the bridging table and are located on the same segment. The bridge discards. The bridge forwards the packet out interface A only. The packet is received by device 4 and it replies with a packet which has a destination 1 and source 4. Example of Transparent Bridge Operation : Device 1 on LAN A addresses a packet to device 4 on LAN B. In this way the bridge has built up and stored two entries in its source address table. The bridge receives this packet on Interface A and floods it out every other interface. 3-4 . so it now knows that address 4 is out interface B. When the reply comes back. all subsequent frames between the devices. the bridge reads the source address and updates its tables. The bridge now knows that address 1 is out interface A.

also introduces some additional problems because it causes loops in the topology. using up the bandwidth and blocking the transmission of other packets on both segments. Once again bridge 1 sees the packet on LAN 1 and forwards it onto LAN 2 etc… This cycle will go on forever. however. For example if a packet with an unknown destination arrives at bridge 1 from LAN 1. it forwards it onto LAN 1. Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 If a packet arrives at a bridge and the destination is unknown it floods this packet out every other interface. Bridge 2 will now see this packet on LAN 2 and. To increase reliability it is common to use two (or more) bridges in parallel between pairs of LANs. 3-5 . since the destination is still unknown. it forwards it onto LAN 2. This arrangement.Bridging loops Packet with unknown destination Bridge 1 Bridge 2 If the destination is unknown each bridge forwards copy of frame out every interface.

Preventing loops Packet with unknown destination FORWARDING FORWARDING FORWARDING BLOCKING Spanning tree protocol creates a loop-free topology by blocking duplicate paths between network segments and automatically activating backup paths if a link or bridge fails Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 The spanning-tree protocol solves the problems associated with bridge loops. but ensures a loop-free topology through a bridgeto-bridge protocol. 3-6 . It creates this loop-free topology by blocking duplicate paths between network segments and automatically activating backup paths if a link segment or bridge fails. It allows redundant paths.

Every other bridge selects the lowest-cost path to the root bridge. The algorithm runs continuously to detect topology changes and update the tree 3-7 . Note that interface costs can be altered by a network administrator to select a preferred route.Spanning Tree Protocol Root Bridge A B C 1 D 2 3 E 4 F 5 Symbols: LAN Bridge BLOCKING H G 6 J 7 I 8 9 Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 Spanning Tree operates as follows: The protocol elects the bridge with the lowest priority to be the root bridge. This ensures a unique path is established from every LAN to the root. If it is not. All interfaces on these paths forward traffic. This priority can be configured by a network administrator. All interfaces not on these paths block traffic. then by default the bridge with the lowest MAC-address becomes the root.

Advantages l Simple to install l Transparent to Users l Can connect networks running different protocols l Form logically single networks . A bridge makes the movement of network devices. bridge-based internetworks can be modified and reconfigured very easily. Additionally. the network manager does not need to decide in advance of installation which high level protocols will be used. e. these must be bridged between segments.Bridging . To use advanced bridging features such as custom filters. Because bridges operate below the network layer in the OSI model. • Bridges are cheaper than routers because of the underlying simplicity of the architecture. • The presence of a bridge is transparent to users from the instant it is first installed. a minimal amount of configuration is required. PCs. and bridges adapt automatically to network changes. There is no need to configure new network addresses for these devices. • Bridges can connect networks running different protocols without requiring additional software. • Some low-level protocols such as DEC LAT and NetBIOS cannot be routed because they contain no network layer information. • Bridges form logically single networks .easy movement of hosts l Can handle unroutable protocols l Relatively cheap Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 • Bridges are simple to install. 3-8 . In this case an easy-to-use interface will help to facilitate such configuration. within the network easy.g.all interconnected network segments have the same network address.

because the Spanning Tree algorithm ensures that one of these paths will block all traffic. 3-9 . • Bridges cannot prevent a “broadcast storm”. it is very difficult for a network administrator to track what is running on the network and where. • Bridges do not provide significant support for fault isolation or other distributed management capabilities. For example. Also. If there is a malfunction or an incorrectly configured parameter on any network device. if a company purchased two separate 2Mb links to a remote site.Disadvantages l Cannot simultaneously use redundant paths l Cannot prevent a “broadcast storm” l Do not help in fault isolation Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 • Bridges cannot load-share traffic over two paths to a single destination.Bridging . only one of these could send traffic at any one time. This is very expensive in the case of wide area links. the level of traffic generated can be severe enough to “crash” the entire network. Bridges form a single logical network often making fault isolation in very large bridged networks almost impossible. Networks become harder to manage and maintain as their size and complexity increases. This may occur with certain broadcast protocols which cause frames to be flooded out every port.

Frames arriving at the switch from the hub are treated like any other incoming frames: they are switched to the correct output line over the high-speed backplane. so collisions do not occur. for example. This card checks to see if it is destined for one of the other devices connected to the same card. An ethernet hub is a shared network segment. for example. the frame is sent over the high speed backplane to the destination device’s card. Each port is a separate collision domain. Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 A LAN switch is a network device containing a high-speed backplane (> 1 Gbps) and room for a number of plug-in cards. If so the frame is copied there. It is possible to connect a hub to a port on the switch as both use standard Ethernet frames. Each card typically contains 8 or 16 connectors. If not. has dedicated bandwidth. Usually each connector has a 10Base-T twisted pair to a single network device. a file server. a file server. 3-10 . so incoming frames are stored in the card’s on-board RAM as they arrive. When a device sends a frame it first arrives at a plug-in card on the switch. The network devices connected to the hub contend for bandwidth using CSMA/CD as described in Chapter 2.LAN Switches Switch HUB High Speed Backplane Each network device. Each input port of the plug-in card is buffered. if only a single device is connected to the port.

Ericsson Systems Expertise 3/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 3-11 . We discussed the advantages and disadvantages with bridges. We identified how bridging loops occur and how to prevent them. We discussed the steps a bridge must follow to get hardware addresses.Summary In this chapter we differentiated between the two types of bridges.

Chapter 4 Routing .

Routing l Chapter Objectives .At the end of this chapter you will be able to make the correct choice between router and bridges and understand: – The difference between Routable protocols and routing protocols – The two-step routing process – Determination of optimal Path – The transport of packets through an internetwork – Dynamic versus static routing – Routing Protocols (RIP & OSPF) – The advantages and disadvantages of routers Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 4-1 .Chapter 4.

and Xerox Network Systems (XNS). BGP. All of the following are examples of routable protocols: IP. Appletalk. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Routing protocols Routing protocols are protocols that implement routing algorithms. OSI. IGRP. OSI. 4-2 . E-IGRP. IP. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). Appletalk. and XNS. – For example. All of the following are examples of routing protocols: Routing Information Protocol (RIP). OSPF. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Netware. Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 Routable protocols Routable protocols are protocols that are routed over an internetwork.Routable Protocols and Routing Protocols l Routable protocols are capable of being routed over an internetwork. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). EGP. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (E-IGRP). Banyan VINES. In other words they route routable protocols through an internetwork. l Routing protocols route packets through an internetwork. Netware. – For example. RIP. DECnet. Banyan VINES. DECnet.

Two-Step Routing Process 1. The address at the network layer consists of two main parts: • Network identifier: Each router along the path uses this. sometimes referred to as switching. Determination of Optimal Routing path. • Host (or device) identifier: The final router in a path uses this. 4-3 . The latter. To implement these activities the router uses the information available in the network layer protocol header. APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATALINK PHYSICAL Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 • Destination Network • Destination Host • Source Network • Source Host Routing involves two basic activities: determination of optimal routing paths and transport of packets through an internetwork. is relatively straightforward. Path determination on the other hand can be very complex. Transport of packets through an internetwork. 2. to make routing decisions. to send data over the final leg of its journey.

that is used by routing algorithms to determine the optimal path to a destination. •a metric . in routers. When a router receives an incoming packet.the network addresses of a remote network. In the routing table a network identifier may have several interface numbers with different metrics corresponding to each number. looks it up in the routing table and selects the interface (next hop on the optimal route).a standard of measurement.the interface that should be used to route traffic towards that particular remote network. path length. for example. • an interface number . Determination of optimal routing Path A 1 3 Network A C B Routing Table Interface Metric 1 10 2 100 3 100 C 2 B Routing algorithms calculate route metrics to determine optimal routes to a destination Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 To aid the process of path determination. By analysing routing updates from other routers a router can build up a picture of the network topology. These tables typically contain three items: • a network identifier . Routers communicate with one another (and maintain their routing tables) through the transmission of routing update messages. 4-4 .1. routing algorithms initialise and maintain routing tables. it checks the destination address. Once the network topology is understood. routers can determine optimal routes to network destinations. The routing algorithm compares the metrics to determine the optimal route.

Similarly. A C 1 2 Static Dynamic 3 4 D B Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 • Static routing tables are configured by a network administrator and do not change unless the administrator changes them. via router 2. Static routes work well in environments where network traffic is relatively predictable and network design is relatively simple. They prohibit a router from offering alternative routes if a network link goes down. These messages permeate the network. They do this by analysing incoming routing update messages. in real time. • Dynamic routing algorithms adjust. If the message indicates that a network change has occurred. Static Routes .Adjust in real time to network changes by analysing routing update message. 2 and 3 update each other dynamically. In the diagram above routers 1. causing routers to rerun their algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly. via router 4. 4-5 . the routing software recalculates routes and sends out new routing update messages. Router 4 has a static route configured to send traffic destined for all networks except D. to changing network circumstances.Dynamic Vs Static routing Dynamic routes . Router 2 has a static route configured to send all traffic destined for network D.Manually configured and changed by network administrator.

of which Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one. The simple metrics used in DVAs limit the size of an internetwork. As the maps are transferred through the network. DVA routers periodically broadcast their entire routing table. building an accurate map using DVAs can take a long time. even if the routing tables have not changed. RIP permits a maximum hop count of 15. These broadcasts consume a large amount of bandwidth. are used by routers to build their own “map” of the network and send this map to all neighbouring routers. – Advantages lSimple configuration – Disadvantages lSlow convergence lQuantity of update traffic lLimited size of internetwork Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 Distance Vector Algorithms. 4-6 . and during this period some routers will have old and incorrect maps. for example. This typically occurs every thirty seconds. each router progressively incorporates this second-hand information into its own map of the network. In large networks.Routing Information Protocol (RIP) l Each Router sends all of its routing table – to its neighbours only – at pre-defined intervals.

as each router keeps a map of the entire network. link-state routers use a large portion of network bandwidth by sending out LSAs at each network change. After receiving a new LSA. Unlike RIP. 4-7 . which is based entirely on “hop count”. OSPF uses a combination of metrics (or measurements) to select the best route. Each router updates the rest of the network with information on the direct connections it has to its neighbours.Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) l Each router sends only the portion of its routing table that describes its own links – to all routers on the internetwork – when network changes occur l Advantages – Fast Convergence – Conserve Network Bandwidth – Route Selection based on a combination of Metrics l Disadvantages – Heavy Memory use – Expensive on bandwidth if frequent network changes – CPU Utilisation Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is an example of a link state algorithm. Link-state protocols. broadcast link state advertisements (LSA) only when a network change has occurred. that adjusts to network changes quicker than RIP and is more robust. This process places heavy demands on the router’s CPU. OSPF is reliable because information is transferred unaltered between routers. the router must run the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm and generate a new routing table. typically every hour. Link-state protocols use large amounts of router memory to store topological databases. When a network experiences frequent changes. of which OSPF is one. They also send an update following a large interval. used by routers.

for example. network congestion on all intermediate network links. 4-8 . Reliability is usually assigned to network links by network administrators. The values assigned are based on how frequently the network link goes down and how long it typically takes to be repaired. Bandwidth refers to the available traffic capacity of a link. the port queues at each router along the way.Routing Metrics lPath Length / Hop count lReliability lDelay lBandwidth lLoad lCommunications cost Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 Metrics are used by routing algorithms to select the best route. Delay refers to the length of time to move a packet from source to destination through an internetwork. Load refers to the degree to which a network resource (such as a router) is busy. and the physical distance to be travelled. A network administrator may configure routers so that traffic uses a slower link if it is cheaper to do so. It is dependent on many factors including the bandwidth of intermediate network links. its CPU utilisation and packets processed per second. Hop count specifies the number of passes through internetworking products (such as routers) that a packet must take en route from a source to a destination. Sophisticated routing algorithms can use a combination of the following metrics: Path Length is the sum of the interface costs associated with each network link traversed. Communications cost is the actual financial cost associated with a particular route.

The source host sends a packet addressed specifically to a router’s physical (MAC) address. The router examines the packet’s destination protocol address to determine whether it knows how to forward the packet to the next hop. its protocol address remains the same. 4-9 . If the router doesn’t know how to forward the packet it drops it. Although the packet’s physical address may change many times. but with the protocol (network-layer) address of the destination host. it changes the destination physical address to that of the next hop and forwards the packet. If the router knows how to forward the packet.2. Transport of packets through an internetwork Destination Host (Protocol Address) Router 1 (Physical address) Destination Host (Protocol Address) Router 2 (Physical address) Destination Host (Protocol Address) Destination Host (Physical address) 1 A 1 2 3 2 C 3 B Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 Once a host determines it has to send a packet to a host on another network the following process occurs. The packet is forwarded in this way until it reaches its final destination.

Routers can be configured for equal-cost load splitting. This means that they can take advantage of all communication paths simultaneously and purchased bandwidth is not placed in “stand-by” mode. They can differentiate between different paths on the basis of factors such as cost. Because each segment has a different address.Routers . line speed. If network congestion occurs. it is easier for the administrator to track what is running on the network and where. and line delay.Advantages l Flexible . Network devices recognise when they are communicating through a router. Routers provide a protective firewall between network segments. Routers provide the network administrator with more control over resources on the network.differentiate between paths using Metrics l Can load share over redundant paths l Network devices are aware of routers and they understand congestion messages l Easier to administer and control because each segment has a different address l Provide a protective firewall Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 Routers are generally more flexible than bridges. routers use a mechanism called “source quench” which indicates to network devices that they must slow down. 4-10 . This protects against broadcast storms and prevents incidents that occur on one segment from affecting another.

Routers make movement of network devices between network segments more difficult. These protocols must be bridged. moving a device from one segment to another requires that the network administrator assign a new network address to the relocated network device. for example.Routers . Some low level protocols. Since each segment has a different network address. Each individual protocol must be separately installed. 4-11 . DEC LAT and NetBIOS cannot be routed because they do not contain a network layer address.Disadvantages l Protocol dependent -require software for each protocol they run l Network devices must be reconfigured if moved between network segments l Some protocols cannot be routed Ericsson Systems Expertise 4/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 Because routers are protocol-dependent devices. they require software for each protocol that they run.

Example Network Diagram
LAN switch 12 Port 100Mb UTP ports

100BaseT 100BaseT 100BaseT
Ethernet HUB 24 port

servers High end PCs


LAN switch



100BaseF LAN switch

PCs and printers


100 MB FDDI backbone


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In chapter 4 we examined the difference between routable protocols and routing protocols. We identified the two steps in the routing process and reviewed two protocols namely RIP and OSPF. We discussed routing metrics and we examined the advantages and disadvantages of routing.

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Chapter 5 WAN Technologies

Chapter 5 .WAN Technologies l Chapter Objectives .25 – The characteristics & features of Frame Relay – The characteristics & features of ISDN – The characteristics & features of PPP Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 5-1 .At the end of this chapter students will be able to describe: – The characteristics & features of WANs – The characteristics & features of X.

A Wide Area Network CSU/DSU Remote Link CSU/DSU Dedicated or Switched Router Router LAN Stockholm LAN Dublin Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 A wide area network (WAN) uses dedicated or switched connections to link two geographically remote locations. A switched line does not need permanent connections between two points. 5-2 . A typical WAN and its equipment are shown above. The carrier type will determine the exact type of equipment the WAN will need to use. Instead. The routers are connected to an analogue line via modems and to digital lines via channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU). it lets users set up temporary connections over multiple points for the duration of the call only. A router sends data addressed to a remote site from a LAN in Dublin over a wide area connection to a LAN in Stockholm. The router is connected to either an analogue or a digital line. Dedicated vs Switched Lines WANs use either dedicated or switched lines. A dedicated line is a permanent connection between two points which is usually leased on a monthly basis.

Packet Switching vs Circuit Switching ISDN Dublin Router P4 P3 P2 P1 Paris Router Circuit Switching London Router P3 Dublin Router Packet Switching Router Glasgow Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 P3 P4 Paris Router P4 P2 P1 P4 X. one at a time. This means that if a connection fails and the transmission stops. This means that packet switching can handle “bursty ” traffic expertly and can route data round failed or congested lines. ISDN is an example of Circuit-Switching.25 Frame Relay WAN services are provided through two primary switching technologies: packet switched and circuit switched. Secondly. they are not very fault tolerant. Packet-Switching services do not need fixed virtual circuits as data is sent in packets. X. Firstly. 5-3 . A fixed amount of bandwidth is provided for the call and subscribers pay for this fixed amount of bandwidth while the call is in progress only. Circuit-Switching services provide a dedicated channel or circuit between the source and destination for the duration of the call only. Because there are no pre-defined circuits a packet switch can increase or decrease the bandwidth as needed. because there is fixed bandwidth these connections do not handle bursts of traffic well. Circuit-switching has some serious drawbacks.25 and Frame Relay are examples of Packet Switching. through the network and each packet has the ability to take a different route through the network.

guaranteed bandwidth of circuit-switching is required. 5-4 . If the expected traffic is delay sensitive. •The budget. then the fixed. as in the case of video applications. If the traffic on the network is not delay sensitive then packet-switching is a reliable and economical service to employ in the network.The next question which arises is which switch do I use? The answer depends on two things: •The type of traffic the network is expected to generate.

Connection-oriented services. There is no delay for call set up and tear-down. They generally do not make efficient use of the connection. Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 Packet-switched networks lend themselves to connectionless service. 2. 5-5 . like voice calls.Packet Switching 1. However. Connectionless No connection is set up between transmitting and receiving stations before data is sent. These services also take time to set up and tear down. these services are not always reliable. offer a secure and reliable delivery of information because a connection has been established in advance and is monitored for the duration of the call. Connection-Oriented A connection must be established between sending and receiving stations before data is sent. as they have no means of guaranteeing packet delivery or of determining when packets have been lost. Packets are simply transmitted on the medium as soon as the network interface receives them.

25 is a protocol for packet switched data networks l It is widespread throughout the world l It corresponds to the lower 3 layers in the OSI model OSI DTE Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 X.25 Packet layer X. X. this layer is called the X. The protocol used is link access procedurebalanced (LAP-B) It provides the frame structure. It has been around since 1976 and as such is the oldest packet switched protocol around.25 specifies a standard between a host system and a packet-switched network. error and flow. It is used in both the private and public networks. X.25 l X. equipment which connects a computer or terminal to a packet switched network.25 networks exist all over the world.25 Packet layer X. It specifies the physical interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE). 5-6 . Public X. the data communications equipment (DCE).25 is a protocol for a packet switched data network.25 model corresponds to the data-link layer of the OSI model.X. The Physical Layer: In X.25 Link layer X. a user device connected to a data network and.21 interface.control mechanisms.25 corresponds very well to the three lower layers in the OSI model.25. The Link Access Layer: This layer of the X.25 DCE User Defined Process X.25 Physical layer Ericsson Systems Expertise X.25 Physical layer X.25 Link layer X.

5-7 .The Packet Layer: X.25 sets up reliable virtual connections throughout the packet-switched network in the packet layer. rather than the connectionless delivery of packets that take place in other networks like IP-networks. These virtual connections enable X.25 to provide the point-to-point or connection-oriented delivery of packets.

25 provides for two types of virtual circuits: Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC): A Switched Virtual Circuit is a dynamically established virtual circuit using call set-up and call clearing procedures. one computer calls another to request a communication session. To begin communication. Remember that a packet can have several alternative paths over any given packet-switched network. The virtual circuits service of X. Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC): A Permanent Virtual Circuit is a fixed. A virtual circuit is a predetermined transmission path through a network over which packets travel. and increase throughput by reducing packet overhead. If the call is accepted. 5-8 . Thus. data is transmitted in packets over virtual circuits. network-assigned virtual circuit. establishing a path before transmitting a packet will both improve performance by shortening delivery time.25 Operation l Calling computer requests session l Called computer can accept or refuse l Full-duplex information passing l Either computer can terminate call l Two types of virtual circuits – Switched Virtual Circuits – Permanent Virtual Circuit Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 In X. Either side can terminate the connection at any time. Data transfer occurs as with Switched Virtual Circuits. the two systems can begin full-duplex information transfer. but no call set-up or clearing is required. The called computer may accept or reject the connection .X.25. This is because the packet header will not have to include routing information--it will only have a source address and a destination address.

a Logical Channel Identifier (LCI) and a Packet Type Identifier (PTI). 5-9 . The GFI is a 4-bit field that indicates the general format of the header.25 Frame Format Number of bytes 3 Packet header (GFI. The LCI is a 12-bit field that identifies the virtual circuit.LCI PTI) 1-2014 User data 1 Flag 1 1 2 Frame check sequence 1 Flag Frame Frame address control Command/ Response U/I/S Layer 2 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 Layer 3 Layer 2 Ericsson Systems Expertise An X. Once a call is established the packet switching network uses the LCI field of the data packet header to specify the particular virtual channel to the remote DTE. The layer 3 X.25 frame is made up of a Layer 3 and a Layer 2 fields. for example. call request. The PTI field indicates the type of packet. These are used to establish the virtual circuits that comprise X. Addressing fields in call set-up packets provide source and destination DTE addresses.25 communication.25 header in made up of a General Format Identifier (GFI).X.

• Supervisory Frames (S-Frames) perform supervisory functions such as acknowledgement of I-Frames. the embedded Layer 3 fields. 5-10 . The address indicates whether the frame is carrying a command or a response. The three frame formats are: • Information Frames (I-Frames) perform data transfer. flow control and to define the format of the remainder of the frame. and a frame check sequence. flow control and error recovery. a frame control. • Unnumbered Frames (U-Frames) perform link control functions such as link set-up and link disconnect The frame check sequence checks to see if the data has been sent in the correct order. The control field is used for acknowledgement. an address field. The flag indicates the start of a frame.The Layer 2 fields are made up of a flag.

Earlier WAN protocols such as X. for example. Greater performance and efficiency are possible without sacrificing data integrity. It does not include any protocol at this level for correcting bad data. by retransmitting it. for example. for example. Frame relay is designed with this approach in mind. 64kbps or 2mbps A 2 layer protocol Higher performance and greater efficiency than X. Frame relay is a 2-layer protocol. data link level protocols can forego time consuming error-correction algorithms. Frame Relay includes a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) algorithm for detecting corrupt bits so that the data can be discarded. In 1989 it emerged as a Wide Area Network protocol in its own right. Over links such as these.Frame Relay l l l l Method for accessing Wide Area Networks – available at a variety of speeds. Frame Relay exploits the recent advances in WAN transmission technology.25 as it does not use error-correction or flow-control Suitable for use on digital-transmission technology over high quality reliable transmission links l Additional capabilities referred to as Local Management Interface (LMI). It corresponds to the lower two layers of the OSI model. 5-11 . and leave them to be performed at higher protocol layers.25 were developed when analogue transmission systems and copper media were predominant. global addressing Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZBB 108116/8 Frame Relay was originally the packet switching portion of the ISDN standard. These links are much less reliable than the fibre media and digital transmission links available today.

Functions of a Frame Relay Switch

l Routes incoming frames to correct outgoing port. l Checks the Frame check Sequence field to determine status of the frame. If an error is detected the switch discards the frame.

l Checks to determine if the buffers are full. If they are the switch discards all further frames until the congestion is cleared.

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Extensive error-checking and flow-control mechanisms will ensure packet delivery. However they also slow transmission of packets and thus reduce the overall performance of the network. Frame relay was developed with the assumption that the transmission media is reliable and relatively error free. Another assumption was that end-user applications can detect and recover from packet errors. Thus, frame relay discards packets with errors in them and if the buffers are full it will discard all incoming packets until the congestion is cleared. In short, frame relay makes little effort to detect errors or congestion and no attempt at all to correct them. What then, does it do? A frame relay switch has three core functions: •Routes incoming frames to the correct outgoing port. •Checks the Frame Check Sequence field to determine whether the frame contains an error and if so, discards the frame. •Checks to determine if the buffers are full and if so, discards all incoming frames until the congestion is cleared.


Frame Relay Frame Format
1 Flag 2 Address variable Data 2 FCS 1 Flag



FCS = Frame check sequence DLCI = 10 bit Data Link Control Identifier Address field contains the circuit ID (called DLCI) and also notification bits.
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The frame consists of a header, information field and trailer. The header includes a start flag and an address field. The address includes a 10-bit Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI). It identifies the logical connection that is multiplexed into the physical channel. In the basic Frame Relay applications, DLCIs have local significance. In global addressing, the values inserted into the DCLI field are globally significant. The address field also contains bits for congestion notification, address extension and discard eligibility. Within the trailer there is a Frame Checking Sequence. This is used to check whether the frame has been sent correctly. The length of the information field is variable, which means that it is adjustable to a maximum value, defined for the service concerned. The upper limit of the variable frame length is 8189 bytes.


Committed Information Rate (CIR) and Discard Eligibility

Frame Relay Network

CIR 64k Frame Relay Switch Frame Relay Switch

= Packet

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Whey you buy a frame relay service you will be asked to specify a committed information rate (CIR). The CIR is the minimum bandwidth that your carrier will guarantee to make available to you twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. The CIR is in no way tied in with the speed of your physical connection. This means that you can have a 2Mbps connection and only 64kbps CIR. If your network exceeds your CIR you are not necessarily out of luck. Frame relay can theoretically handle data bursts in excess of the allocated bandwidth. So, if the frame relay network receives a transmission from your network in excess of your CIR, it will attempt to open additional circuits to complete the transmission. If the network is not congested you can sometimes manage to send data bursts twice as large as your CIR. As frame relay networks have no flow-control mechanism, they have no means of slowing or stopping data transmission in a congested network. There is however, a means of notifying stations if the network becomes congested. If a station does not have an application designed to respond to the notification and suspend transmission, it will keep sending data to an already jammed network. Thus when a frame relay network gets congested it begins discarding packets. It selects frames for discarding in one of two ways: 1. Arbitrary Selection 2. Discard Eligibility


All the manufacturing traffic on the other hand. This method is definitely effective but it does not discriminate between packets sent within the users CIR and those which arrived in a burst over and above the CIR. For example. An even greater disadvantage is the fact that it does not differentiate between ‘mission-critical’ data and idle chit-chat. 5-15 . With discard eligibility users can configure their routers to set flags in frame relay data for transmission. a user could configure their router to flag all administrative traffic DE (“discard eligible”). will continue to its destination. but not all manufacturing related transmissions. This is why most frame relay users prefer to use discard eligibility. With the DE flag you can prioritise information to ensure that it is only discarded as a last resort. administration frames will be discarded. should the network become congested. Thus.With arbitrary selection the network simply begins discarding packets when it gets congested. They will be retransmitted later when the congestion is cleared.

complex inter-networks. 5-16 . allowing them to be used to identify a specific interface to the Frame Relay network. Therefore Dublin refers to its virtual circuits to Sweden with the DLCI number 10. There will be a new number programmed for each “hop” along the network. The following are some of the extensions in LMI: • Global addressing: This gives connection identifiers global rather than local significance. static maps must be created to tell routers which DLCI to use to find a remote device. with normal Frame Relay addressing. The LMI extensions facilitate large. In the top diagram the DLCIs have only local significance. and London can use the same number to refer to Canada. The DLCI number refers only to Dublin and its immediate Frame Relay switch. This means that.Global Addressing Non-Extended Frame Relay Addressing Dublin DLCI = 10 (Sweden) DLCI = 20 (Dublin) Sweden London DLCI = 10 (Canada) Global Addressing DLCI = 11 (Sweden) 10 Dublin DLCI = 30 (London) DLCI = 10 (Dublin) Canada 11 Sweden 12 London DLCI = 13 (Canada) DLCI = 12 (London) 13 Canada Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/12 The Extended Frame Relay specification includes features that provide additional capabilities for complex internetworking environments and are referred to as the Local Management Interface (LMI).LMI Extensions .

• Multicasting: This allows the sender to send a single frame but to have it delivered by the network to multiple recipients. 5-17 .The global addressing extension permits node identifiers. individual devices can be distinguished. • Simple flow control: This provides a flow control mechanism for those devices that need some level of flow control and whose higher layers cannot use the congestion notification bits. As each router’s interface has a distinct value as its node identifier. that is . • Virtual circuit status messages: These provide communication and synchronisation between network and user devices. They report the existence of new private virtual channels (PVCs) and the deletion of already existing PVCs. thus preventing data being sent into black holes. over PVCs that no longer exist. This permits adaptive routing in complex environments. All other devices use the same DLCI value when talking to Sweden. that is. With this extension the values inserted in the DLCI field of a frame are globally significant. if the Dublin router wishes to send a frame to the Sweden router it must use a DLCI value of 11. In the lower diagram on the previous page. each switch in the network knows that each DLCI value is pointing to a particular destination.

Integrated Services Digital Network
l Carries multiple services - voice, video and data l Ideal for remote access to a central site from home or small office l Suitable for backing up leased lines l Provides clearer telephone service l Built on blocks of 64kbps

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ISDN can carry multiple services - voice, video and data on a single network over existing twisted-pair copper wire. Remote users working from home or on the road can use high-speed ISDN to access central site resources, for example, to send and receive e-mail. Similarly a small office may use ISDN to access a central site if the level of access does not justify the use of a leased line. An ISDN connection can also act as a low-cost back-up for a leased line. Under normal circumstances data traffic would use the leased line but, if the line were to fail, an ISDN call could be automatically set up. ISDN lines, with the built in security of digital transmission, provide a less noisy telephone service than analogue lines. ISDN’s basic beares service is called 64kbps unrestricted. This means that the ISDN network can transmit any kind of digital code-digitised images as well as data and digitised speech. This means that ISDN is suitable for mulitmedia services. New services can also be easily added with no network redesign-provided that the signals are digital and the transfer is based on applicable ISDN protocols. The bandwidth can be 30 * 64kbps = 1,920kbps.


Remote Access using ISDN
Corporate Office

Router Remote Office


ISDN Network

* Primary Link Backup * Dial-up on Congestion * Dial-on-Demand

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Primary Link Backup: With this application a router will usually communicate with a central site over a fixed link such as a leased line. If the fixed link fails the router will automatically use the ISDN line to dial up the central site and resume communications. When the fixed link is repaired the ISDN line is automatically dropped. Dial-up on Congestion: This application is similar to primary link backup, in that normal communications happen over the fixed link. In this case though, when the traffic exceeds the available bandwidth, the router automatically uses the ISDN line to provide additional bandwidth. When traffic levels fall below a pre-programmed level for a set time the router will terminate the ISDN call and all traffic returns to the fixed link automatically. Dial-on-Demand: With this application there is no fixed link with the central site. The router calls the central site when there is data to be sent. Once established the connection can be held open for other traffic than the specified data call. If there is no traffic on the link for a pre-set period of time the router will drop the call.


ISDN Technologies
B Voice,data B D Signalling, data

Basic Service 2B+D

Primary Service 30B+D
B = Bearer Channel - 64k D = Data Channel - 16k for Basic, 64k for Primary


Voice, data Signalling, data

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Basic Rate Access, 2B+D Basic Rate Access (BRA) is often referred to as 2B+D as it gives the subscriber: • Two B-Channels, 64 kbits/s for voice, video and data. • One D-Channel, 16 kbit/s for signalling and data. The two B-Channels are communication channels for the different services provided. The D-Channel is mainly used for signalling, but could also be used for sending data. A total bandwidth of 144 kbits can be used at the same time. The BRA is used for low traffic and thus the target area is small companies and households. Primary Rate Access, 30B+D Primary Rate Access (PRA) is often referred to as 30B+D as it gives the subscriber: • Thirty B-Channels, 64 kbit/s each for voice and video and data • One D-Channel, 64 kbit/s, for signalling and data. In total the bandwidth which can be used is 1984 kbit/s.


Point to Point Protocol - PPP
l Method of transmitting packets over serial point-to-point links l Internet standard for Encapsulation of IP packets l Supports other protocols as well as IP, for example, IPX and DECnet. l Extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) to establish, configure and test the data link connection l A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing and configuring different network-layer protocols
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Point to Point Protocol (PPP), is a data link protocol and the internet standard for transmission of IP packets over serial lines. PPP handles,error detection and support for multiple protocols like IPX and DECnet. It also allows IP addresses to be negotiated at connection and permits authentication of users on the link. It transmits network packets using, for example, modems or ISDN devices, by placing them inside a high-level data-link control (HDLC) frame. Once the packets arrive at their destination, the PPP algorithm removes them from the HDLC frame and places them on the network. PPP provides three things: 1. A framing method that clearly defines the end of one frame and the beginning of another. 2. A control protocol for bringing lines up, testing them, negotiating options, and bringing them down again when the call is finished. This protocol is called Link Control Protocol (LCP). 3. A way to negotiate network layer options in such a way as to be independent of the network layer protocol to be used. This method has a different control protocol for each network layer supported and is known as Network Control Protocol (NCP). It is important to note that these phases occurs within the structure of the PPP format, and, therefore they only happen over an already-established physical link.


Internet Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/17 In the above scenario the PC wants to use the Internet via the Internet Service Provider. The PC first calls the providers router via the modem. The ISP has a block of addresses assigned to it and dynamically assigns one to each newly attached PC for the duration of their session. These packets. a series of NCP packets are sent to configure the network layer. The PC is now an Internet host and can send and receive IP packets. Once these have been agreed upon. If an ISP has x IP address assigned to it. and their responses select the the PPP parameters to be used. 5-22 . our user wants to run TCP/IP. The NCP for IP does the IP address assignment. and the customer base for the ISP may by many times greater than x. When the routers modem answers and establishes a connection. the PC sends a series of LCP packets in the payload field of some PPP frames. Typically. then x users can be logged on simultaneously. When the session is over the NCP will tear down the network layer connection and free up the IP address. and so needs an IP address.LCP/NCP Negotiations ISP Router Modem ISP Modem Stack All LCP and NCP Negotiations happen here. The LCP shuts down the data link connection and finally the PC tells its modem to hang up and release the physical connection.

The fields of the frame format for PPP are as follows.A single byte that contains the standard binary broadcast address (11111111) and avoids having to use data link addresses. FCS .A single byte that indicates the beginning or end of a frame (01111110) Address . Control .A single byte that requires the transmission of user data in an unsequenced frame (00000011). A value of 0 here implies network layer protocols like.The field which is used to check if any errors have occurred in transmission. 5-23 . Protocol .PPP Frame Format 1 1 1 1 or 2 variable Data 2 or 4 FCS 1 Flag 01111110 Flag Address Control Protocol 01111110 11111111 00000011 Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/18 The PPP frame format closely resembles the HDLC format.The actual data that is being sent. The address and control fields are always constant in the default configuration. Data . A value of 1 implies LCP and NCP. Flag . IP and IPX. LCP is the mechanism which negotiates an option to omit them and save two bytes per frame.Two bytes that identify the protocol encapsulated in the information field.

Example Wide Area Network PLYMOUTH R ISDN Encapsulation PPP Ethernet Network Encapsulation Frame Relay One physical Frame Relay interface with virtual circuits to 3 locations dlci 505 64K R LONDON 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/19 MAIDENHEAD SMALL ABERDEEN OFFICE (01752) 789901 (01224) 77112 R ISDN R (01628) 771153 (01224) 771123 R 2Mbit Leased Line R ABERDEEN CENTRAL SITE PCs R R SERVER dlci 510 32K R CAMBERLEY dlci 515 32K R BIRMINGHAM Ericsson Systems Expertise 5-24 .

LAPB (Link Access Procedure.Comparison of Architectures OSI Bottom Layers Transport TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol X .F SAR ATM Layer Physical Layer X . 25 ISDN FRAME RELAY ATM Network Internet Protocol PPP and Others Various Packet Layer AAL 1 .5 LAP .431 Physical Layer SONET Data Link Physical Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/20 The above illustration shows us how the different WAN protocol stacks compare with the OSI model. I. 5-25 . 21 Physical La yer I . LAPF (Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Bearer Services) was issued by ITU-T as part of its Frame Relay standard. which itself is a United Nations specialised agency. The ITU Telecommunications Standardisation Sector (ITU-T) is a permanent organ of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Balanced) was issued by ITU-T as part of its X. 430 & I.D LAP . D-Channel) was issued by ITU-T as part of its recommendation set for ISDN.25 packet-switching network interface standard.431 Physical Layer I .431 are physical layer specifications issued by the ITU-T.430 & I. LAPD (Link Access Procedure.B LAP . 430 & I.

Summary In Chapter 5 we introduced the concept of WANs. We discussed point-to-point protocol.25. its operation and its frame format. We examined the characteristics of X. We described ISDN technologies and the different access rates available. We looked at connection-oriented and connectionless packet service and discussed the differences between them. We examined the characteristics of WANs and their operation. Ericsson Systems Expertise 5/038 13 LZUBB 108116/21 5-26 . its components and its frame format. We also examined Frame Relay and its characteristics and its frame format.


Chapter 6 ATM .

At the end of this chapter students will be able to define: – The ATM Cell Format – The ATM Cell Reference Model – ATM Addressing – ATM Switching – ATM Signalling Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 6-1 .Chapter 6 .Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) l Chapter Objectives .

Introduction l Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a cell-switched. Cell switching used in ATM is highly flexible and can handle both constant rate traffic and variable rate traffic easily. l Information is organised into small fixed-size packets called cells l Suitable for both constant rate traffic (audio. video) and variable rate traffic (data) l Typical ATM WAN speeds are 155mbps and 622mbps l ATM supports Quality of Service (QoS) Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell-switched. that is.e. The common speeds for ATM networks are 155mbps and 622mbps. The QoS will define characteristics such as cell loss ratio. In ATM the information flow on each logical connection is organised into fixed-size packets called cells.25 and Frame Relay. 6-2 . that is. though gigabit speeds are also possible. connectionoriented protocol. The term Asynchronous refers to the fact that cells belonging to the same connection do not appear at regular intervals. and cell delay. connection-oriented protocol that combines the best from circuit switching. A device requesting a connection set up can request a certain QoS from the network and can be assured that the network will deliver that QoS for the duration of the connection. low delay and the best from packet switching. in some ways it is similar to X. One of the greatest advantages of ATM is its support for guaranteed Quality of Service. The switching and multiplexing process (i. ATM involves the transfer of data in discrete channels. flexible bandwidth. transfer mode) is based on address information in each cell (not on the cells position in time). ATM is also know as cell relay.

such as identifying multiple stations that share a single ATM interface. the information that is being sent. to identify the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on its way to its destination.16 bits of virtual channel identifier. The payload i. A virtual channel is a logical connection between two end-devices through the ATM network 6-3 . • VCI . to identify the next destination of a cell as it passes thorough a series of ATM switches on its way to its destination. A virtual path is a bundle of virtual channels that have the same end point.ATM Cells 53 bytes Header 5 bytes Payload 48 bytes 40 bits GFC VPI 4 8 VCI 16 40 bits VPI VCI PT CLP HEC PT 3 CLP 1 HEC 8 GFC = Generic Flow Control VPI = Virtual Path Identifier VCI = Virtual Channel Identifier NNI header PT = Payload Type CLP = Congestion Loss Priority format HEC = Header Error Control Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 Field length in bytes UNI header format The ATM cell is made up of 53 bytes.4 bits of generic flow control that can be used to provide local functions. which is used in conjunction with the VCI. makes up 48 bytes. The ATM standards groups have defined two header formats. The User-Network Interface (UNI) specification defines communication between ATM end stations (such as workstation and routers) and ATM switches in ATM networks. The UNI header consists of the following fields: • GFC . this cell is subdivided into a header and payload.8 bits of virtual path identifier.e. The Network-Network Interface (NNI) specification defines communication between ATM switches. • VPI . which is used in conjunction with the VPI. The GFC field is typically not used and is set to a default value.

• PT . If the cell contains user data. With that exception .3 bits of payload type the first bit indicates whether the cell contains user data or control data. which indicates whether the cell should be discarded if it encounters extreme congestion as it moves through the network. Instead. • HEC . and the third bit indicates whether the cell is the last in the series of cells that represents a single AAL5 frame • CLP . which is a checksum calculated only on the header itself. the VPI field occupies the first 12 bits. •The GFC field is not present in the format of the NNI header. 6-4 .8 bits of header error control.1 bit of congestion loss priority. the second bit indicates congestion. which allows ATM switches to assign larger VPI values. the format of the NNI header is identical to the format of the UNI format.

Idle cells must be inserted into the frame when no “real cells” are available for transportation. and packages cells into appropriate types of frame for the physical medium being used. The Physical Layer also keeps track of ATM cell boundaries. The Physical Layer is responsible for the actual transportation of cells. each of the layers having a separate function. These layers are called: • Physical Layer • ATM Layer • ATM Adaptation Layer Each layer handles different parts of the connections. 6-5 . for example SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). Outgoing cells are received asynchronously from the ATM Layer. ATM can use any physical medium capable of carrying ATM cells.ATM Reference Model Connection-Oriented Voice/Video Services Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Connection-Oriented Voice/Video Services Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Connectionless & Connection-Oriented Data Services Variable Bit Rate (VBR) ATM Adaptation Layer ATM Layer Physical Layer Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 180116/4 The ATM reference model is divided into three layers.

as well as constant bit rate applications. To do this. The convergence sublayer enables voice. the convergence sublayer (CS) and the segmentation and reassembly sublayer (SAR). AAL2: This is the adaptation protocol for Variable Bit Rate (VBR) services. AAL3/4: The combined AAL3 and AAL4 protocol was defined principally for linking LANs and WANs. At the receiving end SAR reassembles the cells into the higher level information before passing it on to the final destination host. AAL translates user traffic coming from applications to ATM format. The operations and functions carried out by the CS will vary depending on the type and format of the incoming data. Several adaptation protocols have been defined for the AAL: AAL1: This is the adaptation protocol for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) services. The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) sits on top of the ATM layer and is composed of two sublayers.25 and LAN applications. The segmentation and reassembly sublayer takes the data from the CS and segments it into 48-byte cells at the transmission end. This sublayer interprets the data coming from the higher level application and prepares it for processing by the SAR. 6-6 .The ATM Layer is responsible for establishing connections and passing cells through the ATM network. Examples of these applications are X. It is here also that ATM provides support for different applications. AAL5: This protocol is suitable for packet data applications and signalling. like uncompressed video and multimedia applications. video and data traffic to pass through the same switching fabric. it uses the information contained in the header of each ATM cell.

Then the ATM layer places each block into the payload field of an ATM cell. the ATM layer extracts the payload field from the cell. the segmentation and reassembly segments the CS PDU into 48-bytes blocks.ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Data Frame Frame CS PDU AAL5 SAR PDU SAR PDU SAR PDU SAR PDU ATM layer ATM cell 0 Payload ATM cell 0 Payload ATM cell 0 Payload Segmentation And Re-assembly sublayer SAR Convergence sublayer ATM cell 1 Payload Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 The diagram above shows how AAL5 prepares a cell for transmission. The trailer includes the length of the frame and a 32-bit CRC computed across the entire PDU. the bit in the PT field is set to one. the SAR sublayer reassembles the CS PDU. For the last cell. When the cell arrives at its destination. which allows AAL5 at the destination to detect bit errors and lost or cell that are out of sequence. For all cells except the last cell. The pad is long enough to ensure that the resulting protocol data unit (PDU) falls on the 48-byte boundary of the ATM cell. the convergence sublayer of AAL5 appends a variable-length pad and a 8byte trailer to a frame. First. 6-7 . and the CS uses the CRC and the length field to verify that the frame has been transmitted and reassembled correctly. a bit in the PT field is set to zero to indicate that it is not the last cell in a series that represent a single frame. Next.

It finds that when it receives a VPI of 8 and a VCI of 42 on port 1. the switch changes the VPI to 98 and the VCI to 42 and sends the cell out on port 5. Say. A virtual channel is equivalent to a virtual circuit . Switching is determined by a switching table. both terms describe a logical connection between the two ends of a communication connection. for example. The switch examines the switch table to determine on which port it should send the cell. 6-8 . The main function of an ATM switch is to receive cells on a port and switch those cells to the proper output port based on the VPI and VCI values of the cell. that two cells arrive on port 1 of the ATM switch. it should send the cell out on port 5 with a VPI of 98 and a VCI of 42.Switching in ATM 41/76 VIDE O 3 41/37 VIDEO 8/42 DATA 4 1 73/78 VOICE SAM PBX 3 2/37 VIDE O 19/78 VOICE 5 2 6 98/42 DATA 17/37 VIDE O Network servers ( Video/ IP ) Routing Table Po rt VIDEO DATA VIDEO VOICE VPI / VCI 41/37 8/42 32/37 19/78 Port 3 5 6 4 VP I /VCI 41/76 98/42 17/37 73/78 1 1 2 2 Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 ATM switches use the VPI and VCI fields of the cell header to identify the physical port that a cell must be sent to. First. as shown above. So.that is. on its way to its final destination. that maps input ports to output ports in accordance with the values in the VPI and VCI fields. for cell 1. A virtual path is a logical grouping of virtual circuits that allows an ATM switch to perform operations on a group of virtual circuits. the switch examines the VPI and VCI fields of cell 1 and finds that the fields have a value of 8 and 42 respectively.

and to change the VPI and VCI to 41 and 76 respectively. which has a VPI of 41 and a VCI of 37. When a cell with a VPI and VCI of 41 and 76 respectively comes in on port 3. when a cell with a VPI and VCI of 98 and 42 respectively comes in on port 5. Note that VPI and VCI values are significant only to the local interface.Next. the switch examines cell 2. 6-9 . Conversely. The table directs the switch to send out on port 3 cells received on port 1 that have a VPI of 41 and a VCI of 37 respectively. four and six. the table directs the switch to send the cell out on port 1 with a VPI and VCI of 8 and 42 respectively. the table directs the switch to send the cell out on port 1 with a VPI and VCI of 41 and 37 respectively. The same process is used when cells arrive at ports two.

the VC switch changes the VPI to 4 and the VCI to 4 and send the cell out on port 2. 6-10 . For cells that have a VCI value of 1. By reducing the number of fields that have to be changed as each cell passes through the switch. the VC switch changes the VPI to 3 and the VCI to 3 and send the cell out on port 3. For cells that have a VCI value of 2. which changes the VPI value of each cell to 5 but leaves the VCI value intact. the performance of the switch increases. Cells that have a VPI value of 1 are processed through the “VC switch”. In the diagram above cells that enter the ATM switch on port 1 and have a VPI value of 4 are processed through the “VP switch”.Virtual Path V virtual circuit switching VC Switch VCI 1 VCI 2 VCI 3 VPI 3 VCI 4 VPI 4 Port 2 VPI 1 VPI 4 VCI 1 VCI 2 VCI 1 VCI 2 Port 1 VCI 4 VPI 1 VPI 4 VP Switch VPI 3 VCI 3 VCI 1 VCI 2 VPI 5 Port 3 Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 The diagram above shows how the VPI field is used to group virtual channels (identified by their VCI values) into logical group. and sends the cell out on port 3.

l Virtual paths make it easier for carriers to offer closed user groups. virtual circuits from NY to SF pass through Omaha and Denver. Normally. for example. suppose a disturbance occurs on the Omaha-Denver line.Advantages of Virtual Path Switching l Only one virtual path has to be established for a source to a destination. Setting up a new connection merely requires allocating one of the unused pairs. To start with. 6-11 . l Basing all routing on virtual paths makes it easier to switch a whole group of virtual circuits. Third. Consider. Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 Using only the VPIs between interior switches has several advantages. l The routing of individual cells is easier when all virtual circuits for a given path are always in the same bundle. Second. By rerouting the Omaha-Denver virtual path to LA and then SF. it should be clear that indexing into at table of 2*12 entries is feasible whereas indexing into a table of 2*28 entries is not. all the virtual circuits (potentially up to 65 535 of them) can be switched in one operation instead of potentially thousands of operations. any additional virtual circuits along that path can follow the existing path. Without going into the details. However. routing of individual cells is easier when all virtual circuits for a given path are always in the same bundle. once a virtual path has been established from a source to a destination. No new routing decisions have to be made. basing all routing on virtual paths makes it easier to switch a whole group of virtual circuits. the hypothetical US ATM backbone in the next slide. It is as though a bundle of twisted pairs has already been pulled from the source to the destination. The routing decision only involves looking at a 12-bit number. not a 12-bit number and a 16-bit number.

except via special gateways.Finally. A company can set up a network of permanent virtual paths among its various offices. No calls can come into the private network from outside and no calls can leave the private network. virtual paths make it easier for carriers to offer closed user groups to corporate customers. Many companies will like this kind of security. and then allocate virtual circuits within these paths on demand. 6-12 .

. NY DC Ericsson Systems Expertise The Omaha Switch For each of its five incoming lines. . all the bit maps are marked to indicated that all VPIs available (except the reserved ones). it has a table. and entry is also made in the Denver table for VPI 1 showing that cells coming in from Denver with VPI 1 should go out on line 1. When the switch is booted. indexed by incoming VPI that tells which of the five outgoing lines to use and what VPI to put in outgoing cells. .. These are cells travelling the other way (from SF to NY) on this virtual path. As each virtual path (and virtual circuit) is set up. the switch maintains a bit map telling which VPIs are currently in use on that line.. No new table entries are needed for additional virtual circuits connecting a source to a destination that already have a path assigned. .1) entry for VPI 1 in the DC table because it refers to cells coming in on line 1 with VPI 1 and going to SF. . Now suppose calls come a shown in the above diagram.. . . Note that tin some cases two or three virtual circuits are sharing a common path. . We will assume the virtual circuits are full duplex.Example ATM Switched Network Source Incoming line Incoming VPI Destination Outgoing line Outgoing VPI NY 1 1 SF 4 1 NY 1 2 Denver 4 2 LA 3 1 Minneapolis 0 1 DC 1 3 LA 3 2 NY 1 1 SF 4 1 SF 4 3 DC 1 4 DC 1 5 SF 4 4 NY 1 2 Denver 4 2 SF 4 5 Minneapolis 0 2 NY 1 1 SF 4 1 Path NEW NEW NEW NEW OLD NEW NEW OLD NEW OLD . so that each set up results in two entries. VPI table. 6-13 . For example. all the entries in all the VPI table structures are marked as not in use. entries are made in the tables. Let us assume that five line are numbered for 0 to 4 clockwise starting at Minneapolis. one for the forward traffic from the source and one for the reverse traffic from the destination. The table corresponds to the routes. ORIGINAL PATH MINNEAPOLIS 0 SF DENVER 3 4 NEW PATH 1 LA 2 DALLAS 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 . . However. Similarly . For each outgoing line. the first call generates the (4.

in which a set of switches between an ATM source and destination are programmed with the appropriate VPI and VCI values. How we set up these tables determine the two types of ATM connections: • Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC): A PVC is a connection set up by some external mechanism. 6-14 . If there is an entry for PC B in its switch table and it can accommodate the QoS requested for the connection. wants to establish a connection with PC B ( also an ATM device) it sends a signalling request packet to its ATM switch.ATM Signalling in an ATM Network ATM Switch 1 PC A Connect to B Connect To B OK OK ATM Switch 3 ATM Switch 2 OK Connect to B Connect to B ATM Switch 4 OK PC B Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 As we have already seen. PC A above. SVCs do not need the manual intervention needed for PVC set up. • Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC): An SVC is a connection that is set up automatically through a signalling protocol. it sets up a virtual circuit on the input link and forwards the signalling request out the output interface as specified in the switch table for the ATM address of PC B. This request has the ATM address of PC B as well as any QoS parameters needed for the connection. for a cell passing through an ATM network. The packet is now examined by the switch. When an ATM device. typically network management. thus they are likely to be more widely used. there is a table of VPI and VCI values for each switch in the network.

The virtual circuit is being set up during this process. as well as the VPI and VCI values that all cells from PC A should use to reach PC B. If there is no alternative path then the virtual circuit is dropped. 6-15 . PC A receives the accept message from its home switch. If any switch cannot accommodate the QoS parameters then the request is rejected and a reject message is sent to the switch that made the request.Every switch along the path to PC B will examine the signalling request and send it on to the next switch in the path if the QoS parameters can be supported. if PC B can support the QoS parameters it answers with an accept message. When the signalling request arrives at PC B it is again examined and. The accept message propagates itself back through the network to PC A and the switches set up the virtual path that all cells will follow to PC B. If an alternative path to the end point exists then that path will be tried in an attempt to complete the call.

switched connections between one ATM network and another.Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface is the signalling and routing protocol for managing on demand. Allows for the establishment and support of on-demand.Signalling in ATM Private A TM n etwork ATM network UNI PNNI UNI Dynamically Calculated Route for SVC PNNI PNNI PNNI PNNI PNNI PNNI LAN PNNI UNI UNI B-ICI File Server UNI Signalling Link .User Network Interface allows subscribers access to an ATM network.Private Network-Network Interface provides the signalling and routing protocols required for managing and controlling the ATM network. B-ICI can also be used within an ATM network to improve control of traffic routing. and allows recognition of the QoS contract and characteristics of the data to be sent across the connection. They are User Network Interface (UNI). and the mechanisms that enable every node in the network to maintain up-to-date information about any changes in every other node in the network. switched connections. Interconnected Network Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 There are three main signalling protocols used in ATM networks. Private Node to Node Interface (PNNI) and B-ISDN Inter-Carrier Interface (B-ICI). 6-16 . UNI subscriber recognition through ATM addressing. PNNI . They have roughly the following function: UNI . B-ICI .

6-17 .Signalling links are virtual connections that are permanently reserved. and between the following different types of signalling entity: •A UNI subscriber connected to an ATM network node across a UNI. •The ATM network of one carrier connected across a B-ICI to the network of a different carrier. •One node connected via a PNNI to another node within the same ATM network. The diagram shows a simplistic view of the signalling links that convey signalling messages across different interface types. •A private ATM network connected across a UNI to another ATM network.

With the HO-DSP. using codes specified by the ISO. ICD addresses are used by international organisations. Also included in this part are the following: DCC addresses use the Data Country Code format. and End Station Identifier and Selector part (ESI/Sel).ATM Address Formats Data Country Code (DCC) Address Format AFI (39) DCC HO-DSP ESI Sel Acronym Meaning IDP DSP International Code Designator (ICD) Address Format AFI ICD (47) HO-DSP ESI Sel IDP DSP AFI DCC ICD HO-DSP ESI E. addressing is not an issue as the source and destination end-points and their connections are already defined. However. Therefore it is important to have a standardised convention for the coding of source and destination addresses. If Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) are used. The 2-byte DCC field identifies the country the address is registered in. Following all this is the Domain Specific Part (DSP) and it is divided into two parts: the Higher-Order DSP. A telephone number up to 15 digits long is coded in a 9-byte field.164 Sel Initial Domain Part Domain Specific Part Authority Format Identifier Data Country Code International Code Designator Higher-Order DSP End Station Identifier ITU Recommendation Selector ATM Address Acronyms and Abbreviations E.164 (ISDN) numbers. It defines the type of IDP. E.164 addresses use the address format designed for ISDN. Several ATM address formats have been developed. the authority issuing the address can encode either routing or structural information. 6-18 . one for public networks and three for private networks. We only need supply the network with the VPI and VCI. The 2-byte ICD identifies the organisation.164 Address Format AFI (45) E 164 IDP HO-DSP DSP ESI Sel 20 Bytes Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/12 ATM uses connection-on-demand operations. A typical ATM public network will use E. The Authority Format Identifier (AFI) is the first part of Initial Domain Part (IDP) for all ATM addresses. if Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) are used the destination can change with each session and so explicit addressing is necessary.

164 address. 6-19 . International Code Designation and (Network Service Access Point (NSAP) encapsulated) E. Data Country Code.The ESI/Sel are present in all ATM addresses and usually contains the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the sending host. The illustration on the previous page shows the address formats for the three PRIVATE networks. Once the call has been mapped between the User Node Interfaces the VPI and VCI values can then be used for traffic identification.

Ericsson Systems Expertise 6/038 13 LZUBB 108116/13 6-20 . in particular the Adaptation Layer. We discussed the advantages of virtual path switching.Summary In chapter 6 we examined the ATM cell and discussed in detail each part of the header. We looked at the ATM reference model and defined the functions each layer has. We discussed ATM switching and looked at an example of its operation. We discussed ATM signalling and ATM addressing.


Chapter 7 Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite .

Chapter 7.At the end of this chapter students will be able to identify and describe – Internet Protocol (IP) – Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) – Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – IP version 6 (IPv6) Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/1 7-1 . Overview of TCP/IP Protocol Suite l Chapter Objectives .

The Application Layer is responsible for interfacing between user applications and the Transport Layer. FDDI) (WAN . ARP. (Application. and Domain Name system (DNS). TELNET. The main protocols at this layer are: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Example applications commonly used are File Transfer Protocol (FTP).Serial lines. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Internet layer The Internet Layer is equivalent to the Network Layer in the OSI model. It is responsible for formatting packets and placing them onto the underlying network. ICMP) NETWORK INTERFACE (LAN . The suite consists of a four-layer model. The Application layer The Application Layer is equivalent to the top three layers. DNS) Host Device TRANSPORT (TCP or UDP) INTERNET (IP. Telnet. 7-2 . The Transport layer The Transport Layer is equivalent to the Transport Layer in the OSI model.TCP/IP Architecture & Terminology APPLICATION (FTP. It is responsible for network addressing. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). SNMP. in the OSI model. The main protocols at this layer are: Internet Protocol (IP). Presentation and Session Layers). All common Data Link protocols support TCP/IP. TR. and Internet Group management Protocol (IGMP). FR. it refers to a family or suite of protocols.ETH. The Transport Layer is responsible for end-to-end message delivery and flow control. Network interface layer The Network Interface Layer is equivalent to the combination of the Physical and Data Link Layers in the OSI model. ATM) ROUTER Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/2 TCP/IP is not a single protocol.

500 bytes. 7-3 . a trailer and a data portion.g. The TCP segment consists of a TCP header and the actual application data. The data portion of an Ethernet frame is always between 46 and 1. Sixteen bytes are required for the Ethernet header and trailer. The data portion of the IP packet contains a TCP segment (or packet). The IP packet is said to be “encapsulated” in an Ethernet frame.Minimum 64 Bytes Maximum 1518 Bytes Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/3 An Ethernet frame consists of a header. An Ethernet frame is always between 64 and 1.518 bytes in size. 00-80-37-12-34-56 SA = Source Address T = Type e.g. SA T IP Header TCP Header Application Data TCP Segment IP Packet Ethernet Frame DA = Destination Address e. The IP packet itself consists of a header and a data portion. 0800 = IP.Encapsulation in an Ethernet Frame 6 6 2 46 .1500 BYTES 4 C R C DA. In the example above the data portion contains an IP packet. 6003 = DECnet CRC = Cyclic Redundancy Check Ethernet Frame Size .

For example.040 bytes long. if this packet then needs to traverse a ethernet network it must be split up into IP packets which are a maximum of 1. IP is unreliable in that delivery is not guaranteed.500 bytes long. an IP packet on a FDDI network could be up to 4. The acknowledgement of packets is the responsibility of a higher-layer transport protocol. delivered out of sequence. IP is also responsible for fragmenting and reassembling packets: Large packets must be divided into smaller pieces when the packet has to traverse a network that supports a smaller packet size. The sender or receiver is not informed when a packet is lost or out of sequence. duplicated or delayed.Internet Protocol (IP) l Provides logical 32-bit network addresses l Routes data packets l Connectionless protocol – No session is established l “Best effort” delivery l Reliability is responsibility of higher-layer protocols and applications l Fragments and reassembles packets Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/4 IP is a connectionless protocol primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between network devices. Along the way a packet might be lost. An acknowledgement is not required when data is received. 7-4 . It makes a “best effort” attempt to deliver a packet. Connectionless means that a session is not established before exchanging data. such as TCP.

IP is therefore said to “fire and forget”. 7-5 . If necessary the router will fragment the packet into smaller pieces.The Internet Protocol Host A Reliability & Sequencing Host B Reliability & Sequencing Router IP Fires & Forgets Network Interface IP Routes If Possible IP Delivers as Received Network Interface PACKET Fragmented Packet Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/5 IP delivers its packets in a connectionless mode. It does not check to see if the receiving host can accept data and it does not keep a copy in case of errors. If the router does not know the destination it will drop the packet. it will forward the packet only if it knows a route to the destination. The router does not send any acknowledgements to the sending device. When a packet arrives at a router.

typically have a single IP address. The network ID must be unique to the internetwork. 1.83 Binary Format Dotted Decimal notation 11000001 10100000 00000001 00000101 193.5.0 200.5. 160. 1. typically have two or more IP addresses depending on the number of interfaces they have.12. 160.12.1. Each octet represents a decimal number in the range 0-255. The network ID identifies the systems that are located on the same network or subnet.5”.5 Each IP address defines the network ID and host ID.0” and has a unique host ID of “. 160.160. 11000001 10100000 00000001 00000101. the PC is connected to network “193. 160.5 Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/6 Every network interface on a TCP/IP device is identified by a globally unique IP address.5 200. For example. 1. is known as 193.5.1 Router 193.12. Routers. called octets.0 193. 1.1 200.The IP Address 193. for example. 7-6 . Each IP address is 32 bits long and is composed of four 8-bit fields. In the example above. by grouping the four octets and representing each byte in decimal form. The host ID identifies a TCP/IP network device (or host) within a network. 160. PCs. The address for each host must be unique to the network ID. Host devices. This address is normally represented in “dotted decimal notation”. 1.

Class B Class B addresses are assigned to medium-sized to large-sized networks. The next 21 bits (completing the first three octets) complete the network ID.000 hosts per network. The two high-order bits in a class B address are always set to binary 1 0. Class A Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a very large number of hosts. Class C Class C addresses are used for small networks.097.777. The next 14 bits (completing the first two octets) complete the network ID.534 2. The three high-order bits in a class C address are always set to binary 1 1 0. The next seven bits (completing the first octet) complete the network ID.384 networks and approximately 65. This allows for 16. This allows for approximately 2 million networks and 254 hosts per network.384 65. 7-7 . The remaining 16 bits (last two octets) represent the host ID.214 16.223 Ericsson Systems Expertise st There are five different address classes. This allows for 126 networks and approximately 17 million hosts per network. The remaining 24 bits (the last three octets) represent the host ID.152 254 1 Octet 1 – 126 128 – 191 192 . The class of an IP address can be determined from the high-order (left-most) bits.Different IP Address Classes NET ID HOST ID CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 0 NET ID 10 HOST ID NET ID 110 HOST ID Class A Class B Class C 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/7 Number of Hosts per Networks Network 126 16. The remaining 8 bits (last octet) represent the host ID. The high-order bit in a class A address is always set to zero.

Only those hosts registered for the multicast operation accept the packet. A multicast group may contain one or more hosts. 7-8 . There are no network or host bits in the multicast operations. Packets are passed to a selected subset of hosts on a network. The high-order bits in a class E address are set to 1 1 1 1 0.Class D Class D addresses are used for multicast group usage. The four high-order bits in a class D address are always set to binary 1 1 1 0. The remaining bits designate the specific group in which the client participates. Class E Class E is an experimental address not available for general use: it is reserved for future use. or none at all.

255.0 Default Mask 255.10.255. The decimal value in each of these octets is 255.0 and a host ID 100.0 7-9 . Default Mask 255. For example. All bits that correspond to the host ID are set to 0.10 has a network ID of 160. • Specify whether the destination’s host IP address is located on a local network or on a remote network.0.100. Each host on a TCP/IP network requires a subnet mask. A default subnet mask is used when a network is not divided into subnets.0.Subnet Mask l Blocks out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the Network ID from the host ID l Specifies whether the destination’s host IP address is located on a local network or on a remote network l Default subnets are used on IP networks that are not divided into subnets – Class A – Class B – Class C Default Mask 255.0.255. A customised subnet mask is used when a network is divided into subnets.0. The default mask is therefore 255. the class B address 160.0 l Subnetting allows an organisation to split up its network into smaller more efficient subnetworks. In a default subnet mask all bits that correspond to the network ID are set to 1. Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/8 A subnet mask is a 32-bit address used to: • Block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID.30.

The first bit is not used and is always 0. Total length (16 bits): This is the total packet length. delay. it means “More fragments”. the new version is 6 (IPv6). Type of Service (8 bits): This is an indication of the quality of service requested for the IP packet. it means “Don’t fragment”. and throughput parameters. in bytes. If the second bit is 0. If the third bit is 1. which is the most common header. Identification (16 bits): This is a unique number assigned by the sending device to aid in reassembling a fragmented packet. In the first fragment or in a unique fragment. Flags (3 bits): These provide the fragmentation control fields. IHL. If the second bit is 1. it means “May fragment”. 7-10 .IP Packet Structure 32 bits (4 Bytes) Version IHL Type of Service Flags Total Length Fragment Offset Identification Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum IP header is normally 20 bytes long Source Address Destination address Options (variable) Padding DATA (variable) Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/9 Version (4 bits): This specifies the version of the IP protocol and hence the format of the IP header being used. it means “Last fragment”. precedence. Internet Header Length (4 bits): This is the length of the header in 32bit words. If the third bit is 0. this value is always zero. since they will all have the same identification number. The current protocol version is 4 (IPv4). Its primary purpose is to allow the destination device to collect all fragments from a packet. It specifies reliability. including header and data. Fragment Offset (13 bits): This is used with fragmented packets to aid in reassembling the full packet. The minimum value is five. Thus the header must be at least 20 bytes long. The value is the number of 8-byte pieces (header bytes are not counted) that are contained in earlier fragments.

The sending IP device performs a calculation on the bits in the IP header. 7-11 . UDP. Data (variable): The total length of the data field plus header is a maximum of 65. All routers must decrease this value by a minimum of one. for example. Header Checksum (16 bits): This is a checksum on the header only. which ensures integrity of header values. Protocol (8 bits): This indicates the higher level protocol to which IP should deliver the data in the packet. If the value drops to zero the packet is discarded. that the packet is allowed to remain on an internetwork. and places the result in the header checksum field. Each IP device that the packet passes through will decreases the value by the time it takes it to process the IP header. Source Address (32 bits): This is the 32-bit IP address of the sending device Destination Address (32 bits): This is the 32-bit IP address of the receiving device. If they are different then an error has occurred and the IP packet is discarded. They are mainly used for network testing or debugging. The receiving device performs the same calculation and compares the result with the value in the header checksum field.Time to Live (8 bits): This contains the time.535 bytes. Options (variable): These are not required in every packet. excluding the header checksum field. in seconds.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) l A source must know a destination’s hardware address before it can send an IP packet directly to it. Once the hardware address is obtained. l ARP is the mechanism that maps IP to hardware addresses. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is responsible for obtaining hardware addresses of TCP/IP devices on broadcast-based networks. l ARP uses a local broadcast to obtain a hardware address l ARP stores mappings in cache for future use Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/10 Network devices must know each other’s hardware address to communicate on a network. Address resolution is the process of mapping a host’s IP address to its hardware address. The ARP cache is always checked for an IP address/hardware address mapping before initiating an ARP request broadcast. both the IP address and the hardware address are stored as one entry in the ARP cache. ARP uses a local broadcast of the destination IP address to acquire the hardware address of the destination device. 7-12 .

30.30.20 00-AA-00-12-34-56 Broadcast Unicast Destination 160. 7-13 . If no mapping is found. Each device checks for a match with its own IP address. Both devices update their ARP cache with the IP address/hardware address mapping of the other device.100. It checks its existing ARP cache for the hardware address of the destination host.10 please send me a reply stating your hardware address” Source 160.Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) “If your IP address is 160.100. The destination device determines that there is a match and sends an ARP reply directly to the source device with its hardware address.10 00-A0-C9-78-9A-BC That’s me and my Hardware address is 00-A0-C9-78-9A-BC Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/11 The source device knows its own IP and hardware address and the IP address of the device it wants to send the information to. looking for the hardware address to match the IP address.30. After a period of time if devices do not communicate with each other they will clear the entry from their ARP caches. The ARP request is a broadcast so all local devices receive and process it. the source builds an ARP request packet. From then on the devices can communicate directly with each other.100.

Ethernet has a value of 1. Operation code (16 bits): This specifies whether this is an ARP request (1) or an ARP reply (2). Sender’s IP address (32 bits): This contains the protocol address of the sender. 7-14 . HLEN. Target’s IP address (32 bits): This contains the protocol address of the target. IP. Hardware address length (8 bits): This specifies the length in bytes of the hardware address in this packet.3) Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/12 Hardware Type (16 bits): This specifies the hardware interface type.ARP packet Structure 32 bits (4 Bytes) Hardware Type HLEN PLEN Protocol Type Operation code Sender’s Hardware Address (Octets 0-3) Sender HA (Octets 4-5) Sender IP (Octets 2-3) Sender IP (Octets 0-1) Target HA (Octets 0-1) Variable Length Target HA (octets 2 . for example. for example. For IP this will be four. Sender’s hardware address (48 bits): This contains the hardware address of the sender. Protocol address length (8 bits): This specifies the length in bytes of the protocol address in this packet. PLEN.5) Target IP (octets 0 . Target’s hardware address (48 bits): This contains the hardware address of the target. Protocol type (16 bits): This specifies the higher-level protocol whose address needs mapping onto the hardware.

0 is an echo reply. 2 means protocol unreachable. by sending ICMP echo requests and receiving back ICMP echo replies. Type (8 bits): This specifies the type of ICMP message. for example. Checksum (16 bits): This is a checksum carried out on the 8-byte ICMP header only. 7-15 . It merely attempts to report errors and provide feedback on specific conditions.Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) l Reports errors and control messages on behalf of IP l ICMP messages are encapsulated within an IP packet l One of the most frequently used debugging tools uses ICMP – It tests whether a destination is reachable and responding.. ICMP messages are carried as IP packets and are therefore unreliable. 1 means host unreachable. For example. in a destination unreachable message: 0 means network unreachable.. An echo reply always returns exactly the same data as was received in the request. 8 is an echo request.. 5 is a redirect.. 3 is destination unreachable. ICMP does not attempt to make IP a reliable protocol. Type Code Checksum Sequence Number Optional Data Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/13 Identifier ICMP reports errors and sends control messages on behalf of IP. Optional Data: This field contains information to be returned to the sender. 4 is a source quench. Identifier and Sequence number (16 bits each): These are used by the sender to match replies to requests. Code (8 bits): This contains an error code that further describes the problem. – It carries out this test by using the “PING” command l Echo Request and Reply Message format IP Header..

for example. Reliability is achieved by assigning a sequence number to each segment transmitted. 7-16 . and the port the application is using. Connection-oriented means that a session must be established before devices can exchange data. FTP is port 21. the receiving device must return an acknowledgement (ACK) within a specified period. All “well-known” port numbers are below 256. A port is used by transport protocols to identify which application protocol. connection-oriented delivery service.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) lConnection-oriented lEnd-to-End reliable delivery lProvides logical connections between pair of processes: – These are uniquely identified using sockets – socket = IP address & port number e. An application creates a socket by specifying three items: the IP address of the device. If a TCP segment is broken into smaller pieces. FTP is port 21 Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/14 TCP is a reliable. or process. TCP processes or applications communicate with each other by having both the sending and receiving device create end points. called sockets.g. An acknowledgement is used to verify that the data was received. Each socket has a socket number (address) consisting of the IP address of the device and a 16-bit number called a port. Port can use any number between 0 and 65.536. Telnet is port 23 and DNS is port 53. the receiving device knows whether all pieces have been received. If an ACK is not received the data is retransmitted. it must deliver incoming messages to. The data is transmitted in segments. For each segment sent. the transport protocol (TCP or UDP).

7-17 . inform each other of the amount of data they are able to receive at once (window size and segment size). TCP uses a similar handshake process to end a connection.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) lUnits of data transferred between two devices running TCP software are called “segments” lSegments are exchanged to do the following: – Open a connection – Agree window size – Transfer data – Send acknowledgements – Close connection Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/15 A TCP session is initialised through a three-way handshake. During this process the two communicating devices synchronise the sending and receiving of segments. and establish a virtual connection.

Finish. Checksum (16 bits): This is used to verify the integrity of the TCP header. It must be zero. It specifies the number of data bytes which the receiver is willing to accept. It is needed because the Options field length is variable. Urgent 2. Synchronous 6. Destination port (16 bits): This is the TCP port number of the receiving device. Code Bits (6 bits): These are six flags that control the behaviour of a TCP packet. Reset connection 5. Offset (4 bits): This is the number of 32-bit words in the TCP header. this points to the end of the urgent data in the segment. 7-18 . Acknowledgement 3. Acknowledgement number (32 bits): This is the sequence number that the receiver expects to receive next. They are: 1. Reserved (6 bits): Reserved for future use. Options: This is used to specify maximum segment size during the establishment of a connection. The checksum is performed on a pseudo header consisting of information obtained from the IP as well as the TCP header Urgent Pointer (16 bits): When urgent data is being sent (as specified in the code bits). Push 4. Window (16 bits): This is used in acknowledgement segments to implement flow control.TCP Packet Structure 32 bits (4 Bytes) Source Port Destination Port Sequence Number Acknowledgement Number OFF Reserved Code Bits SET Window Urgent Pointer Padding Checksum Options DATA Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/16 Source port (16 bits): This is the TCP port number of the sending device. Sequence number (32 bits): This is the sequence number of the data byte stream in the segment.

UDP ports are separate and distinct from TCP ports even though some of them use the same port numbers.User Datagram Protocol l Connectionless – No session is established l Does not guarantee delivery – No sequence numbers – No acknowledgements l Reliability is the responsibility of the application l Uses port numbers as end points to communicate l UDP Packet Format Source Port Length Destination Port UDP Checksum Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/17 UDP provides a connectionless packet service that offers unreliable. the application must supply the IP address and port number of the destination application. The UDP header is divided into four 16-bit fields: Source port: This is the UDP protocol port number of the process on the sending device. for example. 7-19 . UDP is used by applications that do not require an acknowledgement of receipt of data and that typically transmit small amounts of data at one time. nor is the correct sequencing of delivered packets. Destination port: This is the UDP protocol port number of the process on the destination device. To use UDP. The checksum is performed on a pseudo header consisting of information obtained from the IP as well as the UDP header. the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The minimum length is 8 bytes. UDP Checksum: This is used to verify the integrity of the UDP header. the length of the header alone. This means that the arrival of packets is not guaranteed. Length: This is the size in bytes of the UDP packet. “best effort” delivery. including the header and data.

such as default gateway address and Domain Name Server (DNS) address. the client cannot initialise TCP/IP 7-20 . Each time a DHCP client starts. Confirmation DHCP server DHCP Database IP Address 1 IP Address 2 IP Address 3 Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/18 DHCP centralises and manages the allocation of TCP/IP configuration information by automatically assigning IP addresses to devices configured to use DHCP. and network problems associated with a duplicate IP address. it selects IP addressing information from a pool of addresses defined in its database and offers it to the DHCP client. Offer an address 3.DHCP Non DHCP client DHCP client IP Address 1 IP Address 2 1. Find a DHCP server DHCP client 2. it requests IP addressing information from a DHCP server. or default gateway incorrectly can lead to problems including communication difficulties if the default gateway or subnet mask is wrong. Accept an address 4. If there is no available IP addressing information in the pool to lease to a client. sub-net mask. Typing in the IP address.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . If the client accepts the offer. including: • IP address • Subnet mask • Optional values. the IP addressing information is leased to the client for a specified period of time. Implementing DHCP eliminates some of the configuration problems associated with manually configuring TCP/IP. When a DHCP server receives a request.

255. it uses 0.30. a subnet mask.0.150 Client Hardware Address = 00-80-37-12-34-56 Subnet mask = 255. 7-21 .255.255. IP Lease Offer All DHCP servers that receive the request. This message also contains the client’s hardware address and computer name. The DHCP server reserves the IP address so that it will not be offered to another DHCP client. A broadcast is used because the client does not yet have an IP address.255. The offer is sent as a DHCPOFFER message. IP Lease Request The first time a client is initialised. Because the client does not have an IP address or know the IP address of a DCHP server.255 Hardware Address = 00-80-37-12-34-56 DHCPOFFER Source IP Address = 160. and have a valid configuration for the client.255.20.10 Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/19 DHCP uses a four-phase process to configure a DHCP client. the length of the lease and a server identifier (the IP address of the offering DHCP server). The DHCP client selects the IP address from the first offer it receives.0 Length of Lease = 72 hours Server identifier = 160.255.255 Offered IP Address = 160.10 Dest. IP Address = 255. and a DHCP server offers an IP address to the client. an offered IP address. so that DHCP servers know which client sent the request.30.255 as the destination address.0. The request for a lease is sent in a DHCPDISCOVER message. and 255.DHCP Operation DHCPDISCOVER Source IP Address = 0.30.20. IP Address = 255.0.0 as the source address.255. broadcast an offer with the following information: The client’s hardware address. it requests an IP address lease by broadcasting a request to all DHCP servers.0.20.255. In the first two phases the client requests a lease from a DHCP server.0 Dest.

DHCP Operation DHCPREQUEST Source IP Address = 0. TCP/IP is completely initialised and is considered a bound DHCP client.255.30.The client stores the IP address.0.0. IP Address = 255.255.0 Length of Lease = 72 hours Server Identifier = 160.255. it broadcasts to all DHCP servers that it has made a selection by accepting an offer.20. When the DHCP client receives the acknowledgement.255.1 Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/20 In the last two phases.150 Server Identifier = 160. IP Lease Selection After the client receives an offer from at least one DHCP server. Hardware Address = 00-80-37-12-34-56 Requested IP Address = 160. IP Lease Acknowledgement (Successful) The DHCP server with the accepted offer broadcasts a successful acknowledgement to the client in the form of a DHCPACK message. Once bound the client can use TCP/IP to communicate on the internetwork.0 Dest.150 Client Hardware Address 00.10 DHCP Option: Router = 160.10 DHCPACK Source IP Address = the client selects an offer and the DHCP server acknowledges the lease. IP Address = 255.255. 7-22 .255. The broadcast is sent in a DHCPREQUEST message and includes the identifier (IP address) of the server whose offer was accepted.255 Offered IP Address = 160.37.20. All other DHCP servers then retract their offer so that their IP addresses are available for the next IP lease request. subnet mask. Subnet Mask = Dest. and other IP addressing information locally. This message contains a valid lease for an IP address and possibly other configuration information.20.

When the client receives an unsuccessful acknowledgement.5 percent of the lease time has expired.IP Lease Acknowledgement (Unsuccessful) An unsuccessful acknowledgement (DHCPNACK) is broadcast if: •The client is trying to lease its previous IP address and the IP address is no longer available. If this is unsuccessful and the lease expires. 7-23 . If a lease cannot be renewed by the original DHCP server. it returns to the process of requesting an IP lease. or • The IP address is invalid because the client has been physically moved to a different subnet. the client still uses the address as 50 percent of the lease life is still available. a DHCP client sends a DHCPREQUEST message directly to the DHCP server from which it obtained the lease. the DHCP clients can no longer use the IP address and communication over TCP/IP stops until a new IP address can be assigned to the client. To renew its lease. The client will attempt to contact any available DHCP server when 87. IP Lease Renewal All DHCP clients attempt to renew their lease when 50 percent of the lease time has expired.

– Simpler header. This is an increase in address space of 2 to the power of 96.allowing effectively an unlimited supply of Internet addresses. Instead of the type-ofservice field in IPv4. – Enhanced security – Better implementation of type-of-service. • There is better support for Options. • The address in IPv6 is 16 bytes long. This problem has been caused primarily because of the explosion of IP devices connecting to the Internet. to cope better with MultiMedia traffic.IP version 6 (IPv6) l Enhancements to IPv4: – Larger address. 128 bits instead of 32 bits . • The header is simplified in IPv6. Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/21 IPv6 was primarily developed to solve the problem of a shortage of available addresses in IPv4. IPv6 enables the labelling of packets belonging to a particular traffic flow for which the sender requests special handling. It contains only seven fields rather than 13 in IPv4. making it simple for routers to skip over Options not intended for them. This change allows routers to process packets faster and thus improve throughput. It includes features that support authentication and privacy.allows routers to process packets faster.The future of IP . • Security is improved in IPv6. • There is a better implementation of type of service. thus improving throughput – Better support for Options and they are presented differently (a series of fixed length headers rather than a single header with a variable length Option field). 7 instead of 13 fields . This feature speeds up packet processing time. such as real-time video. The way Options are represented is different. this aids in the support of specialised traffic. 7-24 . It provides an effectively unlimited supply of Internet addresses.

• We looked at Internet Protocol (IP) and discussed its characteristics and how it transports data across a network. • We looked at Transmission control protocol (TCP) and discussed its characteristics. • We discussed encapsulation and looked at an example of and IP packet encapsulated in an Ethernet packet. We also examined the IP packet structure and IPv6.Summary • In chapter 7 we examined the four layers in the TCP/IP protocol and described the functions of each layer. Ericsson Systems Expertise 7/038 13 LZUBB 108116/22 7-25 . We also examined the ARP packet structure. • We looked at User Datagram protocol (UDP) and its characteristics. •We also reviewed Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and its characteristics. • We discussed the ARP mechanism and looked at an example of how it works. We examined how it transmits data across a network and its packet structure.We described Internal Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and discussed its functionality.



Exercises & Solutions .

What are the differences between repeaters. 1. What function does the Network layer serve? 6.INTRODUCTION TO INTERNETWORKING In this exercise you will learn about internetworking basics. bridges and routers? . 4. What is a broadcast domain? 8. Name five standards organisations. List two differences between LANs and WANs. 2. What is a collision domain? 7. Why would an enterprise want to internetwork? 3. What is the difference between a proprietary and a de-facto standard? 5.

Name three different types of network topologies. Define SAS and DAS and what are their functions? 7. What is the difference between Peer-to-Peer and Client/Access Point? . What is the main reason for using CSMA/CD? 4. 1. What are the differences between Ethernet. Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet? 3. What is meant by wrapping? 6. Why are wLANs simple and reliable? 10. What is FDDI and why would you use it? 5. 8. Give instances where wLANs are particularly useful other than those given in the notes. What medium does a wLAN use for transmission? 9.LAN TECHNOLOGIES In this exercise you will learn about different LAN technologies. 2.

. 2.BRIDGING In this exercise you will learn about bridging. Name the two types of bridging. What is a bridging loop and how is it prevented? 4. What is spanning tree? 5. 1. List two advantages and two disadvantages of bridging. What are the three steps involved in transparent bridge operation? 3.

6. 1. 4. List two disadvantages of RIP. List four of the routing metrics available. What are the two steps involved in the routing process? 3. Explain the difference between routable protocols and routing protocols. . 2. 5.ROUTING In this exercise you will learn about routing. List two disadvantages of OSPF. List two advantages of routing.

.25 correspond to? 4. Describe briefly what happens during LCP/NCP negotiation. 1.WAN TECHNOLOGIES In this exercise you will learn about WAN technologies. What is LAP-B and what is its function? 5. What are the two primary switching technologies used inWANs? 3. 9. What is the difference between Dedicated and Switched lines? 2. What are the core functions of frame relay? 7. What are PVC and SVC? 6. What layers of the OSI model does X. Describe Local and Global addressing. What is Dial-up on Congestion? 10. If frame relay has no flow-control how does it deal with congestion? 8.

PNNI and B-ICI? 9. What are PVC and SVC? 8. What are the two parts in an ATM switch and what is the difference between them? 6. 1. ATM Combines what? 2. What are the two types of header format available? 4. What is the function of AAL? 5. What are the ATM address formats? . What are the main functions of an ATM switch? 7.ATM In this exercise you will learn about ATM. What is the difference between UNI. What does a basic ATM cell consist of? 3.

What is ARP responsible for? 4. What are the main protocols that can be used in the Internet layer? 3. What is DHCP and what does it do? 7. List the four layers in the TCP/IP architecture. 1. 2. What is ICMP responsible for? 5. What is the main difference between IP and TCP? 6.TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE In this exercise you will learn about the TCP/IP protocol suite. What are the main differences between IPv4 and IPv6? .

A de-facto standard is one that is supported by a large number of manufacturers. . in addition to this they also stop network broadcast traffic. A repeater regenerates the signal. An enterprise may internetwork for the following reasons: • • • • To reduce load To increase performance If the physical distance between the devices was to great In order to connect all their different departments 3. 7. The Network layer switches and routes information to the appropriate network device. A bridge reduces the number of collisions on the network by breaking the network into smaller segments. Five standards organisations are: • • • • • ITU – International Telecommunications Union IEEE – Institute of Electrical Engineers ANSI – American National Standards Institute FORUMS ISO – International Standards Organisation 4. they do not reduce network collisions or broadcast traffic. Broadcast domain is if a device sends out a Network layer broadcast it will be received by all devices within the same broadcast domain. thus reducing the amount of traffic on each segment. 6. A router like a bridge reduces the number of collisions. The two main differences between LANs andWANs are: • That LANs are geographically bounded whereasWANs have no distance limitations. 8. 5. • LANs also have a higher communication rate thanWANs. If two devices within the same domain attempt to transmit simultaneously the packets will collide and re-transmission will occur.INTRODUCTION TO INTERNETWORKING Solutions to Exercise 1. A proprietary standard is one that is manufacturer specific. 2.

fiber optic LAN working at 100Mpbs. Access media. 6. Encryption also guarantees a high degree of security. They can go where wired LANs cannot. FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) is a highperformance . Wrapping is the process which occurs when a break is experienced in the primary ring of an FDDI LAN and the devices either side of the break join the primary and secondary rings to maintain the ring topology. twisted pair cabling verses coaxial. Ethernet or token-ring. Entire networks can be pre-configured and troubleshot prior to installation at remote sites. 7. With Client/Access point the access acts like abasestation with which the mobile client communicates as it moves about.LAN TECHNOLOGIES Solutions to Exercise 1. 2. typically a few meters. They can be easily moved around. With Peer-to-Peer the sending and receiving stations must be within range of each other. 5. It does not take part in wrapping. Own Suggestions!! 8. 9. To over come the problem of devices not having access to the network at any time. SAS is a Single Attachment Station and is normally connected to the primary ring only. There is no fixed equipment. Speed 10 Mbps verses 100Mbps. . and for its reliability and capacity. Radio waves and Infrared waves.when using gigabit Ethernet retraining of staff is necessary. It would be used as high speed backbone for existing LANs either. 4. 10. The range is 30m-100m. Training . Bus Ring and Star are the three types of network topologies that are in existence. DAS is a Dual Attachment Station usually attached to both rings and does perform wrapping when a fault is detected. 3.

This uses up bandwidth and blocks the transmission of other packets. If a packet arrives at an address and the destination is unknown. 5. but ensures a loop-free topology through a bridge-to-bridge protocol. 2. The two different types of bridges are transparent bridges and source-route bridges. . It allows redundant paths. Using the spanning tree protocol can prevent the problem. The advantages of bridging are as follows: • • • • They are simple to install They are transparent to users They can handle unroutable protocols They are relatively cheap The disadvantages associated with bridging are as follows: • They cannot simultaneously use redundant paths • They cannot prevent a “broadcast storm” • They do not help in fault isolation. Spanning Tree is a protocol that eliminates bridging loops in LANs. it is flooded out to every other interface. 4.BRIDGING Solutions to Exercise 1. A bridging loop occurs when this information is continually circulated around through the bridges. There are three steps involved in transparent bridging operation are: • Learning • Forwarding • Filtering 3.

2. 3. The disadvantages of OSPF are: • Heavy memory use • CPU utilisation • Expensive . 5.ROUTING Solutions to Exercise 1. Routing protocols are protocols that implement routing algorithms. The two steps involved in the routing process are • Determination of Optimal Routing path. • • • • • • Path Length/Hop count Reliability Delay Bandwidth Load Communication cost 4. in other words they route routable protocols through and internetwork. The disadvantages of RIP are: • Slow convergence • Quantity of update traffic • Limits the size of internetwork 6. Routable protocols are protocols that are routed over an internetwork. • Transport of packets through an internetwork. The following are the advantages of routers. The following is a list of routing metrics available. • • • • Routers are more flexible than bridges They can load share over redundant paths They provide a protective firewall They are easier to administer and control because each segment has a different address.

A dedicated line is a permanent connection between two points. Tearing down circuits after a call. Dial-up on Congestion occurs when the traffic on the dedicated line exceeds the available bandwidth and the automatically uses the ISDN line to provide additional bandwidth.WAN TECHNOLOGIES Solutions to Exercise 1. The two primary switching technologies are packet switching and circuit switching. 3. if they are full then all other frames are discarded. The X. 2.25 corresponds to the bottom three layer of the OSI model. it lets users setup temporary connections for the duration of the call. Handling flow-control. NCP packets are now sent to configure the network layer and to assign an IP address to the caller. Physical layer. Each switch in the network will use the same DLCI when talking to an individual destination. Instead. A leased line isa n example of a dedicated line. LCP will shut down the data link connection. . Local addressing is where the DLCI value has relevance to the source station and its home switch. When the session is over NCP will tear down the network layer connection and free up the IP address. 10. 7. LAP-B=Link Access Protocol-Balanced. A switched line on the other hand does not need permanent connections. Global addressing has relevance to the entire network. A Permanent Virtual Circuit is a fixed network-assigned virtual circuit. is a link layer protocol and its main functions are : Establishing virtual connections. • Checking frames for errors. • • • • 5. Once a connection is established the LCP are sent to the destination. Other remote switches can also use the same DLCI. The responses and the original requests select the PPP parameters to be used. 4. Acknowledgement of receipt of packets. 6. that is. 9. Frame relay deals with congestion in two ways: • Arbitrary Selection • Discard Eligibility 8. • Checking buffer status. A Switched Virtual Circuit is a dynamically established virtual circuit with call set-up and call clearing procedures. The core functions of frame relay are: • Routing incoming frames to the correct outgoing port. the Data Link layer and the Network layer.

It is a connection set up by network management in which a set of switches between a source and destination are programmed with the appropriate VPI and VCI values. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) translates incoming traffic from application format to ATM format. subscriber access to the network. The main function of an ATM switch is to receive cells on a port and switch those cells to the proper output port based on the VPI and VCI values of the cell. Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface is the signalling and routing protocol for managing on demand. 2. B-ICI. The three ATM address formats are: Data Country Code (DCC). Each can be switched individually. A virtual path is a path set up through a switch for the duration of a call and it is made up of virtual channels. Private Network-Network Interface provides the routing protocols for Managing and controlling the ATM network. 6. UNI. There are two types of header available these are UNI header format and NNI header format. SVC is Switched Virtual Circuit. 8. ATM combines the best features from circuit switching and packet switching. 9. 5.164 (ISDN format). low delay and flexible bandwidth respectively. It also provides support for connection-oriented connectionless and variable rate applications. 7. The two parts to an ATM switch are Virtual Channels and Virtual Paths. recognition of Quality of Service contract and data to be sent over the network.ATM Solutions to Exercise 1. switched connections between ATM networks. User Network Interface allows. 4. The ATM cell consists of a payload and a header. PVC is Permanent Virtual Circuit. It is a connection set up dynamically by the signalling protocol. . 3. International Code Designator (ICD) and E. PNNI. subscriber recognition through ATM addressing.

The main protocols used in the internet layer are: • IP • ARP • ICMP 3. It automatically assigns IP addresses to devices in a network configured to use DCHP and in this way it manages to allocation of TCP/IP configuration information. .TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE Solutions to Exercise 1. it is a “best effort” delivery system. 16 bytes instead of 4. ARP is responsible for obtaining hardware address of TCP/IP devices on broadcast-based networks. DHCP. The main difference between IP and TCP is that TCP is reliable whereas IP is not. 5. 7 fieldsverses 13. The four layer in the TCP/IP suite are: • • • • Network interface Internet Transport Application 2. 4. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 6. Larger Address. Etc. 7. ICMP reports errors and sends control messages on behalf of IP. Simpler Header. Improved security.



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