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Multiple Access Technique
GSM Network Architecture Call scenario and call set up ,Hand over ,Location update Radio planning and GSM coverage GSM Network Interferences and Signaling Access to 3G and New communication systems Communication Companies and Different positions
Any Communication system consists of :-
Twisted-pair 2.Coaxial cable 3-optical fibers 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 4 .Introduction • The kinds of transmission medium : Wired Wireless Wired transmission medium : 1.
only one at a time Police radio. television Half duplex Two-way. both at the same time PSTN.Introduction Communication Channels’ types:Channel Type Properties Applications Simplex One-way only FM radio. push-to-talk Full duplex Two-way. Mobile systems 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 5 .
SOURCE Source Received Transmitted Received info. signal signal Transmitter Receiver Channel User Transmitter Source Source encoder Channel encoder Modulator Receiver Destination 2006-01-24 Source decoder Channel decoder Lecture 1 Demodulator 6 .Introduction Communication system consists of :Noise Info.
numbers. Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters. and certain symbols) into a specialized format for efficient transmission or storage. The opposite operation is called decoding.Introduction Encoding:Encoding is the process of transforming information from one format into another. punctuation. Decoding is the opposite process “ Source Encoding ” conversion from analog to digital is Encoding 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 7 .
Introduction • Channel encoding deals with error control during the transmission through the communication channel. • Error detection Codes • Parity check codes (Odd parity – Even parity) (Frame – Protocols )?? 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 8 .
Data Compression is an important subject as more digital
information is required to be stored and transmitted.
• Compression methods: There are two main types of compression.
Lossless compression Lossy compression
Classification of signals …
• Periodic and non-periodic signals
A periodic signal
A non-periodic signal
• Analog and discrete signals
2006-01-24 Lecture 1
A discrete signal
Classification of signals
• Deterministic and random signals
– Deterministic signal: No uncertainty with respect to the signal value at any time. – Random signal: Some degree of uncertainty in signal values before it actually occurs.
• Thermal noise in electronic circuits due to the random movement of electrons • Reflection of radio waves from different layers of ionosphere
Noise 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 12 .
Digital versus analog • Advantages of digital communications: Original pulse – Regenerator receiver Regenerated pulse Propagation distance – Different kinds of digital signal are treated identically. Voice Data Media 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 A bit is a bit! 13 .
Analog VS Digital Digital Communication:Advantages of Digital :Less noise effect More reliable Easy to manipulate Flexible Compatibility with other digital systems Only digitized information can be transported through a noisy channel without degradation Integrated networks 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 14 .
We loss some of information due to sampling process 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 15 .Introduction Disadvantages of Digital Sampling Error Digital communications require greater bandwidth than analogue to transmit the same information.
When you use a phone. the variations in your voice are transformed by a microphone into similar variations in an electrical signal and carried down the line to the exchange Advantages of Analogue Uses less bandwidth More accurate Disadvantages of Analogue The effects of random noise can make signal loss and distortion impossible to recover and more effect by noise 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 16 .Introduction Definition of Analogue :Analogue is a transmission standard that uses electrical impulses to emulate the audio waveform of sound.
Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching Circuit Switching 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 17 .
Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching Packet Switching 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 18 .
Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 19 .
Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 20 .
Multiple Acess Techniqe It is used because the limitation of transmission resources comparing with the number of users 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 21 .
Multiple Acess Techniqe Three types of Multiple Access Technique are available: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 22 .
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Each FDMA user is assigned a specific frequency channel. Although this technology will reduce signal interference. it also severely limits the number of users able to transmit at a time. No one else in the same cell or a neighboring cell can use the frequency channel while it is assigned to a user. Strength User 1 User 2 User 3 f1 2006-01-24 f2 Lecture 1 f3 Frequency 23 .
The time slices are so small that the human ear cannot perceive the time slicing. and therefore assumes that they have the entire channel to transmit their signal. They are each given a time slot and only allowed to transmit during that particular time slot. When all available time slots in a given frequency are used. the next user must be assigned a time slot on another frequency. but use the channel for only a very short amount of time. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 24 .Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA users share a common frequency channel.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Strength User 2. time=t0 User 1. time=0 Frequency 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 25 .
TDMA VS FDMA Strength User 1 User 2 User 7 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 26 .
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) CDMA users share a common frequency channel. However. each pair of users is assigned a special code that reduces interferences while increasing privacy. Strength Frequency 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 27 . All users are on the same frequency at the same time.
TDMA VS FDMA VS CDMA 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 28 .
2006-01-24 Lecture 1 29 . also it used as a part of the third operator in Egypt “Etisalat”. Mobinil and Vodafone. • It is used in Egypt by the two existing operators. • It is known as the second generation mobile telecommunications system “2G system”.What is the GSM? • GSM is the Global System for Mobile telecommunications. • It is the European standard for the Mobile telecommunications and it is considered as one of the most popular standard worldwide.
GSM Worldwide (darker areas) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 30 .
5 generation mobile telecommunications system “2G system”. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 31 . • It is known as the 2.What is the GPRS? • GPRS is the General Packet Radio Service. • Within the GSM network it shares the network databases and radio access network.
3GPP2 which uses the CDMA2000 technology.3GPP which uses the W-CDMA technology. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 32 .3G Systems Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) is the marketing name for the 3G has two standardization bodies: 1. 2.
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 33 .
The MS consists of two independent parts: Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card Mobile Equipment (ME) + 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 34 .Basic GSM Network Structure Mobile Station (MS) • The Mobile Station (MS) is the interface between the user and the network.
but the antenna is not connected to the handset of the unit. Vehicle Mounted تليفون السياره These devices are mounted in a vehicle and the antenna is physically mounted on the outside of the vehicle. The antenna is be connected to the handset. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 35 . Portable Mobile Unit This equipment can be handheld when in operation. Handportable Unit This equipment comprises of a small telephone handset not much bigger than a calculator.Basic GSM Network Structure Mobile Equipment (ME) • • • • • • The ME is the only part of the GSM network which the subscriber will really see.
The hardware has an identity number associated with it. This identity number is called The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) “To guarantee that the mobile not to be stolen” 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 36 .Basic GSM Network Structure Mobile Equipment Capabilities: RF power capability Encryption capability Frequency capability Short message service capability The ME is the hardware used by the subscriber to access the network. which is unique for that particular device and permanently stored in it.
Basic GSM Network Structure International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) 6 Digits 2 Digits 6 Digits TAC FAC SN IMEI TAC: Type Approval Code. The first two digits are the code for the country approval FAC: Final Assembly Code SN: Serial Number 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 37 .
Basic GSM Network Structure • IMEI • Short for International Mobile Equipment Identity. typically found behind the battery. • When a phone is reported stolen or is not type approved. • IMEI numbers of cellular phones connected to a GSM network are stored in a database (EIR . a unique number given to every single mobile phone.Equipment Identity Register) containing all valid mobile phone equipment. • The number consists of four groups that looks this: • nnnnnn--nn-nnnnnn-n 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 38 . the number is marked invalid.
The rest make up the final assembly code. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 39 . The first two digits represent the country code.Basic GSM Network Structure • The first set of numbers is the type approval code (TAC). The second group of numbers identifies the manufacturer: • 01 and 02 = AEG • 07 and 40 = Motorola • 10 and 20 = Nokia • 41and 44 = Siemens • 51= Sony. Ericsson • The third set is the serial number and the last single digit is an additional number (usually 0). Siemens.
• It contains a memory that contain information about the MS subscriber hence the name Subscriber Identity Module.Basic GSM Network Structure • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) • The SIM as mentioned previously is a “smart card” which plugs into the ME “Mobile Equipment”. • This memory can store data by the user. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 40 .
Basic GSM Network Structure • The SIM contains several pieces of information: • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • This number identifies the MS subscriber. • Location Area Identity (LAI) • Identifies the current location of the subscriber. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 41 . • Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) • This is used to authenticate the SIM card. It is only transmitted over the air during initialization. it is periodically changed by the system. • Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) • This number identifies the subscriber.
Basic GSM Network Structure • Mobile Station International Services Digital Network (MSISDN) 20 10 1100477 44 385 196099 CC NDC SN CC NDC SN Vodafone Egypt MSISDN Vodafone UK MSISDN CC NDC SN 2006-01-24 : Country Code : National Destination Code : Subscriber Number Lecture 1 42 .
Basic GSM Network Structure Base Station Subsystem (BSS) BSS BTS BSC MS 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 43 .
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 44 .
2006-01-24 Lecture 1 45 . • Records and passes to the BSC the Signal strength measurements. The antenna is included as part of the BTS.Basic GSM Network Structure • The Base Transceiver Station – BTS • The BTS contains the RF components that provide the air interface for a particular cell. • Converts the GSM radio signals into a format that can be recognized by the BSC. This is the part of the GSM network which communicates with the MS. • Channel coding and interleaving.
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 46 .
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 47 .
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 48 .
During Call : » Monitoring the call quality.Basic GSM Network Structure • The BSC is the central node within a BSS and co-ordinates the actions of Base Stations. • Its main functions can be divided into two types: During Call Set Up: » Finding the called mobile station by paging. » Allocate the frequency for setting the call. The BSC controls a major part of the radio network. » Control the handover for the MS after receiving the power measurements from the MS and from the BTS. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 49 . » Controlling the transmitted power to the MS depending on the location of the MS.
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 50 .
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 51 .
Basic GSM Network Structure • • • • • One location area consists of more than one BTS. One cell is covered by one Antenna. One BTS covers 3 cells. One BSC controls more than one BTS. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 52 . one Location Area consists of more than one cell. So.
or BTS. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 53 . • The transcoding function may be located at the MSC. that is. between the BSS and MS (64 kbit/s to 16 kbit/s and vice versa) • The 64 kbit/s Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) circuits from the MSC. into the form specified by GSM specifications for transmission over the air interface. if transmitted on the air interface without modification. • This would use the available radio spectrum inefficiently.Basic GSM Network Structure • Transcoder (XCDR) • The Transcoder (XCDR) is required to convert the speech or data output from the MSC (64 kbit/s PCM). BSC. The required bandwidth is therefore reduced by processing the 64 kbit/s circuits so that the amount of information • required to transmit digitized voice calls to a gross rate of 16 kbit/s. would occupy an excessive amount of radio bandwidth.
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) NSS HLR AUC BTS BSC BTS 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 MSC/VLR 54 .
Basic GSM Network Structure 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 55 .
Provides the gateway functionality to other networks. Control of connected BSC’s. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 56 . One MSC controls more than one BSC.Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • The primary node in a GSM network is the MSC. It is the node which controls calls establishment. Access to PSTN. Service providing. The primary functions of an MSC include the following: Switching and call routing to or from MS. Charging.
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 57 .
VMSC: Visited MSC GMSC: Gateway MSC TMSC: Transit MSC 58 .Types of the MSC There are three types of the MSC. the difference just in the function.
MSC/VLR BSC BSC .Visited Mobile Switching Center Its function is to switch in the level of BSCs and it is combined with a VLR.
Transit Mobile Switching Center Its function is to switch between the different VMSC. It is not combined with a VLR. TMSC VMSC VMSC .
Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC)
• Its function is to connect the PLMN to the PSTN or to the other PLMN existing in the country.
Home Location Register (HLR)
• The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. • It acts as a permanent store for a person’s subscription information until that subscription is cancelled. • The primary functions of the HLR include: Stores for each mobile subscriber: • Basic subscriber categories. • Supplementary services. • Current location. • Allowed/barred services. • Authentication data. Subscription database management Controls the routing of mobile terminated calls and SMS
2006-01-24 Lecture 1 63
Home Location Register (HLR) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 64 .
• The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. • Thus. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 65 .Visitor Location Register (VLR) • The role of a VLR in a GSM network is to act as a temporary storage location for subscription information for MSs. This means that the MSC does not have to contact the HLR (which may be located in another country) every time the subscriber uses a service or changes its status. there is one VLR for each MSC service area. which are within a particular MSC service area.
idle or busy) Current Location Area of MS 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 66 . then the VLR contains a complete copy of the necessary subscription details. including the following information: Identity numbers for the subscriber Supplementary service information (e. Does the subscriber has call waiting activated or not) Activity of MS (e.g.Visitor Location Register (VLR) • For the duration when the MS is within one MSC service area.g.
Visitor Location Register (VLR) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 67 .
An MS can only decipher information intended for it. the network ensures that no unauthorized users can access the network.Authentication Center (AUC) • To protect GSM systems. including those that are attempting to impersonate others. Radio information ciphering: the information sent between the network and an MS is ciphered. the following security functions have been defined: Subscriber authentication: by performing authentication. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 68 .
• Example.Equipment Identification Register(EIR) • In order to block the stolen mobiles equipments. • The Mobile equipment is identified by a number called International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This number is uniquely identifies the MS worldwide. In Turkey all the mobile phones bought from outside Turkey are blocked and can not be used before paying fees. the EIR equipment is used. also in case of the Mobile operator wants to block a certain type of Mobile phones. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 69 .
4. • The equipment identification procedure uses the identity of the equipment itself (IMEI) to ensure that the MS terminal equipment is valid.Equipment Identification Register (EIR) • Because the subscriber and equipment are separate in GSM. IMEI Request 2. IMEI Check EIR MSC / VLR 1. IMEI 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 70 . Access/ Barring Data 3. it is necessary to have a separate authentication process for the MS equipment.
Equipment Identification Register (EIR) International Mobile Equipment Identity 6 Digits 2 Digits 6 Digits (IMEI) TAC FAC SN IMEI TAC: Type Approval Code. The first two digits are the code for the country approval FAC: Final Assembly Code SN: Serial Number 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 71 .
Equipment Identification Register (EIR) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 72 .
Data rate adaption. Protocol conversion. 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 73 .Interworking Function (IWF) Interworking Function (IWF) The IWF provides the function to enable the GSM system to interface with the various forms of public and private data networks currently available. The basic features of the IWF are listed below.
2006-01-24 Lecture 1 74 . even on short distance PSTN circuit connections. Echo control is required at the switch because the incoherent GSM system delay can cause an unacceptable echo condition.Echo Canceller (EC) • An EC is used on the PSTN side of the MSC for all voice circuits.
• It can be viewed as a computerized monitoring center were staff can monitor and control the network remotely. HLR. VLR. MSC. MSC HLR OMC LAN BSC SMSC .OSS • The operation and Maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment (the GMSC. EIR and the BSC). AUC.
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 76 .
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 77 .
The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. 78 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 .Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) Operations and maintenance center (OMC) • (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations . The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. regional. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized.
Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 79 .
2. The MS sends a call set-up request via MSC/VLR. PSTN MSC BSC . 3. which establishes a connection to the subscriber. all signaling preceding a call takes place. This includes: • Marking the MS as “active” in the VLR • The authentication procedure • Equipment identification • Sending the B-subscriber’s number to the network • Checking if the subscriber has the service “Barring of outgoing calls” activated 4. The MSC/VLR forwards the B–number to an exchange in the PSTN. the connection is established. 5. The MS ask for a signaling channel. If the B-subscriber answers. The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC/TRC to allocate . The BTS and MS. 6. The BSC/TRC allocates a signaling channel.Mobile Originated Call 1.
Mobile Terminating call 1 HLR PSTN 3 5 2 6 GMSC 4 7 MSC BSC 8 9 .
Egypt Airport Roaming & Int. calls allowed ? Attached Detached VLR ADD= Stock. Is a roaming agreement present ? MSC/VLR Copy of the HLR Profile will be stored in Stock.. Roaming & Int.Roaming: Location Update IMSI 60202. VLR Is roaming and Int. Allowed Allowed HLR 82 .
MSC/VLR Attached HLR GWMSC VLR ADD= xyz .Roaming: Call to HPLMN “Home Public Location Mobile Network” MSISDN +2010….
Roaming: Call from HPLMN MSC/VLR Attached MSISDN 010… VLR ADD= Stock. Allowed . Airport HLR GWMSC Roaming & Int.
Allowed .Roaming: Call from another Roamer MSISDN +2010…. MSC/VLR A MSC/VLR B Attached VLR ADD= Stock. B HLR GWMSC Roaming & Int.
the location update process is done in aim to exactly identify the location of the subscribers within the network so that any incoming call goes directly to the called subscriber. This will result in a huge amount of location update messages.Location Update Why do we need to update our location data ? Actually. This will cause huge amount of paging messages. one can say that we may update the system with the cell ID each time the subscriber changes his serving cell. The MSC/VLR will now know the exact cell you are roaming in. An extreme is never to make a location update and to be paged in all the network. . – To fulfill this aim.
Location Update .
Normal Location update within same MSC/VLR service area 2.Types of Location Update 1. Periodic Location Update . IMSI attach/detach 4. Normal Location update between 2 different MSC/VLR service areas 3.
The mobile sends a location update request message with its IMSI to the MSC/VLR 4. The BTS responds with the allocation message BSC 3. The MSC/VLR updates the location information and sends a Location Update confirmation message . The Mobile sends an allocation request message to the BTS 2.Normal Location within the same MSC/VLR Service area 4 MSC/VLR Updates LA Record 1.
The mobile sends a location update request to the MSC. The HLR sends the data to the new MSC/VLR and it is kept there 6. The HLR stores the address of the new MSC/VLR 5. 3. The HLR sends a location cancellation message to the old MSC/VLR to remove the data 7. The new MSC/VLR sends a location updating confirmation message to the mobile Old MSC/VLR New MSC/VLR Old BSC NEW BSC LA 2 LA 1 . The MSC/VLR sends a subscriber information request with the IMSI to the proper HLR 4. 2.Normal Location Update between 2 different MSC/VLR service areas VLR Address = New Old MSC VLR HLR 1. The new MSC/VLR receives the IMSI and conclude the its HLR address.
The MS requests a signaling channel. 4. The MSC/VLR sets the IMSI attach in the VLR. The MSC/VLR receives the IMSI attach message from the MS. 3. a normal location update takes place. The mobile is now ready for normal call handling.IMSI Attach IMSI attach is a complement to the IMSI detach procedure. If the MS changes location area while being switched off. The VLR returns an acknowledgment to the MS. It is used by the mobile subscriber to inform the network that it has re-entered an active state and is still in the same location area. 1 BSC MSC/VLR 2 4 3 . 1. 2.
Periodic Location Update Periodic location update is a routine task performed by the network if the MS doesn’t make any network action SMS. etc) (sets a call. ( Temporarily out of service ) 92 . it will be marked as implicitly detached. receives a call.…. location update. sends If the MS doesn’t respond to this periodic location update.
the MS is continuously measuring transmission quality of neighboring cells and reports this results to the BSC through the BTS.Handover Handover is to keep continuity of the call when the subscriber is roaming along the network moving from one cell to another and moving between different nodes in the network. is responsible of handover initiation. Good neighbor relations between cells is an important factor in keeping the network performance in the accepted level. being responsible on supervising the cells. 93 . The BSC. During call.
Inter BSC / Intra MSC Handover: When the cell to which the call will be handed over belongs to the different BSCs but to the same serving MSC. 3. 94 . Intra BSC Handover: When the cell to which the call will be handed over belongs to the same BSC of the serving cell. 2.Types of Handover 1. Inter MSC When the cell to which the call will be handed over belongs to the different BSC and different MSC.
Intra BSC Handover 1. The new cell sends a message to the BSC that the handover is successful 8. The BSC checks the new cell and orders this cell to activate the TCH 3. The new cell detects the handover burst and sends information about the suitable timing advance to the MS 6 5 6. The MS tunes to the new frequency and Serving Cell 3 4 New Cell Sends handover access burst 5. The MS sends complete message to the new cell 7. The BSC orders the old Cell to release the TCH . The BSC decides from the power measurement reports that the call must be handed over to another cell BSC 7 8 2 2. The BSC orders the serving cell to send a message to the MS telling the information of new TCH 4.
Inter BSC /Intra MSC Handover MSC/VLR Old BSC New BSC 96 .
Inter MSC Handover
Air Interface Layers
Messages Logical Channels Radio Transmission Terminal Layer 3 Messages Layer 2 Packets Layer 1 Bits Messages Logical Channels Radio Transmission Base Station
GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900
Frequency Downlink Bandwidth Duplex Distance Carrier Separation Radio Channels
890 -915 MHz
935-960 MHz 25 MHz 45 MHz 200 KHz 124
1930-1990 MHz 60 MHz 80 MHz 200 KHz 299
1805-1880 MHz 75 MHz 95 MHz 200 KHz 374
4 935.6 3 4 915 F (MHz) 935.6 4 Uplink 121 121 122 123 124 890.2 1 890 2 3 890.4 960 F (MHz) GSM 900 Frequency Allocation .2 1 935 2 Downlink 121 122 123 124 121 935.Spectrum Allocation (GSM 900) Downlink 935 – 960 MHz Uplink 890 – 915 MHz 200 KHz 890.
• It is found that a 200 kHz channel separation is suitable for all systems. • Where The more the separation the less the co-channel interference but the less the available channels suited in the bandwidth. 101 .FDMA in GSM • Separation between carriers “Frequency gap” must be sufficient to eliminate interference between adjacent channels.
one carrier is used to carry a number of calls. • It is found that a 8 Time Slots per carrier. and depending on information sent we named what called “logical Channels” 102 . • These periods of time are referred to as time slots . called “physical channels” is suitable for all systems. each call using that carrier at designated periods in time . and both the same.TDMA in GSM • With TDMA. • Each MS on a call is assigned one time slot on the uplink frequency and one on the downlink frequency. • Information sent during one time slot is called a burst.
Channel Type Traffic Channel Transmit voice and data Signaling Channel transmit the signaling and synchronous data between BTS and MS. .
codes – Physical channels transfer bits from one network element to another • Logical Channels “Control” – Distinguished by the nature of carried information and the way to assemble bits into data units – Three types • one-to-one: traffic channels between a BTS and a MS • one-to-many: synchronization signals from BTS to MSs in a cell • many-to-one: from MSs to the same BTS .Channels • Physical Channels “Traffic ” – Associated with frequency bands. time slots.
CH 124 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CH 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CH 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 CH 1 .Physical Channels GSM band is divided into 124 RF channels. and each channel is divided into 8 time slots using TDMA. These time slots are called “physical channels”.
• Carries either encoded speech or user data up and down link between a single mobile and a single BTS. • Types of traffic channel: – Full rate (TCH) • Transmits full rate speech (13 Kbits/s). A full rate TCH occupies one physical channel. – Half rate (TCH/2) • Transmits half rate speech (6.5 Kbits/s). • Two half rate TCHs can share one physical channel, thus doubling the capacity of a cell.
• These are used to carry signaling or synchronization data. They are divided into three types:– Broadcast CHannels (BCH) – Common Control CHannels (CCCH) – Dedicated Control CHannels (DCCH)
Broadcast Channels • From Single BTS to all the mobiles in the area Frequency Correction Control CHannel (FCCH) Synchronization CHannel (SCH) Carries information for frequency correction of the mobile Carries 2 important pieces of information TDMA frame number (max = 2715684 ) Base station identity Code (BSIC) Broadcasts some general cell information such as: Location Area Identity (LAI). Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) 109 .1. maximum output power allowed in the cell and the identity of BCCH carriers for neighboring cells.
The paging message contains the identity number of the mobile subscriber that the network wishes to contact.2. • Random Access CHannel (RACH) – MS Answers paging message on the RACH by requesting a signaling channel of SDCCH. 110 . • Access Grant CHannel (AGCH) – Assigns a signaling channel (SDCCH) to the MS.Common Control Channels • To or from a certain BTS to a single mobile • Paging CHannel (PCH) – BTS Transmits a paging message to indicate an incoming call or short message.
Dedicated Control Channels • Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) – The BTS switches to the assigned SDCCH. The BSC assigns a TCH (carrier and time slot) and the MS switches to the assigned SDCCH. • Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) – Transmits handover information. – MS Sends averaged measurements on its own BTS (signal strength and quality) and neighboring BTS’s (signal strength). The MS continues to use SACCH for this purpose during a call.3. – SDCCH is also used to Registration & Authentication • Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) – BTS Instructs the MS the transmitting power to use and gives instructions on timing advance (TA). – Transmits necessary handover information 111 . The call set-up procedure is performed in idle mode.
Control Channels .
8) 4.4) 9.8Kbit/s HR TCH (TCH/H4.8) FR Voice Traffic Channel (TCH/FS) Enhanced FR Traffic Channel (TCH/EFR) HR Traffic Channel (TCH/HS) channel BCH CCH FCCH (down) SCH (down) BCCH (down) RACH (up) AGCH (down) PCH (down) SDCCH FACCH SACCH CCCH DCCH .8Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F4.Channel Type-Summary 14.6Kbit/s FR TCH(TCH/F9.6) Data CH TCH Voice CH 4.4Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F14.
114 .Power Measurements Performed by the Mobile • Power measurements represent one of the important functions carried out by a mobile station in both of its modes: – idle mode – active mode • in order for the mobile to tune to the best cell.
This will take place during the idle frame number 26. the uplink time slot will be delayed by an offset of three time slots from the down link time slot. . To make sure that the measured carriers do not belong to co-channel cells. 2. 3.Power Measurements in Active Mode 1. (The mobile will try to measure the signal strength of these carriers one by one during the time between transmission and reception of the allocated traffic channel) The mobile is informed on the SACCH channel which BCCH frequencies to be measured. the mobile will have to check the identity of the adjacent cells by reading the BSIC value sent on the SCH of each cell. 4. To enable the mobile from making power measurements during a call. The mobile will make a list of the strongest six carriers and their BSIC values along with the signal strength of its cell. – (Note) The signal strength of the serving cell is measured during reception of the allocated traffic channel. and reports this list to the BSC via the uplink SACCH channel which is repeated once every 26 frame.
• The usage of the radio resources would be limited.GSM Coverage Plan • To provide coverage for a large service area of a mobile network we have two Options: (A) Install one transceiver with high radio power at the center of the service area – Drawbacks: • The mobile equipments used in this network should have high output power in order to be able to transmit signals across the coverage area. 116 .
GSM Coverage Plan (B) Divide the service area into smaller areas (cells) – Advantages: • Each cell as well as the mobile handsets will have relatively small power transceivers.Good interference characteristics 117 . 2. This yields: 1.Unlimited capacity of the system. • The frequency spectrum might be “reused” in two far separated cells.
Cell Geometry Problem of omni directional antennas Dead Spots 118 .
By some calculations. you will find that using hexagonal shaped cells achieves the optimum. R R R .Cell Geometrical Shape • Differentiation between these three shapes will be in order to optimize the number of cells required to cover a given service area against the cell transceiver power.
Cell Geometrical Shape Umbrella Cell Normal Cell Normal Cell Macro Cell .
Cell Geometrical Shape Umbrella cell Fast moving subscribers Pico cell In building coverage Macro cell Slow moving subscribers .
122 . 4. • Cluster can be 3. 7 and 9 cells.Clusters • Cluster is a set of cells where the frequency is not being reused within this cluster.
Sectorization Omni-Directional Cell sectroized Cells 123 .
3/9 Cluster A3 A2 A1 A3 A2 A1 B1 B3 B2 C1 A3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A1 C3 C2 C1 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 A2 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 B1 A3 A2 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C3 C1 .
4 / 12 Cluster A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 D1 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 D1 A3 A2 B1 B1 D3 B3 B2 A3 A2 B3 B2 B1 C3 D3 C2 D2 D1 B3 B2 A1 A3 A2 B1 C3 D2 C2 D3 D2 D1 C1 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 A3 A2 B3 B2 A3 A2 A1 D3 D2 C1 B3 C3 C2 D1 B1 D3 D2 B3 B2 B1 B2 A1 D2 C1 B3 B2 D3 C1 .
A3 A2 A1 B3 B2 B1 C3 C2 C1 A3 D1 D3 E3 E2 E1 F3 D2 F1 G3 G2 G1 B1 B3 F2 7 / 21 Cluster A3 A2 A1 D3 B2 D1 C3 E2 C2 C1 G1 A3 F2 A2 A1 B3 G2 G1 B1 C3 C2 C1 G1 B2 D1 G3 G2 D3 D2 G3 G2 B1 D2 F1 B3 B2 D1 C3 E2 C2 C1 G1 G3 G2 E1 F3 F2 A1 D3 A3 E3 E3 E2 A2 E1 E2 E3 A2 F3 D2 F1 F2 A1 B3 B2 B1 C3 D1 D3 E1 F3 D2 E3 F1 G3 E1 F3 C2 C1 F2 F1 .
Frequency Reuse If the GSM900 system has 124 Absolute Radio Frequency Traffic Channels. and if we are using only in our network 60 of them. then we can only serve 8 x 60 = 480 Calls if we only use the frequency once. and then repeat this cluster over the whole network 127 . a cellular network overcome this constraint and maximizes the number of subscribers that it can serve by using frequency re-use. However. The frequency reuse is performed by dividing the whole available frequencies between a group of neighboring cells which is called frequency reuse pattern or a “Cluster”.
Channel Interference 2.Frequency Reuse 3/9 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 9 groups and distributed between 3 sites 4/12 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 12 groups and distributed between 4 sites 7 / 21 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 21 groups and distributed between 7 sites But we must take into consideration two types of interference: 1.Adjacent Channel Interference 128 .Co.
Channel Interference • Co-channel interference is caused by short distance between the cell and other cell that use the same frequency.Co. Each frequency is reused after the same distance “D” Reuse Plan = (D/R)2 = 3N. To overcome this type of interference. Where N is the number of cells per cluster 129 .
must be avoided in the same cell and preferably in neighboring cells also .Adjacent Channel Interference • Adjacent frequencies. • To overcome this type we must make good planning for the frequencies in the cluster 130 . that are frequencies shifted 200kHz from the carrier frequency.
Frequency Planning A3 A2 A3 A2 A1 C3 C1 B1 A3 B3 A1 B2 B3 B2 B1 A3 C2 C1 A2 B3 C3 B3 A2 B2 A1 C3 B2 C1 B1 C2 C2 A1 B1 C3 C2 C1 Frequency group A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 64 Channels 73 82 65 74 83 66 75 84 67 76 85 68 77 86 69 78 87 70 79 71 80 72 81 131 .
132 . • In this case. a channel may be taken from a cell with low traffic load and moved to one with a higher traffic load. if doing so. • However. it is important to ensure that interference is still minimized.Frequency Planning • In a real network the allocation of channels to cells will not be as uniform as in table. as some cells will require more channels and some will require less.
Which Cluster Size to use? • • Carrier to interference ratio It’s the difference in power level between the carrier in a given cell and the same carrier received from the nearest cell that reuses the same frequency. Number of frequencies per site 3/9 4/12 High Medium Traffic Channels C/I Ratio High Medium Low Medium 7/21 Low Low High 133 .
Introduction to Cell Planning 134 .
2006-01-24 Lecture 1 135 .
Radio Transmission problems • As it was stated before that the mobile telecommunications will use radio transmission as the transmission technique. 1 . • We will discuss these problems in details during our course. the radio transmission is suffering from many problems which causing unacceptable degradation of the service quality.
Multipath Fading a. Rayleigh Fading b.Radio Transmission problems 1. Path Loss 2. Time Alignment 2 . Time Dispersion 3.
Radio Transmission problems 1. Path Loss Cause Due to Increasing distance between MS. Solution Handover 3 . and BTS.
Space Diversity b.Radio Transmission problems 2. Multipath Fading Cause Due to different paths of signals between MS. Which cause fading dips as a result of different in phase and amplitude Solution Diversity a. Frequency Diversity ( Frequency Hopping) 5 . Polarization Diversity c. and BTS.
Time Alignment Cause Due to different distance of different MSs from BTS (Near-Far) Solution Time Advance 7 .Radio Transmission problems 3.
Home Location Register (HLR) 2006-01-24 Lecture 1 141 .
(LAPB).25 (packet switched data). • Whatever the interfaces and whatever their function.GSM Terrestrial Interfaces • The standard interfaces used are as follows: • 2 Mbit/s. • Signaling System ITU-TSS #7 (“C7” or ‘‘SS#7”). • Abis using the LAPD protocol (Link Access Procedure “D”). the MSC and a BSS. • X. they will often share a common • physical bearer (cable) between two points. for example. 142 .
GSM Terrestrial Interfaces .
GSM Terrestrial Interfaces .
They carry traffic from the PSTN to the MSC. data. LAPD or X. or control information. between MSCs.25 formatted information. These 2 Mbit/s links commonly act as the physical bearer for the interfaces used between the GSM system entities. 145 . Each 2. from an MSC to a BSC and from a BSC to remotely sited BTSs. The control information may contain C7.GSM Terrestrial Interfaces • 2 Mbit/s Trunk 30-channel PCM This diagram opposite shows the logical GSM system with the 2 Mbit/s interfaces highlighted.048 Mbit/s link provides thirty 64 kbit/s channels available to carry speech. These links are also used between the MSC and IWF.
GSM Terrestrial Interfaces 146 .
25 connection from the OMC to the BSS may be “nailed through” or (permanently connected by software) at the MSC. or may be supported by a completely independent physical route. 147 . • Note that the X.25 Interfaces • The X.25 packets provide the OMC with communications to all the entities over which it has control and oversight.X.
25 Interfaces .X.
and to and from the PSTN.Signaling System #7 C7 Interfaces SS7 Signaling System #7 • The diagram opposite illustrates the use of C7 in the GSM system. the Base Station System Management • Is used between the MSC and the VLR. carrying signaling and control information between most major entities. • Used to communicate between the different GSM network entities. and HLR. • Between the MSC and the BSC. EIR. .
Signaling System #7 .
To Communicate between BTS and BSC GSM has specified the use of LAPD “A-bis”. even if this interface were rigidly enforced by the specifications. This means that one manufacturers BTS will not work with another manufacturer’s BSC. • The GSM specifications for this interface (termed “A-bis”) are not very specific and therefore interpretations of the interface vary.A-bis (LAPD) Interfaces • a different type of interface is required. the functionality split between the BTS and BSC is also largely in the hands of the manufacturer and therefore it is unlikely that they would operate together. • As we have already mentioned. 151 .
A-bis (LAPD) Interfaces .
Interface Names .
The GSM System Interface Names 154 .
GSM Transmission Process A/D Conversion Segmentation Speech Coding Channel Coding Interleaving Encryption Burst Formatting Modulation and Transmission .
Sampling 2.Analog to Digital Conversion • Analog to digital conversion takes place in 3 steps: 1. Coding 1. Quantization 3. Sampling Telecommunication systems use Sampling rate = 8 Ksample/s .
Segmentation Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital information into multiple regions . . . . The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. . 160 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . . . . . . 160 sample in 20 ms = 1 Segment 1 2 3 4 . . . . .
It is used in: • time-division multiplexing (TDM) in telecommunications .Interleaving • Interleaving in computer science is a way to arrange data in a non-contiguous way in order to increase performance. • computer memory. • disk storage. 158 .
Interleaving Second Level Interleaving 20 ms Block A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1A 2A 3A 4A 1B 2B 3B 4B 1C 2C 3C 4C 1D 2D 3D 4D T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T 5A 6A 7A 8A 5B 6B 7B 8B 5C 6C 7C 8C 20 ms Block B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 ms Block c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 ms Block D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .
Modulation / Demodulation in GSM • GSM uses the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) • Gaussian minimum-shift keying .
Modulation / Demodulation in GSM • Gaussian minimum shift keying or GMSK is a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying modulation scheme. which in turn reduces out-of-band interference between signal carriers in adjacent frequency channels. . however the digital data stream is first shaped with a Gaussian filter before being applied to a frequency modulator. It is similar to standard minimum-shift keying (MSK). This has the advantage of reducing sideband power.
Open Discussion .
Communication Companies Vendors :- .
Communication Companies Services and subcontractors CIVIL Telecom .
Different kinds of engineers Telecom Civil Target Job Power Mechanical .
Good Luck Eng / Mohamed Tarek firstname.lastname@example.org 01004758147 .
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