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Overview of SS 575 : 2012

Code of Practice for Fire Hydrant, rising mains and hose reel systems

By Er Yeow Mei Leng

Objective
Existing code dated 1998 In line with overseas and international codes & practices Align with Singapore Fire Code Incorporate requirements of water supplies and fire pumps

Reference codes
AS 2419.1 2005 AS 2941 2008 BS 5306-0 : 2011 BS 5306.1 : 2006 NPFA 14 : 2007

CP 29 (old)
Code of Practice for Fire hydrant systems and hosereels

SS 575 (new)
Code of Practice for Fire hydrant, rising mains and hosereel systems

CP 29

SS 575

1. General 1. General 2. Locations and other 2. Locations and other provisions provisions 3. Design 3. Design considerations considerations 4. Water supplies & storage 5. Fire Pumps 6. Hosereels 4. Hosereels 7. Components and 5. Components and Materials Materials

CP 29
6. Hydraulic Calculations 7. Installations 8. Initial inspections and acceptance tests 9. Maintenance of system and rectification of defects Annex Tables Figures

SS 575
Hydraulic Calculations 9. Installations 10. Initial inspections and acceptance tests 11. Maintenance of system and rectification of defects
8.

Tables Figures

Section 1 - General
Definitions
Accessway Competent person Controller Down comer Driver Emergency Responder Fire hydrant (underground) omitted Fire hydrant, redefined Fire pumpset, redefined Listed, redefined Pressure Ring Main Unprotected areas

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.5 Competent person
Person, suitably trained and qualified by knowledge and practical experience, and provided with the necessary instructions to enable the required task(s) to be carried out correctly.
Also mentioned in 10.4.2.2 Hydrostatic test shall be carried out by a competent person who has been properly trained in carrying out such procedures. 11.2.1 Competence of maintenance personnel The service of a competent trained person shall be engaged to carry out testing, maintenance and repairs.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.5 Controller

An enclosed group of devices (including a power disconnect device by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from the source of supply) that serves to govern, in some predetermined manner, the power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.9 Downcomer

A vertical pipe for fire fighting by means of down-feed pipe connected to roof tanks or inlet connections at ground floor.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.11 Emergency responder
A trained or certified individual who, upon arriving early to an incident or emergency, assumes immediate responsibility for the protection and safety of life, property and environment.
Also mentioned in 1.4.28 Rising main, dry (dry riser) This is normally dry until charged with water by trained emergency responders. 1.4.29 Rising main, wet (wet riser) The wet riser shall be used only by trained emergency responders.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
Underground hydrant (CP 29)
omitted

1.4.14

Fire hydrant, pillar

An assembly installed on a branch from a water pipeline which provides a valved outlet to two connections and permits a supply to be taken from the pipeline for fire fighting. The fire hydrant referred herein is aboveground with outlets suitable for connection for fire hose. The fire hydrant herein shall mean private hydrant as mentioned in the Fire Code. A private hydrant is denoted by a yellow band.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.15 Fire pumpset
An assembly comprising a pump, a driver, a coupling and ancillary components on a common base together with an integral or separate fire pump controller, and listed by a recognised institution as one which has been tested for use in fire hydrant and wet rising main systems or other fire fighting installations.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.27 Ring main or ring system fire main A water main which forms a ring circuit that feeds fire hydrants.

Section 1 - General
Definitions
1.4.32 Unprotected areas All areas are considered as unprotected irrespective of any sprinkler protection, except the following:

a) Staircases; b) Smoke free lobbies; c) Protected corridors.

Section 2 Provisions & Locations


Fire Hydrant
Provision - along fire engine access road and/or access - within unobstructed distance of 50m from hydrant

Pipework - Ductile iron cement lined - fire rated when run in basement & unprotected areas - concrete valve chamber

Section 2 Provisions & Locations


Fire Hydrant
Location -not less than 10m from HV electrical equipment, LPG and combustible storage - not less than 1 m clearance from building - not obstructed or obscured by obstacles, stored goods, vehicles, vegetation

Section 2 Provisions & Locations


Fire Hydrant
Location - located >125mm and <300mm above adjacent ground - Minimum of 1m paved flat ground around hydrant

Section 2 Provisions & Locations


Rising Main / Down comer
- 930m2 coverage is omitted - Priority of location - Within smoke free lobby, or - External corridor and in protected shaft, or - Common area, in protected shaft and outside door of existing staircase - No other services in protected shaft except for fire fighting - Accessible for maintenance and not concealed or obstructed - Breeching inlet not more than 12 m from vertical stack for group II occupancy

Section 2 Provisions & Locations


Rising Main / Down comer
Provisions -On roof where M&E plants are located -on unhabitable roof where access maintenance is provided, for testing Standby hoses -For all occupancy except group II -Additional hose for spaces beyond 38 m reach LV installed perpendicular to protected shaft

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Main / Down comer
Flow and pressure for Multiple Rising mains
Table 3.2 - Water flow rates for wet rising mains

No. of stacks

Water flow rate for non-residential buildings


38 L/s 57 L/s 76 L/s 95 L/s

Water flow rate for residential buildings


27 L/s 40.5 L/s 54 L/s 67.5 L/s

1 2 3 4 and above

Section 3 Design Considerations


Fire Hydrant
Unassisted water supply - fire hydrants below RL 125m
3.1.1.3 Only private hydrants installed below reduced level 125 m can receive direct supply from Water Authoritys water mains (unassisted water supply). Notwithstanding this, water storage of sufficient capacity with pumping facilities (pumped supply) may be required to meet the Fire Authoritys requirements on flow rate and pressure. - Ring

system fire main to increase reliability - Isolation valves to branches - Flow and pressure specified, adopted from Fire Code

(a)90 % of running pressure at the nearest public hydrant, taking into consideration the hydraulic losses in the bulk water meter; (b)90 % of flow rate at the nearest public hydrant provided that its pressure is greater than 2 bar

- Hydraulic losses may be calculated with flows through both paths of the ring

Section 3 Design Considerations


Fire Hydrant
Pumped supply: - where town mains unable to provide flow and pressure - fire hydrants above RL 125m - flow dependent on floor area of largest compartment, adopted from Fire Code
Table 3.1 Water supply and storage requirements (assisted water supply) for private hydrant

Purpose Group Requirement Minimum running pressure Minimum flow rate

Purpose Group I & II 2 bar

Purpose Group (*) III, IV, V, VII

Purpose Group (*) VI, VIII

2 bar

2 bar

27 L/s

<1000 m2 38 L/s <5000 m2 57 L/s <10000 m2 76 L/s (57 L/s if sprinkler protected) Additional 19 L/s for subsequent 5000 m2
45 min

500 m2 38 L/s <5000 m2 57 L/s <10000 m2 76 L/s (57 L/s if sprinkler protected) Additional 19 L/s for subsequent 5000 m2
90 min

Minimum Duration

45 min

* Based on the floor area of the largest compartment in the building

Section 3 Design Considerations


Fire Hydrant
Ring Main Ring main design criteria
isolated at appropriate locations 50% of hydrants still in operation isolating valves easily accessed isolating valves tagged or marked with reflective paint on cover isolating valves above ground to be strapped and padlocked

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Mains / Downcomer

Duration for fire fighting


45 minutes for low level tank 30minutes for high level tank + low level tank - Wet Riser transfer pump sized appropriately

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Mains / Downcomer
Low level Tank sized for 45 minutes storage

Automatic reliable inflow

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Mains / Downcomer
Low level tank High Level Tank sized for 30 minutes storage Transfer pump sized taking automatic inflow for 45 minutes total storage
Automatic reliable inflow to low level tank

Transfer pumpsets

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Mains / Downcomer
Protection of PUB incoming mains and from breeching inlet Location of air release valve for downcomer

Section 3 Design Considerations


Rising Mains / Downcomer
Pipework to be of hot dipped galvanised steel, heavy grade Underground pipework limited to 1.5m Jointing methods
welded flange ends mechanical groove couplings

Section 4 Water supplies & storage


Water Supplies
Minimum storage capacity of 90 minutes or 45 minutes as appropriate 50% availability at all times Water tanks to have
Automatic inflow Overflow and air gaps Water level indicators Access panels and ladders signage

Section 4 Water supplies & storage


Water Supplies
Effective capacity
Measured between normal water and lowest level before vortex effect Sumps or listed vortex inhibitors Vortex inhibitors cannot be located in sump

Section 5 Fire Pumps


Fire Pumpsets
Listed for fire fighting Able to provide maximum flow of 130% at not less than 80%head Not to exceed 140% of duty head at shut off point Types of pumps
5 types

Section 5 Fire Pumps

Section 5 Fire Pumps


Pump suction and discharge pipes
Suction pipe 1.8m/s Discharge pipe 5m/s Flexible coupling shall be of metallic type

Section 5 Fire Pumps


Fire Pumps
One duty, one standby or Two duty, one standby Standby shall start automatically stopped manually Under positive head, priming not acceptable Direct reading flow meter Jockey pump flow not exceeding 10 l/min

Drivers
Electric motor Compression ignition engine

Motor Protection
Thermal overload cannot be used to trip starter

Section 5 Fire Pumps


Fire Pumps
- when water level is below pump room - priming not allowed, use vertical turbine pumps

Section 6 Hosereels
Provision
The distance of hoseline taking into consideration to obstructions Pipework
Hot dipped galvanised steel Copper or stainless steel when direct feed from PUB mains

Booster Pump
Pumps under positive head Priming requirements have been omitted

Section 7 Components & Materials


Standards
Reference standards updated
BS to BS EN

Conformance with PUB WRN


7.1.3 Pipes, valves and fittings which are connected directly to the potable water mains shall comply with the standards and requirements stipulated by the Water Authority.

Section 8 Hydraulic calculations


No change to this section Formulae
Hazen Williams formula

Section 9 Installation
Buildings under construction
Comply with Appendix C of Fire Code Details removed Appendix A also removed

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Pre-test preparation
Remove air from system Flush debris

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Commissioning Test
Water supply proved at each landing valve and hydrant Simultaneously discharge the number of outlets of the most hydraulically disadvantage area

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Commissioning Test
Water supply proved at each hydrant

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Commissioning Test
Water supply proved at each landing valve

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Commissioning Test
Obtain pressure and flow at incoming water mains Test flow rate at pump

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests Hydrostatic Test for Dry Riser
1380 kPA or 1.5 times working pressure for 2 hours Pressure measured at lowest point Hydrostatic tests and by competent person

Section 10 Initial inspections and acceptance tests

Accident

Section 11 Maintenance& Rectifications


Competent person
Engaged to carry out testing of hydrant and rising mains / downcomers.