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the politics of mediated sex This issue of Media and Cultural Politics wishes to explore some of the ways in which sex and sexuality are mediated, as well as the culturally determined 37 conditions and the inherent politics of this mediation. Sex and sexuality are 38 important aspects of cultural life in general, but also in terms of personal devel- 39 opment, integrity and identity. As objects of policy, they are often accompanied 40by anxieties expressed in state and societal responses, themselves medi- 41 ated through policy and communicative and cultural representations thereof. 42 Questions about the conditions under which sex and sexuality are mediated, 43 expressed and manifest, and about the degree of „appropriateness‟ and suit- 44 ability of such mediations for commonly accepted morals, often come hand in 45 hand with questions about the conditions under which authentic and liberating 46 mediations of sexual expressivity can take place. At the same time, sex media- 47 tions constitute one of the core content elements of cultural and technological 48 markets, drafting anew the narratives of sexual and gender relations as well as 49 the cultural environment for youth to relate to. As powerful economic factors, 50 sexually explicit imageries in various forms have been channelled to promote 51 the adoption of communication technologies – especially of the Internet and 52 mobile communications. Meanwhile, the culture industries, globally, are the August 4, 2011 19:16 Intellect/MCP Page-109 MCP-7-2-Proof-1 MCP 7 (2) pp. 109–119 © Intellect Ltd 2011 109Katharine Sarikakis and Liza Tsaliki 110 object of concerns – and panics – about the ways in which their products, 01 from music to fashion, and entertainment to „High Arts‟, use and encourage 02 the hyper-sexualization of women – and young girls, in particular. 03 Feminist critique of contemporary sexual mediations and their historical 04 development is the epistemological lens of this special issue, as it is through 05 the contribution of feminism in media and cultural studies, alongside other 06 disciplines, that the field of academic enquiry has opened up to place women 07 at its centre, while maintaining a social justice agenda. The question of medi- 08 ation of sex and sexuality in the global circuits of culture is one of paramount 09 importance for feminists, as it is one of the fundamental areas that determine 10 women‟s liberation and self-governance. 11 This issue aims to contribute to the opening up of spaces for feminist under- 12 standings and interrogations, critique and analysis of sexual mediations that 13 may self-characterize as „postfeminist‟. As such, feminist critique has been 14 instrumental in the formation of the „new‟ media and cultural studies, in the 15 sense that 16 [[...]there is no cultural studies which is not „post feminist‟, not in the sense of having moved beyond it but rather in the sense of having opened itself to the radical critique and implications of feminist theory and politics. 17 18 19 20 21 ((Grossberg 1993: 26) 22 23 24 Within this context, initially at least, the move from feminism to postfem25 inism represented a paradigm shift which, along with postmodernism and 26 postcolonialism, challenged academic culture‟s modernist discourses. With 27 second-wave feminism being
35 in such content. „flawed‟ women‟s bodies and lives are amenable to reinvention 36 or transformation on the basis of „bullet-proof‟ advice offered by relationship. Yet there is little agreement about 09 what postfeminism is. while making room 35 for independent meanings of feminine sexuality for young girls (1987: 275). web. one of the issues that have shaped and continue to frame debates 48 within feminist media studies to date is the putative divide between second. self-policing.33 tinuous self-monitoring and self-induced discipline – always presented as the 34 outcomes of free choice – is not so evident as in the popular makeover narrative. 2011 19:16 Intellect/MCP Page-110 MCP-7-2-Proof-1 01 to steer through feminist politics for a while now (Bad Girls 1997) and argues 02 that fifteen years down the line. while also maintain39 ing a cautionary stance against an overoptimistic interpretation of her work 40 (Brooks 1997. as exemplified in the classic „woman as sexual subject versus 04 woman as sexual object‟ one (2011: 97). Central in the early discussions. the debate is characterized by the same old 03 dichotomies. Fiske argued that she 33 offered her fans a feminist ideology/critique of her own. magazines. Schwichtenberg 1993). 30 selfdetermination and taking control. domestic violence) and putting forward 32 a neo-liberal understanding of feminism. male. Follow. The intensity of careful and con. a new regime of sexiness – 22 marked by a shift from being a sex object to becoming a sexual subject – within 23 which power operates not from an external. This is hardly surprising if we consider 05 that 06 07 [t]he notion of postfeminism has become one of the most important in 08 the lexicon of feminist cultural analysis. comes a grammar of individualism. of this kind of representational politics was the popular cultural phe31 nomenon of Madonna – a valuable case study framing feminist/postfeminist 32 inflections of cultural studies.limited by its own political agenda and modernist 28 inclinations. and endowed with agency on condition that it 26is used to construct oneself as a subject closely resembling the heterosexual 27 male fantasy that is found in pornography. a number of voices raised the issue of how 44 Madonna (the „material girl‟ par excellence) worked as a commodity promot45 ing market forces and how this commodification intersected with issues of 46 subjectivity and gender (Brooks 1997. back in 30 the 1980s.21 sites and television while adult women are „girlified‟. an historical shift (to a third wave). Kaplan 1993). racism. forfeiting though in this way notions 31 of politics (e. . thus making it a critical object under 17 scrutiny instead of an analytical perspective (2007).g. 13 (Gill 2007: 147) 14 15 Gill argues that instead of interpreting postfeminism as any of the above. The 36 representation of Madonna as situated at the interface of postfeminism and 37 cultural studies dominated feminist discourse for much of the 1990s. She unpacks this postfem. narcissistic gaze.19 tion with the body in order to define femininity. advertising 29 and makeover shows where the emphasis is put on personal empowerment. In fact. where she 38 has been extensively discussed as „a site of subversion‟. Writing about Madonna. judging gaze but from an 24 internalized. postfeminism transpired as a result of critiques from within and 29 without feminism (Brooks 1997: 210). or a regressive political 12 stance (backlash). and the term is used variously (and frequently 10 contradictorily) to signal an epistemological break with (second wave) 11 feminism. „Girls and women are invited to 25 become a particular kind of self. Kaplan 1993. At the same time.28 ing this.49 wave feminism and postfeminism – a „buried binary‟ according to Lumby (2011: 50 96) „that stalks attempts to move beyond received and unproductive opposi51 tions‟. During 1993. Kaplan questioned 41 the extent to which Madonna subverted patriarchal culture by unmasking it. Lumby has been contemplating the notion of postfeminism as a way 52 AAugust 4.18 inist sensibility by identifying several distinct features: an obsessive preoccupa. 47 However. or 42 whether she reinscribed it by allowing voyeuristic recuperations of her body 43 (1993: 156). where she challenged 34 binary oppositions as a way of conceptualizing femininity. homophobia.‟ notes Gill (2007: 152). seen in talk shows. „porno chic‟ representations of 20 girls whereby girls are deliberately sexualized in advertising. we 16 should instead opt to see it as a sensibility.
This double entanglement took place with a parallel dismantling of fem. 43 At the same time.04 vidualism.30 inism from within. then. primetime drama Ally McBeal. 1993) and the means by which forms and interpellations 36 call women into being and produce them as subjects. The impact of Butler‟s concept 35 of subjectivity (1990.22 thing that can be taken into account in order to establish a new set of meanings 23 which work to suggest that as equality is achieved. punitive. neoconservative values regarding 27 gender. then. a dismantling of feminism. Various trends. are well meant. This is all wrapped up in an aura of tongue-in. 2004) (Koivunen 2009). where she describes postfeminism as a „double 26 entanglement‟. what McRobbie calls „the 37 new feminist politics of the body‟. such 40 as „chesticle‟ to account for the difference between the left and right breasts in 41 a 2005 „best pair of tits‟ contest in the British FHM (For Him Magazine)– all of 42 which. Sex and the City and 49 Desperate Housewives or Xena: Warrior Princess.46 nist trend in the late 1980s. reality TV in the form of What 50 Not to Wear (BBC 2002). by a hedonistic female phallicism in the field of sexuality and by an 05 obsession with consumer culture. postfeminism draws on and invokes feminism as some. Initially diagnosed and identified as an antifemi. 12 quoted in Gill 2007: 162). or the coining of new ones in lad‟s magazines. when writing about women‟s 01 and girls‟ magazines. but instead there is a process which says feminism is no longer needed. with many voices raising their concern about the „aftermath of 45 feminism‟ (McRobbie 2009). but an undoing. August 4. 06 are being marketed as yet another form of female agency while it is becoming 07 increasingly difficult to raise any criticism as feminism and feminists are con. she argues. and as such it is something young women can do without.38 cheek irony. in a „just for laughs‟ kind of way. where the second-wave feminist 31 regime is challenged by post-structuralist feminists such as Spivak. as for example pole dancing.37 design. cooking shows such as 51 Nigella Bites (Channel 4 2001–02). Trinh and 32 Mohanty and by theorists such as Butler and Haraway who. used by middle-class 39 male television presenters. In this schema. or „chick-lit‟ such as Bridget Jones‟s Diary (and 52 the two films based on it. of course. with several media texts as exemplary case studies: „chick flicks‟ 48 such as Sleepless in Seattle. situated in the early 1990s. feminism is both accepted and repudiated – even 29 hated. Two 38 more . McRobbie (2009) acknowledges her over-enthusiasm 02 about the kind of popular feminism encapsulated in the mainstream media as it 03 seems that feminist content is thinning and being replaced by aggressive indi. all the same. it is now common sense. Here comes McRobbie‟s main 25 contribution to the debate. are paramount in this process (2009: 13). 2001. while. Wife Swap (Channel 4 2002). sexuality and family life coexist with equal processes of liberaliza28 tion. is not merely 10 a state of affairs where prefeminist ideals are being repackaged as postfeminist 11 achievements in ways that reinforce heteronormative femininity (Probyn 1997. feminism itself is no 24 longer needed – it has become a spent force. seen in the return of terms such as „totty‟. postfeminism has been established by now within 47media studies. lifestyle or sex experts. women are not being pushed back into the home. 13 nnot in favour of re-traditionalisation. influenced by Fou. 14 15 16 17 18 ((McRobbie 2009: 8) 19 20 21 In that respect. says Gill. inauthentic and as not articulating women‟s true 09 desires (Tasker and Negra 2005). conceived power as flows and convergences of talk and discourses while 34 denaturalising the postfeminist body all along.33 cault. the discussion regarding what follows after feminism 44 still abounds. What we are witnessing.08 structed as harsh. 2011 19:16 Intellect/MCP Page-111 MCP-7-2-Proof-1 Post/feminism and the politics of mediated sex 111 Katharine Sarikakis and Liza Tsaliki 112 Looking back at her own work in the 1990s.
22 More particularly.03 nist Murphy Brown (CBS 1988–1998) would be transformed to the postfeminist 04 Ally McBeal – only this time independent women like Murphy Brown are not 05 depicted to be challenged by their independence.11 ema. and therefore in no more need of feminism. whereby the femi. 41 the partial and exclusive character of the object of inquiry. The rise to prominence of a wedding culture.08 ments and suggest a halt to feminist struggle. The first is the pathologization of singletons 24 amidst proliferating neoconservative pressures to determine women‟s lives in 25 terms of marriage and domesticity. the con. looking closely into the narrative of Sex and the City 23 reveals a number of caveats.e. if 12 not punished.28 ing for mothers and mothers-to-be at supermarkets.15 ceeded in moving women away from being the object of desire to being its 16 subject. strong female characters on television are usually carefully managed. 44 seen in the wider dissemination of feminist issues in the mainstream media – 45 something that was interpreted at the time as feminist success and created 46 an optimistic elation.31 side marriage is likely to be physically and psychologically harmful and called 32 for various „wedding warm-ups‟ such as „abstinence ceremonies‟ and „purity 33 rings‟. their existence is 10 far from being a feminist warrant. it may stand for a false freedom since it 21 implies the „performance of femininity‟ (2001: 324). it is interesting that Sex and the City manages to stay 38 away from the retreatism (i.52 AAugust 4. The downside of this. are 36 concomitants of this broader culture (Negra 2004). they are portrayed as being 06 unhappy because of this independence (Kim 2001).17 ated. to the endorsement 29 of abstinence-oriented high school sex education programmes by the Bush 30 administration in the early 2000s. instead. or whether the women depicted in them are empowered and liber. 2011 19:16 Intellect/MCP Page-112 MCP-7-2-Proof-1 01 It could be argued that in order for feminism to become acceptable in a 02 postfeminist era. Kim argues that the move 18 from passive object of the male gaze to self-objectification – that is. although the four women in Sex and 43 the City wrestle with difficult dilemmas and occasional despair. seen in the emergence 34 of the „wedding film‟ and such reality shows. The other was the rise of popular feminism in the early 1990s.19 scious effort to gain sexual attention through one‟s feminine traits – does not 20 actually achieve subjectivity. Discussions about such shows have flourished over the past few 13 years (Akass and McCabe 2004. 37 Having said that. was not realized until 43 much later. When it comes to the depiction 09 of women in shows such as Ally McBeal or Sex and the City. with critics 14 questioning the extent to which Ally McBeal or Sex and the City have suc. the . heterosexual housewives. Gerhard 2005. away from the professional path and into the 39 homestead and an idealized motherhood) and the renunciation scenarios con. and the intensification of the 35 bridal industry (with a $32 billion annual turnover in the United States). in line with the ideological work of cin. McRobbie 2009).26 text of an intensified culture of „family values‟ which ranges from the rise 27 of mother-focused sales campaigns and the emergence of convenient park. however. says McRobbie – the first triggered when Charlotte Brunsdon (1991) 40 raised the „housewife‟ or „ordinary woman‟ as the subject of feminist attention. in that respect.40 temporary romantic comedy is associated with (whereby female characters 41 chose to downscale their careers in favour of a life high-flying professional 42 women are barred from1). was that this newfound 47 apparent popularity of feminism meant that young women not only would dis. but 49 would actually repudiate it and denunciate it – the dominant gender debate 50 would follow a similar rhetoric. affluent. „This is the cultural space of postfeminism‟ 51 (McRobbie 2009: 15). as.48 tance and dis-identify themselves from it and treat it with ambivalence. which was exhausted 42 largely with white. the latter forwarded the notion that sex out. This should be set within the broader con. The problem is that such 07 postfeminist discourse can be turned on its head to condemn feminist achieve. a makeover was required at some point.theoretical developments characterize this dismantling of feminism from 39 within.
complex and 18 unresolved questions and issues of earlier feminisms‟ (Negra 2004: 22).15 plex portrayals of single (and then some married).52 prioritizes the elements of her life in favour of heterosexual romance This is pertinent even when Samantha‟s flitting sexual affair with another woman is considered. 13 Eventually. Sex and the City occupies a significant yet complicated space 14 within the visual representation of women. sexually active. as its restricted race 23 and class focus is identifiable in the WASP surnames of its four protagonists 24 (Hobbes. and not only) women. and offers five rea39 sons why we should put „sexism back on the agenda again‟ (2011: 62).]a key way in which sexism operates in contemporary media work.36 demic writing and everyday talk – increasingly perceived to denote something 37 passé and archaic – Gill equally notes that despite the considerable progress 38 made. In addition. freefloating desire. while also exhibiting susceptibility to an 25 apolitical consumerism (2004: 22). From one perspective. argues 08 Negra. and/or motherhood. This is rather disconcerting because it can 26 be seen to foreground a type of postfeminism that caters for individual rather 27 than collective empowerment. and. 02 (Negra 2004: 12) 03 04 Second. postfeminism not only 31 betrays the political strength of feminism but forecloses the potential for chal32 lenging the distribution of gender power. 40 she talks of the „unspeakable inequalities‟ within contemporary media labour 41 markets where men still enjoy privileges in the equal opportunities workplace 42 and draws attention to the new forms sexism takes within postfeminism: (Gill 2011: 63) 49 50 She then discusses how despite the significant steps forward in media repre. sexism has not been conquered 52 1114 [. the postfeminist „right‟ 33 to sexual pleasure works to naturalize heterosexuality. which is always linked to 21 consumption and sexuality. professional 16 women. New York is traditionally associated with a certain permissiveness when 09 it comes to the social identities of urban women. Concur19 rently. this 29 is an ideological formation where female empowerment has been assimilated 30 by capital and consumer culture. 35 Commenting on the scarcity of use of the word „sexism‟ within feminist aca. therefore. however.28 ter is related to consumer choice rather than political struggle.51 sentations of gender and in gender relations.. for 48 49 50 whereas mainstream chick flicks often include an epiphany in which 51 the heroine perceives the futility of following such a path and re. Sex and the City throws open such decision mak. However. and therefore they do not 45 have to „abide by one of the key premises in current antifeminist postfeminist 46 constructions of women‟ which is to abandon any over-ambitious project of 47 „having it all‟. At first.places is precisely through the invalidation and annihilation of any language for talking about structural inequalities.06 rious lifestyle often cited as explanation for unconventional or unruly female 07 behaviour – in direct contrast with suburban domesticity. After all. a luxu. in this.. least we forget that the series remains irrelevant 22 to larger sections of (American. and in this sense. and an entitlement to pleasure where the lat. York and Jones). Bradshaw.01 ing in ways that would go against the script of the mainstream romance. „the series cannot be said to reflexively participate in 17 a cultural postfeminism that leaves behind the more challenging. it offers com. its distinctive mix of savvy cos10 mopolitanism and vulnerability being a trademark of the so-called „New York 11 girl‟ from the 1930s gold digger musicals to Audrey Hepburn‟s Holly Golightly 12 and Diane Keaton‟s Anny Hall. The . Sex and the City also projects an urgency to explore the endless 20 possibilities of a postfeminist.series does 44 not „curtail their options or finalize their choices‟. the series‟ setting in metropolitan New York is indispensable in 05 contextualising its group of friends in a world of cutting-edge urbanity. sexist practices are invariably experienced by women. as the activities of both 34 Bridget and Carrie attest2 (Maddison 2009: 44).
03 tisers have appropriated the tropes of feminism and sold it back to women. the products converge into an image of the post-feminist 31 consumer on her knees. 16 Her views are echoed elsewhere as well. as notions of „active‟. Sam in 2010 in London. 43 the binary between subject and object becomes increasingly obsolete. 35 36 Another point of concern regards the way in which sexism has become an 37 entrenched culture and ideology which affects common sense and our ways 38 of thinking and feeling and calls for an urgent evoking of the psychosocial. think „conjuncturally‟ – the relations between things (Gill 06 2011: 68). all along.]inevitably. August 4. with a strap on dildo. including 21 what passes for feminism in corporate culture. she argues.18 lems within the discourse of media and sexual empowerment accommodated 19 by present-day feminism. whipped and flogged with another woman‟s hair.26 nism of Coco de Mer – the sex shop chain launched by the daughter of the late 27 Anita-„Body Shop‟-Roddick. Not only that but.07 sis on self-surveillance. 2011 19:16 Intellect/MCP Page-114 MCP-7-2-Proof-1 01 yet – rather it has taken new forms. looking into 34 a mirror. we seem to have 46 abolished any sense of influence. 07 . post-colonial and feminist social theory sought to interro. individualism and choice. Abigail Bray raises a number of prob. She argues that we have come to the point where the 20 neo-liberal ideology of Big Porn has colonized just about everything. a commitment to a profoundly gendered 09 „makeover paradigm‟.32 ous parts of her body. second. unified self that the last twenty-five years of post-modernist. seen for example in the rising popularity 11 of „porn star‟ T-shirts. she singles out the predominant enthusiasm sur. we need to pivot 14 what is a profoundly classed. Describing the modern face 25 of postfeminist sexual self-empowerment on the basis of the „up yours!‟ femi. All of this would cost. being 33 spanked. as a result of which girls and 22 women are expected to be hot and up for it. and that while they are being sub23 jected to new waves of misogyny. . Discussing what she calls „the 17 relentless pornification of feminism‟. oh say. racialized and heteronormative debate away from 15 its privileged object of concern – the white. psy.10 rounding the „pornification‟ discourse. with various expensive items inserted into vari. thus 47 48 49 50 51 52 rreinstating precisely the model of the rational. Finally. post-structuralist. while 03 displacing the need for feminism to „others‟ in need of rescuing. wearing a dog mask. and explores what she calls 06 the „specific modalities of postfeminism sexism‟ (Gill 2011: 64) – the empha. western.05 feminist regime. 04 devoid of its political content. the resurgence of ideas of „natural‟ sexual 08 difference. and the resulting blurring between producers and consumers. Los Angeles and New 28 York – Bray (2010) comments that 29 30 [. 44 and significantly. Two reasons make this even more important: with the rise of 42 social media.41 ity (Gill 2011). She reads a practice of sexism into the new post. they are actually forbidden to speak up for 24 fear of being slandered as frigid feminists (2010). middle-class girl. which she links to neo-liberalism.gate. 39 Only by understanding the psychosocial dimensions of power and ideology 40 can we understand the intimate relationship between culture and subjectiv. It is to this 04 avail that we need to appreciate that social positions are relational rather than 05 additive. Gill draws from Robert Goldman‟s notion 02 of „commodity feminism‟ (1992) to describe the process through which adver. and. £4000. „agentic‟ and „resistant‟ audiences or 45 consumers are becoming hegemonic within media studies. thus.choanalytic. deliberative. . and discusses how the appropriately „made over‟ sexual 12 subjectivity of women should from now on be perceived in terms of „sexism‟ 13 rather than „sexualization‟. Third. any talk of capitalism has largely been abandoned – 02 as the West rests on its comforting liberal account of itself as „egalitarian‟. monitoring.potency of sexism lies in its very unspeakability. attention is drawn to how muted the vocabulary of sexism has become 01 today – and how.
experience and political claims. the 49 United States and the United Kingdom have pointed to what they see as sat. and the role of post/feminism is lively across 46 the English-speaking world and in many other parts of the world too.10 demics. 44 For certain. Johnson‟s 41 interest is the claim of „choice‟ of the (mostly male) consumer in the world of 42 pornography and the ways in which researchers can map the contexts of the 43 workings of the industry. The need for a nuanced debate that recognizes the complex. Through rich 16 empirical data they propose a more complex picture of the realities of girls‟ 17 lives in relation to the ways in which mediations about sex and sexual iden. What is less certain is the degree 52 01 to which conflicting views about the phenomenon of sexualization. Salam Al-Mahadin 26 offers a much needed indepth analysis of the most popular soap operas of 27 the Arab world and their treatment of female sexuality.35 ual expressivity through examples of online spaces in Sweden. contextu32 alized within the broader lucrative political economy of the role of the media in 33 the religious calendar. Following. sex and sexual agency in relation to the Internet and 10 the new media. Ringrose and Eriksson Barajas and Vares. It includes six critical articles on the politics of mediated sex 11 that range from sociological research attending to the microlevel of everyday 12 experience to theoretical and analytical pieces that marry the microlevel to the 13 macrolevel of institutions. the debate surrounding the thesis of sexualization of culture. Christensen and Jansson offer a discussion on 34 the possibilities of theoretical openness in understanding the potential of sex. The sexual mediations 28 in these soap operas echo the position of women in the Arab society.18 tities are experienced and suggest an analysis beyond the binary approaches 19 that have dominated our public debates. Jackson and Gill open the 15 debate with a look at young girls‟ sexual identities in the media. Mary Griffiths continues this inter.20 rogation of the relation between young people and sexually explicit material 21 through a discussion of cases from Australia‟s High Art‟s world (the infamous 22 „Benson case‟) and the phenomenon of young people‟s own production and 23 use of sexual mediations.08 ship of the British Academy on the „socialization of sexually explicit imagery‟. pressurizing and sexually51 oppressive environment it creates for children.This issue takes up the contradictions and multi-relational foci of 08 post/feminism as an epistemological lens to explore the points of critique artic09 ulated around sexuality. with some 02 academic corners rejecting the thesis of „sexualization‟ or doubting the harm. The 38 issue concludes with a look at the pornography industry by Jennifer Johnson 39 who offers a new methodological approach to the study of „what is out there‟ 40 in the world of organized industrial production of sexual mediations. Their piece aims36 to provide a theoretical contribution to the ways in which sexual mediations 37 can be seen as formats of cultural citizenship under certain conditions. 09 The project with the same title brought together (in various locations) aca. activists and policy-makers with often opposite views in an attempt 11 . 30 Al-Mahadin navigates through the morals and levels of acceptance of women‟s 31 sexual (and political) agency vis-à-vis religious and cultural morals.25 tions in the emergence of new directions in policy debates.05 ity of sex and the media and social life and is sensitive to the requirement for 06 better articulation of ideas in the media. Griffiths moves on the debate from the sociological 24 analysis of everyday life to the analysis of the role of social and political institu. policy-making and academy has led 07 the guest editors of this issue to start a series of debates under the sponsor. 45 indeed pornification of culture.50 urated sexualization of culture and the suffocating. can result into a constructive public debates with 04 social relevance. as well as pieces on the usefulness of new research 14 methods. The 47 media are very interested in the suggestion of hyper-sexualization while state48 commissioned reports or reports by professional organizations in Australia. their 29 everyday struggles and polarizations of morals.03 ful effects of pornification.
these contribu.37 forward. is just more ordinary and that we experi.to open up spaces that these differences would meet. So. and from the debates of the role of „High Arts‟ in the representa.the “choice” between femininities is not straight. unusual corners where 19 mediations of sex and dimensions about it that may or may not be just about 20 sex.3 This issue constitutes 12 such a space where analysis of the complexity of sexual mediations is discussed 13 from a multi-angled approach.]. the definite answer to where lies the future of feminism and whether postfeminism is the correct way ahead is yet to be deter. but also the variety of ways to understand and critique them.18 tions showcase not only the unspoken.42 ence a different disposition towards feminism as we struggle to understand it 43 as something full of difference. Catharine Lumby‟s words are all 22 the more appropriate: Besides. 44 45 .40 mined.16 tion of nudity (or nakedness) of young people in Australia to the sophisticated 17 machinery of Internet pornography as a networked industry. . for it becomes 36 increasingly clearer that „[. unintended. From everyday soap operas in the Arab world 14 to the everyday uses of sexualized language and online media in the lives of 15 young girls.38 erwise‟ (2003: 198). . After all. perhaps a little like television 41 according to Brunsdon (2003: 18). but bound up within a series of moral “rules” – feminist and oth. let us not forget that there may well be times when we want to expe. perhaps we should accept that feminism.34 rience „what it would feel like to live between the dichotomies upon which 35 feminist authority frequently depends‟ (Hollows 2003: 197). in the 21 light of the views aired in this special issue.
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