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Example 1: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations x1 + 5x2 −2x1 − 7x2 = 7 = −5.

Solution: We carry out the elimination procedure on both the system of equations and the corresponding augmented matrix, simultaneously. In general only one set of reductions is necessary, and the latter (dealing with matrices only) is preferable because of the simpliﬁed notation. x1 −2x1 + 5x2 − 7x2 = 7 = −5 1 −2 5 −7 7 −5

Add twice Row 1 to Row 2.

x1

+

5x2 3x2

= =

7 9

1 0

5 3

7 9

Multiply Row 2 by 1/3.

x1

+

5x2 x2

= 7 = 3

1 0

5 1

7 3

Add −5 times Row 2 to Row 1.

x1 x2

= −8 = 3

1 0

0 1

−8 3

Example 2: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations 2x2 + x3 x1 − 2x2 − 3x3 −x1 + x2 + 2x3 = −8 = 0 = 3.

x1 − 2x2 − x2 − x3 = 6 = 5 = −2 1 0 0 −2 −1 0 0 0 −1 6 5 −2 . x1 −x1 − 2x2 2x2 + x2 − 3x3 + x3 + 2x3 = 0 = −8 = 3 1 0 −1 −2 2 1 −3 1 2 0 −8 3 Add Row 1 to Row 3. we carry out reduction on the system of equations and on the augmented matrix simultaneously. Add −3 times Row 3 to Row 1. x1 − 2x2 − x2 − 3x3 − x3 − x3 = 0 = 3 = −2 1 0 0 −2 −1 0 −3 −1 −1 0 3 −2 Add −1 times Row 3 to Row 2.Solution: As before. x1 − 2x2 2x2 − x2 − 3x3 + x3 − x3 = 0 = −8 = 3 1 0 0 −2 2 −1 −3 1 −1 0 −8 3 Swap Row 2 and Row 3. 2x2 − 2x2 + x2 + x3 − 3x3 + 2x3 = −8 = 0 = 3 0 1 −1 2 −2 1 1 −3 2 −8 0 3 x1 −x1 Swap Row 1 and Row 2. in order to make it clear that row operations on equations correspond exactly to row operations on matrices. x1 − 2x2 − x2 2x2 − 3x3 − x3 + x3 = 0 = 3 = −8 1 0 0 −2 −1 2 −3 −1 1 0 3 −8 Add twice Row 2 to Row 3.

Solution: In this case. and then convert back to equations at the end to identify the solution. 1 0 0 −2 −2 8 −6 −6 24 12 10 −41 Swap Row 2 and Row 3. we convert the system to its corresponding augmented matrix. Add −1 times Row 1 to Row 3. x1 2x1 x1 − 2x2 + 4x2 − 4x2 − 6x3 + 12x3 − 12x3 = 12 = −17 = 22 1 2 1 −2 4 −4 −6 12 −12 12 −17 22 1 0 0 −2 8 −2 −6 24 −6 12 −41 10 Add −2 times Row 1 to Row 2. x1 x2 x3 1cm = −4 = −5 = 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 −4 −5 2 Example 3: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations x1 − 2x2 − 6x3 2x1 + 4x2 + 12x3 x1 − 4x2 − 12x3 = 12 = −17 = 22.Add −2 times Row 2 to Row 1. . x1 − x2 − x3 = −4 = 5 = −2 1 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 −1 −4 5 −2 Multiply Rows 2 and 3 by −1. perform the necessary row operations on the matrix alone.

. 1 0 0 −2 −2 0 −6 −6 0 12 10 −1 x1 − 2x2 − 2x2 − 6x3 − 6x3 0 = 12 = 10 = −1 Since the ﬁnal equation 0 = −1 cannot be satisﬁed. this system has no solutions. 1 0 0 −2 −2 0 −6 −6 0 12 10 −1 Add 4 times Row 2 to Row 3.

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