# International Mathematical Forum, Vol. 7, 2012, no.

55, 2727 - 2734

On h-Hemiregular Hemirings
M. K. Dubey S.A.G., Metcalfe House D.R.D.O. Complex, Civil lines Delhi 110054, India kantmanish@yahoo.com

Abstract. In this paper the notion of a weakly left(right) h-hemiregular hemiring is introduced and characterizations of it are given. It is also proved that every weakly h-hemiregular hemiring is h-hemiregular and the converse is also true if the set of h-bi-ideals and h-quasi-ideals coincides. Some results on prime and semiprime bi-ideals of hemirings are also presented. Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 16Y60 1. INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARIES J. Zhan and W. A. Dudek [4] have introduced the concept of h-hemiregular hemirings and they characterized prime fuzzy h-ideals of h-hemiregular hemirings by fuzzy h-ideals. Also, La Torre[2] studied the properties of h-ideals and k −ideals of hemirings and proved some theorems analogous to ring theory. A semiring is a non-empty set S together with two binary operations called addition “+” and multiplication “.” (denoted by juxtaposition) such that (S, +) and (S, .) are semigroups and both are connected by ring-like distributivity. A semiring S with zero means that there exists an element 0 ∈ S such that 0.x = x.0 = 0 and 0 + x = x + 0 = x for all x ∈ S. A semiring with zero and a commutative semigroup (S, +) is called hemiring. A hemiring S is said to be commutative if (S, .) is commutative. Throughout this paper S will denote a hemiring. A non-empty subset A of S is called left(right) ideal of S if A

x. Suppose that B is a prime h-bi-ideal of S and RL ⊆ B. z ∈ S such that a + axa + z = aya + z. and l ∈ L. Let B = 2N. Let N be the set of all positive integers. b ∈ A. Lemma 2. Deﬁnition 2. right) ideal of S . BSB ⊆ B and B = B. PRIME AND SEMIPRIME h-BI-IDEALS In this section we deﬁne prime and semiprime h-bi-ideals in hemirings. K. Proposition 2. b ∈ A. 2.1 (Lemma 3. Proof.4. A left(right) ideal A of S is called left(right)h-ideal of S if a.2728 M. Hence B is a h-bi-ideal and a prime h-bi-ideal of N. Before proving the results we require the following useful lemma. we have l ∈ B proving L ⊆ B. y. An h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S is prime if and only if RL ⊆ B for each right h-ideal R of S and left h-ideal L of S implies R ⊆ B or L ⊆ B. Let S be a hemiring and A. The h-closure A of A in a hemiring S is deﬁned as A = {x ∈ S |x + a + z = b + z for some a. For each r ∈ R \ B. SQ ∩ QS ⊆ Q and Q = Q. we have . there exist x. therefore for all l ∈ L.2. Dubey is closed with respect to addition and SA ⊆ A(AS ⊆ A). then A is the smallest right(resp. Since B is prime and r ∈ / B. we have rSl ⊆ RL ⊆ B.3. A subset Q of a hemiring S is called an h-quasi-ideal of S if Q is closed under addition. A hemiring S is said to be h-hemiregular if for each a ∈ S . Since xS is a right h-ideal and Sy is a left h-ideal of S . Thus BNB = 4N ⊆ 2N = B. Suppose R ⊆ B . z ∈ S }. Now (xS ) (Sy ) ⊆ xSy ⊆ B. left) h-ideal of S containing A. Conversely. y ∈ S such that xSy ⊆ B. Example 2. B ⊆ S. An h-bi-ideal B of a hemiring S is called prime if xSy ⊆ B implies x ∈ B or y ∈ B and an h-bi-ideal of the hemiring S is called semiprime if xSx ⊆ B implies x ∈ B. Then N is a semiring under the usual addition and multiplication. suppose that RL ⊆ B implies R ⊆ B or L ⊆ B for any right h-ideal R and left h-ideal L of S. A subset B of a hemiring S is called a h-bi-ideal of S if B is closed under addition.3[4]). It is easy to see that if A is a left(resp. then AB = A B. z ∈ S and x + a + z = b + z ∈ S implies x ∈ A. A subset A of a hemiring S is called an ideal if it is both a left and a right ideal of S . Let x.

we have x ∈ xS + Z0 x ⊆ xS + Z0 x ⊆ B. Then deﬁne LB = {x ∈ B : Sx ⊆ B } IL = {y ∈ LB : yS ⊆ LB } RB = {x ∈ B : xS ⊆ B } IR = {y ∈ RB : Sy ⊆ RB } Proposition 2. Moreover IL = IR . Proof. Thus B is a one-sided h-ideal of S. Now Ssx ⊆ SSx = SSx ⊆ Sx ⊆ B . Let x ∈ LB and s ∈ S . Then aSa ⊆ (BS ) S (SB ) ⊆ BSB ⊆ B.7. then y ⊆ B . Hence xS + Z0 x Sx + Z0 x ⊆ B. Since xS ⊆ xS ⊆ B. Let B be a semiprime h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S . Since BS SB ⊆ BSB ⊆ B and BS and SB are one sided h-ideals of S . mi . Let B be an h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S . Suppose a ∈ (BS ) ∩ (SB ). therefore by the above theorem. Thus z ∈ B = B. IR ) is non-empty then IL (resp IR ) is the largest h-ideal of S contained in B . Theorem 2. Therefore by hypothesis. we have BS ⊆ B or SB ⊆ B . ni .ideal of S . Let z ∈ xS + Z0 x Sx + Z0 x = xS + Z0 xSx + Z0 x ⊆ Z0 xSx + Z0 x2 . So LB is a left ideal as well as a left h-ideal of S (as B is a h-bi-ideal of S ). if Sy ⊆ B.bi-ideal of a hemiring S. Suppose xS ⊆ B.quasi-ideal of S . Hence B is prime ideal of S . right) h-ideal of S contained in B if LB (resp. xS + Z0 x and Sx + Z0 x are respectively the right h-ideal and the left h-ideal of S generated by x. Let B be a prime h. Theorem 2. xsi x and xsi x ∈ B . Then B is a h-quasi-ideal of S Proof. therefore x2 . Let B be an h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S . . Let B be an h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S . Since B is semiprime.RB ) is a left (resp. RB ) is nonempty.6.5. Therefore z+ (mi xsi x + ni x2 ) + h = (mi xsi x + ni x2 ) + h for mi . If IL (resp. A prime h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S is a prime one sided h-ideal of S. Thus we have sx ∈ LB . h ∈ S . ni ∈ Z0 and si . Proposition 2. Then LB (resp. Consequently SLB ⊆ LB . Similarly we can prove that RB is a right h. we have a ∈ B. Similarly.On h-hemiregular hemirings 2729 xS ⊆ B or Sy ⊆ B. Therefore (BS ) ∩ (SB ) ⊆ B and thus B is a h.8. Clearly. Then sx ∈ Sx ⊆ Sx ⊆ B . si . Proof.

This implies I ⊆ LB . y. Let B be a prime h-bi-ideal of a hemiring S . . Hence IL is a left h-ideal of S . Hence IL is an h-ideal of S contained in B . Let x ∈ IL . Dubey Proof. h ∈ S such that a + axa + h = aya + h.4). we can show that IL is a right h-ideal of S . Conversely.10. Let S be an h-hemiregular hemiring and B be an h-bi-ideal of S . Then IL ⊆ LB ⊆ B implies x ∈ LB and x ∈ B . Proposition 2. Hence there exist x. Since IL . Moreover. therefore a ∈ aSa ⊆ B and thus B is semiprime. Also IB is the largest h-ideal contained in B . therefore R ⊆ IB or L ⊆ IB . Since axa. IR are the largest h-ideals of S contained in B . aya ∈ aSa. Since S is h-hemiregular there exist x. Then Ssx ⊆ Sx ⊆ B for each s ∈ S . Similarly. assume that every h-bi-ideal of S is semiprime. Then SI ⊆ I ⊆ B . therefore a ∈ aSa. Thus sx ∈ IL . Hence IL is the largest hideal of S contained in B . Proof. This implies sx ∈ LB . Similarly we can prove that IR of S contained in B . Theorem 2. This implies I ⊆ IL . Hence IB is a prime ideal of S . Then IB is a prime h-ideal of S . therefore IL = IR . aSa is semiprime. K.2730 M. Proof. aSa is h-bi-ideal of S because aSaSaSa ⊆ aSa S aSa ⊆ aSa. Let S be a hemiring. Proposition 2. Then S is h-hemiregular and B −simple if and only if aSa = S for any 0 = a ∈ S. Since B is prime.9. Since for a ∈ S . therefore R ⊆ B or L ⊆ B (by Theorem 2. A hemiring S is h-hemiregular if and only if every h-bi-ideal of S is semiprime. That is SIL ⊆ IL . Since LB is a left h-ideal of S (by above Proposition) and xS ⊆ LB therefore sxS ⊆ SLB ⊆ LB . Deﬁne IB = IL = IR . Suppose aSa ⊆ B for a ∈ S. h ∈ S such that a + axa + h = aya + h and therefore S is h-hemiregular. Suppose RL ⊆ IB for any right h-ideal R and left h-ideal L of S . Now IB ⊆ LB ⊆ B implies RL ⊆ B . Let I be any h-ideal of S contained in B . Now IS ⊆ I ⊆ LB . Let B be a prime h-bi-ideal of S . y.11. That is Sx ⊆ B . A hemiring S is B -simple if it has no nonzero proper h-bi-ideal of S .

x3 . Since A is B − simple therefore aAa = A. Deﬁnition 3. Let S be a B −simple h. then for every a ∈ S there exist x. there exist x. Let B be a non zero h-bi-ideal of S and let 0 = b ∈ S . when the sets of h-bi-ideals and h-quasi-ideals coincide. Then for any 0 = a ∈ S . a ∈ aSa which implies that aSa = 0.On h-hemiregular hemirings 2731 Proof. Suppose that A is B −simple such that A ∩ B = ∅ and a ∈ A ∩ B .hemiregular hemiring. then if A is B −simple such that A ∩ B = ∅. Let S be a hemiring such that the set of all h-bi-ideals coincides with the sets of all h-quasi-ideals. Theorem 3. 3. Suppose S is h-hemiregular. let 0 = a ∈ S . That is. Proof. h ∈ S such that (1) This implies (2) axa + axaxa + axh = axaya + axh a + axa + h = aya + h. Hence A = aAa ⊆ BSB ⊆ B.2. then A ⊆ B. It is easy to show that aAa is h-bi-ideal of A. Since aSa is a h-bi-ideal of S and also S is B −simple. y. which yields that S is h. z ∈ S such that a + ax1 ax2 + z = ax3 ax4 + z and said to be weakly left h-hemiregular if a + x1 ax2 a + z = x3 ax4 a + z. . Thus B = S and S is B −simple. A hemiring S is said to be weakly right h-hemiregular if for each a ∈ S . we have S = aSa for any 0 = a ∈ S . Then by hypothesis S = aSa. there exist x1 . Then S is h-hemiregular if and only if it is weakly h-hemiregular. we deﬁne weakly h-hemiregular hemirings and give some characterizations related to the same. x2 . If B is a h-bi-ideal of S .1. y. and A is a h-ideal of S . z ∈ S such that a + axa + z = aya + z . In case of a commutative hemiring. x4 . The following theorem shows that both concepts also coincide. a weakly left(right)h-hemiregular hemiring is h-hemiregular. Proof.hemiregular. WEAKLY h-HEMIREGULAR HEMIRINGS In this section. Hence A ⊆ B.12. Conversely. Then S = bSb ⊆ BSB ⊆ B . Proposition 2.

Similarly. Adding axaya + ayaxa + u + u on both sides and using (4). let a ∈ S. Again. 2.0 + 1. This implies a + ayaxa + axaya + v = axaxa + ayaya + v for some v ∈ S. 1. z3 . z ∈ . Now. z ∈ S such that a + ax1 ax2 + z = ax3 ax4 + z . a ∈ aSaS and a ∈ SaSa. aS + Z0 a ⊆ aS + Z0 a = aS + Z0 a ∩ S ⊆ (aS + Z0 a) S = (aS + Z0 a)S = aS as S is trivially a right h-ideal. Adding (2)and (5) and then a + h on both sides. . }. Theorem 3. x3 . Again. z4 ∈ S. Therefore S is weakly h-hemiregular. x4 . y. z2 . Dubey and (3) axa + axaxa + hxa = ayaxa + hxa. therefore a ∈ aSaS ∩ SaSa ⊆ aSa. z1 . The principal right ideal of S generated by a is given by aS + Z0 a. we have (4) ayaxa + u = axaya + u for some u ∈ S.2732 M. we have R1 ∩ R2 ⊆ R1 R2 .a ∈ aS + Z0 a ⊆ aS. therefore a ∈ R1 R2 . Conversely.e. x2 . a = a. A hemiring S is weakly right h-hemiregular if and only if for all right h-ideals R1 . K. we get a + aya + ayaxa + axaya + axh + hya + h = a + axa + axaxa + axh + ayaya + hya + h. Then there exist x1 . we get a + a(x + x + x + x)a(ya)+ u + u + v = a(x + y )a((x + y )a)+ u + u + v or a + az1 az2 + z = az3 az4 + z for some z. Therefore there exist x. Proof. x2 . Conversely. From these two equations. Since aSa is a h-bi-ideal of S (by Theorem 2. suppose that a ∈ S is weakly h-hemiregular i. Let S be weakly right h-hemiregular and let a ∈ R1 ∩ R2 . a ∈ aS = aS ∩ aS ⊆ aS aS = aSaS . x4 . Therefore there exist x1 .3. Now.6)and every h-bi-ideal of S is a h-quasi-ideal of S . R2 . ax3 ax4 ∈ R1 SR2 S ⊆ R1 R2 . where Z0 ={0. Thus R1 ∩ R2 ⊆ R1 R2 . x3 . z ∈ S such that a + axa + z = aya + z and therefore S is h-hemiregular. it can be shown that S is weakly left h-hemiregular. because aS is a right h-ideal of S. from(1) we have (5) aya + axaya + hya = ayaya + hya. As ax1 ax2 . .

r3 .1. Math. Theorem 3. we get R ⊆ R2 . A hemiring S is weakly right h-hemiregular if and only if for all right h-ideal R and h-ideal I we have R ∩ I ⊆ RI . r4 ∈ R1 ∩ R2 and z ∈ S . 1091–1100. Also. The author wish to express his deep gratitude to senior scientist Ms. R2 be two right h-ideals of S .4. Kyungpook Math. Journal. La Torre (1965): On h-ideals and k −ideals in Hemirings. Yunqiang Yin (2008): The Characterization of Regular Hemirings.5 and Lemma 2. Similarly. Le Roux(1995) : A note on Prime and Semiprime Bi-Ideals. R. A hemiring S is weakly right h-hemiregular if and only if for all right h-ideal R we have R = R2 Proof. 32.7. J. 219–226. Conversely. Proof. References [1] H. [2] D. South East Asian Bulletin of Mathematics. S is weakly right h-hemiregular. Debrecen. Hence by the above theorem. we have R2 ⊆ R = R. A hemiring S is weakly left h-hemiregular if and only if for all left h-ideals L1 . Acknowledgment. since R2 ⊆ R. P.6. [3] Honglie Li. Hence S is weakly right h-hemiregular. Saxena for providing ﬁnancial support. 12. Suppose S is weakly right h-hemiregular. let R1 . Theorem 3. Pub. which implies a ∈ R1 R2 . 243–247. we can prove the following Theorem 3.5.On h-hemiregular hemirings 2733 S such that a + ax1 ax2 + z = ax3 ax4 + z. r2 . let S be a hemiring and I be an ideal of S . Then putting R1 = R2 = R in above theorem. L2 we have L1 ∩ L2 ⊆ L1 L2 Theorem 3.because a ∈ (R1 ∩ R2 )2 implies a + r1 r2 + z = r3 r4 + z where r1 . Pratibha Yadav for preparing the manuscript and Director Dr. . Xiaokun Haung. Then I is hemiregular if and only if there exist a ∈ I such that a ∈ aIaI. The result can easily be proved by Theorem 2. Thus R2 = R. Then R1 ∩R2 = (R1 ∩ R2 )2 ⊆ R1 R2 .K.

W. Zhan. Received: June. 177. Dubey [4] J. Dudek (2007): Fuzzy h-ideal of hemirings. 876-886.2734 M. Sci. A. 2012 . Inform. K.