Chapter 5

Prepared by : Dr. N. Ait Messaoudene Based on: El-Wakil, Power Plant Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1984. 2nd semester 2012-2013

1 INTRODUCTION The gas turbine obtains its power by utilizing the energy of burnt gases and air, which is at high temperature and pressure by expanding through the several stages of fixed and moving blades (stator and rotor). To get a high pressure (of the order of 4 to 10 bar) of working fluid, which is essential for expansion a compressor, is required. A simple gas turbine cycle consists of (1) a compressor, (2) a combustion chamber and (3) a turbine. Since the compressor is coupled with the turbine shaft, it absorbs some of the power produced by the turbine and hence lowers the efficiency. The network is therefore the difference between the turbine work and work required by the compressor to drive it. Gas turbines are constructed to work mainly on oil and/or natural gas. CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT The gas turbine power plants which are used in electric power industry are classified into two groups as per the cycle of operation: Open cycle gas turbine; Closed cycle gas turbine. Open cycle gas turbine

Advantages 1. No warm-up time. Once the turbine is brought up to the rated speed by the starting motor and the fuel is ignited, the gas turbine will be accelerated from cold start to full load without warm-up time. The stipulation of a quick start and take-up of load frequently are the points in favor of open cycle plant when the plant is used as peak load plant. 2. Low weight and size. The weight in kg per kW developed is less. 3. Fuels. Almost any hydrocarbon fuel from high-octane gasoline to heavy diesel oils can be used in the combustion chamber. 4. Open cycle plants occupy comparatively little space. 5. Open-cycle gas turbine power plant, except those having an intercooler, does not require cooling water. Therefore, the plant is independent of cooling medium and becomes self-contained.

Disadvantages 1. The part load efficiency of the open cycle plant decreases rapidly as the considerable percentage of power developed by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. 2. The system is sensitive to the component efficiency; particularly that of compressor. The open cycle plant is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric air temperature, pressure and humidity. 3. The open-cycle gas turbine plant has high air rate compared to the other cycles, therefore, it results in increased loss of heat in the exhaust gases and large diameter ductwork is necessary. 4. It is essential that the dust should be prevented from entering into the compressor in order to minimize erosion and depositions on the blades and passages of the compressor and turbine and so impairing their profile and efficiency. The deposition of the carbon and ash on the turbine blades is not at all desirable as it also reduces the efficiency of the turbine. Therefore, air filters and fuel treatment are necessary; combustion must also be handled with a lot of care. Closed cycle gas turbine

Advantages 1. The inherent disadvantage of open cycle gas turbine is the atmospheric backpressure at the turbine exhaust. With closed cycle gas turbine plants, the backpressure can be increased, thus increasing power rating. The density of the working medium can be maintained high by increasing internal pressure range. The high density of the working fluid also increases the heat transfer properties in the heat exchanger. Therefore the machine can be smaller and cheaper than the machine used to develop the same power using open cycle plant. 2. The closed cycle avoids erosion of the turbine blades due to the contaminated gases and fouling of compressor blades due to dust. Therefore, it is practically free from deterioration of efficiency in service. 3. The need for filtration of the incoming air which is a severe problem in open cycle plant is completely eliminated.

the temperatures and the air velocities remain almost constant. There are no standby losses in the gas turbine power plant whereas in steam power plant these losses occur because boiler is kept in operation even when the turbine is not supplying any load. 3. The thermal efficiency increases as the pressure ratio (Rp) decreases. 6. In this plant lubrication is needed mainly in compressor. 9. It is smaller in size and weight as compared to an equivalent steam power plant 2. It requires very big heat-exchangers as the heating of workings fluid is done indirectly. The initial cost and operating cost of the plant is lower than an equivalent steam power plant. Even more encouraging prospects can be predicted with the possibility of using renewable energy sources (solar towers for example). Starting of plane is simplified by reducing the pressure to atmospheric or even below atmosphere so that the power required for starting purposes is reduced considerably. 2. Disadvantages 1. The full heat of the fuel is also not used in this plant. the inferior oil or solid fuel can be used in the furnace and these fuels can be used more economically because these are available in abundance. Load variation is usually obtained by varying the absolute pressure and mass flow of the circulating medium. 7. Therefore. The space required for the heat exchanger is considerably large. 6. the ratio γ of the working fluid plays an important role in determining the performance of the gas turbine plant. 5. As we are going to see. . while the pressure ratio. There is great simplification of the plant over a steam plant due to the absence of boilers with their feed water evaporator and condensing system. The response to the load variations is poor compared to the open-cycle plant. 5. turbine main bearing and bearings of auxiliary equipment. As indirect heating is used in closed cycle plant. The closed cycle is only preferable over open cycle where the inferior type of fuel or solid fuel is to be used and ample cooling water is available at the proposed site of the plant. ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT 1.4. Higher internal pressures involve complicated design of all components and high quality material is required which increases the cost of the plant. This result in velocity ratio in the compressor and turbine independent of the load and full load thermal efficiency maintained over the full range of operating loads. Gas turbine plants are used as standby plants for the hydro-electric power plants. appreciable higher thermal efficiencies are obtainable with closed cycle for the same maximum and minimum temperature limits as with the open cycle plant. The plant does not require heavy foundations and building. The lubrication of the plant is easy. The plant can be started quickly. Gas turbine power plants may be used as peak loads plant and standby plants for smaller power units. 7. The plant requires less water as compared to a condensing steam power plant. and can be put on load in a very short time. helium) having more desirable properties. However. The maintenance of the plant is easier and maintenance cost is low. 4. 8. 8. 2. The maintenance cost is low and reliability is high due to longer useful life. CO2. Finally the closed cycle opens the new field for the use of working medium (other than air as argon. The system is dependent on external means as considerable quantity of cooling water is required in the precooler. closed cycle gas turbine plants have not been used for electricity production. APPLICATIONS OF GAS TURBINE IN POWER GENERATION 1. 9. 4. except in very limited cases. 3.

Major part of the work developed in the turbine is used to derive the compressor. Specific heats increase with temperature for diatomic gases such as air and N2 and increase even faster with temperature for triatomic gases suchas CO2 (Fig. It is composed of two adiabatic-reversible (and hence isentropic) and two constant-pressure processes. and then expanded isentropically through the turbine from point 3 to 4. P·V and T·s diagrams of an ideal Brayton cycle. . heated at constant pressure from 2 to 3. The work done in the turbine (a steady-flow machine) per unit time (power) is given by: It should be noted that specific heats for monatomic gases such as helium and argon are essentially constant and independent of temperature. either in a heat exchanger (closed cycle) or in the open atmosphere (open cycle). network output of the plant is low. Since the temperature of the products of combustion becomes too high so service conditions become complicated even at moderate pressures. 8-6). 3. Therefore. 2 THE IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE The ideal cycle for gas turbine work is the Brayton cycle. 2. Cooling occurs from point 4 to point 1.DISADVANTAGES 1. The gas is compressed isentropically from point Ito 2. Proper air filtering and combustion control to prevent corrosion problems.

Variation of cp with temperature for various gases. the pressure ratio across is rpC = P2/P1 . called cold air-standard assumption if properties are taken at standard conditions): Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic. and P2 = P3 and P4 = P1. k = cp/cv And the definition of the pressure ratio across the turbine rpT = P3/P4 . is exact for monatomic gases and only approximate for others (the airstandard assumption: cp cte and supposed to the value for air. which can related to the temperature ratio by: The work of the turbine can therefore be written as: For the compressor. Also recalling: cp-cv = R and . The following analysis. therefore. Thus. which can be which can related to the temperature ratio by: .

(8-8) in terms of T1 and T3 . the by heat added to the cycle is given by: The efficiency of the cycle is then: Equation 8–10 shows that under the cold-air-standard assumptions. the pressure ratio is the same for the turbine and compressor rpT = rpC = rp. the trends they predict apply to all gases. the thermal efficiency of an ideal Brayton cycle depends on the pressure ratio of the gas turbine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. using Eq. Rewriting Eq. helium can produce more than five times wnet (work per unit mass) than air (at low temperatures). (8-6). The net cycle work rate is then given by: On the other hand. . rp . T3. the work per unit mass of gas is a direct function of cp.The absolute value of the compressor work (a consumed work) can also be written as: Assuming no pressure losses in the cycle (P2 = P3 and P4 = P1). Again for rpT = rpC = rp we can write: Examination of Eqs (8-8) and (8-11) shows the following: For the same T1. Hence. Although the above equations pertain to constant specific-heat gases. and k.

The net work thus goes through a maximum at an optimum value of rp. Again. and T3 (limited by metallurgical considerations). and cp. 8-7. Temperature T2 is the obtained: Note that the quantity k/2(k . (8-11) and increases the other. rp . the optimum pressure ratio for monatomic gases (He) is. this shows an advantage for He over air (k for air decreases with temperature). lower than for diatomic gases (air.I) decreases as k increases. This can be shown graphically by the three ideal cycles of Fig. These operate between the same temperatures T1. The net work in each case is represented by the enclosed area of the cycle. The optimum pressure ratio can be evaluated for ideal cycles by differentiating the net work in Eq. Figure 8-7 Effect of pressure ratio on ideal Brayton cycle (T1 and T3 are fixed for the 3 cycles). for fixed initial and maximum cycle temperatures. an increase in rp from its lowest value of 1.For the same T1.0 (where the work is zero) decreases one part of Eq. in general. T3. (8-11) with respect to rp and equating the derivative to zero. Thus. . and have the same inlet exhaust pressure but different values of rp. N2). For any one gas. the work per unit mass of gas increases with k. These in turn have lower ratios than the triatomic gases (CO2). This means an operation with lower maximum pressure under optimal conditions.


For one thing. and the actual work output from the turbine is less because of irreversibilities. the actual work input to the compressor is more. But this effect can be neglected as a first analysis. The deviation of actual compressor and turbine behavior from the idealized isentropic behavior can be accurately accounted for by utilizing the isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and compressor as If cp is assumed constant: .3 THE NONIDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE The actual gas-turbine cycle differs from the ideal Brayton cycle on several accounts. p·Vand T-s diagrams of ideal and nonideal Brayton cycle. some pressure drop during the heat-addition and heat rejection processes is inevitable. More importantly.

(8-20).For the turbine: If cp is assumed constant: And the net power for the cycle (work rate) is given as: This equation can be written in terms of the initial temperature T1. The heat added in the cycle.e. the specific power of the nonideal cycle attains a maximum value at some optimum pressure ratio and is a direct function of the specific heat of the gas used. It also assumes a maximum value at an optimum pressure ratio for each set of temperatures T3 and T1. Figures 8-10 and 8-11 show results of calculations for η and the work per unit mass of a simple air-combustion Brayton cycle (solid lines) and of one with a regenerator (dashed lines. (8-19) by Eq. i. As in the case of the ideal cycle. The two optimum pressure ratios. and increases asymptotically with cp. the efficiency of the nonideal cycle is very much a function of the cycle temperatures. one having the same pressure ratio and using the same fluid. except as they may affect k. a chosen metallurgical limit T3. . and the compressor and turbine efficiencies (above) to give: The second quantity in parentheses can be recognized as the efficiency of the corresponding ideal cycle. the following data were assumed and actual variable properties were used for air and combustion gases. explained below). are not the same.. For the simple cycle. for specific power and for efficiency.. Q. Although the efficiency of the ideal cycle is independent of cycle temperatures. and this necessitates a compromise in design. is given by The efficiency of the nonideal cycle can then be obtained by dividing Eq.

The effect of rPc is also very strong. Figure 8.It can be seen that both the efficiency and the work depend strongly on T 3. showing effects of maximum temperature and regeneration. with optimum rPc increasing with T3 for both efficiency and work. .10 Efficiency versus compressor pressure ratio of a nonideal Brayton cycle. This means that the cycle must be operated as closely as possible to the maximum tolerable temperature. It can also be seen that the optimum value of rPc is greater for the efficiency than for work.

75 MW direct cycle gas turbine powerplant.11 Specific power versus compressor pressure ratio of a nonideal Brayton cycle. showing effects of maximum temperature and regeneration. 2005) .Figure 8. Figure 8-12: 33. Overview of a gas turbine-set (Nordström.

suitable for He. Regenerator-effectiveness.4 MODIFICATIONS OF THE BRAYTON CYCLE Modifications that are made to the basic cycle to improve the output and efficiency (and hence the heat rate):     Regeneration Compressor intercooling Turbine reheat Water injection Regeneration Regeneration. is defined as the ratio of the actual to maximum possible temperature change. Figure 8-13 shows such an arrangement for a closed cycle. sometimes. Figure 8-13 Flow and T-s diagrams of a closed nonideal Brayton cycle with regeneration. R. the recuperator. Actually. The heat added would be reduced from H3 – H2 to H3 – H2”. but also used equally effectively for open cycles with air. therefore. is used to preheat the compressed gas at 2 by the exhaust gases at 4 in a surface-type heat exchanger called the regenerator or. In other words: and since temperature at points 4” and 2 are the same (max heating potential of exhaust gases): . and the compressed gases are heated instead to a lower temperature T2’. the temperature of the gas entering the combustion chamber or nuclear reactor would be raised from T2 to T2”. with corresponding increase in cycle efficiency. If the regenerator were 100 percent effective. the regenerator effectiveness is never 100 percent.

but this is offset by the net work increase and efficiency is improved. When the temperature rises are equal. drawn for simplicity for ideal (isentropic) compression and expansion.33). These points represent pressure ratios at which the exhaust gases are cooler than those after compression. Thus for an overall compressor pressure ratio of 10 and 3 sections.154 (not 10/3=3. the pressure ratio per stage is 3 10 = 2. The efficiency curves for a cycle with regenerator cross those for the simple cycle at points such as a. it is advantageous to keep a low temperature while reaching the desired pressure P2. compressors. and cooling. Intercoolers can be air-cooled heat exchangers but are more commonly watercooled. The improvement in the cycle is in increased net work (due to a decrease in compression work) and efficiency: The heat added is also increased by Hx – H2”. Ideally T1 = T1’ = T1” and T2 = T2’ = T2”. The effect of the regenerator on the specific power curves (when taking into account pressure losses) is only to reduce them somewhat because of the added pressure losses in the regenerator. beyond which the effect of a regenerator on efficiency is negative. Figure 8-13. It can be seen that the effect of adding a regenerator on efficiency is remarkable and shifts the optimum pressure ratio for efficiency to lower values. Compressor Intercooling Since compressor work is negative (consumed). thus reducing fuel consumption by 30 percent or more. However. they are now used by utilities for meeting cycling duty as well as base-load assistance in driving pumps. shows two stages of intercooling. This can theoretically be done by continuous cooling of the compressed gas to keep it at T1 as shown by the lower horizontal dashed line of Fig. and other auxiliary equipment. the pressure ratios are equal because and the pressure ratio per stage is given by Where Nc is the number of compressor sections. is done in stages. In that case we have three compressor sections operating in tandem with equal work because for anyone compressor section (replacing cp by nR/(n-1)) where n is the polytropic exponent for compression (equal to k for ideal compression). instead. Because regenerative gas-turbine cycles are more efficient than simple gas-turbine cycles.75. are included and shown by the dashed lines. this is not physically possible. the effects of adding a regenerator with R = 0.8-14.For the real cycle computations shown in Figures 8-10 and 8-11. .

the pressure ratio per turbine stage is The effect of reheat is an increase in turbine work output with an increase in heat input. General equations for the specific power and heat added for a composite cycle as the one discussed above. continuous heating is not practical and reheat is done in steps or stages. for the case of constant specific heat. Again. Intercooling. reheat. For T3 = T3’ and T4 = T4’. and if the rest of the cycle were ideal. one stage of reheat and regeneration. which has the same efficiency as a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits T1 and T3. 8-14. But. Figure 8-14 shows two turbine sections and one stage of reheat. This can also be done theoretically by continuous heating of the gas as it expands through the turbine. we would have an ideal Ericsson cycle. Turbine Reheat Turbine work can be increased by keeping the gas temperatures in the turbine high.Figure 8-14 Flow and T-s diagrams of a closed ideal Brayton cycle with two stages of intercooling. but with nonidealities taken into account. are: . and regeneration can all be combined in one cycle as shown in Fig. the net effect is an increase in both work and efficiency. Note that if cooling and heating were at constant temperatures. as shown by the upper horizontal dashed line of Fig. 8-14.

The design of the plant should be optimized. the higher the efficiency. etc.(8-26). this is attained at the cost of the capital investment and size of the plant. (8-25) by Eq. .) expenses and to size.The greater the number of reheat and intercooling stages there are. However. with consideration given to capital versus-operating (fuel.The efficiency of the cycle may now be obtained by dividing Eq.

water injection is more beneficial if it is injected between the compressor and regenerator. although it results in somewhat increased work.and two-shaft units. The method can be used on both single.Water Injection Water injection is. 8-15) minus the water vapor originally in the air at point 1. The increase in work of a turbine plant with water injection is. a method by which the power output of a gas-turbine cycle is. (7-4). materially increased and the efficiency is only marginally increased. a result of increased turbine work due to the increased mass-flow rate of air and water vapor without a corresponding increase in compressor work. Using Eq. A greater amount of water results in liquid carry through which. In gas-turbine cycles that have regenerators. Figure 8-15 shows a schematic of a two shaft unit with water injection between compressor and regenerator. local severe temperature differences. in part. Figure 8-15: Flow and T·s diagrams of a two-shaft gas-turbine cycle with water injection and egeneration The quantity of water vapor to be injected is that which would saturate the compressed air at T3. this is given by . and associated thermal stresses. The increased mass stems from the saturated vapor at point 3 (Fig. also results in reduced efficiency compared with that of saturated air and in fouling of the regenerator.

The oxides of nitrogen (NOx). however. are becoming a problem in gas-turbine combustion because of the steadily increasing combustion temperatures in modem units. Emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons in gas-turbine powerplants are not significant because of the high air-to-fuel ratios used in them. It has been found that water injection reduces NOx by at least half . They become of concern only at very high loads when the air-to-fuel ratios are reduced.The temperature at point 3 can be obtained by an energy balance on the dry air and water vapor The exhaust emissions are also favorably affected by water injection.

This also means higher pressure ratios because optimum pressures increase with increasing turbine inlet temperatures for both efficiency and power. Another concern that goes with higher temperatures is increased potential for corrosion. DESIGN FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE From the previous sections.5. Highpressure ratio units have higher capital costs than lower-pressure ones. which are around 1000 to l200°F (540 to 650°C). research and development is underway to raise turbine inlet temperatures from the present 2000 to 2300°F (1090 to l260°C) to near 2800°F (1540°C). As indicated earlier. Such temperatures are well above those that modem steam turbines have to cope with. it is clear that gas-turbine powerplants need to be operated at high turbine inlet temperature to achieve higher efficiencies and power output. which has to be dealt with. but the decrease in fuel consumption rapidly pays back for this capital cost differential. .

Ceramic materials are also being developed. A blade is cooled by being made hollow so that a coolant can circulate through it.The present range is suitable for peaking service. For the moving blades. A hollow blade is lighter than a solid blade and has a much lower Biot number. Materials The components that suffer most from a combination of high temperatures. The latter give rise to low-cycle fatigue. high-temperature corrosion. uneven temperature distributions in the different blade cross sections. high stresses. It is generally agreed that blade surfaces should be kept below about l650"F (900°C>. The thermal stresses in high-temperature turbine moving blades are caused by the high rotational speeds. Thermal stresses are thus caused by steady-state as well as transient operation. as do many present-day ones. which causes fabrication problems and raises uncertainties about the mechanical properties of ceramic materials. Developmental problems here are inherent brittleness. and hence a fairly uniform temperature distribution. to reduce corrosion to a tolerable degree. In the hybrid system. There are several approaches to the problems associated with high gas temperatures. The ranges for these are air for gas temperatures up to about 2100 °F (1l50°C). which reduces blade life. and chemical attack are those of the turbine first-stage fixed blades (nozzles) and moving blades. The increases in temperatures we are witnessing require cooling. It is also competitive with steam plants when used in a combined cycle. Cobalt-based alloys have been used for the first-stage fixed blades (which are subjected to the highest temperatures but not the high stress of the moving blades). cobalt-based alloys with high chromium content are now used. and oxidation. and thermal fatigue. shutdown. especially for the turbine inlet fixed blades. oxidation. water for gas temperatures above 2400 °F (l315°C). and load changes. and air for the remaining blades and rotor [71]. The coolants that have been used and/or are under consideration are air and water (and steam). Other thermal stresses occur during start-up. . for cyclic and some base-load service. Heat resistant materials and precision casting are two recent advances largely attributable to aircraft engine developments. and (3) fuels. mainly the inlet fixed blades. In addition there are problems of creep rupture. In general they can be categorized as developing suitable (1) materials. and a hybrid systems for the intermediate range. (2) cooling. Future ranges would make them competitive on their own. and with regeneration. They must be weldable and castable and must resist corrosion. Cooling Early turbines operated uncooled. These alloys are now being supplemented by vacuum-east nickel-base alloys that are strengthened through solution and precipitation-hardened heat treatment. however. and static and pulsating gas forces that may give rise to dangerous vibrational stresses. water cooling is used for the highest temperature components.

.Fig 8-17 Air-cooled GT fixed blade Figure 8-20 A water cooled GT moving blade.

combine with sulfur to form Sulfates that are corrosive. are of two types. but it is a serious problem with steady operation. The regenerators. Axial Flow Air Compressor INTERCOOLERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS The intercooler is generally used in gas turbine plant when the pressure ratio used is sufficiently large and the compression is completed with two or more stages. the air and hot gases are made to flow in counter direction as the effect of counterflow gives high average temperature difference causing the higher heat flow. (6) They have relatively high ash content that deposits mostly on the inlet fixed blades. (5) They have other metals like vanadium with compounds that form during combustion also being corrosive. thus reducing gas flow and power output. have been used in gas turbines to some extent [74]. . The deposition of dust particles on the blade surfaces reduces the efficiency rapidly.Fuels Residual liquid fuels.such as sodium. Early turbines designed for residual fuel use operated at temperatures below 1650'F (900 K) to avoid the problem. A cross-flow type intercooler is generally preferred for effective heat transfer. ELEMENTS OF GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT COMPRESSORS The type of compressor which is commonly used is the axial flow type. 6. recuperator and regenerator. The cooling of compressed air is generally done with the use of cooling water. The axial flow compressor consists of a series of rotor and stator stages with decreasing diameters along the flow of air. In a recuperative type of heat exchanger. A satisfactory air filter is absolutely necessary for cleaning the air before it enters the compressor because it is essential to maintain the designed profile of the aerofoil blades. (3) Their high carbon content leads to excessive carbon deposits in the combustion chamber. which are commonly used in gas turbine plant. The rate of corrosion increases with increasing gas temperatures. the residue left after the profitable light fractions have been extracted from the crude. They are (I) viscous and (2) tend to polymerize (form sludge or tar) when overheated. Ash deposition is not a problem with intermittent operation because of successive expansions and contractions. (4) Their contents of alkali metals.

The major disadvantage of this heat exchanger is. The heat-conducting member is made of a metallic mesh or matrix.m. A few of them are listed below:  Combustion in the gas turbine takes place in a continuous flow system. The solution is to create a pilot or recirculated zone in the main flow to establish a stable flame that helps to ignite the combustible mixture continuously. the chemical reaction takes place relatively slowly thus requiring large residence time in the combustion chamber in order to achieve complete combustion.  . Unfortunately most of the fuels have low burning velocities of the order of a few meters per second. flame stabilization is not possible unless some technique is employed to anchor the flame in the combustion chamber. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS One of the vital problems associated with the design of gas turbine combustion system is to secure a steady and stable flame inside the combustion chamber. On the other hand. It is therefore necessary to allow required air in the combustion zone (usually a rich mixture) and the remaining air is added after complete combustion to reduce the gas temperature before passing into the turbine.) and continuously exposed to hot and cold air. there will be always a tendency for air leakage to the exhaust gases as the compressed air is at a much higher pressure than exhaust gases. The gas turbine combustion system has to function under certain different operating conditions which are not usually met with the combustion systems of IC engines.p. the air-fuel ratio required for the combustion in diesel engine is approximately 15:1) and it is impossible to ignite and maintain a continuous combustion with such weak mixture.  The gas turbine requires about 100:1 air-fuel mass ratio (for comparison. High rate of mass flow results in high velocities at various points throughout the cycle (300 m/sec).The regenerator type heat exchanger consists of a heat-conducting member that is exposed alternately to the hot exhaust gases and the cooler compressed air. therefore. The common methods of flame stabilization used in practice are bluff body method and swirl flow method. A stable continuous flame can be maintained inside the combustion chamber when the stream velocity and fuel burning velocity are equal. which is rotated slowly (40-60 r.

which are in use. are axial flow type. More stages are further preferred with stationary power plants because weight is not the major consideration in the design which is essential in aircraft turbine-plant. Compressor detailed internal blade view (Rolls-Royce. reliability in operation and long working life. high efficiency.Combustion Chamber with Upstream Injection with Bluff-body Flame Holder. The basic requirements of the turbines are lightweight. 1992) . Large work output can be obtained per stage with high blade speeds when the blades are designed to sustain higher stresses. More stages of the turbine are always preferred in gas turbine power plant because it helps to reduce the stresses in the blades and increases the overall life of the turbine. GAS TURBINES The common types of turbines. Combustion Chamber with Downstream Injection and Swirl Holder.

The starter turbine is rotated by air pressure taken from an external supply. IGNITION SYSTEMS Ignition system is utilized to initiate spark during the starting. ignition. Other starting systems are: electrical. There are different methods of cooling the blades. STARTING SYSTEMS Two separate systems-starting and ignition are required to ensure a gas turbine engine will start satisfactorily. AUXILIARY SYSTEMS Auxiliary systems are the backbone of the gas turbine plant. hydraulic. A flame detector is used to ensure combustion and automatically activate the ignition system if necessary. The auxiliary system includes starting. The starter turbine rotor transmits power through a reduction gear and clutch to the starter output shaft that is connected to the powerplant turbine. from an auxiliary power unit or from an engine that is running. the combustion is continuous and the working of ignition system is cut-off automatically. lubrication. The common method used is the air-cooling. air filtering and fuel system and control. combustion (a small auxiliary GT). It permits the safe working of the gas turbine. Without auxiliary system.SGT-750 35 MW Siemens gas turbine The cooling of the gas turbine blades is essential for long life as it is continuously subjected to high temperature gases. Once it starts. The clutch automatically disengages as the engine accelerates to a predetermined starter speed. the very existence of the gas turbine is impossible. . Air starting (pneumatic) is used mostly as it is light. simple and economical to operate. The air is passed through the holes provided through the blade. During engine starting the two systems must operate simultaneously.

8. valve. dual fine oil filters. The high-pressure system consists of main fuel pump. Filter and strainer. boost pump. Δp indicator and ordinary valves. Oil pump. 6. relief valve. strainer. Oil cooler. By-pass.LUBRICATION SYSTEM The following are the elements of lubrication system of a gas turbine 1. flow distributor (to ensure that the fuel is well distributed in the various fuel injectors) and injectors (nozzles). 5. 7. Oil and pipe line. Warning devices. . 4. Relief valve. Magnetic drain plug. and 9. The low-pressure system consists of a fuel tank. 3. strainer. shut-off valve. 2. Oil tank. FUEL SYSTEM Basically there are two sub-systems: low pressure and high pressure. fuel control.

Fuel System for Gas Turbine. the effects of poor filtration on the gas turbine should be understood. . and corrosion (hot and cold). turbine blade cooling passage plugging. In order to understand the importance of inlet filtration. The gas turbine is affected by various substances in the inlet air depending upon their composition and their particle size. Air intake filters protect the most valuable equipment from degradation caused by exposure to outdoor air pollutants. particle fusion. There are six common consequences of poor inlet air filtration: foreign object damage. Proper inlet filtration is designed based on the required application in order to prevent a decrease in gas turbine performance and even destruction of the gas turbine. erosion. fouling. Splash Plate Type Injector and Duplex Nozzle Injector Air Filtering Filtration’s role in power generation is critical.

c. the main requirement is to control the frequency of the a. Basically. and (e) Excess vibration. (b) Turbine over speed. The purpose of modulating control is to sense an impending malfunction or a condition. The objective of the prime control is to ensure the proper application of the turbine power to the load. (a) Turbine over temperature. generator at any load. The modulating control is more complex and more costly than the shutdown control. Whenever. The shut down type control detects a condition which can cause a serious malfunction and actuate the shut-off valve to stop the turbine. which could adversely affect turbine life and make some modification to the operating condition of the turbine in order to alleviate the undesired conditions. An example of this control may be maximum turbine inlet temperature and maximum speed. which maintains the constant electrical loads. (c) Low lube oil pressure. The objective of the protective control is to ensure adequate protection for the turbine in preventing its operation under adverse conditions. Following are the various types of shut down controls. There are basically two types of controls: Prime control and Protection control. But it offers and advantage in allowing a turbine or turbine driven plant to continue operating when normally a shut down occurs. unsafe operating conditions are approached. the protective control is of two types: Shutdown control and Modulating control. the prime control is overtaken by the protective control to protect the turbine or driven equipment. In power generation applications. (d) High lube oil temperature. . This is achieved by selecting the primary controller as a speed governor (a speed sensing device).CONTROL OF GAS TURBINES The purpose of gas turbine controls is to meet the specific control requirements of users and safe operation of the turbine. There are some conditions such as high vibrations and low lube oil pressure which cannot be taken care by corrective measures as in this case shut down of the turbine is essential.

1 bar ηcompressor = 85%. (2) Heat supplied per hg of air circulation.Additional solved example Example 1: In a constant pressure open cycle gas turbine air enters at 1 bar and 20°C and leaves the compressor at 5 bar.024 kJ/kgK for air and gas. Mass of the fuel may be neglected. (3) The thermal efficiency of the cycle. γ = 1. ηturbine = 80%. ηcombustion = 85%. Using the following data: Temperature of gases entering the turbine = 680°C Pressure loss in the combustion chamber = 0. Solution T-s Diagram of the cycle: .4 and cp = 1. Find: (1) The quantity of air circulation if the plant develops 1065 kW.


A regenerator of 75% effectiveness is added in the plant to increase the overall efficiency of the plant. Solution: The arrangement of the components and the processes are represented on T-s diagram as shown in the figure: The given data is .15 bars.Example 2: A gas turbine plant of 800 kW capacities takes the air at 1. Neglect the mass of the fuel.15 bars as well as in the regenerator is also 0. The pressure drop in the combustion chamber is 0. Assuming the isentropic efficiency of the compressor 80% and of the turbine 85%. determine the plant thermal efficiency. The pressure ratio of the cycle is 6 and maximum temperature is limited to 700°C.01 bar and 15°C.


Solution: T-s Diagram of the cycle: Given data: P1 = 1.85.9 bar abs. the air enters the compressor at 1 bar abs 32°C and leaves at 6.Example 3: In an open cycle regenerative gas turbine plant. The isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine are respectively 0.0 bar.9 bar T4 = 816 + 273 = 1089 K .84 and 0. The temperature at the end of combustion chamber is 816°C. determine: (a) Thermal efficiency. (b) Air rate. Combustion efficiency is 90% and the regenerator effectiveness is 60 percent. (c) Work ratio. T1 = 273 + 32 = 305 K P2 = P2a = 6.

Or for the turbine: .

P turbine are heated to 1250°C before entering into L. The expansions in both turbines are arranged in such a way that each stage develops same power. Neglect the mass of fuel.5 kg/sec. Solution: The arrangement of the components and the processes are shown in the following figure: 9 And the temperature variation in the regenerator is given in as: The given data is . (1) Determine the cycle efficiency assuming ideal regenerator. (2) Find the power developed by the cycle in kW if the airflow through the power plant is 16. Compressors and turbines isentropic efficiencies are assumed to be 83%.Example 4: A gas turbine power plant is operated between 1 bar and 9 bar pressures and minimum and maximum cycle temperatures are 25°C and 1250°C. The gases coming out from H. Compression is carried out in two stages with perfect intercooling.P turbine.