CHAPTER 1

The Study of American Government

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 3 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. Who pays? To what ends? With what means? For how long? Who votes?

The two great questions about politics addressed by your text are, Who governs? and

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Factual B 3

The two great questions about politics addressed by your text are a. b. c. d. e. Who votes? and Why? Who governs? and To what ends? Who runs for office? and Who pays? Who is right? and Why? For how long?

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The relationship between the two central questions addressed by your text ”Who gov and To what ends?” can best be described in what way? a. b. c. d. e.

They are two distinct questions, but each must be considered with the other in m They are essentially two different versions of the same question. Who governs? deals with the purpose of politics; To what ends? deals with wh political power. They are two separate and distinct questions that should be addressed without reference to each other. They are questions which cannot be separated without considering the very nat politics.

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Today, the U.S. federal income tax takes an average of what percent of taxpayers' inc a. b. c. d. e. 10 15 21 43 45

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2

Chapter 1: The Study of American Government

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The text argues that political power and political purposes are a. b. c. d. e. one and the same thing. frequently at odds with each other. occasionally overlapping concepts. inextricably intertwined. rarely joined in any obvious way.

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The text argues that political power is inextricably bound with a. b. c. d. e. mass media power. economic theories. an elitist attitude. religious and moral values. political purposes.

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Individuals have power when they are able to a. b. c. d. e. get elected to office. be present at behind-the-scenes political meetings. serve their fellow human beings. get others to do what they want. vote without being influenced by outside forces.

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Power is best defined as the capacity to a. b. c. d. e. make and carry out decisions without regard to others. get others to act in accordance with your intentions. persuade others to do what they do not want to do. respect your positions without fully believing them. believe in others while motivating yourself.

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The president's wife gets him to change his position on abortion. Is this an example of political power, according to your text's definition? a. b. c. d. e. Yes, because she's gotten the president to act according to her intentions. Yes, because the spouse of a president is a legitimate member of a political elite. No, because the spouse of a president lacks the formal authority to exercise political power. No, because the exercise of political power requires overt action. No, because abortion is not mentioned in the Constitution.

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10.

Your text notes that, over time, more and more issues in this country have tended to become ________ ones. a. b. c. d. e. public economic international moral private

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simple. social Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 5 12. d. a. consensus. will of the people. d. notion of civil rights. join an effective interest group. . If you decided that you wanted to achieve some formal authority in U. governmental office. e. considerably less. get a formal education. c. c. become well versed in the law. d. join a political party. d. respected lasting formal ultimate informal Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 5 16.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 3 Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 5 11. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. secret social. popular consensus. b. considerably greater. you be best advised to a. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 5 15. complicated public. e. The text notes a tendency for issues that once were ________ to become ________. e. Compared with the 1950s. slightly greater. e. b. The primary source of legitimate political authority in the United States is the a. c. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 5 13. majority vote. d. c. e. People who run for office are trying to achieve what kind of authority? a. pursue elective or appointive office. Formal authority refers to a right to exercise power that is derived from a(n) a.S. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 5 14. public economic. b. slightly less. society. political private.S. All rights reserved. Bill of Rights. Constitution. government's involvement in the everyday lives of Americ the 1990s is a. c. b. d. e. concept of civil liberty. b. official ceremony. b. U. about the same. c.

Constitution become a source of legitimate authority? a. those without property. c. slaves. no government at any level would be considered legitimate if it were not in some sense a. b. elitist. humanitarian. close to unanimous. All of these.S. or polis extended the right to vote to everyone except a. This notion is unanimously recognized. Which of the following statements about the U. women. but developing. This notion has been accepted since 1787. e. e. d. the view that a democratic government was desirable was a. d. democratic. When did the U. e. e. altruistic. d. what constitutes legitimate authority. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 5 21. gradually only in recent years after the Supreme Court’s decision in Marbury Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 5 18. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 5 20. This notion is accepted by many historians. Constitution as a source of legitimate authority is true? a. and the New Deal as examples of struggles over a. d. held by an elite only. All rights reserved. minors. c. when. c. . b. The Greek city-state.S. b. far from unanimous. when progress is possible. d. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 6 22. aristocratic. d. who shall govern. and how. how power is accumulated. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. The author cites the early presidential administrations. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 5 19.4 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 5 17. At the time of the Constitutional Convention. c. b. already waning. e. The texts suggests that. at the time of the American Revolution when it was written in Philadelphia after 1787. c. beyond debate. the Civil War. This notion is vague. in the United States. who gets what. This notion is widely accepted today. e. b. c. b.

socialism.S. c. Aristotle's notion of democracy derived from the era of a. Greece in the fourth century B. the Democratic National Convention. modern China the United States since 1787 the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1990 the Southeastern United States before the Civil War Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 6 25. plutocracy. The term democracy was originally associated with a. d. a New England town meeting. the AFL-CIO. the best example of a participatory democracy is a. the Constitutional Convention. anarchy. In recent times. classical democracy. Of the following. House of Representatives. c. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 6 26. warring duchies. city-states. global superpowers. c. b. Aristotle's ideal of democracy has been most closely approximated b a. e. All rights reserved. the U. independent tribes. revolution. Jesus Christ. e. e. d.S. the Southeastern United States before the Civil War. Kierkegaard. e. The term participatory democracy applies most accurately to which of the following societies? a. d.C. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 6 24. c. Sweden or Norway. House of Representatives. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 6 28. . b. the U. c.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 5 Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 6 23. e. b. Aristotle. a Cuban village. b. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual B 6 27. b. d. Vladimir Lenin. New England town meetings are commonly cited as the closest approach in the Unite States to a. d. the New England town meeting. Thomas Jefferson. e. d. b. c. revolting municipalities.

b. the direct participation of citizens in making policy. power. c. b. The arrangement by which individuals gain power through competition for the people's vote is called a. Democracy in the United States is distinguished from many European democracies by the fact that. community control of policy formulation. votes. genuine competition for leadership. e. e. nonpartisan elections. the government plays a more active role in elections. d. b. Representative democracy allows individuals to gain political power through a. Joseph Schumpeter. participatory democracy. All rights reserved. e. e. e. an enlightened public. media campaigns. competitive elections. minds. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 6 31. Joseph Stalin. b. more people participate in the electoral process. the direct participation of citizens in holding office." direct democracy. quadrennial elections. Max Weber. many more offices are elective. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual D 7 33. . c. e. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 7 34. d. more campaign money comes from public sources. d. d. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. a. b. Karl Marx. d. d. the "rule of the many. c. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 6 30. representative democracy. consciousness. b. the government frequently changes hands. The key to the success of a representative democracy is a. in the United States. c. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 6 32. c. Democracy was defined as the competitive struggle for people's votes by a. c. hearts. reciprocal elections. democratic centralism. Soren Kierkegaard. Joseph Schumpeter defined democracy as the competitive struggle for people's a.6 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 6 29.

c. the government plays a more active role in elections. Variants of direct democracy include programs of citizen participation and a. d. a. . b. party members. e. Community control and citizen participation in government programs are variants of type of democracy? a. e. b. c. c. Compared to European democracies. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 7 36. b. it serves special interests. d. e. the government frequently changes hands. more campaign money comes from private sources. c. political activists. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 8 37. competitive elections. The Framers of the U. All rights reserved. d. c. single-issues voters.S. A and C. b. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 7 Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 7 35. it is unresponsive to majority opinion. more people participate in the electoral process. it responds too slowly. interest group cooperation. Critics of representative democracy have pointed out all of the following except a. in the United States. constitution favored a. democratic centralism representative democracy "the rule of the many" direct democracy residual democracy Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual D 8 40. it does not adequately protect basic liberties. Democracy in the United States is distinguished from many European democracies b fact that. d. e. fewer offices are elective. direct democracy participatory democracy representative democracy Marxism Socialism Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 8 38. elective offices. b. Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 8 39. the United States has a larger number of a. d. voters. b. e. political party centralism. community control. guerrilla warfare. c. e. d.

Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual B 8 43. it is called a. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 8 42. d. officeholders. public opinion is unified. When the people have such intense feelings about a political issue that leaders feel obligated to follow the popular will. c. demagoguery. c. Under what circumstances would majoritarian politics normally not be effective? a. e. b. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. e. pluralist politics. Aristotelian politics. centralists. A city council representative faces an important vote on how much. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 8 45. A political elite consists of individuals who have a disproportionate amount of a. participatory politics. money to spend on a new school. if any. d. symbolic politics. d. e. c. c. b. fame. c. Majoritarian politics comes into play when a. b. a political elite. d. reciprocal politics. an absolute majority is required to win an election. elitist politics. majoritarian politics. a political elite comes to power. d.8 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 8 41. The representative relies on a poll of her constituents to make a decision. d. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 8 46. democracy. intelligence. majoritarians. capitalists. the major party prevails on an issue. b. influence. b. e. All rights reserved. . majoritarian politics. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 8 44. media exposure. power. when a political leader feels sharply constrained by what most people want when an issue is sufficiently important to command the attention of most citizens when an issue is too complicated or technical for most citizens to understand when an issue is sufficiently feasible so that what citizens want done can in fact be done All of these. Those who possess a disproportionate share of political power are defined as a. e. e. c. leaders feel constrained to follow the popular will. This is in keeping with the form of politics known as a. b.

behavior of the U. intelligentsia and bourgeoisie. d. coup. political savy. the two major classes contending for power a a. c. b. An identifiable group that possesses a disproportionate share of political power is cal political a. service to defense corporations. c. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 9 49. Marxists claim that. C. e. political power. All rights reserved. search for national security. c. e. natural resources. d. industrialists and capitalists. d. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. c. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 8 51. Marx's view of government would dispose one to view an administration's proposal o large military budget as a(n) a. pressure group. e. intelligence. threat to world peace. All of these. e. e. government and proletariat. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 8 48. interest group. c. Karl Marx. d. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 8 52. b. d. and Max Weber are cited in the text as theorists who atte to explain the a. Karl Marx. b. exercise in bargaining and compromise. Members of the political elite possess a disproportionate share of a. party. elite. b. b. electorate. e. d. c. ploy to appease the international community. in modern society.S. fall of Western European capitalists. b. C. dynamics of Western history. money. capitalists and workers. Wright Mills. . Wright Mills. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 9 50. behavior of political elites. Sigmund Freud. city dwellers and farmers. Max Weber. Which of the following was not an important source of theories explaining political e a. fate of political institutions.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 9 Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 8 47.

ideologues. Jr. c. e. workers. b. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual A 8 56. elitists. b. The founder of the elitist school in contemporary America was a. b. Bureaucracy and its Critics. functionalists. J. Ralph Abernathy. d. Karl Marx. b. the bourgeoisie. bureaucrats. d. e. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 8 54. d. Auguste Comte. C. Max Weber. d. e. . class race pluralism bureaucracy institutions Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 8 57. d. Those who believe that government is little more than a front for major corporate interests would most likely be attracted to the thinking of a. William F. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. The Proletarian Lament. Wright Mills. farmers. Society is analyzed as consisting of capitalists and workers in the theories of the a. Joseph Schumpeter. Buckley. e. the term bourgeoisie refers to a. c. Marxists refer to those who own the means of production as a. e. Marxists analyze society primarily through the lens of a. tsarists. b. imperialists. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 9 59. All rights reserved. C. d. Max Weber. Wright Mills. intellectuals. b. Mill.S. Wright Mills expresses his view of power and policy making in his work entitled a. c. C. Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 9 55. In Marxist ideology. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 9 58. pluralists. Marxists. c. The Inner Circle. c. the collective. the proletariat. b.10 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 8 53. c. c. capitalists. e.

None of these. the a. e. indefensible. circular. bureaucracy. the diffusion of vital political resources. media. c. Wright Mills. b. d. C. Max Weber argued that Karl Marx had neglected the most important institution in mo times. All of these. c. Wright Mills suggested the most important policies are set by a. e. Wright Mills is viewed as the founder of which school of thought in the twentiethcentury United States? a. That a comparatively tiny group of individuals holds the greatest political power coul agreed on by both a. d. e. Wright Mills would be most likely to agree on a. The Power Elite. c. inefficient. b. c. b. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 9 65. b. the centrality of a constitution and laws. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. e. Truman and Dahl. c.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 11 d. rational. C. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 9 64. dialectical. C. e. e. Wright Mills and Karl Marx. Max Weber argued that the decision making of a dominant bureaucracy was more lik be a. namely. d. the existence of a small power elite. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 9 The Owners of Production. d. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 9 62. military. Karl Marx and C. 60. Marxism pluralism elitism structuralism idealism Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 9 61. c. Dahl and C. Karl Marx and Tocqueville. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 9 63. mass media. university. b. e. d. top military officials a handful of key political leaders. . b. Tocqueville and Dahl. All rights reserved. corporate leaders. the spread of socialist ideology. d. material dialecticalism as a starting point to politics.

c. economic policies are transparent. e. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. . the Marxists and the elitists. pluralists. Policies are the result of a complex pattern of shifting alliances. All rights reserved. Max Weber and the pluralists would be most likely to agree that a. Marxists. Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 10 71. Political elites are divided. written constitutions are mere symbols. e. Marxists. elitists. d. the pluralists and the Marxists. coordination duplication irrelevance decentralization reciprocity Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 10 67. Those who emphasize the role in politics of shifting coalitions of groups are referred to as a. b. Mills and Dahl. The pluralist view of political reality emphasizes the ________ of political resources. b. Political elites do not respond to the interests of their followers. d. no extragovernmental elite controls politics. b. pluralists. b. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 10 70. c. class warfare is inevitable. The pluralist view holds all of the following except a. e. Political resources are not distributed equally. c. structuralists. d. d. d. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 10 69. elitists. the elitists and Max Weber. a. e. The decentralization of political resources would be emphasized by the a. No single elite has a monopoly on political resources.12 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 10 66. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual A 10 68. That extragovernmental elites do not control politics could be agreed on by both a. d. c. structuralists. multinational corporations make most political decisions today. e. e. b. c. isolationists. isolationists. c. b. Max Weber and the pluralists.

b. e. c. giv a. b. the self-interest of individuals is usually a complete guide to their actions. difficult to accept. political preferences can be predicted invariably by knowing an individual's eco or organizational position. c. inevitable. moral precepts. Americans are fond of explaining their actions in terms of a. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. economic approach. d. self-interest is rarely an important factor in understanding political attitudes and behavior. e. government becomes impossible. Regarding the role of self-interest in the positions that people take on important issue safest to say that a. e. historical perspective. All rights reserved. how economic interests lead directly to policy preferences. b. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual C 11 76. the subtle ways in which obstructionism can be exercised in Washington. d. organizational self-interest rather than economic self-interest is usually the bes to people's actions. an organization as a whole acting politically out of considerations broader than members' individual interests. b. d. viewed in historical perspective. government. existential perspective. an innocent bystander caught up in a battle between opposing forces. c. makes a mechanistic view of politics a. disinterested and spontaneous impulses.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 13 Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 10 72. . The text cites the AFL-CIO's civil rights position in the 1960s as an example of a.S. self-interest. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual B 10 73. the manner in which interest groups can impose their viewpoints on large majo Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 11 75. etymological analysis. philosophical skepticism. economic self-interest may be important but is usually not the only guide to pe actions. impossible. religious commitments. c. According to Tocqueville. sociological context. b. c. d. The text argues that U. accurate beyond a reasonable doubt. Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 10 74. The text argues that a mechanistic view of U. e. d. e. likely.S.

e. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual D 14 79. expanded. b. 1790 1890 1920 1945 1985 Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 12 80. deregulated. c. realism and idealism. reformed. being buffeted about by external forces. fluid in times of economic prosperity. Power cannot be realized without institutional arrangements. honored. Political power can usually be inferred by knowing what administrative actions have been taken. many employees of the Civil Aeronautics Board worked hard to have their agency a. society. abolished. The key to understanding power is understanding the monetary costs of different political decisions. Your text argues that we must study preferences as well as power in order to understand a. e. d. devoid of any pattern whatsoever. Political power can usually be inferred by knowing what laws are on the books. b.14 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual A 12 77. d. b. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 12 78. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 12 81. b.S. d. The text presents the historical involvement of the United States in foreign affairs as a. history. Yankee and cowboy leadership. loyalty. morals. e. d. Type: Ans: Page: Factual E 10 82. . b. e. c. politics. Which of the following statements about political power ”who governs” is most accurate? a. good and bad influences. and prestige. c. values. expansionist and imperialist tendencies. The average citizen in the United States would have been most likely to look to the federal government to solve social and economic problems in the year a. inward and outward movements. c. d. Most power derives from psychological and social factors such as friendship. involvement in foreign affairs alternates between a. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. consistently drifting toward imperialism. c. e. e. b. In the late 1970’s. c. Your text argues that the history of U. d. alternating between outward and inward movements.

Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 15 Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 12 83. e. too ambitious an undertaking. d. if we wish to understand power. powerlessness. e. c. empirical and authoritative. d. scientific and reliable. All rights reserved. the best single approach. b. b. largely irrelevant to the real world. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual E 12 87. Answers given by political scientists to major political questions tend to be a. many congressional enactments never get recorded at all. c. . Which of the following shape the nature of day-to-day political conflict? a. b. Type: Ans: Page: Factual C 12 86. c. e. c. b. d. we must also understand a. ambiguities. b. when economic circumstances are properly assessed. the judicial branch is rarely independent from the legislative branch. but not always. d. legislative codes may be so obscure as to defy anyone's comprehension. The text insists that. e. contingent and controversial. d. too simplistic an approach. on the basis of general ideological suppositions about modern society. e. acceptable if courts were policy makers. According to your text. more reliably prospectively than retrospectively. laws are made to be broken. b. The trouble with trying to infer the distribution of political power from examining the on the books is that a. d. only when one takes the time to accumulate sufficient sociological data. couched in economic theories. c. weakness. laws may be enacted in a great variety of circumstances. workable most of the time. The text asserts that judgments about institutions and interests can be made a. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual A 12 85. Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 14 88. only after watching them act on a variety of important issues. Type: Ans: Page: Conceptual B 12 84. to infer the distribution of political power from studying the l the books would be a. economics. e. c. Opinions about what constitutes the dominant political problem of the time Major economic developments Deep-seated beliefs All of these None of these Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. preferences.

16 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Type: Ans: Page: Factual B 14 89. we can necessarily infer to what ends. b. the dissection of case studies of recent policy decisions. Who governs? and Who appears to govern? Ans: Page: True 3 93. the study of how children acquire their political attitudes. Ans: Page: True 4 98. The Constitutional Convention is the logical place to begin to study how a. The text argues that we can know who governs without knowing to what ends. The two great questions about politics are. the political parties. Ans: Page: False 3 94. b. the founding of the national government at the Constitutional Convention. power is distributed in national politics. the spirit of democracy was established. e. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. white Protestant males. Government policies do not always favor the people who are in the government. c. TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS Ans: Page: True 3 91. The text concludes that the place to begin exploring how power is conducted in national politics is a. . this country gained its independence. Who governs? and To what ends? Ans: Page: False 3 92. 96. We can always assume that government policy will favor government officials. d. today's parties first came into being. Type: Ans: Page: Factual D 14 90. The two questions that the text intends to ask about politics are. Ans: Page: False 4 97. All rights reserved. middle-aged. The goals of a particular administration will not be obvious from its party affiliation. e. Ans: Page: Ans: Page: True 4 True 4 95. the current confrontation between Democrats and Republicans. d. equality was institutionalized. c. If we know who governs. Most people holding national political office are middle-class.

Ans: Page: True 6 108. Aristotle's notions of democracy were based on governments that actually allowed only a small percentage of the populace to participate. Political power is the ability to influence who rules and how rulers behave. human relationships. Athenian democracy permitted all who lived in Athens to participate in public decision-making. The words "power" and "authority" describe the same concept. Ans: Page: False 5 104. Only those who have formal authority may be said to exercise political power. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 109. Ans: Page: False 5 100. None of the Founders was particularly concerned about the government being too democratic. The Founders tried to give the United States a government that was as democratic as possible. Ans: Page: False 5 107. One can have political power even if one does not possess formal authority. Ans: Page: True 5 103. Ans: Page: Ans: Page: False 5 False 5 105. Ans: Page: True 5 101. All rights reserved. 106. Power is to be found in all human relationships. Power is found in some. Ans: Page: False 6 Ans: Page: False 6 110. Ans: Page: False 5 102. Ans: Page: True 6 111. Political power consists of the ability to use coercive force if you deem it appropriate. .Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 17 Ans: Page: True 4 99. but by no means all. A modern example of the Aristotelian ideal of the "rule of the many" is a New England town meeting. Athenian democracy permitted all who lived in Athens to participate in public decision-making except property owners.

Ans: Page: False 6 122. Recent programs of community control are modeled on democratic centralism. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. The writers of the U. The growth of towns and cities in the United States has helped preserve citizen participatory democracy. as used by the textbook. cities and towns. Ans: Page: False 8 115. Ans: Page: False 8 119. Community control of citizen participation is urged today as a variant of classical democracy. Ans: Page: False 8 117. Ans: Page: True 6 114. The terms direct democracy and participatory democracy mean the same thing. . means an arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which leaders acquire power by means of a competitive struggle for people's votes. The elitist theory of democracy holds that leadership groups compete for the electorate's vote. Ans: Page: True 8 116. Some of the Founders opposed democracy because they thought the people would make bad decisions. Constitution placed their trust in the collective wisdom of the American people. The term democracy. Constitution was modeled on Aristotelian notions of democracy. The elitist theory holds that a small group. Ans: Page: True 6 123.S.S. The terms participatory democracy and rule of the many are synonymous. Ans: Page: True 6 121. Ans: Page: False 6 113. atypical of the rest of the population. Ans: Page: False 9 120.18 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Ans: Page: True 6 112. holds power on most public policy issues. Ans: Page: True 7 118. All rights reserved.S. Participatory democracy became less feasible with the growth of U. The U.

Majoritarian politics prevails in only a minority of public issues. 131. 127. The Framers embraced representative democracy because they saw it as a way of minimizing the chances that power would be abused either by a tyrannical popular majority or self-serving office holders." 125. 136. According to C. Marx derived most of his political thought from the psychoanalytic theories of Freud. Marx saw the economy and the government as equal determiners of a nation's politics.S. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. 128. Constitution believed that the "will of the people was synonymous with the common interest" or the "public good. More public officials are chosen by election in Europe than in the United States. many of the most powerful people in our country are outside the government. Some of Mills's followers would add members of the mass media and labor unions to the power elite. The Framers of the U. 126. In the Marxist tradition. 130. 132. Wright Mills. All rights reserved. 135. the people are divided into classes on the basis of their relationship to the economy.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 19 Ans: Page: False 8 124. Majoritarian politics prevails on most of the issues most of the time. 137. Far fewer public officials are elected in European democracies than in the United States. Ans: Page: True 6 Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: False 7 True 7 False 8 True 8 True 8 False 8 False 8 True 9 False 9 True 9 True 9 False 10 129. 133. Wright Mills downplayed the influence of nongovernmental elites in the United States. The pluralist view holds that power is concentrated in the hands of a few corporations and their top executives. . C. Max Weber criticized the Marxist position because it assigned exclusive significance to economic power. 134.

politics is best considered from the perspective of how people define the public interest. According to the text." 151. Labor leaders by definition are not part of the national leadership according to the elitist school of thought. Throughout its history. 142.20 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: False 9 False 10 True 10 138. Alexis de Tocqueville found. we can judge whether it is good or bad. was rarely noted by Americans in explaining their own actions. what's best for the country. is not simply about "who gets what. Self-interest. Alexis de Tocqueville found that Americans explained almost all of their actions as products of self-interest. that is. The text proceeds on the assumption that politics is about "who gets what. . Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. Pluralists believe power is equally distributed." 150. 145. All rights reserved. 144. 147. 139. 148. according to the text. Politics. 149. Pluralists believe that power is spread among numerous groups and coalitions of interests. the United States has taken an expansionistic approach to foreign affairs. 146. 143. mechanistic view of politics. If we know the motives of the person who produced a particular policy. The motives of those who make laws do not always determine whether the laws are good or bad. The 1980s marked a time of retrenchment from the belief that government could solve all of our problems. Pluralists believe political elites are divided and are influenced by the interests of their followers. 140. The textbook favors a simple. Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: Ans: Page: True 10 False 10 True 10 False 10 True 10 False 11 True 11 False 12 False 12 True 12 True 12 141.

Distinguish between the concepts of power. Answer a. Discuss the reasons for the Framers favoring representative democracy over direct democracy. c. Page: 5 156. Political scientists are primarily interested in how people's preferences for various goods and services are satisfied. and expertise to make reasonable choices among competing policy decisions even highly educated people could be manipulated by demagogic leaders who play on their fears and prejudices minimized chances that power would be abused either by a tyrannical popular majority or by selfserving office holders Page: 6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. Authority: the right to use power. and compare these with how political power is exercised in U. The enactment of a consumer protection law does not necessarily mean that consumers are powerful. and identify. government should mediate. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 154. Page: 4 155. and legitimacy. Legitimacy: accepting a law or constitution as a source of right. government. Answer a. Answer a. Power: inducing another to act in accordance with your wishes. b. List and explain the two concepts of democracy discussed in Chapter 1. majority sentiments citizens did not have the time.S. b. All rights reserved. interest. popular views elected officials should represent. Give examples of the exercise of power in institutions familiar to you (family. Power: the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions. e. which one of these concepts is used to describe U. authority. school. not mirror. workplace). not register. government. with examples. d. Aristotle's "rule of the many" Representative democracy.S. Differentiate between power in general and political power. b. .S. government Page: 6 157. which is used to describe U. 153. b. Political power: power exercised by determining who will hold government office or how government will behave. information.Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 21 Ans: Page: Ans: Page: False 12 True 14 152. Answer a. c.

The text concludes that politics is about the "public interest. does any of the four theories of elitist politics “if valid in the context of the United States” allow for the possibility of representative democracy in this country? Answer a. All rights reserved. not elected ones. List and explain the four major variants of elitist political theory described in the text. usually without their participation in decision-making." Consider the three forms of democracy (centralism. c. d. Aristotelian. relation to economy Power elite: corporate. Centralism promotes the public interest most effectively but cannot accurately ascertain what that interest is. Representative democracy has a built-in mechanism for ascertaining the public's desires in elections. b. Answer a. f. The power elite theory places political power in the hands of two nonelectoral groups. Each version of democracy has flaws: centralism can degenerate into authoritarian control. not elected representatives. Page: 6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. with the officials answerable for their decisions in elections. many of whom are not elected. and representative) and discuss which form is best able to achieve the goal of politics promoting the public interest. Given the definition of representative democracy. The pluralist theory places political power in the arena of bargaining among elites." not just "who gets what. e. d. Representative democracy is a political system in which political power is conferred on those selected by the voters in competitive elections. representative democracy requires genuine electoral competition to be responsive. but officials are sometimes reluctant to act in the public interest if a policy is unpopular. compromise. Marxism: capitalists versus workers. and so on Page: 9 ESSAY QUESTIONS 159. c. Answer a. None of the four theories of elite rule would allow for representative democracy. d. Representative democracy allows public officials to make policies on behalf of citizens. Democratic centralism aspires to serve the "true interests" of the people. Aristotelian democracy is based on direct citizen participation in formulating public policy. . e. f. Marxism places political power in the hands of the owners of the means of production. military. political leaders Bureaucracies: expertise and specialization Pluralism: scattering of resources. Weber's bureaucratic theory places political power in the hands of appointed officials. Aristotelianism is impractical and the people can make unwise decisions. b. b.22 Chapter 1: The Study of American Government 158. c. corporate heads and military officers. Page: 9 160.