Towards an understanding of ICT access and use in Africa

Use of New Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Consolidate Peace-building in Africa
Hosted the Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (World Bank), the Safety and Violence Initiative (University of Cape Town) and the Institute for Security Studies

Dr. Alison Gillwald Executive Director: Research ICT Africa Adjunct Professor - University of Cape Town, GSB, Management of Infrastructure Reform and Regulation Programme

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Thursday, 7 March 13

Basic Content
Ubiquity - critical mass - network effects Access Use Applications Platforms

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Thursday, 7 March 13

Network a response to the research vacuum on the continent in relation to ICT policy and regulation and dearth of capacity to respond to redress it.

Thursday, 7 March 13

ICT Ecosystem Integrated perspective of markets. USF) Apps Content en t In v es tm Networks at io um m op el ev s) D ki l l an (e-s en oy en m Policy & Legal Framework State Constitution Adapted from Gillwald (2012) t 4 Thursday. GSMA Services CLOUD Affordability Users Consumers Citizens Access H Market Structure (competitiveness) In n ov t Institutional Arrangements (NRA. legal and regulatory frameworks Global/regional Governance ITU. CC. AfDB. NGOs) n pl Em Multilateral Agencies (WB. services. networks. 7 March 13 . applications and content and determining governance. WTO National/industry formations (unions. services. Facebook. International Donors Global players and associations Google. ICANN. industry associations.

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7 ICT Access and Usage 270 387 181 2011 Survey 171 57 595 89 126 252 72 914 115 144 78 42 328 68 102 Thursday.3 35.4 44.1 10.9 3.0 24. 7 March 13 .3 58.2 15.4 62.2 55.5 36.4 18.5 57.6 51.6 10.8 17.8 4.2 52.Table 1 – General sample statistics of randomly selected individual Average individual income US $ All Botswana Cameroon Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Namibia Nigeria Rwanda South Africa Tanzania Uganda 270 52% 72 45% 27 55% 87 62% 85 57% 194 47% 102 50% 28 54% 402 54% 35 44% 52 Average income US$ ppp Average age % with a bank account All ♂ 48.4 10.9 3.7 ♂ 340 94 39 117 119 279 151 36 617 45 59 ♀ 222 52 12 63 64 130 47 21 221 26 42 All 460 145 69 183 154 ♂ 579 189 101 244 214 ♀ 378 104 30 134 116 34 33 34 34 28 40 34 30 36 34 31 ♀ 45.7 5.7 7.5 16.9 6.0 15.3 30.5 56.7 29.1 39.4 60.3 20.4 10.

3$ 13.6$ 16.8$ 15.3$ 34.0$ 7.3$ 16.2$ 58.1$ 14.9$ 16.0$ 41.8$ 27..8$ 12.1$ 14.6$ 5.7$ 27.9$ 31.7$ 5.6$ 9.5$ 17. 7 March 13 .5$ 16.& student$/$pupil$ unpaid$work$/$housewife$ reOred$ unemployed$ disabled$and$unable$to$work$ employed$ selfPemployed$ Botswana$ South$ Africa$ Namibia$ Nigeria$ Cameroon$ Ghana$ Ethiopia$ Rwanda$ Tanzania$ Kenya$ Uganda$ 12.6$ 49.8$ 28.8$ 7.6$ 39.6$ 10.8$ 4.7$ 35.8$ 47.8$ 10.1$ 6.1$ 10.7$ 3.7$ 45.6$ 25.8$ 4.4$ 14.9$ 9.4$ 4.2$ 16.1$ 4..8$ 47.share&of&main&ac-vity&engaged&in.6$ 23.4$ 15.3$ 9.4$ 26.7$ 9.1$ Thursday.1$ 21.6$ 11.2$ 22.9$ 20.7$ 4.3$ 19.1$ 22.4$ 7.3$ 16.6$ 7.

9% 33.9% 13.2% 73.8% 1.1% 1.4% 45.3% 65.9% 19.8% 14.4% 20.2% 70.2% 1.1% 9.7% 30.0% 1.3% 40.4% ♀ 54.3% 27.2% 7.2% 6.6% 0.3% 22.3% 44.7% Thursday.8% 42.8% 25.8% 37.1% 59.4% 2.6% 30.7% 9.0% ♀ 18.2% 2.2% 7.6% 2.1% 14.7% 19.2% 22.4% 9.4% 15.3% ♂ 21.2% 6.3% 57.9% 53.4% 19.3% 38.5% 26.3% 26.8% 1.6% 8.1% 8.9% 30.0% 44.3% 11.4% 17.8% 32.9% ♀ 19.2% 1.1% 27.3% 22.2% 47.5% Highest Education: Secondary All ♂ 53.4% 18.6% 30.8% 6.2% 30.2% 13.7% 58.8% 41.1% 24.4% 13.1% 29.7% 8.8% 15.4% 27.9% 28.4% 19.8% 65.3% 16.4% 25.Table 2 – Gender disaggregated educational sample statistics Highest Education: Tertiary All Botswana Cameroon Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Namibia Nigeria Rwanda South Africa Tanzania Uganda 20.1% 10.9% 41.3% 1.0% 72.8% 7.8% 36.5% 11.7% 18.6% 13.5% 1.3% 6.4% 34.9% Highest Education: Primary All ♂ 18. 7 March 13 .4% 34.7% 64.9% 43.6% 41.7% 16.2% 18.

7 March 13 .Africa’s Digital Divide Household data analysis Thursday.

6% average 45% 42% 58% 48% 60% 47% 60% 65% 57% 63% 10% 13% 5% 16% 18% 19% 13% Thursday. some even saw a decline 2007/8 2011/12 89% 77% 73% 46.Percentage of households with electricity still very low in many African countries. 7 March 13 South Africa Namibia Ethiopia Nigeria Cameroon Uganda Botswana Rwanda Tanzania Ghana Kenya .

Radio still main source of information TV luxury good in several countries Households with Radio Kenya Uganda Rwanda Namibia Ghana Nigeria Botswana Tanzania South Africa Ethiopia Cameroon Thursday. 7 March 13 Households with TV South Africa Botswana Kenya Ghana Nigeria Cameroon Namibia Tanzania Uganda Ethiopia Rwanda 18% 13% 10% 9% 59% 54% 54% 53% 44% 41% 78% 81% 77% 72% 72% 72% 70% 66% 63% 62% 41% 34% .

2% 0.3% 0.0% 17.8% 2.Share of households with fixed-lines 2007/8 South Africa Namibia Botswana Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Cameroon Tanzania Uganda Rwanda Nigeria Thursday.9% 0.2% 0.0% 15.3% 1.0% 2. Cameroon.3% Fixed-lines on the way out except Botswana. 7 March 13 2011/12 18.5% 11.1% 0. Uganda and Rwanda .8% 2.5% 0.6% 1.6% 1.4% 0.6% 4.2% 18.0% 7.4% 11.

6% 15.7% 14.5% 6.8% 0.5% 12.7% 12. 7 March 13 .Share of households with a working computer South Africa Botswana Namibia Kenya Cameroon Ghana Nigeria Uganda Rwanda Tanzania Ethiopia 2.7% 8.5% Share of households with a working Internet connection South Africa Kenya Namibia Botswana Nigeria Ghana Cameroon Uganda Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia 3.6% 0.6% 19.7% 11.3% 0.0% 1.7% 24.7% Less than a quarter of households have a computer and even fewer Internet access Thursday.7% 0.2% 2.5% 8.9% 0.6% 8.4% 2.7% 1.

7 March 13 15+ Owning a mobile that is capable of browsing the Internet 84% 80% South Africa Kenya Namibia Botswana Ghana Nigeria Tanzania Rwanda Uganda Cameroon Ethiopia 7% 32% 31% 30% 29% 23% 19% 19% 15% 15% 51% 74% 66% 60% 56% 47% 45% 36% 24% 18% .15+ Owning a mobile South Africa Botswana Kenya Nigeria Ghana Namibia Uganda Cameroon Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia Thursday.

7 March 13 .Individual Access and Usage Thursday.

15+ Owning a mobile South Africa Botswana Kenya Nigeria Ghana Namibia Uganda Cameroon Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia Thursday. 7 March 13 Share of those with a mobile that own one that is capable of browsing the Internet South Africa Kenya Namibia Botswana Ghana Nigeria Tanzania Rwanda Uganda Cameroon Ethiopia 7% 32% 31% 30% 29% 23% 19% 19% 15% 15% 51% 84% 80% 74% 66% 60% 56% 47% 45% 36% 24% 18% .

sending cash with someone preferred way of sending money Means of sending and receiving money that the business uses Mobile Money Uganda Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia Ghana Cameroon Nigeria Namibia Botswana 16% 14% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% Post Office 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 25% 16% Western Union etc 2% 0% 1% 0% 1% 26% 0% 1% 3% Banks 17% 5% 10% 5% 12% 4% 11% 41% 27% send cash with someone 81% 93% 70% 55% 54% 75% 77% 86% 73% Some mobile money use in East Africa Thursday. 7 March 13 .

7 March 13 .Internet Access & Usage Thursday.

2007/8 Ethiopia Tanzania Rwanda Uganda Ghana Cameroon Namibia Nigeria Kenya Botswana South Africa Thursday. 7 March 13 2011/12 3% 4% 6% 8% 13% 13% 14% 16% 18% 15% 26% 29% 15% 34% 1% 2% 2% 2% 6% Internet use (15+) more than doubled within 4 years 9% 6% .

7 March 13 Botswana! Ethiopia! Kenya! Namibia! Rwanda! Tanzania! Cameroon! Ghana! Mozambique! Nigeria! South!Africa! Uganda! .ITU  data:  Percentage  of  individuals  using  the  Internet !30!! !25!! !20!! !15!! !10!! !5!! !"!! 1996! 1997! 1998! 1999! 2000! 2001! 2002! 2003! 2004! 2005! 2006! 2007! 2008! 2009! 2010! Thursday.

South Africa Kenya Botswana Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Ghana Cameroon Uganda Tanzania Ethiopia Thursday.Using mobile to browse the Internet South Africa Kenya Namibia Botswana Nigeria Rwanda Ghana Cameroon Uganda Tanzania Ethiopia 28% 25% 24% 23% 16% 15% 13% 8% 8% 5% 5% Internet use among mobile phone owners: Social networking more popular than email in some countries Using mobile for emailing South Africa Kenya Botswana Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Ghana Cameroon Uganda Tanzania Ethiopia 17% 20% 17% 12% 15% 13% 10% 4% 6% 5% 10% Using mobile for Facebook etc. 7 March 13 25% 25% 18% 17% 16% 14% 11% 8% 7% 5% 2% .

7 March 13 56% 41% 35% 32% 31% 19% 15% 15% 13% 11% 11% 19% 28% 34% 57% 52% 47% 43% 55% 53% 59% 64% 2007/8 2011/12 .Daily Internet use increased in past 4 years South Africa Kenya Namibia Ghana Botswana Tanzania Ethiopia Uganda Nigeria Rwanda Cameroon Thursday.

Where was the Internet used first? Computer Cameroon Rwanda Botswana Ghana Kenya South Africa Namibia Tanzania Nigeria Ethiopia Uganda Thursday.3% 28.1% 34.5% 31.8% 70.9% 65.4% 29.1% 50.5% 68.7% 71.8% 66.9% 49.8% 82.1% 70.6% 70.2% 29.8% 45.9% 54.9% 29.2% .2% 33.2% 54.1% 45. 7 March 13 Mobile phone 17.

Where the Internet was used in past 12 months Mobile phone Work Place of education Internet cafe 74% 85% 58% 32% 51% 33% 21% 36% 52% 50% 31% 63% 24% 45% 45% 20% 29% 75% 39% 31% 72% 51% 42% 21% 17% 81% 55% 23% 36% 48% 51% 80% 35% 20% 10% 30% Cameroon 61% Ghana 64% Botswana 71% South Africa 71% Rwanda 75% 78% 81% 87% Tanzania Ethiopia Kenya Uganda Nigeria Thursday. 7 March 13 Namibia .

Internet Access Models Old Internet Hardware Billing Skill requirement Electricity Location Computer / Laptop Postpaid (monthly Internet subscription) High (Windows + Internet explorer + Viruses) electricity mostly required at location of Internet use Work. Internet cafe New Internet Mobile Prepaid Low no required at home Anywhere Thursday. school. 7 March 13 .

7% 13.0% 14.0% 2.9% 5.0% 15.8% 16. 7 March 13 2011/12 0.2% 18.0% 26.7% 2.5% 2.Internet access: 2007/08 VS 2011/12 2007/8 Ethiopia Tanzania Rwanda Uganda Ghana Cameroon Namibia Nigeria Kenya Botswana South Africa Thursday.0% 33.1% 8.4% 15.2% 3.4% 7.7% 2.6% 12.8% 29.7% Internet access double in three years .0% 6.3% 5.

Frequency of Internet daily use: 2007/08 VS 2011/12 2007/8 South Africa Kenya Namibia Ghana Botswana Tanzania Ethiopia Uganda Nigeria Rwanda Cameroon Thursday. 7 March 13 2011/12 64% 53% 59% 56% 41% 35% 32% 31% 19% 15% 15% 13% 11% 11% 19% 28% 34% 57% 52% 47% 43% 55% .

15+ Internet users Signed up for social network Rwanda Cameroon Ghana Kenya Tanzania Nigeria Uganda Namibia Botswana South Africa Ethiopia Thursday. 7 March 13 with email address Rwanda Cameroon 97% 94% 90% 88% 86% 81% 80% 79% 78% 66% 59% 88% 61% 81% 81% 63% 50% 59% 81% 73% 75% 41% Ghana Kenya Tanzania Nigeria Uganda Namibia Botswana South Africa Ethiopia .

7%% 16.5%% 12.7%% 88.% Female% Male% Missed%Call/Please%Call%Me%% 86.2%% 42.2%% 11..7%% 46.9%% 18.. 7 March 13 .main%reasons%for%using%the%mobile%phone.3%% 34.2%% 85.9%% 27.5%% 85.0%% 21.1%% Sending/receiving%text%% Playing%games% Sending/receiving%money% Browsing%the%Internet% Downloaded%applica8ons% Reading/wri8ng%Emails% Thursday.5%% 16.

8%% 21. 7 March 13 .4%% 19.3%% 19.8%% 57.9%% 19..7%% 18.1%% 8.share&of&reasons&why&individuals&do&not&have&a&mobile&phone..4%% 16.0%% 7.5%% No%electricity%at%home%to%charge%% My%phone%got%stolen% No%coverage%where%I%live% Don't%have%anyone%to%call% My%phone%is%broken% Thursday.7%% 81.& Female% Male% Cannot%afford%it% 83.3%% 55.

used to distribution describe the uretakeaway 6). payment facilities and distribu these describe an m-app ecosystem where developers and customers meet. operating system. generally hardware manufactures. The general es prices for mobile voice. The analysis beg Thursday. as well as handset prices and availability (Figure emUp is a to substructure developers. for the slide Mobile/wireless app ecosystem Figure 5: Mobile Application Ecosystem 31 layed in Figure 6 that allows the classification and analysis of m-app ecosystems. and payment syste a two linking line subtitle.decisions need to be made regarding hardware. text (SMS) and data. 7 March 13 .

For example. Jellybean. that themselves run on an operating system like iOS. A platform sits on top of an operating system.these standards are used by developers to develop and sell applications. which is a software specification used as an interface between different software components. iOS 32 Thursday. Platforms allow other software to be built on top. Examples of platforms include Facebook and emerging market social networking platforms such as Mxit in South Africa. the latest version of the Android OS. either on the operating system or on a platform such as Mxit or Facebook. Mobile Applications run on mobile phones.M-apps ecosystem Mobile Operating Systems such as iOS include an application programming interface (API). Android or Symbian OS. 7 March 13 Figure 6: Conceptual framework for business modeling . provides several public APIs that allows developers to integrate their applications with the OS. A platform provides uniform standards and payment mechanisms .

whatsapp. Mixit Thursday. school or public access (Internet cafes) Second wave is through mobile phones Easier to use Cheaper equipment compared to computers Prepaid (modem dial-up was postpaid) No electricity at home needed Internet enabled mobile phones. 7 March 13 .Conclusions The mobile is closing the voice and the data gap in Africa First wave of Internet access through PCs and fixed-line /modem dial-up. low bandwidth applications. and social networking are the key drivers Mobile Internet reduces the cost of communication: Facebook Zero. Mostly through work.

researchICTafrica.net RIA (2012) Mobile@the Base of the Pyramid. Policy Brief available at www.html THIS RESEARCH IS MADE POSSIBLE WITH THE GENEROUS SUPPORT OF THE Thursday. 7 March 13 .org/en/ Publication.C and Gillwald. A (2012) Internet Going Mobile. E Stork.infodev.http://www.References Calandro.1193.

7 March 13 .www.net Thursday.researchICTafrica.