What are the various types of transistors


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What are the various types of transistors?
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The two main types of transistors are the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and the field-effect transistor (FET).

Bipolar Junction Transistors
BJTs can have two different polarities, NPN and PNP. An NPN BJT is one where a positively-doped (P-type) semiconductor is sandwiched between two negatively-doped (N-type) semiconductors. A PNP BJT is, obviously, one where an N-type semiconductor is sandwiched between two P-types. Both types of BJTs have an exponential dependence between the input voltage and the current output. For the record, I should state that a semiconductor is basically a material with conductance between that of an insulator and a conductor. Silicon and germanium are the two most well-known semiconductors. Also, doping just means the addition of impurities into a semiconducting material in order for it to either: increase its electron acceptance (P-type) or increase its electron conductance (N-type). Some specific types of BJTs: HBT - heterojunction bipolar transistor - These types of transistors are very similar to BJTs except that the two P-type semiconductors in the PNP polarity, or the two N-type semiconductors in the NPN polarity, are doped differently relative to each other. The reason for doing this, simply stated, is to make it more difficult for a transistor to operate in the reverse direction from which is was intended. Grown-junction transistor - This was the first type of BJT and is self-explanatory. The PN or NP junctions, depending on whether it's of NPN or PNP polarity, respectively, are grown onto a single, solid crystal of semiconductor material. Grown, in this case, means slowly attached, chemically. Alloy-junction transistor - Similar to a grown-junction transistor except the semiconducting material onto which the PN or NP junctions are grown is specifically germanium. MAT - micro-alloy transistor - An improved, speedier version of the alloy-junction transistor. The materials of the PN or NP junctions of a MAT are metal-semiconductor, as opposed to semiconductor-semiconductor. MADT - micro-alloy diffused transistor - An improved, speedier version of the MAT. The dopant material of a MADT is diffused (thinly spread) accross the entire germanium crystal prior to PN or NP growth, as opposed to a MAT where the doping material is only on the metallic side of the PN or NP junction. PADT - post-alloy diffused transistor - An improved, speedier version of the MADT. A thin, diffused dopant layer of germanium is grown onto the germanium crystal, as opposed to the entire germanium crystal being diffused, which allows the germanium crystal to be as thick as necessary for mechanical strength purposes. The PN or NP junctions are then grown onto this thin layer. Schottky transistor - These are alloy-junction transistors with a Schottky barrier between the metal-semiconductor junction. All metal-semiconductor junctions act sort of like capacitors with a voltage between the junctions. Often, you'd like to minimize this voltage in order to minimize the saturation (the amount of the germanium crystal) needed for the transistor to work. Minimizing the saturation effectively speeds up the transistor's performance, which is great for things like switches. Schottky barriers use various materials to do exactly this.

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and most common. in the form of missing negative charge. FET channels are created within the bulk material of the FET. i. This effectually reduces the electrons' transit time between the junctions of the transistor. one on a JFET and the other on a MOSFET.A MuGFET where the charge-carrying channel is wrapped around a piece of silicon.What are the various types of transistors http://wiki. IGBTs provide much more efficient and faster switching than regular BJTs and are thus some of the most common transistors found in modern appliances. or X-rays into current or voltage. These holes act exactly as electrons do in transistors except that they carry positive charge. the JFET and MOSFET are coupled to each other. JFET .carbon nanotube field-effect transistor . these transistors allow for higher currents to be applied to them than their normal counterparts. a MOSFET has an insulator attached to its input electrode which can be turned on or off depending on whether a voltage is supplied accross it.answers. Some specific types of FETs: CNTFET . to supply a region within the junction where a photon (a particle of electromagnetic radiation with a specific energy) can ionize (knock an electron out of via the photoelectric effect) an atom of this semiconducting material. IGBT . thereby producing what's known as a photocurrent. silicon-based FETs. which are beginning to become real problems in small. This concept came about due to the ever shrinking sizes of transistors. MESFET . type of FET. the absence of an electron where one used to be is called an electron hole. at least for the purposes of photo transistors.A MIGFET with two inputs. The JFET and MOSFET are then "stacked" on top of each other. Well. UV-rays. Instead of pinching its charge-carrying channel shut as in a JFET. HEMT .These transistors can operate in the breakdown voltage region of a transistor's junctions.A MuGFET where the multiple inputs are independently controlled. electrons carry negative charge and are thus referred to as negative charge carriers.Similar to. Now's as good a time as any to introduce the concept of electron holes. but faster than. Faster than a MESFET. FETs are designed to control either positive or negative charge carriers. thus the same sized object. PIN junctions are similar to PN junctions except that they have an additional intrinsic semiconductor between the P-type and N-type semiconducting regions. I promise that the rest of my answer won't get more complicated than this.high electron mobility transistor . MESFETs use a Schottky barrier (see above) instead of a PN junction. and are thus called positive charge carriers. Flexfet . as explained above under the "bipolar junction transistors" heading.multiple gate field-effect transistor . doped region.These are simply two BJTs connected together to further increase the gain of the current output. but not both. Drift-field transistor .The doping agent of these transistors is engineered to produce a specific electric field.A MOSFET where more than one input shares the bulk material of the FET. which is then amplified in the same manner as all other BJTs. photo transistors use PIN junctions.These transistors combine the use of BJTs as switches with an isolated-gate FET (see below) as the input.inverted-T field-effect transistor . They help reduce effects. this ionization causes the photoelectron to move toward one end of the junction.This FET supplies a voltage accross the charge-carrying channel that can pinch it shut. as opposed to BJTs which control both types. the channel through one effects the channel through the other and vice versa. Darlington transistor . that's only because you haven't looked up the physics behind the photoelectric effect yet. called a fin. Thus. Also known as a heterostructure FET (HFET) or a modulation-doped FET (MODFET). Due to its design. Intuitively.com/Q/What_are_the_various_types_of_transistors Surface-barrier transistor .The FET version of an HBT (see above). Carbon nanotubes are needed as FETs continue to get smaller in size. The breakdown voltage is simply the minimum voltage in which an insulator starts acting like a conductor. The reason for 2 of 4 10/24/2012 3:51 PM . Avalanche transistor . in the form of holes or electrons. such as quantum tunneling and overheating. The channel can be N-type (nMOS) or P-type (pMOS). which is usually silicon.metal semiconductor field-effect transistor . Because of the electric field caused from the surrounding P-type and N-type semiconducting regions. the chargecarrying channel is between two different materials instead of within a single. for multiple things. Field-Effect Transistors FETs use electric fields to control only one-type of charge carrier.These FETs use carbon nanotubes instead of silicon as their channel material. As opposed to the normal PN junctions found in many transistors. hence the name. FinFET .This is the most basic. The idea is to use the same FET.metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor . effectively stopping the current through the channel. ITFET . If you find this idea more complicated than what I wrote about photo transistors. The flow of positive or negative charge carriers occurs through what's called the channel of an FET. analogous to the standard BJT (see above). MIGFET .junction gate field-effect transistor . thereby making it work faster.multiple independent gate field-effect transistor .These transistors convert electromagnetic radiation in the form of visible light. JFETs.These are just like Schottky transistors except that both junctions are metalsemiconductor as opposed to only one.insulated-gate bipolar transistor . This intrinsic semiconductor is a very lightly doped semiconductor which exists. MuGFET .This is simply any type of FET that extends vertically out from the horizontal plane in a T-shape.e. Photo transistor . MOSFET .

The current through the MOSFET is modulated by the varying charge distributions that occur when complimentary DNA strands hybridize to the layer of single-stranded DNA on the input electrode. NPN and PNP. ISFET . i. Chemical . to be used later. DNAFETs are used. Agricultural .An FET where the semiconducting material is placed via thin films over the bulk of the device. an electrically isolated input that can store charge.doors are all 1/8" apart American style . Applied Engineering Sciences .An FET with an organic polymer semiconductor as its channel.thin-film transistor . Computer Science . OFET .A MOSFET with a "floating gate" input. Electrical . My sources all stem from the link below which is also a great place to learn more about transistors.shelves with screens central Mexic Related Videos: Related Answers: What are the various types of engineering? Aeronautical . Architectural .made from bamboo tropical . allowing for very cool.A cute name for a transistor which is basically designed to quickly turn off when no more voltage is being supplied to it. Biosystems . The reason being so that the transistors can work behind a clear display in applications like liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. Ge MERCEDES GP PETRONAS 2011 Engineers: Telemetry See Video How many types of transistors are there? 2 types of transistors . EOSFETs are used to in neurochips to detect brain activity. FGMOS . as in most FETs.doors are all mounted on face frames and are about 1" apart oriental . EOSFET .Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) field-effect transistor . a research origanization in the sciences What are the various type of computer? what are the various types of computers today How to Buy Electronics During the Holidays See Video Bicyclean Cleans Up Electronics Recycling See Video Recent Answers Activity How many square miles in a 5-mile radius? asked 12 minutes ago 3 of 4 10/24/2012 3:51 PM . The bulk material used in TFTs is often glass. These are the transistors behind flash drives. Bruce Anderson Explains IBM's Shifting Role in the Electronics Industry See Video What are the various types of research laboratories? scientific research organization.e. mechanical strength. Environmental .answers. It means What are the various types of kitchen cabinets? European style .com/Q/What_are_the_various_types_of_transistors doing this is similar to that of a PADT (see above). These are like TFTs except the bulk of the device is plastic.A MOSFET with its input electrode being a layer of immobilized. not surprisingly.electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor . FREDFET . Related Answers: What is datatype. DNAFET . like a capacitor. in DNA sequencing. i.ion-sensitive field-effect transistor .What are the various types of transistors http://wiki.An FET that changes its current depending on the ion concentration of a solution.e. TFT . for ex: int a.fast-recovery (or reverse) epitaxial diode field-effect transistor .floating gate MOSFET .Define various types of data types? In c language data types are used to specify the tye of data. This is opposed to the bulk of the device being the semiconductor itself. The solution itself is used as the input electrode in an ISFET.organic field-effect transistor . single-stranded DNA.A MOSFET with the metal replaced by an electrolyte solution. Geological . Geotechnical . Civil . Biomedical . flexible LCD monitors.

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