Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products

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..................................................................................... 9 Additional Topics............................................................................................................................................... 10 Disposal of Spent Supplies and Equipment ............................................. 6 Photoreceptors ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Ergonomics/Human Factors .................................8 Ozone.............. 10 Product Service and Maintenance ........................................................ 12 ii Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products ............................................................................................................................................... Safety & Sustainability Policy....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Odors............................................................................ Health......................................................... 7 Fuser Lubricants .......... 8 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)................................................................................................................................... 2 Equipment Design and Exposure Limits ........................................................................................................................ 2 General Safety Practices......................................................... 6 Liquid and Solid Inks ............. 3 Xerox® Products .............................................. 5 Toners and Developers...............................4 Electromagnetic Compatibility.. 5 Toner Inhalation Study..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Xerox® Supplies.....................5 Materials Safety Evaluation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Document Illumination.............................................................................................................................................. 1 Safety Data Sheets............Contents General Information ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Indoor Air Quality and Emissions.................................................................................................... 1 Overview ........ 8 Particulates and Dust............................................................................................................ 10 Audible Noise ..............................................................................................1 Xerox® Environment....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Additional Information..................................... 4 Lasers .....

bioaccumulative and toxic materials throughout the supply chain. in full compliance with applicable governmental requirements and Xerox standards. The following principles shall govern all business practices in the design. Xerox is committed to designing. we investigate and. reuse/recycling and disposal of products and related services: • • • • • Protection of the environment and the health and safety of our employees. safety and environmental considerations are an essential element of the product and materials design and review process. distributing and marketing products and processes to optimize resource utilization and minimize environmental impact. We use a wide variety of methods and tests in these assessments. at a minimum. maintenance. Xerox has a long history of proactively assessing the health and safety of the materials used in its products. Xerox operations must be conducted in a manner that safeguards health. Xerox is dedicated to continuous improvement of its performance in environment. distribution. involving internal and external world-class experts. manufacture. take prompt action with health and safety considerations being our highest priority. marketing. Extensive system testing is conducted under a variety of simulated field and stress conditions to verify that all the health and safety requirements have been met. health. protects the environment. procurement. manufacturing. These measures drive elimination of the use of persistent. customers and neighbors from unacceptable risks takes priority and will not be compromised. health and safety.General Information Xerox® Environment. Our internal test groups conduct some of these tests while others are performed by external testing organizations. including sophisticated methodologies such as structural activity relationship analysis and in vitro and in vivo testing. when warranted. This commitment is applied worldwide. Safety & Sustainability Policy Xerox Corporation is committed to the protection of the environment and the health and safety of its employees. Whenever new information raises a concern about the safety of a product. Overview To ensure full compliance with the above policy. conserves valuable materials and resources. All Xerox operations and products are. Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 1 . Health. and minimizes risk of asset losses. customers and neighbors.

com/environment. it is important to observe these fundamental rules: • • • • • • • • • Site the equipment according to published Xerox installation requirements. Do not bypass or defeat interlocked covers. Comply with all caution and warning labels in order to avoid potentially hazardous conditions. Equipment must be connected to a properly grounded electrical service outlet. disconnected from its power supply and serviced before next use if unusual noises. These covers prevent creation of hazardous conditions. Installation requirements should be reviewed whenever equipment is moved to a new location.General Information Safety Data Sheets Xerox prepares two types of data sheets that summarize safety and health information for its equipment and supplies products: • • Product Safety Data Sheets (PSDSs) contain information about the mechanical. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) provide information on potential hazards and the safe use of products that may be classified as chemicals. They also contain storage. shipping and disposal information. which can produce temporary nuisance effects or discomfort. General Safety Practices To ensure the safety of those who use and care for our equipment. odors or smoke are noticed. which could occur if they were opened. Only Xerox-approved maintenance procedures and materials are to be used.xerox. Do not stare at equipment light sources. Dispose of spent materials and products according to information provided on Material Safety Data Sheets on www. electrical and environmental attributes of our equipment as well as product emission data. Equipment should be stopped immediately. 2 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . Only trained service personnel may remove covers or guards held in place by fasteners that cannot be detached without using tools.

In addition to these assessments. Xerox has a comprehensive Product Safety Plan that details the specific safety requirements.General Information Equipment Design and Exposure Limits Xerox policy requires that products meet safety standards at least as strict as those generally accepted by approval agencies and government regulations. Assessments are made for all possible hazards: electrical. Standards also define minimum product space requirements to ensure proper equipment performance and to provide adequate access for service. heat. service materials. Accordingly. Xerox takes a conservative position on potential health risks to its employees and customers. such as IEC 60950 (Safety of Information Technology Equipment). which are internal company exposure limits for specific chemical or physical agents. service procedures. Possible interactions between hazards are also considered. biological. it may establish Xerox Exposure Limits (XEL). Products are also CB Scheme Certified and CE marked for sales in European Union markets. resulting in product certification to the latest country-specific version of internationally accepted product safety standards. Xerox® products are typically submitted to a nationally recognized testing laboratory such as Underwriters Laboratories® (UL). mechanical. Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 3 . Results of assessments must be satisfactory in all areas before any equipment can be shipped to the customer. Xerox Exposure Limits are more stringent than external consensus or regulatory limits. chemical. special tools and the operator’s manual must all be approved prior to customer shipments. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) or TÜV Rheinland®. radiation. emissions and noise. For each product it brings to market.

be removed for customer maintenance. but this is of short duration and has no permanent effects. Lasers Xerox® products containing lasers do not represent a hazard to equipment operators or bystanders and are designed and built to comply with the strict safety requirements of governmental and international standards. serviceability by our technicians and ease of assembly by our manufacturing personnel. Compliance is verified by appropriate product testing. Document Illumination Staring at lamps can sometimes produce an afterimage. Product designs ensure that potentially harmful laser beams are contained within the equipment. Covers that may be removed by Xerox service personnel are labeled to indicate potential laser hazards. Due to the intensity of some light sources. In this regard. Xerox® products comply with all governmental regulations covering Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).Xerox Products Electromagnetic Compatibility Xerox® products are designed to function properly in the intended electromagnetic environment without causing harmful interference to nearby equipment or radio communication services. No service mode requires direct viewing of the laser beam or permits the beam to exit the confines of the equipment. some lamp systems are interlocked with the platen cover to prevent this. and should not. 4 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . ® Ergonomics/Human Factors Human factors are an integral part of our design process. Covers and shields need not. Our multidisciplinary team of professionals evaluates Xerox® products to ensure usability by our customers. We recommend that all platens be covered while making copies to minimize exposure and facilitate good copy quality. Service personnel following established adjustment procedures are not exposed to potentially harmful laser beams.

® Toners and Developers Xerox® toners are fine powders composed of plastics. and the results are documented and placed into the health and safety archives. Various bacterial and mammalian cell type tests are used as predictors of potential genotoxic effects. all laboratories used in safety testing are accredited by. Xerox makes the actual detailed test reports available to appropriate health and safety regulatory agencies. the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. we utilize alternatives to animal testing. both its inherent properties (potential hazards) and the potential exposures to customers and service personnel are considered. viable alternatives do not always exist. The various materials used in imaging processes are evaluated for their toxic potential by reviewing published technical data or by responsible testing. During the toner manufacturing process. the carbon black (or other colorant) and polymer are combined in such a way that the colorant becomes encapsulated by the polymer. The safety evaluation process considers possible acute and chronic effects as well as the potential for eye and skin irritation. Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 5 . various dyes or pigments are employed. During the assessment of any material or product. All tests are performed to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) methods by independent laboratories that operate in accordance with the rules of good laboratory practice. however. we ensure that our safety testing activities are in full compliance with worldwide regulatory standards and requirements. In black toners. Responsible use and humane treatment of animals are basic requirements of sound scientific research and the generation of valid test data. Toner constituents must not only produce images having high xerographic quality but also pass our health and safety reviews. Whenever feasible. They are not considered to be hazardous preparations according to any regulatory classification criteria. several different specialty grade carbon blacks or iron oxide are used as colorant. styrene-butadiene or polyester polymers. while for color images. Further. The toners are typically designed using styrene-acrylic.Xerox Supplies Materials Safety Evaluation Materials used in our products comply with applicable external regulatory requirements as well as Xerox’s more stringent internal safety requirements. In all instances. or meet the standards of. colorants and small quantities of functional additives. Summaries of the test results are published in the Material Safety Data Sheets—under the Toxicology heading.

The results of the study have been communicated to the appropriate regulatory authorities and continue to be recognized as extremely important investigations into the properties of inhaled particles. Toner Inhalation Study More than 30 years ago. Photoreceptors A xerographic photoreceptor is a multilayer device in which photoconducting layers are very tightly bonded to a substrate. Like all imaging materials. When exposed to the proper combination of heat and pressure. These on-going studies include the health of current employees and an assessment of the causes of death for people who worked for the company between 1960 and 1982. We did this because there was no scientific data about the biological effects of long-term inhalation of toners and other closely related materials such as polymer dusts. the toner simply flows and adheres to the paper. medium or high levels of a test toner for the majority of their life span.Xerox® Supplies Under normal operating conditions. They are generally coated with a small amount of special polymer to achieve the desired functional behavior in the xerographic equipment. a summary of these studies is found on the Material Safety Data Sheets for all toners and developers. The analysis to date indicates that the health and mortality patterns of Xerox employees are consistent with a healthy working population. The studies have been ongoing. There are two key elements of this work: The initial investigation focused on rodents that were exposed to low. the toners are entirely stable and no significant decomposition occurs. steel or ferrite types of materials. 6 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . Xerox® carriers are based on special grades of sand. Most current photoreceptors use a proprietary organic photoconductor. The substrate may be a rigid aluminum drum or a flexible metal belt or polyester film. Xerox initiated a comprehensive investigation of the toxicology of inhaled xerographic toner. As a part of Xerox’s ongoing Hazard Communication Program. glass. Developers are composed of a carrier material and toner. Xerox also initiated a complex series of studies of manufacturing and service employees to investigate possible adverse health consequences associated with occupational exposure to toner. The inhalation studies did not show any doserelated effect of exposure on survival and/or causes of death. photoreceptor constituents are subject to rigorous safety evaluation. The results of the occupational health studies continue to indicate that there is no significant health effects associated with the exposure to toner at the levels found in manufacturing or service.

Fuser Lubricants Some xerographic processes use lubricants as release agents during the fusing process. Black inks contain specialty grade carbon blacks while colored inks contain dyes or pigments. All these materials are subject to the same rigorous safety evaluation as other imaging materials. The liquid inks are generally based on a solvent and contain various colorants and dispersing agents. The various solid inks contain polyethylene.Xerox® Supplies Liquid and Solid Inks Xerox uses liquid and solid inks in some imaging applications such as plotters and printers. resins. which have high thermal stability. dyes and pigments. These lubricants are inert silicone oils and greases. The lubricants are not mineral oils and are not subject to the regulatory controls for such materials. waxes. Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 7 .

Indoor Air Quality and Emissions Xerox® products are designed to ensure that they can be safely located in typical office areas near employee work spaces. Ozone is generated only when the machine is copying or printing. small quantities of ozone are produced as a byproduct of the printing process. as included on the Xerox Product Safety Data Sheets. Under normal operating conditions and with proper maintenance. office furnishings and building materials in addition to the type of office equipment and use patterns. also meet many global ecolabel requirements. The quality of indoor air is affected by many factors including ventilation.com/environment. For example. Some equipment is equipped with ozone filters at the factory while others may be retrofitted at the placement site. Additional information on the emission characteristics of Xerox® equipment is summarized on the Product Safety Data Sheets. The concentrations are low. Measured levels. Xerox supports its customers’ responsibility for maintaining excellent indoor air quality in the workplace. and particulate substances emitted from xerographic products. Xerox Ozone Management Guidelines require that equipment situated in locations that do not meet either space or temperature and humidity requirements be equipped with a filter to reduce ozone to an acceptable level. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) In some conditions. volatile organic compounds may be emitted during and immediately after copying or printing.xerox. Ozone In xerographic devices. The Facts about Ozone publication is available upon request or at www. With production printing equipment the emission of ozone is controlled by ducting. floor coverings and furniture. volatile organic compounds. Xerox® equipment is tested in conformance with rigorous emission testing protocols to ensure that we meet or exceed current standards and acceptable best practices. typically less than 1/100th of the occupational exposure limits for such compounds. Xerox emission levels of ozone are substantially below internationally recognized exposure limits. we set and adhere to strict limits on the amount of ozone. Volatile compounds have to be measured in special inert chambers because their levels are less than those found in typical room interiors due to building materials. 8 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . machines meet or exceed legal requirements and current standards for emissions and are in conformance with select internationally recognized voluntary guidelines.

Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 9 . since some chemicals have very low odor thresholds. Less than 10 percent is toner particles. even though the concentration of the chemical is significantly below any that would present a potential health concern. During a product’s operation. Odors Xerox makes every effort to ensure that its equipment does not emit objectionable odors into the workplace. The levels are significantly below the standard limits for respirable dust. some people with a sensitive sense of smell may sometimes detect faint odors. Most dust created inside the machine is drawn through the heat exhausts and trapped by filters. Paper fragments are also generated when paper is handled outside the equipment. levels of paper dust depend on the composition and quality of paper used. However. very small amounts of paper dust and toner may become airborne. Ultimately.Indoor Air Quality and Emissions Particulates and Dust Dust associated with copying and printing consists primarily of paper particles and fibers.

Xerox has created ways for customers to service their own equipment using web-based service procedures. noise. Xerox offers a comprehensive end-of-life management program for our imaging supplies: Supplies used in our products are designed for safe local disposal or recycling.xerox. ergonomic stressors. Disposal of Spent Supplies and Equipment Proper disposal of waste materials minimizes environmental impact and promotes public health and welfare. or hazardous electrical energy. For any questions concerning disposal of Xerox® materials. however. Product Service and Maintenance Xerox’s environmental health and safety personnel review and approve all service procedures and materials prior to field usage. Each of these service procedures has been reviewed and approved by qualified health and safety personnel to ensure that customers are not significantly exposed to physical hazards. Xerox’s environmental management program identifies hazardous waste materials for proper disposal and encourages recycling or reclaiming of waste products. The Material Safety Data Sheets contain sections on Spillage and Disposal that outline the procedures to follow. review Material Safety Data Sheets and observe all applicable governmental regulations. Noise emission levels meet various ecolabel and ergonomic guidelines. All materials that are used in the various imaging processes are evaluated against the following criteria: environmental toxicity and biodegradability. Xerox® dry ink toner is non-toxic and does not generate hazardous waste. Xerox also offers return programs through our Green World Alliance® program at www. and are well below legally mandated exposure limits established around the world.Additional Topics Audible Noise Xerox uses state-of-the-art instrumentation and noise test facilities to optimize product designs for low noise and enhanced comfort. chemical or physical agents. or described to the customer over the telephone. within a customer training course such as eXcellerate. and reactivity. warning labels or special bulletins are made when appropriate. etc.com/gwa. chemical or physical hazards such as lasers. electrical. ignitability. They assess and control any potential mechanical. Land filling of the material with normal office refuse is acceptable if necessary. and product retrofits. corrosivity. to minimize exposures of Xerox employees and customers. 10 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . Field usage of these procedures and materials is monitored. Xerox® products do not produce noise levels expected to damage human hearing.

state and local requirements may be more restrictive. and we recommend disposal in a chemical waste landfill Incineration of toner or toner cartridges Xerox recommends that caution be taken in the incineration of toners. Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products 11 . If the waste materials are classified hazardous and small quantity generator exemptions do not apply. These materials have also been evaluated against hazardous waste criteria to determine proper disposal. Used or damaged Xerox® photoreceptors containing arsenic and selenium should be returned to Xerox Corporation or the supplier for disposition. Service Materials Material Safety Data Sheets have been made available for each of the service materials sold by Xerox. state and local laws regarding disposal of this material must be followed. Developer Developer also meets all criteria for classification as nonhazardous and therefore may be disposed of with normal office refuse.com/environment. Equipment Xerox operates a worldwide equipment takeback and reuse/recycle program as described at www.Additional Topics Exceptions or special considerations may apply in the following circumstances: Photoreceptors The photoreceptors used in our modern equipment have met all the criteria to be classified nonhazardous. applicable governmental regulations must be observed for proper disposition. For any further questions concerning disposal of Xerox® materials. Consulting the appropriate state and local waste disposal authorities is advised. If they are not returned to Xerox. as dust clouds may be explosive. However. please review MSDSs and observe all applicable governmental regulations.xerox.

NY 14580 U. Health. Safety & Sustainability website at www.xerox. XEROX® and XEROX and Design® are trademarks of Xerox Corporation in the United States and/or other counties. Other company trademarks are also acknowledged. Health.0 (March 2011) 12 Facts about the Safety of Xerox Products . health and safety of Xerox® products.com ©2011 Xerox Corporation. Document Version: 1. Telephone: E-Mail: (800) 828-6571 mailto:usa. All rights reserved.xerox.Additional Information It is a fundamental principle of Xerox Corporation to ensure that its products are safe and do not in any way represent a concern to its customers or employees. Safety & Sustainability Xerox Corporation 800 Phillips Road. please visit the Xerox Environment.com Xerox Europe Environment.A.com/environment or contact: Xerox North America Environment. Safety & Sustainability Bessemer Road Welwyn Garden City Hertfordshire AL7 1BU England Telephone: E-mail: 44 1707 353434 mailto:ehs-europe@xerox. 205-99F Webster. Bldg. Health.ehs@xerox.S. If you have questions that have not been answered here or would like additional information on any aspect of environment.