Q:1 Ans: Power system protection is a branch of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electrical power

systems from faults through the isolation of faulted parts from the rest of the electrical network. The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Protection schemes can often be old and well-established because they must be very reliable.    Protective relays control the tripping of the circuit breakers surrounding the faulted part of the network Automatic operation, such as auto-reclosing or system restart Monitoring equipment which collects data on the system for post event analysis

While the operating quality of these devices, and especially of protective relays, is always critical, different strategies are considered for protecting the different parts of the system. Very important equipment may have completely redundant and independent protective systems, while a minor branch distribution line may have very simple low-cost protection. Q:2 ANSI codes In the design of electrical power systems, the ANSI Standard Device Numbers denote what features a protective device supports (such as a relay or circuit breaker). These types of devices protect electrical systems and components from damage when an unwanted event occurs, such as an electrical fault. Q:

Current limiting reactors can reduce short-circuit currents.

How it works
When a short-circuit occurs, the impedance of the system drops and a large amount of current is allowed to pass through. As the current that is passing through a system exceeds the levels that it was designed to handle, the current limiting reactor will raise the impedance of the system which will in turn reduce the amount of current that is allowed to pass through. The main motive of using current limiting reactors is to reduce short-circuit currents so that circuit breakers with lower short circuit breaking capacity can be used. They can also be used to protect other system components from high current levels and to limit the inrush current when starting a large motor.

whereas protection involves protecting the transformer against over-currents. the magnetizing current increases abruptly even with small increments in voltage across the secondary terminals. Current transformers used in protection have lower accuracy class of 0. From the knee point upwards.5 The transformation ratios of the Current and potential transformers entirely depends on the metering/protection equipment that will be used. The knee point is defined as the voltage at which a 10% increase in applied voltage increases the magnetizing current by 50%.2 which means that they have an accuracy of 99.Q: From your data.5 times rated current. The knee-point voltage of a current transformer is the magnitude of the secondary voltage after which the output current ceases to linearly follow the input current within declared accuracy. For example. Current and voltage transformers used for metering have a higher accuracy class as compared to those used in protection. current transformers for metering are rated at 5p20 class 0. typically 1. each transformer will have a nominal current of 87. Metering is. In testing. You can work out the ratio. measuring of the transformers output (or input) power. Most protection relays require and input current of 1 or 5 amps. the concept of knee point voltage is very pertinent to protection current transformers. as the name suggests. From the voltage requirements of the equipment you can also work out the potential transformer ratio. etc. if a voltage is applied across the secondary terminals the magnetizing current will increase in proportion to the applied voltage. Current and potential transformers are generally used for two purposes: ie metering and protection.2 to 1. up until the knee point. since they are necessarily exposed to currents of 20 or 30 times rated current during faults .98%. The knee-point voltage is less applicable for metering current transformers as their accuracy is generally much tighter but constrained within a very small bandwidth of the current transformer rating.5 kA on the primary windings and 350 kA on the secondary. However.