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THEORY The purpose of this experiment is to test the theoretical equations governing charge sharing by capacitors and to measure the capacitance of an "unknown" capacitor. Capacitance is defined by the equation

C ≡Q V

6-1

(1)

The unit of capacitance, the farad (F), is defined as one coulomb per volt. When two capacitors are connected in series AND ARE INITIALLY UNCHARGED, the charges which they acquire subsequently must be equal, and the equivalent capacitance is given by the equation

C eq = C1C 2 C1 + C 2

(2)

When two capacitors are connected in parallel, their voltages must be equal, and their equivalent capacitance is given by the equation

C eq = C1 + C 2

(3)

Kirchhoff's Second Rule states that the algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path is zero, due to the uniqueness of potential at a point. We may write this in the form

∑ ΔV = 0

(4)

An ordinary voltmeter cannot be used to read the voltage across a capacitor, since such a meter would discharge the capacitor very quickly. Instead, we will use an electrometer (EM) having very high resistance. Since the EM scale is rather small, we will connect the EM output (designed for a computer interface) to an ordinary voltmeter (VM). To avoid inputting large voltages into a computer-interface, the EM is designed such that its output is one-twentieth of the measured voltage. We will multiply the voltmeter readings by 20 to get the voltage measured by the electrometer. In circuit #1, in section IV, the switch S1 is thrown to position 1 and C1 charges up to a voltage V1, the voltage of the power supply. Then S1 is thrown to position 2 and C1 shares its charge with C2. This process is repeated several times. Although C2 is initially uncharged in the FIRST cycle, this is not the case in subsequent cycles.

The capacitors discharge partially in order to satisfy this. Let Q be the total charge to be shared. Resistors are used in both circuits to protect the components from damage. Kirchhoff's Second Rule. Applying Kirchhoff's Second Rule to circuit #2 we obtain . Let Q1. on the other hand. Q4 = C4V4. they do not affect the final charges or voltages. but Kirchhoff's Second Rule must still hold. Let the final charges (after closing S2) be Q3' and Q4'. we have two capacitors and a power supply connected in series. They do not affect the charges of the capacitors. where (V3 + V4) is greater than the power supply voltage Vp. there must be a voltage across it. since the capacitors are charged unequally. we may determine the value of an "unknown" capacitor C1 in terms of a "known" capacitor C2 and measured voltages V1. Let V' be the common voltage after the charge is shared. there can be no voltage across it. While S2 is open. Let the initial charges (before closing S2) of C3 and C4 be Q3 and Q4. Q2. V1 and V2 be the respective charges and voltages of C1 and C2 just before throwing S1 to position 2. Let the final voltages be V3' and V4'. is always valid. and Q4 = C4V4’ (9) Equation (2) cannot be used in analyzing this circuit. By (1) we have Q1 = C1V1 and Q2 = C 2V2 (5) The total charge Q is given by the equation Q = Q1 + Q2 = C1V1 + C 2V2 (6) Using equations (1). When S2 is closed. Q3’ = C3V3’. in order to satisfy Kirchhoff's Second Rule. In circuit #2. Circuit #3 is used for charging and reading voltages of the capacitors of circuit #2.260 6-2 The resistors shown in this and other circuits serve only to protect the components from damage. (3) and (6) we obtain V′ = C V + C 2V2 Q = 1 1 C eq C1 + C 2 (7) Solving for C1 we obtain C1 = C 2 × V ′ − V2 V1 − V ′ (8) Thus. V2 and V'. in section IV. Suppose that the capacitors of circuit #2 are initially charged independently to voltages V3 and V4. Using equation (1) we obtain the four equations Q3 = C3V3.

It is recommended .00 μF) standard capacitor will not be used in circuit #1. With the portable power supply (PPS) turned off and the VOLTAGE and CURRENT control knobs in the full counterclockwise positions. but equations (18) and (19) are still valid.Vp)/(C3 + C4) Combining equations (9) and (12) we obtain the equations V3' = Q3'/C3 = (Q3 .Q4'/C4 + Vp = 0 (10) (11) Let q be the charge lost by each capacitor when S2 is closed. II.q)/C3 = V3 . LABORATORY PROCEDURE 1. wire up circuit #1. In such a case the capacitors become charged to higher voltages when S2 is closed in circuit #2.C4V4)/(C3 + C4) V4' = (C4V4 + C3Vp .C3C4Vp)/(C3 + C4) Combining equations (9) and (14) we obtain q = C3C4(V3 + V4 .q/C4 (16) (17) (15) (14) (13) (12) Finally.500 μF) standard capacitor for C2.q)/C3 . Then the final charges are related to the initial charges by the equations Q3' = Q3 .q)/C4 = V4 .260 6-3 -V3' . Vp will exceed (V3 + V4).(Q4 .q)/C3 = (C3V3 .V4' + Vp = 0 Combining equations (9) and (10) we obtain -Q3'/C3 . using the "unknown" capacitor for C1 and the 500 nF (0.C3V3)/(C3 + C4) (18) (19) In part of this experiment.q and Q4' = Q4 – q Combining equations (11) and (12) we obtain -(Q3 . we obtain the equations V3' = (C3V3 + C4Vp . The 1000 nF (1. The quantity q in equation (12) then becomes a negative number.q)/C4 + Vp = 0 Solving for q we obtain q = (C3Q4 + C4Q3 . combining equation (15) with equations (16) and (17).q/C3 V4' = Q4'/C4 = (Q4 .q)/C4 = (C4V4 .

00 μF) capacitor for C4. 7. and PPS off.260 6-4 that the components be placed on the laboratory table in the same relative positions as in the circuit diagram before beginning to connect wires. the side of R2 connected to S1 and C2. All connections will be made with spade terminal to spade terminal wires unless otherwise noted. With the PPS turned off. two wires will be attached to the same clip (eg. Turn the CURRENT control knob to the maximum position. Use mounted 10 kΩ resistors for R1 and R2. If this does not work. throw it to position 2. Turn the PPS on and adjust the VOLTAGE control knob until the portable power supply reads 20 V. For some connections. 6. After about 2 seconds. in this lab) using the special cable provided. Record the voltage reading on the PPS. using the 500 nF (0. Push the zero button to zero the electrometer. Use the banana-tobanana wires provided to ground the electrometer to any electrical wall outlet. VM. The negative (black) banana plug of the cable should be connected to the COM jack on the VM. In order to minimize charge leakage. Set S1 to position 2. • Use the BNC to alligator clips on the input cable in the plastic bag in the equipment box to connect the electrometer (EM) to the rest of the circuit. Use the two input jacks on the right side of the VM. Turn on the multimeter by turning the dial to the 2 V setting. the far CW position. Throw S1 to position 1. Do not discharge either capacitor between cycles.) 3. disconnect the output cable and reconnect and then try to zero it. Discharge the capacitors by holding the two ends of the shorting lead in contact with the terminals of either capacitor for about 5 seconds. (Note: If the electrometer cannot be zeroed. Leave the VOLTAGE control knob in the minimum position. Read and record the value of V' from the VM. as your body may discharge the capacitors. Turn the voltage control knob of the PPS to its full CCW position and turn the EM. Repeat step #5 three more times. • Use the three binding posts on ONE SIDE of a double-pole-double-throw (DPDT) switch for S1 and put it in the neutral position. • Use the banana plugs of two banana plug to spade terminal leads to make connections to the positive and negative terminals of the PPS.500 μF) capacitor for C3 and the 1000 nF (1. Do not touch any part of the circuit except the switch. • Record the nominal value of the "unknown" capacitance. you will record values from the multimeter. VM. 2. Turn the electrometer on and set it on the 10 V range. During lab. the far counterclockwise (CCW) position. proceed at once to step #6. Leave the PPS at this setting. Connect the resistive shorting lead (a wire with a resistor in the middle and alligator clips on the ends) between points 1 and 2 of S1. wire up circuit #2. Use a mounted resistor for R3 and the single- . Remove the resistive shorting lead from S1. • Connect the output of the EM to the multimeter (which will be used as a voltmeter. Before doing calculations these will need to multiplied by a factor of 20. please see the instructor. 4. 5.

V2 takes the value of V' from the preceding cycle. V2 and V' for the four cycles of circuit #1. In a manner similar to step #10. Close S3. 15. Maintain contact for about 5 seconds. Open S2. 8. 17. charge C4 to 4. VM. 13. Use another pair of banana plug leads to connect the second PPS to the circuit. use the probes to charge C3 to that voltage. Before disassembling the circuits. See note in step #2 if you have difficulty doing this. III. The values for V’ should be 20 times the VM readings taken for circuit #1. .0 V. Repeat steps 11-13. Clip the input leads of the EM to R4 and R5. using the central and end binding posts of one side of the DPDT switch for S3. In order to minimize errors of procedure. Make a table containing the quantities V1. Adjust the voltage of the PPS of circuit #2 for an output of 10.0 V. Turn the EM. Use mounted resistors for R4 and R5. with the polarity shown on the cardboard. observing correct polarity. Turn on the PPS of circuit #3 and adjust its output for 3. With S2 still open. Set the EM to the 10 V range. 9. Turn the EM and VM off. Wire up circuit #3. 11. 18. V2 is zero for the first cycle. All other wires should be returned to the box and equipment cart. For the remaining cycles. according to the circuit diagram. 14. set the voltage and current output of both power supplies to zero and turn them off.0 V. 16. place pieces of cardboard under C3 and C4 to identify each capacitor and to indicate the polarity of charge to be given to each. 12. Adjust the voltage of the PPS of circuit #2 for an output of 15. Hold the red and black probes in contact and press the zero button to zero the EM. Close S2 and open S3. Record the VM readings in a table along with Vp. CALCULATIONS 1.0 V. All spade terminal to spade terminal wires should go into the wires’ cart in the lab room.260 6-5 pole-single-throw (SPST) knife switch for S2. Use the probes to read V3' and V4'. 10. Open S2 and S3. and PPS of circuit #2 on. Adjust the VOLTAGE control knob of the PPS of circuit #2 for an output of 5. Leave room for the four values of C1 to be calculated.0 V. Carefully return equipment to the box and cart. Repeat steps 11-13.

V3' and V4' for the three trials of circuit #2. Compare this result with the nominal value. List in a table the experimental value. V4. V3' and V4' should be 20 times the recorded VM readings. . Find the average experimental value of C1. finding a percent difference. V3. Calculate the theoretical values of V3' and V4' for the three trials. the theoretical value and the percent difference for V3' and for V4' for the three trials. Use nF as units. Make a table containing the quantities Vp. Show the calculation in one case. 4.260 6-6 2. 3. Calculate a value of C1 for each set of voltages and add these values to the table of step #1. Show the calculation once.

EM + . + EM + R4 + VM - + PPS . DIAGRAMS 6-7 Circuit #1 S1 1 + PPS C1 C2 R1 + + .260 IV.VM 2 R2 Circuit #2 S2 R3 + PPS C4 black C3 PROBES red R5 Circuit #3 S3 .

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