Special Topics in CFD

A. W. Date Mechanical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Mumbai - 400076 India

April 3, 2007

1D-Conduction with and without Phase-Change
Governing Equation: ∂ ∂x kA ∂T ∂x =ρA ∂e ∂t (1)

1. Without phase-change ≡ Pure Conduction: e = h = C ( T - Tref ) - a continuous function of T Steady or Unsteady 2. With phase-change ≡ Solidifiaction/Melting: e = h = F ( T ) - a dis-continuous function of T Always Unsteady Problems with discontinuous fluid/flow properties occur in many situations: Shocks, Flow of two or more immiscible fluids, phase-change ( Ex: gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid )

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 N=9 PRACTICE B CELL .FACE 1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 NODE 7 8 N=9 .Pure Conduction .Grid Layout PRACTICE A Xc 1.

Typical Node P ∆X W w P e E ∆X w ∆X e n o e w ∂ ∂x kA ∂T ∂x n e dx dt = P o w ρA ∂e |P dx dt ∂t (2) .

Semi-Explict .5 3.Explicit .IOCV or Finite Volume Discretization ρ ∆V C n |P + ψ ( AE + AW ) ∆t n n n +S + AW TW = ψ AE TE TP (3) AE kA kA |e AW = |w ∆x ∆x o o + AW TW S = ( 1 − ψ ) AE TE ρ ∆V C o |P − ( 1 − ψ ) ( AE + AW ) + ∆t = (4) o TP (5) 1. ψ = 0 . ψ = 1 .Unconditionally Stable for ψ ≥ 0. 0 < ψ < 1 .Conditionally Stable 2.Unconditionally Stable .Implicit .

n n n + S (6) TP = AE TE + AW TW APi Ti Si APi = AEi Ti +1 + AWi Ti −1 + Si ρ ∆Vi Cio o = Ti ∆t ρ ∆Vi Cin = AEi + AWi + ∆t (7) Solved by TDMA for i = 2. N . . Boundary conditions at i = 1 and i = N are required. . 3. .1. ..Implicit Formulation ψ = 1 ρ ∆V C n |P + AE + AW ∆t or.

t ) = Tsup . T ( 0. (8) . 0 ) = Tsup .1-D Phase-Change Problem T sup Tl SOLID Tm Ts INTERFACE LIQUID Tw Xi ( t ) X ∂ ∂T ∂ (ρ h) = (K ) ∂t ∂x ∂x with T ( x . t ) = Tw and T (∞.

I Uniform properties Assumed: ρs = ρl = ρ. Cps = Cpl = Cp and Ks = Kl = K hl h hs λ SOLID Tm LIQUID T .Equation of State .

Von-Neumann .Exact Solution Interface condition: T = Tm at x = Xi and ks ∂ Ts /∂ x |Xi − kl ∂ Tl /∂ x |Xi = ρ λ d Xi /dt √ erf (x / 4 αs t ) Ts − T m √ = 1− Tw − T m erf (Xi / 4 αs t ) √ erfc (x / 4 αl t ) Tl − T m √ =1− Tsup − Tm erfc (Xi / 4 αl t ) √ √ or Xi = C t Xi ∝ t Determination of C ρλC 2 Tm − T w C2 Ks √ exp (− ) √ 4 αs erf (C / 4 αs ) π αs Tm − Tsup Kl C2 √ exp (− ) √ 4 αl erfc (C / 4 αl ) π αl (9) (10) (11) = + (12) .

II Table: Equations of State State Solid Liquid Interface T=f(h) T = h / Cp for h < hs T = (h − λ) / Cp for h > hl T = Tm for hs < h < hl h=f(T) h = Cp T for T < Tm h = Cp T + λ for T > Tm h = Cp Tm + hps (t ) t +∆t (d hps / d t ) d t = λ t .Equation of State .

Numerical Solution-I Define h − hs dimensionless enthalpy λ Cp (T − Tm ) dimensionless temperature λ αt dimensionless time L2 x dimensionless length L ∂ (ρ h) ∂ ∂T = (K ) → ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂Φ ∂2θ = ∂τ ∂X 2 Φ = θ = τ X = = (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) .

II Use T = F ( h ) θ = Φ θ = 0 θ = Φ−1 Uniform Grid Φlj +1 = for 0 ≤ Φ ≤ 1 for Φ ≤ 0 solid interface liquid (18) (19) (20) for Φ ≥ 1 ∆τ o +1 (θ l +1 − 2 θjl +1 + θjl − 1 ) + Φj ∆X 2 j +1 (21) .Numerical Solution .

4. evaluate Φo j . Determine θjl +1 using equations of state 18 to 20 and return to step 3 to carry out the next iteration 5. Set Φo j = Φj and return step 2 to execute the next time step . After a few iterations. 3. Set θj = θj 2.Numerical Solution by Gauss-Seidel Solution Procedure 1. Solve equation 21 once using Gauss-Seidel method to obtain Φlj +1 distribution. 6. At τ = 0. Choose ∆τ to begin a new step. change in Φ lj +1 between successive iterations will be small and convergence is obtained. specify initial condition θ jo for j = 1 to N. o Hence.

2.0 ∆ X = 0. Tw = T (0. L = 1 m. K = 2 W / m .0 St = 0.0 -4.0 -3.0 -1.Solution by Gauss-Seidel Problem ρ = 1 kg /m 3 .0 T ( x = 0.25 1.K.5 MJ / kg .5 m ) ∆ X = 0.02 ( or N = 52 ).0 5 10 DAYS 15 20 St = Cp (Tw − Tm )/λ.K. ∆τ /∆X 2 = 0. λ = 100 MJ / kg. Tm = 0 C. 0 ) =Tsup = 2 C and. T (x. .2 0.0769 EXACT -2. Cp = 2. t ) = −10 C.2 Excellent Agreement when ∆X = 0.

Point-by-point solution requires book-keeping of phase-change nodes and a large computer time when fine grid is used How to enable use of TDMA without book keeping and obtain accurate solutions on coarse grids ? . Solutions are wavy on coarse grid 2. Waviness reduces on fine grid.Shortcomings of GS 1. Waviness does not reduce when ∆τ is reduced 4. that is when ∆X → 0 3.

Why Waviness ? Xi ( t ) SOLID j-1 j LIQUID j+1 ∆x Throghout the transition of the interface in the control volume ( that is. 0 < Φ < 1 ) . θ = 0 .

Solution by TDMA θ =Φ+Φ Φ = 1 [ | 1 − Φ | − | Φ | − 1] 2 (22) PDE → ∆τ ) Φl +1 = ∆X 2 j Sj = ∂Φ ∂2Φ ∂2Φ = + ∂τ ∂X 2 ∂X 2 (23) (1 + 2 ∆τ 1 (Φl +1 + Φlj + −1 ) + Sj ∆X 2 j +1 ∆τ (Φ − 2 Φj + Φj −1 ) + Φo j (24) ∆X 2 j +1 1. For N = 52. Waviness persists on coarse grids because θ = 0 for 0 < Φ < 1 but book-keeping not required 2. TDMA is 2.5 times faster than GS .

that is when Φ < 0 and Φ > 1.Accurate Solutions on Coarse Grid Using TDMA Define θ = Φ + Φ” Φ” = Φ + θpc (25) (1 + 2 ∆τ ) Φl +1 = ∆X 2 j + ∆τ 1 (Φl +1 + Φlj + −1 ) ∆X 2 j +1 ∆τ ” o (Φ” − 2 Φ” j + Φj −1 ) + Φj (26) ∆X 2 j +1 θpc = 0 in single phase region. .

j = 3.j ) ∆X | A |) θj −1 − (A − | A |) θj +1 F = − (1−Φjj ) Φjj (1+Φ ) Φ | 0.5 + Φpc .5+Φpc . A = ∆Xi ∆Xi +∆X | ∆Xi | | ∆Xi |+∆X F (A + 2 0.j θj −1 for ∆Xi > 0 θj +1 for ∆Xi < 0 4.j = 6. ∆Xi = Xi − Xj = (0. Define ∆Xi = Xi − Xj 2.j ) ∆X = (0. θpc .Evaluation of θpc Xi ( t ) SOLID j-1 j LIQUID j+1 ∆x 1.j = 5. θpc . θpc .j |+1 .5 − Φpc .5+Φpc .

0 N = 13 T ( 0.25 DAYS T ( 0.Accurate Solutions on Coarse Grids-I 1.0 N = 15 -20 -10 -30 -40 -20 DAYS 0.5 m ) -1.0 NUMERICAL -3.0 DAYS 5 10 15 20 0 0 St = 1.0 5.0 7.0 3.5 m ) -10 St = 3.0 DAYS 4.25 0.0 EXACT 1.0 2.5 10.0 St = 0.0 0.0 1.0 NUMERICAL -3.0 2.0 .5 m ) N = 15 -1.5 5.5 m ) T ( 0.0 5 10 15 20 EXACT -2.0 -2 .0 N = 7 T ( 0.0 -50 0.0 St = 0.

0 St = 0.6 Xi ( t ) 0.Accurate Solutions on Coarse Grids-II St = 3.0 5 10 15 20 .4 0.25 0.2 DAYS 0.8 St = 1.0 0.

Conclusions 1. problems such as waviness disappear at the expense of heavy penalty in computer time 3. If fine grids are used. Problems with discontinuities require special procedures 2. . Methods to remove numerical pathologies on coarse grids must be found by attending to Physics underlying the phenomena.

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