Nietzsche as Masked Romantic Author(s): Caroline Joan ("Kay") S.

Picart Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Summer, 1997), pp. 273291 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetics Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/12/2011 22:09
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Nietzsche as Masked Romantic

At this stage of Nietzsche scholarship, it may seem strangeto returnto the link betweenNietzsche and romanticism.' Yet, as Ernst Behler points out, the spirit of literary modernism sprangfrom the womb of romanticism.2Hence, any attempt to harness Nietzsche within the contemporary arena of postmodernism must first wrestle with Nietzsche's debts to romanticism and the extent to which a residualromanticism contoured the development of Nietzsche's thought-that is, the extent to which Nietzsche remaineda masked romantic. It is undeniablethat Nietzsche himself, in his later pieces, sought to distance himself from whathe viewed as the befogging influence of romanticism. For the later Nietzsche, German music, particularlyWagner'smusic, was romantic "through and through ... a first-rate nerve-

am such and such a person,"an apparentpreparation for a unidimensionalway of reading the last line of the first section of the preface:'Above all, do not mistake me for someone else."6
Yet, "Ich bin der und der" may be interpreted

destroyer,doubly dangerousfor a people given to drinkingand reveringthe unclear as a virtue, namely, in its two-fold capacity of an intoxicating and stupefying narcotic."3 Walter Kaufmann, a leading authority on Nietzsche, clearly sets himself against any romantic interpretationof Nietzsche. For Kaufmann, "self-overcoming" is the only viable method of finding one's way out of the Nietzschean labyrinth. Thus, he strategically conflates any differencebetween Nietzsche's intentions and his mannerof execution. For example, Kaufmannemploys a decidedly Apollonian approach in interpreting a title Nietzsche used, "Ecce Homo."For Kaufmann,the use of "Ecce Homo" should be interpreted as Nietzsche's naked statementof self-identification:"Hereis a man! Here is a new, a differentimage of humanity: not a saint or holy man any more than a traditional sage, but a modern version."4In addition, he interprets"Ich bin der und der"5as "I

contrapositivelyas "I am he and he," implying eithera fragmentation or a dissimulationor both in the speaker-a method of writingthatechoes the satyr-ic authorwho has made the mask his signature.Similarly,"Ecce Homo"is utteredby Pilate: the same man, who, in Nietzsche's eyes, is the only hero of the New Testamentbecause of his having asked "What is truth?"Furthermore, Nietzsche's first use of the phrase, "Ecce Homo,"occurs in his savage characterization of the moralist bigot and prig who paints his portrait upon the wall and uttersthe all-too-(in)famous phrase. This seems yet anotherclue that something seems to be amiss with a linear way of interpreting Nietzsche, especially when he claims to have taken off his masks. Nevertheless, in accordance with his Apollonian method of interpretingNietzsche, Kaufmann writes:
Nietzsche defined his position in terms of his crucial break with Wagner;and in Nietzsche Contra Wagner he says expressly that it was in part Wagner's"ambiguity" that he could not "bear."... And the ambiguity of the romantics-their protest "againstreason, enlightenment, taste, and the eighteenth century"7-is just what Nietzsche denounced.8

Similarly, Adrian del Caro, in his book Dionysian Aesthetics; The Role of Destruction in Creation as Reflected in the Life and Works of

Nietzsche (1981), cautiously describes what he views as the three stages in the maturationof Nietzsche's thought: (1) Nietzsche in his late

The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism55:3 Summer 1997

and shapedhis genderedand mythologicalpolitics and aesthetics. such as Raphael'sTransfiguration in The Birth of Tragedy.. Nietzsche ContraNietzsche (1989). in his later book. no less evocative than their musical counterparts. I attempt to excavate Nietzsche's persistent yet hidden romanticism by drawing forth a striking correspondence between the progression of Nietzsche's initially optimistic politics to his later. depending on whether strengthor weakness is the motivating factor.9 (2) Nietzsche in his convalescence from romanticism and his conversionto a primarilypositivistic attitude.particularly in relationto Nietzsche: Justas Nietzsche envisaged two kinds of nihilism and two kinds of skepticism.274 twenties. reveals a similargravitationtowarda darkerpessimism. understood as a Europeanphenomenon. In addition. However. frompassiveto active. thatNietzsche could be definitively describedas being underthe influence of romanticism. as the basis for forming the macroscopic view against which the microscopic view of Nietzsche's politics and aesthetics may be plotted needs some justification. so too are the two kinds of romanticism.13 opposed to the cognitive or systematically philosophicalroute. who aspiredto be a "good European. even attemptinga general comparisonacross Nietzsche's texts and paintings seems awkward. The choice of not only painting. but also of these two specific painters. I build upon del Caro's thesis concerning the possibility of differentiatingtwo types of romanticism. I have chosen Friedrich In line with del Caro's view of Nietzsche as the "last romanticist.To illustrate Nietzsche's persistentromanticism. I construct this sketch that aims to capturesome of the main outlines of the developmentof (German and French)romanticismvia an examination of several key paintings by Caspar David Friedrich(one of the earliest and foremost German romantic painters) and Eugene Delacroix (one of the most renownedlater Frenchromantic dandies. and the image of romanticism that representsthe transition .was certainly more diverse than Wagner'soperas. The romantic specter unceasingly hauntedNietzsche even as he struggled to exorcise himself of its ghostly influence.What I hope to show is that this larger appearsthat it is only within the first phase. in the Enlightenment sense. but failed. Yet. and a general sketch of how romanticism follows a similartrendof deepening misogyny and political pessimism. It is true that with a few exceptions.. In Nietzsche we have the culmi12 natorand surpasser of a long and venerable tradition. as illustratedin the panoply of paintings and literarypieces that were inspiredby it."and its increasing fascination with violence and sickness. a close personalfriend of Wagnerand the spiritual disciple of Schopenhauer."I wish to show that there is good sense in drawingout the romanticinfluences that Nietzsche undoubtedlyattemptedto purge himself of. and as such.Friedrichand Delacroix.namely. more concernedwith the problemsof nihilism and Christianity than with Greekcultureand tragedy.and the project of the transvaluationof all values ratherthan a nostalgic longing for the rebirthof classical tragic culture. romanticism. a period that Nietzsche eventually dismissed emphatically. del Caro ties the development of Nietzsche's thoughtmuch more closely with his romanticheritage: in the spirit of early romanticism as defined by the basic issues of finding a ground for being and using creativity. In this article.a fact he frequently overlooked: the romanticism that he usually described as weak. whom Nietzsche associates with Wagner). with his newly found hero worshipof Voltaire. Nietzsche. destrong."I For del Caro. as evidenced in its treatment of "woman"/the"feminine. . despite an initial optimism. increasingly misogynistic and pessimistic politics. rooted in the history of an aestheticopolitical movementembodied in representative paintings.'0and (3) the sober and satiricalNietzsche."certainly was a productof more than merelyparochialGermaninfluences."This is not intendedto markhim as a latecomeror to detractfrom the lucidity of his thought. as an historically rooted phenomenon. passive and pathological. to be the invisible terrain against which Nietzsche waged his battle with Wagnerianromanticism. Nietzsche often equated "romanticism"purely with Wagner's for Kaufmann.I take these images. and spoke affirmatively of particularly the Frenchin his is Nietzsche who deserves the epitaph"last romanticist. creative romanticism. The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism a cheerful.

serve as embodimentsof less tangible and more diffused romantic ideals. My position differs from Adriandel Caro'sin his Nietzsche Contra Nietzsche in two areas. and another two by Eugene Delacroix.what I intend to do is to paint. The significance of my turning to Friedrich and Delacroix lies in my attemptto arriveat an accountthatdescribeshow Nietzsche. The Cross in the Mountainsand Monk by the Sea. but instead.That is. an early post-Zarathustran text.I view Nietzsche's sustained struggle with romanticismas itself constitutiveof Nietzsche's lateridentity. and imagining or writing a book that could be consubstantial with the world). this caused his loosely connected ideas to explode into an almost infinite numberof interpretationsmade by individualsat differentpoints in time.'9 In contrast.'8As FriedrichSchlegel's own use of the term was far from consistent. What I wish to put forth is an accountof how Nietzsche. In view of the numerous unsuccessful attempts at defining romanticism made in the twentiethcentury.16or so specific'7 that they exclude the majorityof those commonly ascribedto the romantics. but as its naturalconclusion.I do not pretendto cover all aspects of European romanticism. created by Nietzsche to be a simplified/exotericized version of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. del Caro employs a method that attemptsan exhaustive analysis of the statementsexpressedby variousromanticthinkerssuch as the Schlegels. While I draw from del Caro's temporalschema of Nietzsche's developmentas a thinker.15 This fluctuation between the two poles in Nietzsche eventuallyresults." My goals are more modest. drawing from Novalis at a preliminary level. A. in broad strokes. at 275 an introductorylevel. Kleist. and Hlderlin in orderto characterizewhat he refers to as "romanticism. Among these kernels of ro- . optimistic type (characteristicof Friedrich).14Both of these strains of romanticismmay be seen in Beyond Good and Evil. Nietzsche's matureconcept of the will to power resonatesto a high degree with the romanticmoral aesthetic of qualitativepotentializing(and by this I mean. like Nietzsche.I offer no startlinglynew and exhaustive characterizationof it here. in a celebrated essay." approach. Consequently." published in 1798. and that all other "romanticisms" shouldbe distinguishedfrom it and from one another. as we shall see in Delacroix'scase. fatalistic type (characteristicof Delacroix) over the lighter. and yet deviates from it to some degree. fluctuatesin betweenthese two types of romanticism: the optimistic/healthy (exemplified by Friedrich) and the pessimistic/ pathological(exemplified by Delacroix). Wackenroder. Friedrich. Tieck. The first two paintings. throughmy examination of two famous paintings by Caspar David Friedrich. because the history of romanticismitself is a story of becoming. strive to give a thumbnailsketch of its diversity and internal tensions-a dynamic that is reflected in Nietzsche's own reluctantand masked romanticism(s).Picart Nietzsche as MaskedRomantic of and Delacroixas the particular representatives whatI perceiveto be two poles/types of romanticism as they. For example.and which are significant in assessing the natureof the romanticisms that plagued and inspiredNietzsche as a philosopher.he generatesan accountthatdocuments the struggle of the earlier Nietzsche contra the later Nietzsche. I aim to illustrate some essential romanticprinciplesand ideals. Lovejoy proposed that the word "romantic" shouldbe used only in the sense of Friedrich Schlegel's definition of "romantischePoesie. as expressed by the chief proponentsof the romantic movement. were consumedby the question of how a genius may sculpt a politico-aestheticmythologyfor the future. First. del Caroconceives of Nietzsche's struggle with romanticism in linear or temporal terms (as he has outlined in his 1981 book). The Massacre at Chios and Death of Sardanapalus. a way of simultaneouslyreadingthe world as if it were a novel. 0. of revolutionand evolution. certain general (but not overly diffuse) characteristicsthat are recognized as "romantic" by a majorityof scholars. I do not view Nietzsche's conversion of Dionysus into a philosopher-god as a radical break from his romantic past. especially in his early post-Zarathustranphase. and the later pair. Second. and Delacroix converged strikingly in areas In taking this which may be called "romantic. A common quandarywith definitions of romanticism is that they either tend to be so general as to include a bewildering number of nonexclusive characteristicsalso found in other periods. in choice of the darker. the final parts of his post-Zarathustran phase. and later intertwined with the politico-aesthetic vision of the dandy.

illustrateits two visages-visages I label the "optimistic"and the "pessimistic.125 pages. I do this in keeping with a fragment of a letter that FriedrichSchlegel. with [literally: onyandboundlessness as a foreground. completely devoted to the theme of metamorphosis. I shall resort to a brief examinationof some of the characteristic featuresand the generaloutlines of the historicalcontext thatunderlaythe genesis of some of Caspar David Friedrich'spaintings to illustrate the "lighter" face of romanticism."The first three characteristicsare sharedby what I call the "lighter" and "darker" visages of romanticism.let us turnto some remarks by Heinrich von fact thatis its realessence:thatit should be becoming andnever completed.276 mantic temperament. the founding journal of early romanticism. constituted the supremeartistic moral. because it would take. Both Friedrichand Nietzsche adhered to crucial aspects of the romantic moral aesthetic. despite immediate appearances. The logic of my choice of Friedrich lies in that Friedrich'sworks. Hence. that persist in Nietzsche's masked romanticismare: (1) a passion for the theme of transformation."20 Friedrich Schlegel's intent is clear: the mock precision with which he estimates the length of his definition of the term underlines and ironizes his nondefinition of it. onefeels as if nothing buttheframe one'seyelidshadbeencutoff.resisting the hardening into divisions characteristic of the Enlightenment.I wish to draw from and to reinforce the active formulation of romanticismas a process or quest rather than a fixed and totalizing definition.the fourth characteristicmarks the characteristic split of the "darker" romanticism (characteristic of Delacroix) from the "lighter"romanticism(seen in Friedrich). Fragment116 from the first issue in 1798 of the Athenaeum.(3) a total embrace of the romantic ideal of untimeliness or noncontemporaneity.21 eternally .the only sparkof life in the wide realm of death. they constitute. as I shall show.sink into an indulgence in the equivocal and indeterminate. This painting. avowedly "postromantic" The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism In ordernot to do violence to this characterization of romanticism as perpetual process ratherthan accomplished project. keeping with an earlier. equally controversialaltarpieceenti- I.ratherthan thought. and Prinz Friedrich von Homburg. Such an interpenetration was essentially dynamic. MonkBy the After Kleist gazed upon Friedrich's Sea (fig."In taking this approach. Such an interpenetrationof the moral and the aesthetic renderedthe moral aesthetic and the aesthetic moral. Hence. and (4) an increasing pessimism concerning modern society and "woman"/the" if it were dreaming of its monotThoughts" andbecause Young's "Night shorelessness]. 1). are visible even in Nietzsche's work. a distillation of romantic ideals.a lonelycentrein a lonelycircle. wrote to his brother.such as Amphitryon. Schlegel attemptsa positive description of romantic poetry which emerges as no less unfixed than his earlier satiric one: The romantic kindof poetryis still in a stateof becoming. the most outspokenpolemicist among the early romantics. Penthesilea. (2) an antirationalismthat does not. and from there.This moral aesthetic of the demandedthe complete interpenetration artistic and the moral. for both of them.22 Monkby the Sea was one of two picturesCasexhibitedwith greatnotoriety parDavidFriedrich at Berlin in 1810. the optimistic romantic moral aesthetic decreed that no sacrifice was too high for the genuine artist in his or her quest for the or "healthy. in some senses.The tensions and confluences between "light" and "dark"romanticisms. were regardedas the very epitome of romanticism. particularlyin Beyond Good and Evil.yet avoiding the descent into a debauchedrevelryin the utterlymystical. in his day. August Wilhelm: "I can hardly send you my explanation of the word romantic.The objectsappicturewith its two or threemysterious pears as the apocalypse. the young writerrhapsodized: Nothingcouldbe moresad andeeriethanthisposition in the world. I wish to of rorendervivid some essential characteristics manticism." genuinely "beautiful" In order to understandthis romantic moral aesthetic more concretely. THE NATURE OF THE ROMANTIC Prior to tracing how the romantic concept of irony contours the later Nietzsche's thought. the brilliant young writer of some of the most remarkable plays in Germanliterature. In his most famous text.

Friedrich'schief antagonist. 2). and gained the description"romantic. a preliminarylevel. in which a solitary monk holds his head in his hands. and sky. Friedrichcarried even further the radical compression and simplification of forms in Cross in theMountainsto create a landscape of startling bareness. thatthe monkappearsto be surrounded by the uncompromisingelements of earth. thatone lackshereall life andyet perceives thevoicesof life . often coupledwith a morbiddesirethatthe self be lost in nature'svarious infinities.and clarityof compositionbe upheldas primary aesthetic principles. sea. Hence. a distantfire in darkness. thatonemustreturn." serves as a relief against which the revolutionary character of Friedrich's works may be viewed. employed the technique of silhouetting a foreground image against an intangible background-a then controversialact againstthe canons of academic classicism in art.advocated not only that order. The context within which Friedrich's paintings arousedso much attention.the demand.mountainsmerging with clouds). Freiherr von Ramdohr. As before. and the Abbruch. could be learnt. Friedrich's paintings seemed to embody a passion for the equivocal.Picart Nietzsche as MaskedRomantic 277 CasparDavid Friedrich. the loss. the different areas of the painting are decisively separated from each other. and that artists should do no more than copy and imitate the style and subjectsof antiqueart. that gazing upon that painting inflicted upon him: thatonehaswandered outthere. but also thatart could be reducedto a set of rationaland restrictive rules.the obscure and far away (objectsshroudedin a fog. StaatlicheMuseen zu Berlin Preulischer Kulturbesitz Nationalgalerie. and a valorizationof night over day. Monkby the Sea. signifying a reaction against Enlightenment and rationalism.23 In contrast. Kleist wrote of the Anspruch. a celebration of subjectivity borderingon solipsism. tied Cross in the Mountains(fig. thatonewantsto crossover. the indeterminate. once codified. in Monk by the Sea. FIGURE 1. and that these rules.

._ .* :'...? ..E. AbteilungDeutsche Fotothek......A. .i.0 E ..... which are renderedeven more compelling by the pervasiveness of the atmosphere he created.. 1995..278 The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 1 :~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . His elimination of introductoryforeground motifs creates a visual vortex that sweeps the onlookers' eyes onto his central imagery. Most of Friedrich's subjects are not mystifications ... ... in the blowing wind. L... ... CasparDavid Friedrich.''s. A:"'.''.SachsischeLandesbibliothek.:. -:: f FIGURE 2.' . in the rushing tide. in the passage of clouds.. in the solitary birds.. Rous....... one cannot help but notice that the heavy emotive impact of Friedrich's landscapes does not impair his expressive directness. : . I l * l l |I .Cross in the Mountains.ia..".:: ..'-< | :D-:...24 Nevertheless. '..E... as one enters into a deeper reflection upon and interaction with Friedrich's paintings. .:.

this romanticemphasis on the multifariousness of signs could also be interpreted in a more pessimistic/"darker" way. while expressed evocatively.Huyghe quotes Villot on Delacroix: Instead of layingon the color. diaphanousrobes of mist. or underthe crystalline blanket of fallen snow. into the zone of the subconscious.brilliant andpure. the visual correlate of Nietzsche's own experimentation with writing styles.the resonances of an aesthetic and moral form of self-becoming.the purpose of painting lay neitherin the mimetic attemptto reproducenatureslavishly nor the attemptto adhere to the prescriptions of the traditional canons of ideal beauty. hybridization of Nietzsche's case.but naturalobjects undergoing a form of transformation-against the haze of sunriseor the deep purpleand orange glow of twilight. By intensifying the illusion of light.breaks place. is a concentrated or distilled form. Insofar as he perceived the mission of the painterto lie in the expression of the "soul. if possible. the romanticdandy. so their intentions. The great artists alone set out from a fixed point. Similarly.althoughcertainly not in keeping with the intellectual temperament of the Enlightenment.and. as for Nietzsche. seem.and making use of a technique called "scumbling. Precisely by being able to evoke rather than represent. "the sketch is not a dream."Delacroix assaultedthe classical focus on form. dissolving into. but of amplifying. This form of communication.Delacroixwrote: "Successin the arts is not a matterof abridging.28 For Delacroix. in some ways.resists the categorizationof the purely abstruse and incomprehensible. and it is this pure expression to which it is so difficult for them to come back to during the execution of their works. are by no means inexplicit. "With great artists. "justas Friedrich's pictures combine ambiguous spatial constructions and light effects with direct imagery.he interlaces them thebrush upand.the sketch.making behave like a shuttle. and modeling. in the swirling. A primeexample of this darker interpretationof the romantic quest may be seen in Eugene Delacroix. the tempo of the signs. and his elevation of movement."25 A sensitive reading of Nietzsche reveals that he is similarly concerned with the themes of transformationand a form of communicating that is other than totally lucid. Nietz- . As Vaughanpoints out. is brokenup. Crucial to this is Nietzsche's fascination with the metamorphosisof decadence into the coming of the Ubermensch-a moral-political-aesthetic vision whose outlines are never clearly defined. of prolonging the sensationby all availablemeans.31 Delacroix's rebellion against the classical aesthetic principlesof form and pure color. though it is not completely indecipherable.Picart Nietzsche as MaskedRomantic wroughtby a mind obsessed by the obscure. or the aphorism. Similar to Delacroix's preference for hybridizedcolor and texture. but are certainly discernible in some sense. and introducing rich and unusualhalf-tones.27 However. For Delacroix. the power of the "sketch"lies in its ambiguityand multifariousness.Nietzsche's characterization of a "good" writing style is one which simultaneously communicates an "inward tension of pathos"using an art of gestures that "makesno mistake about the signs. or by decomposing both the color and texture. be it lengthy or rapid. This process of self-becoming resists cognitive fixation in an absolute sense and yet is not utterly elusive. Local tone. either throughthe use of stripes." Delacroix wrote. ratherthan a carelessly executed and effete creation.It is a form of communication that attempts to be sensitive to the reverberations. in Delacroix's case. and even expandingspace."30 Among the formal techniques Delacroix is noted for is his distinct use of color as meshing with."26It is a distinctive mastery of the multifariousness of signs and of the inner states they point to that does not negate their multifariousness as signs and inner states. and tone. Scumblesproducepassages that enable the tones to melt together. it is something other than a coming together of barely graspable features. oneprecise thetones.the substitutionof varnishfor oil enablesburstsor scintillations of light. a vague cloud."29 form NietzschehimEmployingthe aphoristic self aspiredto in his lateryears." he advocated its "vagueness"as the very mechanismthroughwhich paintingbe- 279 comes powerful-piercing beyond clear-cut and distinct thought. decisive to establishing the autonomy/distinctiveness of a figure or object. seeks to producea tissue whose many-coloured threads crossandinterrupt constantly one another.

......however. ugeneDelaroix The assare a Chio.refraction-these aestheticprinciples may be seen at work in both the post-ZarathustranNietzsche and Delacroix. resisting the linear "moralistic" attributedto Platonism and its modern descenintensification.Christianity.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~O1 V~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.?Phot. Th Loure.. FIGUR 3.both Delacroix's and Nietzsche's arts possess a destructive di- . .280 The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism .... dant. Condensation..RMN sche preferreda multivocal writing style-one that could speak differently to different audivoice he ences.. breakage.. More importantly...

which was displayed at the Paris Salon of 1824." His critics denouncedit as a scandalousmassacreof painting itself.. caused an uproar. and democracy. thedesirable the speciallimbs.33 reverberate against patches Yet the cornucopiaof jewels and humanfigures crests and dies beneaththe impassivegaze of the king.the post-Zarathustran particular revels in themes of disease. Defeated in battle by his brother.34 Nietzsche in Similarly.with its soft and "womanly"ideals have preserved. but revels in the ambiguityof the unremittingsea of dismembered and bloody bodies. and favorite dogs-so that none of these would survivehim. Delacroix'sentriesin his diariesrevealhis own awarenessof his foray into this darkeroticism: is acquiring a torsion. uniting luminous whites. himself an embodiment of the death that awaits him. dirtiness. dressed in copper hues. With its dramatic depiction of the dark eroticism of suffering. 3).It is true that in generalNietzsche seems to fluctuate between the rhetorical registers of optimism and pessimism.Assurbani-pal. In certain senses."Both Nietzsche and Delacroix set themselves against "W/woman. the cupbearer. The Massacre at Chios (fig. impassively awaiting the inevitable. servants. and Myrrhaembracesher death .. still. smearedwith soot. Yet one of the most distinctive features of his postZarathustranwritings is its unremitting savagery-its thorough-going propagationof the total destruction of modernity. and blood. Baleah. bile. a movement Mypicture andenIt needsthe ergywhichI mustbringto completion. The historical context/pretextfor the scene is derivedfrom the vainglorioussuicide of the crownprinceof BabyShamash-shum-ukin. and destruction. undera murderous and nightmarishsky. and decadence that modernity. But this type of death was not a quiet slipping away from life. and carnage.Yet underneathhis exoteric message of "overcoming" and the future coming of the Ubermensch lies his esoteric message of the possible nonresurrection of the firebird from the ashes of modernity. the prince orderedhis officers and eunuchs to slaughter all that had given him pleasure during his lifetime-his harem. disease."35This Nietzsche advocatesthe use of political power to exterminate all the weakness. Huyghe captures the extravagance and sensual expenditureof the painting: of precious carved Never havenecklaces vases stones.. lon.sparkling golds. as the fourth book of Thus Spoke Zarathustraseems to show. it conveys no clear moral message. darkness.neverhas in onefloralsheaf colour beenso resplendent. The resultantpainting is a festival of color hyperbolized into a fevered pitch. There is one final striking similaritybinding Nietzsche's masked romanticism with Delacroix's own: their attitudes toward the "feminine"/"woman. hair.lights the pyre upon which he will seek his own death. poison." progress.pinksandredsand thatquiver withsilvery and of orange splashes gleams of green. An immense. and faces devoid of hope. death. and body submissively offered to imminentannihilation. 7 May1824)32 Delacroix called The Death of Sardanapalus (fig. The postZarathustran Nietzsche seems to share in Delacroix's darkjoy in his exultation over this necessary "damming up" of modernity-this ruthless slaughter of the "descending lines of life.Picart Nietzsche as Masked Romantic 281 mension-a voluptuousembraceof the sensuality of the apocalyptic vision. for the intoxicating sensuality and the bitterness with which prostitutesreducehumanrelationshipsto despairing beings!This is the truedomainof painting! .. The final embracesof with her arms.. Sardanapalus becomes the mask of Delacroix as the world-weary aesthete orchestrating his own death as his ultimate work of art. workhavebeenpiled up and glittering goldsmiths' with suchwealthand suchgreedyrelish. open space constitutes its background. The smile on the dying face! . One can almost smell the heady scent of perfumemingled with blood as Aischeh the Bactrian hangs herself. Two paintings of Delacroix strikinglydepict this esoteric message common to both artists.(Friday.36both had "the dandy's [ambivalent]taste for women of easy virtue.. horses. If I am not writhing like a snake in the hands of a pythoness. both men searched for deliberately refractory mechanisms simultaneously to hide and communicate a dark message: the eternal preparation for the inevitableencounterwith death. it was a glorious and sensual darkenjoyment-the savoring of the horror of prolonged torment. I amcold. 4) his "massacrenumbertwo.

" [Delacroix] said. and Nietzsche willfully embracedthe burdenof noncontemporaneity or untimeliness characteristicof the truly revolutionaryromantic. Huyghe frames and records Delacroix's thoughtson this occasion.40 that the only way to "cure"a woman of her resentmentis to "giveher a child. with their trashy ornamentsand frenzied spasms."38 How very like Nietzsche's pronouncements that "naturallaw" requires that "man wills" and "womanis willing". TheDeat of SardanapalusThe Louvre. Friedrich. the educationof her child: "This. the love of herman. Delacroix. delicious and moving fulfillment. Delacroix was apparentlyso intoxicated by the experience that he had to be calmed down with difficulty with sorbets and fruits.39that "feminismshuts the door on all audaciousinsights". TheDeathof Sardanapalus."'41 Finally. not thrown into the life of the world. but flowering within the realms of "feminine" devotion and maternity. The Louvre. but withdrawnat its heart.282 The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism FIGURE Eug1ne 4. In brief. Eugene Delacroix. "is woman as I understandher. R*I Delacroix. capable of producing works autono- .? Photo RMN. Photo FIGURE 4. Here Delacroix found the secret dream a reality:the woman withdrawnto devote herself to her original mission-the work of her house.thereis yet anothersense in which the romanticmoral aesthetic resonates with Nietzsche's philosophy in a strikingly biographical sense. interferingwith the affairs of men. as its most secret. this ideal upheld that the genius be wholly unique and individual. nothing.Delacroix. during his trip to Morocco. managed to obtain permission to slip into a genuine Turkishharem in order to do a few sketches."37Both advocated an Orientalizing vision of "woman"as most beautiful and mysteriouswhen she is not out in the world.

Quintilian. was accomplished by Goethe in his novel. WilhelmMeister. The demand that this ideal exerted upon the romantic artist was total-even till the point of the sacrifice of the artist. vol.which. eager to wound itself. Schlegel described the countermovements of self-creation and self-destructionas a manifestationof a self-inflicting moment capable of disrupting the primordialDionysian ecstasy. in this tradition. hang in a tight balance. [this] .Boccacio. Yet there are flashes of this same fascination with death and destructionin Nietzsche. this ideal possessed a second dimension: that of attempting to transcend this individuality.Goethe.43 In this section.Picart Nietzsche as MaskedRomantic mously. This. far removedfrom the maddingherd. we will see in the next section.essentially always within a cave or upon a mountaintop. alongside his gravitation toward a more optimistic and creative politic. 137) that he rhapsodizedin one of his notebooks: "Meister = ironic poetry as Socrates = ironic philosophy because it is the poetry of poetry" (Kritische. the search for disciples or a communitywould have seemed moot.42 Delacroix'scase would be slightly more complicated. if only OF IRONY IN NIETZSCHE'S BEYOND GOOD Del Caro sets the margin for the hardening of Nietzsche's mature and most productive phase at the creation of Beyond Good and Evil. through the genius's art. There is yet anotherway in which Schlegel's thought on irony is significant with respect to dredging out any traces of romanticism in the matureNietzsche. and self-transcending in various formulations. Through their lives and works. every day.Hence. For Friedrich and Nietzsche.which ran the riskof becoming a morbid self-absorption. and establishing. p. It is a manifestationof "the most intense passion [thatis] . p. what I find in Nietzsche is a fluctuating alignment with both these types of romanticism. GLIMPSES AND EVIL OF THE ROMANTIC CONCEPT 283 flective of the mannerof philosophizing of the older (and supposedly nonromantic)Nietzsche. and often the most sublime seriousness" (Kritische. I shall draw out the persistence of romantic irony (a characteristic of both the "lighter"and "darker" faces of romanticism)in some sections of the said book. an "involuntaryand yet completely deliberate dissimulation... However. As a man who meticulously dressed. one of the key philosophical proponentsof romanticism.of radicalindividualism and the desire to constructa polis beyond the Christianfoundationsof good and evil. indeterminable.Aristotle.surfaces at this point. he describedirony as the "astonishment of the thinking mind about itself which often dissolves into a gentle smile" and "beneath a cheerful surface"encompasses "a deeply hidden sense. In his early writingson Greek poetry. For is a means of attack. transcending the forces of patronage and politics. These polarities. 208) is necessarily self-reflective and self-conscious poetry. 10. 18. until the last phases of his post-Zarathustran period. vol. 353). total squandering. in Schlegel's late lectures about Philosophy of Language and Word (1829). solitary wanderer. p. Schlegel was so struck by the "irony hovering above .. 24).."45 For Schlegel. entire work" (Kritische. which are re- . a mythology relevant and binding for the generations to come. More importantly. always shatteringexisting interpretative and evaluative paradigms.vol. As Behler points out. In fact. another higher meaning.this method of conducting warfare against the "idol of the highly praisedomniscience"(Kritische.. is more than a figure of speech indicating a discrepancy between what the speakersays and what he or she intends to communicate. such poetry breaksfree from the rulebased form of rhetoricalironythatgroundsitself upon a complete agreement between speaker and listener and an absolute notion of Truth. 13. The romantic notion of verschwendung. of creationand destruction. the myth of the romantic aesthete as a lonely. in Schlegel's eyes. Nietzsche takes up and brings to a radical culmination a tradition of irony traceablefrom Socrates. In effect. Schlegel strove continually to capturethe Socratic-Platonic sense of irony as configurative. the frustratedlonging for disciples and the nonvisibility of a public reinforcementof their privateaspirations turned them radically inward.44 Irony..Sterne. gained furtherconcretenessand credibility. and ultimately.are characteristicof the new pitch to which Nietzsche brings the romantic tradition of irony. for his own death. 2.vol. p. Friedrich Schlegel. a new mythology.of transformingand preserving. Cicero. Cervantes.

the basic condition of all life. irony as satirical. Nietzsche identifies several of these traditional idols or dogmatists who have cunningly constructed these pitifully and laughablytenuous facades upon which the grandiose edifices of philosophy rest: Plato. or an audacious generalizationof very narrow.. "one can easily be led to Diotima's conclusion that no humanbeing is wise but only the god is.humorous. p. 403). 10. it is easy to locate Nietzsche as an heir to the romantictraditionof irony. Nietzsche begins with his formulationof what he perceives to be the central problem of philosophy: that it remains as aloof as a woman unwon. built upon "any old popular superstition from time immemorial . that it is impossible for truth to emerge from error.Jesuitism. 1.a seductionby grammar. perspectives that lie in the cold. human beings can only strive for wisdom of philosophizing. p. as Leo Strauss points out. is Plato. p. 9. 10). which serve to slice into the flow of the play. amphibiousregion that suffocates life. which may be characterizedas the occasionally capricious or frivolous addresses of the poet through the chorus to the audience. 9). brings us face-to-face with the Sphinx-siren. and morallyobjectionable.For Schlegel. For Nietzsche." (BGE. It is with respect to these three centralnotions of romanticirony (i." This smiling savagery is something that persists in Nietzsche's attackupon all the traditionalidols of morality..e. This leads to the ironic nonfulfill- . 13. p. Christianity."46Fromthe beginning.. The very posing of the riddleis itself the prelude of the battle Nietzsche wages against various "frog perspectives" (BGE. JGB. JGB. for Schlegel. JGB. vol.p. 207) rendersa tyrannicalformulationof the content of these subjects impossible. since it cannotdestroy "stimulation the illusion (of Aristophanes' comedies)" ( seems. very human. In the preface of this book.vol. Nietzsche. when one spoke of spirit and the good as Plato did" (BGE. p.284 to act and to discharge its excessive power" (Kritische.. "irony is a permanent parabasis" (Kritische. As a further illustration of this. and liberaldemocracy(BGE. JGB. One example of such a "frog perspective"is the traditional metaphysical negation of the origin of opposites (i. or that the will to truth be generatedby the will to deception.Such a stance necessarily transformsthem into allies in their siege against what they viewed as the overweening pride of a rationalismthat had become elevated to the statusof divinity.the deity who inspires us to dash ourselves against the rocks in the mad desire to ascend the shores of truth bathed in Apollo's light.. some The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism the "good"in itself. Nietzsche presentsus with a riddle: "why not rather untruth?and uncertainty? even ignorance? . the most beautiful and dangerous. all too human facts. p. the "inexhaustible plenitude and manifoldness of the highest subjects of human knowledge" (Kritische. absurd. 2. 30. For both Nietzsche and Schlegel. or the selfless deed arise from the selfish deed) coupled with its "faith in opposite values. p. very personal. 5). His tone is adversarial. 85). and strategic dissimulation. Proceedinghence from this premise. the most compelling and cancerousgrowth. p. p. The convictions that necessitated battles between Schlegel and Hegel resonate quite well with the groundsfor the uncompromisingiconoclasm Nietzsche sets out to perform. Of these.pp. P. that its edifices are unwieldy. in the first chapterof Beyond Good and Evil. irony as selfconscious and self-reflective poetry defiant of absolute formulation. JGB. emphasis added). Who of us is Oedipus here? play on wordsperhaps.. Plato's fundamental error lay in his invention of the pure mind and Who the Sphinx? It is a rendezvous. 1. such a capacity to disruptor injure is the naturalresult of overflowing vitality or "the most intense agility of life. p.e. irony as a permanent parabasis)that Nietzsche struggles with and redefines his congealing framework in Beyond Good and Evil. 4). 10." and the re-creation of a sense of virtue beyond "good" and "evil." and results in a of the effect. in confronting what he considers the ultimate philosophical questions. 10)-perspectives from below. "it meant standingtruthon her head and denyingperspective.his smiling or playful countenance does little to hide the inherent seriousness of the task he takes upon himself-the unmasking of the "good" as "evil.vol. 18. of questions and question marks"(BGE. p. One of Schlegel's favorite examples was the parabasis of Greek comedy. Ultimately.. 2-3. vol."47In the words of Nietzsche. gods do not philosophize. perspectivestrappedby the putrefying scaffold of the mistaken will to truth.

JGB. to the 'creation of the world. he employs two strategies.JGB.tied to. the buffoonish truth-adorers. some with savage humor. p. .thetruthful. for Nietzsche. Stoicism is nothing but masked self-tyrannyand self-aggrandizement. live according to nature'sindifference? (2) If "living according to nature"was simply a disguise for "living according to life. the hero whose shadowy outlines are defined against the fragmentedremains of these shatteredidols is certainly romantic.. seeminglyopposite things-maybe evenone withthemin essence. characteristicof romanticism..Truthis not to be found in the distant and external ether. others with earnest edged with mockery. For Nietzsche.a means throughwhich natureallows herself to be tyrannized in the figure of the Stoic. 10) To enflesh his primarythesis. Again. In his critique of the Stoic ethic (section 9).it wouldstill be possiblethata higher andmorefundamental valueforlife mighthavebeen to deception. vulnerableand prone to passion.p. p.) Nietzsche drawsthis argumentto its conclusion: we are fundamentally inclined to claim that the falsest . he characterizesinstinct as the unseen. 16)." how was it possible for one to transgress this maxim? Ultimately. 12.' to the causa prima (Un- caused First Cause)"(BGE. (Goethe's young Werther readily would have acknowledged this Nietzschean insight as his own. but throbbing within the noble heart. every "great"philosophy so far has been nothing more than a conscious or unconscious moral (or immoral) striptease "the personal confession of its authorand a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir" (BGE.p. (BGE.48I shall discuss. truth may be glimpsed only in its volatility. life-preserving. The rest of this chaptersimply deals with an examination of the unconscious motives that move the Dionysiokolakes..p. 11). in some detail. thatrenouncing falsejudgements wouldmeanrelife and a denialof life. simply the examples of Stoicism and Kant. Nietzsche seems to find particularly objectionable the absence of self-reflectiveness or self-consciousness in interestedin an aesthetic moral and a moral aesthetic beyond the conviction in a metaphysicsof stasis. 12) The second strategyhe employs is that of debunking-of shatteringthe idols of traditional philosophy. 10. Nietzsche.and a philosophy thatrisksthis wouldby that tokenaloneplaceitselfbeyond goodandevil. It is also importantto observe the strategy. Stoicism is but a fixed formulawhich falls shortof its ambition-that of becoming a poetry of poetry that roots itself in the reality of the world as formed by the self-conscious.pp. p. 13. 16.JGB. a necrophilious form of the "most spiritualwill to power. its free expenditureof vital forces. This is clearly an injunction that resonates very well with the romantictemperamentthat resists the stricturesof classicism and valorizesthe explorationof the expulsion of vitality. p. one can already detect glimmers of the romanticnausea with fixity..Maybe! (BGE.Again. Again. theselfless maydeserve. For Nietzsche then. species-preserving."Nietzsche levels two counterarguments: (1) How could a human being. its promotionof life. like the romantics. To recognize nouncing untruthas a condition of life-that certainly meansrevalue feelings in a dangerous sisting accustomed 285 way. 13-14).JGB. and its fascination with the fearfully unfixed. It is this lack of self-reflectiveness that causes Stoicism to be a mere illusion. JGB. arethemostindispensable judgements to us . aesthetico-moralizing humanmind. reverentlylays bare the idolatry and hypocrisy of conventionalsociety.Picart Nietzsche as MaskedRomantic ment of one of philosophy's majorprecepts:de omnibus dubitandum(Descartes's "all is to be doubted"). Nietzsche then posits his own counterhypothesis: Forallthevaluethatthetrue. perhaps even speciescultivating"(BGE. p. hints of the romantictraditionof irony readily emerge at this point. ascribed selfishness and lust. 11. In the first. It might even be possiblethatwhatconstitutes the valueof thesegood and revered thingsis preciselythatthey are insidiouslyrelated. p. and he displaces the question of the legitimacy of a "false"judgment with the question of whether this judgment is "life-promoting.It is again thatmythological who heroically and irartist-moralist-warrior. and involvedwith these wicked.of replacing a model of truth based on objective validity to one based on subjective validity. who rearshis head. "to live according to nature.and the various illusions they allow to entrapthem. primal force that forces reason into certain channels of thought(section 3).

the one.espoused one of the chief tenets of Schelling's Nature-philosophy: that "the artistmust follow the spiritof Natureworkingat the core of things. in the books of 1888. the romantic valorizationwas aimed at a rediscovery of the world's originalmeaning (which was a continuing task ratherthan an accomplishedhistorical achievement).reverencetoward natureis of supreme importance. unrefractedby the lenses of metaphysics. the two faces of the will to power. "naturalism" I leave my analysis of Nietzsche's confrontation with Stoicism for his battle with Kant to illustrate further Nietzsche's persistent rootedness in the romantic fascination with irony."is capable of viewing the world as it is."By "qualitative Novalis meant to characterize the romantic quest as a reading of the world as if it were a book. the possibility of which may be seen in the Stoic perversionof it. It is possible. Nietzsche champions a position that he alternatelycalls "realism"and "naturalism. that Dionysus is a figure who is a philosopher-godwho is indispensable to Nietzsche's project of the transvaluationof values because he has come to represent. The Anti-Christ." potentializing. an undeniablepoint of rupture between Nietzsche and romanticismmay be laid out at this juncture.purifiedof its display of . especially in Twilightof the Idols. Nietzsche's will to power then appears to correspond with what the romantics refer to as "Nature. raises a two-fold objection: it is both too difficult and too facile as a way of living. Yet even the apparentlyundivided nature of Nietzsche's antipathytowardmetaphysicalrealism is not so simple. pantheism. The human soul lies at the intersection of Life and Nature. the transindividual agency that enervatesindividualagents with force and vitality. or writing. Nietzsche's critiqueof Kant (section 17) begins with his recalling Kant'sreply to the questionof how one acquires access to synthetic a priori judgments. such that the commonplace is conferreda "highermeaning" whereas "the operation is reversed for the higher. For Nietzsche. or rootedness in nature. with its foundationsof vitalism. For the lighter visage of the romantic. For example. "by virtue of a faculty" is Kant's answer. The "will to power" serves as Nietzsche's synonym for Life. unknown.Moreover. to speculate upon a way in which the Stoic temptation may be redeemed. For Novalis. Certainly. in Nietzsche's eyes. of course."50 Nevertheless. What seems to become apparentis the extent to which Nietzsche struggles with and is attracted to the ideals of the two types of Germanromanticism. indifferent incarnation. in his polemic against this.has strong romantic undercurrents. Nietzsche customarilyportraysthe humanlink to this primordial life force as different from the strictly cognitive.Life is will to power expressed in terms of anthropocentric incarnation. any attemptto discover a pre-existing or "original"meaning.Will to power is the enigmatic unitary life force from which everything animate and inanimatedraws. Friedrich." in contraposition to "idewhich he characterizes or "natalism. within Nietzsche's framework.Nietzsche's will to power. there is a sense in which Nietzsche's will to power coincides with Novalis's active formulationof romanticismas "qualitative The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism potentializing. Nature is will to power manifested in its amoral. Such a move would requirenot the schizophrenic attempt to "live according to nature" and yet to deny that one is part of nature(as the Stoics do).It is also clear that in his maturephase. Nietzsche's main objections to Stoicism are that it is illusory and directed destructively inward. In addition. true reality.and Ecce Homo. mystical. the quintessentially romantic landscape painter. but to drawfrom the model of nature and to locate itself in its grand political scheme of the agonistic squanderingof vital forces.286 Perhaps this is one of the points in which Nietzsche's attractionto the optimistic romantic ideal is as strong as his aversion to it. Such an imperative would entail a reworking of the structureof the world. For instance."49Nietzsche. But there is a sense in which he fosters a nostalgia for this "most spiritualwill to power" -this will to the recreation of the world. a book that could be consubstantialwith the world. infinite.and hylozoism. While Nietzsche would be sympathetic to the dynamic natureof a valorization he would dismiss as mistaken or transvaluation. and how he seeks to define his position in terms of a hybrid of scientific "realism"or and subjectivevalorization."as opposed to the "idealist."Nietzsche claims thata "realist" uralist.Nietzsche seems to characterizeLife and Natureas two forms of the will to power. and imagining."In his post-Zarathustran works. a remarkable heritageof romanticism(s). JGB. JGB p. he conserves himself even from his own detachment (BGE and JGB.p. real tragedy is at an end. In fact. Nietzsche posits. He then humorously draws a devastating parallel between Kant's reply to a line from the doctor in one of Moliere's plays: "How does opium induce sleep? By virtue of a faculty. there are two general categories into which Nietzsche's remarkson these "free spirits"may be classified: (1) a descriptionby negation of the principalqualities of the free spirits. for the green-pasturehappiness of the herd" [BGE. despite his incorporationof novel elements. Unsurprisinglyperhaps. section 43). What Nietzsche seems to be aiming at is a "selfovercoming" of the various philosophical and scientific doctrines. section 40) and conserves himself from any inordinate attachment.unfamiliartempos (i. 37. are powered by the desire to mastereach other. JGB.and platform-bawlerin a "satyr play. though. is the only form in which base souls approachhonesty) (BGE and JGB. Nietzsche writes. 54. He52strivesinstinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd (BGE and JGB.The penultimatefigure of decadence. for onto the "natural" Nietzsche. free-spirited thought" [BGE.and an experimenter(BGE and JGB. JGB. is the philosopher-martyr who is a stage. He can dance to variant. Such a spirit is an attempter. a free spirit may be glimpsed only in sharp relief against the Don Quixote-esquefigures who sufferfor the sake of "truth"-these sophisticatedvengeance seekers and poison brewers. section 26). i.or even the very processof thinking itself. Yet Nietzsche's goals and methods at achieving this self-overcomingultiextent. 57]). p. must be understood as the "morphology and the doctrine of the will to power" and must be reinstated as the queen of all sciences (section 23).p. very free spirit"is the mortal enemy of the "leveler"(the one who "strives. and logic (section 17)-actually all supposedlylegitimate world-explanations-are but interpretationsor exegeses of the world. 40. 49). p. 49). Hence.theoretically. A profoundspiritneeds and delights in a mask (BGE and JGB. is but a relationof drivesto each other. 46. loafers and cobweb-spinners of the spirit. p. the man-goat-god.. daring nuances of free.for Nietzsche. Nietzsche levels his attack on Kant based on what he views as the loss of an objective ground by which a synthetic a priorijudgment latches or "real"world. He can listen to every coarse and subtle cynicism (as cynicism. a "free. physiology (section 15). p. It seems then that. section 42). Darwinism (section 14). p.Picart Nietzsche as Masked Romantic 287 German profundity and curlicues..a free spiritsings the ironic hymn of the sancta simplicitas that venerates the will to ignorance (or the will to the uncertainor the untrue)as a refinementratherthan a negationof the will to knowledge (BGE and JGB. one who accepts the responsibility of being impudent and the duty to "squintmaliciously out of every abyss of suspicion" (BGE. section 41). all past philosophizing. and (2) a positive descriptionof theirdistinctive features. psychology. section 26). 39). in their agonistic desire to squander themselves.Kant's"faculty"has laid philosophy's senses to sleep for too long. using the language of . A free spirit is neither a dogmatistnor a blind advocateof the "CommonGood" (which.. These drives. 46."Argumentum Nietzsche the faun. merely an epilogue farce. Nietzsche's homage to perspectivism. For Nietzsche. for Nietzsche. be capable of "the most delightful. merely the continued proof that the long. as well as a revulsion with the dreamyenslavement to obscurityhe attributesto what del Caro would term the "weaker"brandof romanticism. physics (section 14). He reiteratesthis point in the second chapter.a tempter.. The persistence of the romantic heritage in Nietzsche's writings is also glimpsed in his encomium to the "free spirits"-the "heraldsand precursorsof the philosophy of the future.Nietzsche eventually arrives at a method and a vision which refer back to his romanticroots. rolling with laughter. namely the virtus ad ignorantiam."'5' Briefly. with his mately resonate. Ultimately. 42]).where he states that "it is no more than a moral prejudicethat truth is worth more than appearance" (section 34). Nietzsche's passion for psychology is bred from an aversion to the absolute lucidity that the Enlightenmentboasts to have access to. is a contradiction in terms) (BGE and JGB.and thus recreatethe world in their own images. For Nietzsche. is not without appeal to some sort of objectivity. section 24).e.roars dormitiva. assuming thatevery real philosophywas in its genesis a long tragedy" (BGE. In contrast. JGB. p. He claims the "rightto a bad character"(BGE.

even to the point of the sacrifice of one's life for the sake of ideals.rule-governance.58 and the mask and the art of concealment59-reemerge in more opaque.these persistent romanticinfluences include: (1) an attractionto the themes of transformation and a form of insight and communication that simultaneouslyresists utterlucidity and total darkness.56the contempt for the herd and the desire for secrecy and solitude. as we have seen. (4) a form of heroism that demands both distance from the common rabbleand the ability to craft a mythology that can inspire and shape the public imagination.They possess.Theirs is a vitality that simultaneously stalls and acceleratesthe slide into a decadentillusion till it reaches the point of its disruption and its recreation. (7) a fluctuating ambivalencetowardthe "feminine"/"woman. (5) an ambitionaimed at the total transvaluation or reworlding of the world through the birthing of a new "(anti-)religious"order that would vindicate the secular "divinity" of the world. spontaneity." ranging from an adoration of her as an Orientalizedvisage.Theirs is a destiny meant for the acceleration into decay of the present age and the rebirthof a new age. many of his earlier themes such as the relativityof knowledge. honesty. Nietzsche's free spirits are masters of ironic parabasis. CLOSING REMARKS The purposeof this article has not been to show that Nietzsche remained a romantic in every sense imaginable. emotions.and the fully knowable. (6) a consuming aspiration to be able to command both nature and especially the self. Of further interest to tracing the extent to which Nietzsche remains linked with romanticism is the chapterin BeyondGood and Evil entitled "Epigramsand Interludes. purer forms. catalyses the self-overcoming of modernity.despite his explicit and bitter denunciationsof romanticism at this stage. in its sardonically serene self-creation and selfdestruction.53the attributesof the free spirit.and dances with a freedom unknownto the victims of the leveler. the vitality to suspend the farcical theater of the conventional. it appears to me that many of these aphorismsare as the incendiary points upon which Nietzsche concentrates the rays of his earlier insights.While it is true that there seems to be no specific topical ordering. Nietzsche himself. a mixture of approvaland disgust in the figure of . stability.Unlike crabs.and virtue.these ultimate values were more compatiblewith. but returnedto. as a means of ambivalentlyattemptingto purge various philosophical and scientific vantage points of what constituted. the romanticideals he undoubtedly struggled mightily against. Rather. Hence. and the veiled (or at least that which resists full exposure) as morally superior to those of fixity. using the form of the aphorismas a lens. though he hyperbolically stressed the arbitrari- The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism ness of traditionalmoral ideals. Theirs is a vitality that squints. (2) an intereston exploringthe linkage between the sublime and the fearful as seen in his later Dionysian aesthetic of creationand destruction. implicitly upheld a notion of a stricthierarchyof values. Theirs is a vitality that. III. with malicious humor. ratherthan antithetical to.Theirs is a vitality that resists the subtlety and coarseness of the siren song of the herd. vibrate with romantic underpinningsinsofar as they implicitly elevate the values and projects of freedom. (3) an aesthetico-moralvision of life as the free expenditureof vital forces. the linkage of supposedly moral opposites. the free spirits cannot move backwards. That he neverovercameeitherhis romanticism(s) or their faults has been a crucial part of this preliminaryattemptto unmaskNietzsche's persistentand masked romanticism. These themes. their inadequacies. As I have attemptedto illustrate. In brief. with the exception of his aphorismson "women"(which seem to resonatewith Delacroix'sdandyism. Hence. I have aimed at an excavation of the various romantic ideals that silently shape Nietzsche's later philosophy. and the will.57 the loathsome illusions of Christianity and martyrdom. across the stage upon which platform bawlers perform.54 knowledge as a mask for instincts. as I have shown earlier). dynamism. harnessedwithin themselves.55the primacyand inevitabilityof his view.288 Schlegel."Strauss states that it is possible that this chapter is nothing more than a mosaic of snippetsrandomlystrung together.

I mean: (1) the use of the mask and the smile as methods of attack. which. 1990). in the final phases of his post-Zarathustran works. FriedrichNietzsche. 7.Nietzsche. and tite total rejection of "woman" out in the world-the "aborted feminists. In taking this approach. A. Nietzsche. Adrian del Caro.TheRole of Destructionin Creationas Reflectedin the Life and Works of FriedrichNietzsche. the "weaker type" of romanticism would be analogous to the type of romanticismI associate with Friedrich. Monika Giacoppe. 1989). FriedrichNietzsche. trans. Nietzsche Contra Nietzsche. Ibid. I wish to thankthe refereesof TheJournalof Aesthetics and Art Criticismfor their insightful and constructivecomments and suggestions. By this. 12-13. and attempted to rescue. Nietzsche's link with romanticism becomcs even more evident in terms of his taking up the romantictraditions of eironeia and dissimulatio. as fundamentallyrooted in Nietzsche's Birth of Tragedy period." In Beyond Good and Evil.Antichrist. Der Wille zur Macht (The Will to Power). sought to create a healthieralternative. Wisconsin 54702 1. 10.Nietzsche's ostensibly antiromantic homage to and alliance with Dionysus necessitated that Nietzsche himself wear the Dionysian mask.loana Gogeanu. p. 1974). the of values and the regod of the transvaluation worlding of the world. after he has tried on the various ill-fitting masks of traditional philosophers and scientists. p. 204. 5. p. Ecce Homo. Such an accountconverges with Behler's position on Nietzsche's persistentromanticism-a position I build from in section II of this article-yet whereas Behler places his stress upon the parallelismsbinding the Schlegel/Nietzsche positions.sinks into a more pessimistic/unhealthytype of romanticism."Editor'sIntroduction. I groundthe comparisonsI make in both visual and literary terms. and ed. pp. even in his post-Zarathustran phase. 6. Kaufmann. the dangerinherentin such a degree of identification with Dionysus "is that the mask becomes the man.European University Studies (Frankfurt:Peter D. WalterKaufmann. 1989). and (3) parabasis.Philosopher."61 This was the mask that clung lovingly to him. 55.It is this mask Nietzsche returns to. Nietzsche. 8. in veiled form.Philosopher.In my view. 11. the god of blissful and horrifying ecstasies. I would also like to thankErnst-Jan Witt. Antichrist (New York: Vintage Books.p. Kaufmann. Psychologist.As Taraba pointsout. 204. 12. 9. in Friedrich 4. in Nietzsche's case. p.. the god shorn away from his Apollonian counterpart. Ecce Homo. p.similarto thatpracticed by Delacroix. Ibid. TheBirth of Tragedy and Pessimism. 15. Del Caro sets up a differentopposition: for him. M. It required that the all-toohuman spiritual disciple attempt to bear the weight of the secret of the vine and the deepest mysteries of life-a weight fitting for a tragic god. 24.It is this maskNietzsche could not tear away from his face for it had "wriggledinto his eyes and mouth"as it "weptand triedto be lyrical. Professor Joseph Kockelmans. 5. despite his attempts and pronouncements. FriedrichNietzsche. creatingthe compelling and fearful visage thathad become Nietzsche's own face. trans. Adriandel Caro. 217.. Kritische Gesamtausgabe. and Alan Leidnerfor their help in obtaining copyrightpermissions. W. as it is the mask wornby the intoxicatedfollower of Dionysus. or Hellenism 3. is the civilized mask of the romantic dandy. Psychologist."60 The mask of the laterDionysus. or the suspension and hastened descent into an imploding lie. Walter Kaufmann (New York:Vintage Books. Creativity and the Anti-Romantic(Louisiana State University Press. Lang.pp. the romanticidealsthatexerteda powerfulinfluence upon him undera bannerthathe labeled"antiromantic.p. 15.I have tried to convey a certain amount of the extent to which Nietzsche did struggle against his romanticheritage. and ed.macroscopic backdropagainst which these two general types of .Picart Nietzsche as Mashed Romantic 289 the prostitute. The mask of the later Dionysus is essentially the mask of qualitative potentializing as it is the mask of the will to power.eds. cited by WalterKaufmann. It is as essentially the mask worn by the romanticadorerof night-timevisions of sublime horrorthat slip free of enlightened rationalism. 11. p. 15. showing how the microscopic picture of Nietzsche's romanticismsreflect the larger. Ibid. 8. 12. p.and to which Nietzsche. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari(Berlin: de Gruyter. 1968).1969). or a maskedromantic. Ecce Homo in Nietzsche Werke. 50. CAROLINE JOAN ("KAY") S. Ernst Behler. p. p. 1981). 2. 14. Carol Gould. PICART Departmentof Philosophy and Religious Studies Universityof Wisconsin-Eau Claire Eau Claire." Nietzsche. 13. Irony and the Discourse of Modernity (University of WashingtonPress. Haussmann (New York: GordonPress. (2) the attempt to create a literary form which may be describedas a type of poetry which is self-aware and resists the hardening into formulae.. 12. meant belief in the various idols of the age of modernity." Ultimately. trans.

12. vol. 51. F W J. p. Behler.p. p. Caspar David Friedrich. See.vol. 23. Borsch-Supan. 40. p. tinari (Berlin: de Gruyter. Lucindeand the Fragments. as cited by Vaughanet al. Uber das Verhaltnis Kunste zu der Natur.p. Caspar David Friedrich. Lovejoy. 16. trans. Nietzsche.290 romanticisms may be seen. the sole aesthetic faculty for the romantics. Lovejoy lateradopteda less restrictiveattitude to romanticism.p. p. p. Inc. trans. 37. . 47-48. refer to pp. 1971). p." See Alexander Nehamas.Dionysian Aesthetics. p. Ibid. and Neidhardt. 7. even in his so-called postromanticphase. Kleist. 45. 132. Collected Essays II (University of South Carolina Press. 73. Ibid. PaulKluckhorn and Richard Samuel (Stuttgart: W. 1973). neitherare Raphael's and Durer'spaintings themselvesthe directobjects of investigation in Behler's study. 149. vol. 1.Nietzsche. 292. Lynn Michelman (New York: George Braziller. 222-259. 116. 1963). eds. Jenseits von Gut und Bose. 128.1969). eds. "On the Discriminationsof Romanticisms" (1923) in Essays in the History of Ideas. Novalis:Schriften. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari(Berlin and New York:de Gruyter. p.individualsensibility alone. 98.. 107. 135.Ironyand the Discourse of Modernity. 3.Krieds. 2. Kritische Ausgabe seiner Werke.p. 79. Adriandel Caro. Abrams. 286-287. 20. p.Kritische Gesamtausgabe.are not generally recognized as quintessentially romantic painters the way Friedrichand Delacroix were and are. Although Behler does devote one chapterto romanticvisual art and music. 301.the approachI take begins with the paintings as direct and vivid illustrationsof the romanticisms that sculpted Nietzsche's own thought. 39. Ibid. Ibid. 42. 24. 38. Michel Le Bris. JosephLeo Koerner. Caspar David Friedrich. 96-97. Vaughan. Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy(University of Chicago Press. Anthony Ludovici (New York: Gordon Press. 18. 17. Delacroix (London: HarryN. 146. 228-253. GiorgioColli and MazzinoMontische Gesamtausgabe. involves controlled multiplicity and resolved conflict. 101. p. Lovejoy (Johns Hopkins UniversityPress. 1968). pp. Romantics and Romanticism(New York:Rizzoli International Publications. 175-177... Nehamasmakes a similarobservation:"style. 25.what romanticism is. New York:Harperand Row. 265. Germany:de Gruyter. Gerhard Hoffmeister(WayneStateUniversityPress.Modes and Models. FriedrichNietzsche. The Story of a Human Philosopher (Westport.Ecce Homo. 41. p.Cf. p. 95. p. BerlinerAbendbldtter. 1979). the visual artists he discusses. 13 October 1810. 175. WalterKaufmann(New York:Vintage Books. Strauss. Arthur0. 54-57. pp. ErnstBehler (Paderborn-Munchen: Schoningh. pp. Frohliche Wissenschaft.CT: Greenwood Press. Kaufmann. p.Caspar David Friedrich(London: The Tate Gallery. Huyghe. Behler. p. Thomas Common (New York:GordonPress. Jenseits von Gut undBose in Nietzsche Werke. 30. 73-92. 93. For Honour. 27.which is what Nietzsche requires and admires. Quoted in Claude Roger-Marx and Sabine Cott6. Colli and Montinari.seems to be the only defining featureof romanticism. 1990). 50. trans. 73a. Ecce Homo. pp. der bildenden 49. 1974). 162. from Leo Strauss. FriedrichNietzsche.trans.Caspar David Friedrichand the Subjectof Landscape(London: ReaktionBooks Ltd. refer to Hugh Adam Reyburn.FriedrichSchlegel. tische Studienausgabe. Nietzsche: Life as Literature(Harvard University Press.p. 1981). 133.1988). p. Schelling. 280. 152. Kohlhammer. 66. For an excellent discussion of dissimulatio and eironeia in aphorism40 of Beyond Good and Evil. 24. Rene Huyghe. quoted in William Vaughan. 46. 160. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari (Berlin.Romanticismand Behaviour. Ibid.eds. 144. pp.. 12 Blatt.p. Le Bris. 48. For a concise and articulate exposition on the difficulties a historianundergoestrying to plot when and where romanticism began. p. Peter Firchow (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 29. 1971).and Hans JoachimNeidhart. Cf.. 212. 3-5. ErnstBehler. 44. from Koerner. The Joyful Wisdom. as cited by Koerner. p. Nietzsche. 111-130. 1976). in SamtlicheWerke. 129. Referencesto KritischeAusgabe seiner Werke will be indicatedparentheticallyin the text with the abbreviation Kritische. Arthur 0. SammtlicheWerke(Stuttgart: 1860). Raphael and Diirer. 16. FriedrichNietzsche. pp. 184. 96.pp. Nietzsche. In contrast. 14-15.: Hugh Honour. 1960). trans.Hoffmeister's"workingdefinitionof Litin the preface to EuropeanRomanticism. 26. 134. Novalis.BGE. Referencesto these works will be given parenthetically in the text with the following abbreviations: the Kaufmann translation. 20. Twilightof the Idols. p. refer to Koerner. Nietzsche genders his "free spirit"as masculine.GermanRomantic LiteraryTheory (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. 304. 1990). which was often misinterpreted as misanthropy. pp. 264. refer to Morse Peckham. p. 31. Ecce Homo. Kaufmann. 1972). KritischeGesamtausgabe. 180.anded. 24. his The Great Chain of Being (1936. 1985). eds. Heinrich von Kleist. trans. eds. Behler relies heavily upon the theories that Wackenroderand Tieck impose as romantic frameworks in interpreting/rewriting/rereading these paintings. 43. 2. 1958-). Banquet. Forquotationsattestingto the positive value Friedrich placed upon his hermeticism. p. Huyghe. trans. 545. in Nietzsche Werke. Irony and the Discourse of Modernity. Colli and Montinari. Le Bris.CasparDavid Friedrich. For example. 33. HelmutBorsch-Supan.Romanticism (New York:Harperand Row. 52. 288-314. 22. cf. Instead. aphorisms 63-68. 19. 1989). G6tzen Dammerung in Nietzsche Werke.p. Koerner. 21. 28. Beyond Good and Evil. 1974). For Lou Salome's impressionson the overwhelming sense of reclusiveness that Nietzsche unconsciously exuded. 1983). FriedrichNietzsche. 154. FriedrichSchlegel. 32. 175. 175. ed. 47.p. 107. ed. 36.. 427. 88. Romanticism" erary Cross-Currents. 1960). Huyghe. p. p. 203e-204a.. 80-82. 53. 35. p. 102.JGB. p. 28. p. KriNietzsche. see Beyond Good and Evil. p. p. The Journalof Aesthetics and Art Criticism 34. for instance. and ed. 1993). ed.p. 78. Delacroix. Berliner Abendbldtter. 7.pp. 14. 267. Friedrich Nietzsche. and more importantly. 128. 1948). 155.

aphorisms65a. Ibid. aphorisms69. Ibid... 58. 100."Friedrich . 130. 56... Nietzsche's Dionysus 60. 83. 87. 106. aphorisms89. 94. 158. 181. 121. 138. Taraba. 169. PeterOrr (London: Decca Records. Ibid. 55. of the poem as read on BritishPoets 61. 70.ed. 168. 1977). 99. 137.Dionysian Aesthetics. aphorisms104. 160-161. 124. Ibid. aphorisms77. 156. Froma transcript of our Time:RogerMcGoughand BrianPatten. 112. Ibid. 91.p. 57. 54. 1974/1975).Picart Nietzsche as Masked Romantic 291 Dithyrambs"(Speech Delivered at the University of Minnesota on February 17. 108. 141. 128. 105. aphorisms70-71. 96.. Ibid. cited by del Caro. 59.. Wolfgang F.