Optimum Point Tracker Of The Solar Cell Power Supply System

Project Report Submitted to M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology (Autonomous Institute Affiliated to VTU, Belgaum) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING In TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING For the Academic Year 2012-13 Submitted By ARJUN A R, 1MS09TE004 MANJUNATH T, 1MS09TE021 MANJUNATHA A, 1MS09TE022

Under the guidance of
Internal Guide: K.R.Shobha Associate. Professor Dept.of Telecommunication Engg, MSRIT, Bangalore 560 054 Head of the department Dr.K.Natarajan Professor Dept.of Telecommunication Engg, MSRIT, Bangalore 560 054

Internal guide name: K.S. of the Visvesvaraya Technological University. Dr. K Natarajan Professor and Head. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the Report. MSRIT . Belgaumduring the year 2012-2013. MANJUNATHA A (1MS09TE022).Shobha Associate Professor Dept.R. bonafide students of M. in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Telecommunication Engineering. MSRIT Head of the Dept.Ramaiah Institute of Technology.Department of Telecommunication Engineering CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project work entitled “ Optimum Point Tracker Of The Solar Cell Power Supply System ”carried out by ARJUN A R (1MS09TE004). of TC Egg. Dept. of TC Egg. The Seminar Report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Seminar work prescribed for the said Degree. MANJUNATH T (1MS09TE021). Bangalore.

Declaration We Arjun A. and has not been previously submitted for the partial fulfillment of the degree in Bachelor of Engineering at the Visvesvaraya Technological University. Bangalore-560054. Dept of Telecommunication Egg. Ramaiah Institute of Technology. Manjunath T and Manjunatha A students of Telecommunication Engineering.R.S.R. MSRIT. We declare that the work submitted in this report is our own. hereby declare that the Technical Seminar entitled “Optimum Point Tracker Of The Solar Cell Power Supply System” has been carried out by us in M. Bangalore-560054 under the guidance of K.S. Belgaum. except where acknowledged in the text.Shobha. Bangalore. . M. Associate Professor. Ramaiah Institute of Technology.

Shobha the internal guide and the contact faculty for her constant encouragement. and Head. of Telecommunication Engineering for his moral support given at various stages. . continuous feedback and sparing his valuable time for discussion.R.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dept. K. Natarajan Prof. I am grateful to K.

maximum hourly electrical power.Abstract The energy extracted from solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal depends on solar isolation. Sun trackers move the solar collector to follow the sun trajectories and keep the orientation of the solar collector at an optimal tilt angle. the plane of the solar collector should always be normal to the incident radiation. . The diurnal and seasonal movement of the earth affects the radiation intensity received on the solar collector. For the extraction of maximum energy from the sun. Two-axis solar tracking has been implemented through microcontroller based sophisticated control logic. short circuit current. Performance of the proposed system over the important parameters like solar radiation received on the collector. In this work. efficiency gain. Energy efficiency of solar PV or solar thermal can be substantially improved using solar tracking system. open circuit voltage and fill factor has been evaluated and compared with those for fixed tilt angle solar collector. an automatic solar tracking system has been designed and developed using LDR sensors and DC motors on a mechanical structure with gear arrangement.

3 Literature Survey Chapter 2: Single axis solar tracker 2.2.1.Table of Contents Chapter 1: Solar tracker………………………….1.3 LDR circuit 3.1.6 LDR Characteristics 3.3 Tilted single axis tracker (TSAT) 2.1 Photoconductivity 3. 1.1.2 Functional block diagram Chapter 3: Components 3.1.2.1.1 Potentiometer 3.3 Hysteresis .1 Different implementations of solar trackers 2.1.7 Applications 3.1.1.2.1 Basic concept 1.1.1 LDR 3.2 Problem statement 1.2 Vertical single axis tracker (VSAT) 2.2.1 Comparator circuit 3.2.1.8 LDR summary 3.2 Speed and power 3.2 Photo-resistor 3.1.5 Using an LDR in the Real world 3.2 Comparator 3.1 Horizontal single axis tracker (HSAT) 2.1.1.2.4 How an LDR works 3.4 Polar aligned single axis trackers (PASAT) 2.3 Schmitt Trigger 3.2 Driver 3.1.

6 Analog-to-Digital Converter 3.3.3.2.1 Supply Voltage 3.3 The Reset 3.2.4 Stepper motor .6 Continuous versus clocked 3.3.1 Rectifier 3.2.3.1 Description 3.3 The 8051 microcontroller 3.3.2.3.2.3.5.3.2.4 Output type 3.3.7 Serial Input-Output 3.4.8 8051 Microcontroller Interrupts 3.3.3.2 Some of Microcontroller Features 3.3.3.3.3.1 Architecture 3.2.5.1.5.3.2 Memory unit 3.3.3.1.3.3.2 The Clock 3.1.4 Reset Input 3.3.3.3 Basic operation 3.7 Counters and Timers 3.4 Filter 3.3.3.2 Block diagram 3.3.3 8-bit Microcontroller 3.1 Central Processing Unit 3.5 Bridge rectifier 3.5 Interrupts 3.3.3.3.2.3.3.2.6 Special Function Registers (SFRs) 3.4 The clock source 3.5 Input /Output Ports (I/O Ports) 3.2.3.3.9 Introduction to assembly programming 3.7 Applications 3.3.5.3 Input / Output ports 3.3 Timers 3.3.5.3.2 Voltage regulator 3.4 AT89C52 microcontroller 3.3.3.5 Internal reference 3.1 Microcontroller basic architecture 3.5 8051 circuit board 3.3.3.3.2.

4.2 Bipolar motor 3.4.1 Unipolar motors 3.5.5.13 Normal 4-Step Sequence 3.1 Unipolar motors 3.16 Unipolar versus bipolar stepper motor interface 3.3. brushed motors 3.2 Bi polar motor 3.5.5.5.4 Types of stepper motors 3.11 Applications 3.4.4.5.2 Secondary batteries 3.5 Battery lifetime 3.5.4.13.2 Steps per second and rpm relation 3.3 Fundamentals of operation 3.13.4.1.15 Half-Step 8-Step Sequence 3.4.5.9 Phase current waveforms 3.2 Principle of operation 3.7 L/R drive circuits 3.4.5 Battery 3.4 Capacity and discharging 3.6 Solar panel 3.6 Stepper motor drive circuits 3.14 the four-step sequence and number of teeth on rotor 3.4.12 Stepper Motor Merits and Demerits 3.1 Rechargable battery 3.6.2 Secondary batteries 3.4.4.4.10 Stepper motor ratings and specifications 3.4.5.4.5.4.3.1 Usage and applications 3.4.16 stepper motor interface with microcontroller 3.4.1 Step angle 3.4.3 Categories and types of batteries 3.4.5 Higher-phase count stepper motors 3.4.1 Primary batteries 3.1.4.2 Brushless vs.4.4.4.1 Brushless dc motor 3.5.4.5.8 Chopper drive circuits 3.5.2 Charging and discharging 3.4.1 Primary batteries 3.4.3.1 Photovoltaics .

31 Working of C code Chapter 5: Results 5.6.4.1 Observation Chapter 6: Conclusion Chapter 7: Future scope References .6.4 Standalone devices 3.4.4.6.4.4 Applications 3.5 Rural electrification 3.1 Comparator circuit 4.1.3 Economics 3.6.6.6.2 Solar cell 3.1 Circuit diagram 4.6 Disadvantages Chapter 4: Project implementation 4.2 Stepper motor interfacing circuit 4.1 Power stations 3.1 Current developments 3.6.4.6.3.5 Advantages 3.3 In transport 3.3 C code 4.6.2.6.2 In buildings 3.2 Flow chart 4.1.6.

2 LDR circuit symbol Fig 3.12 Memory unit Fig 3.List of figures Fig 2.15 Block diagram of 8051 Microcontroller Fig.3.18 Port 0 Fig.1 Single axis solar tracker Fig 2.1 LDR Fig 3.14 pin configuration of 8051 Microcontroller Fig.3.3.3.3.2 Functional block diagram of solar tracker Fig 3.7 Comparator circuit Fig 3.3.3 Darkness activated LDR circuit Fig 3.19 Special Function Registers (SFRs) Fig.20 A Register (Accumulator) Fig.3.10 Change in input voltage with a Schmitt Trigger Fig.11 Microcontroller central processing unit Fig.8 Potentiometer Fig 3.4 Light activated LDR circuit Fig 3.5 Practical LDR circuit Fig 3.16 the Reset Fig.3.13 Input / Output ports Fig.6 LDR Characteristics Fig 3.3.3.9 Driver circuit Fig 3.21 B Register Fig.23 Program Status Word (PSW) Register .17 The clock source Fig.3.22 R Registers (R0-R7) Fig.3.

42 Solar panel Fig 3.33 Bridge rectifier operation Fig.3.3.25 Stack Pointer (SP) Register Fig. P2.3.3.28 Example Fig.30 Timer Control (TCON) Register Fig. P1.24 Data Pointer Register (DPTR) Fig.3.32 IP Register (Interrupt Priority) Fig.3.3.27 TH0 & TLO Fig.1 Stepper motor interfacing circuit Fig 4.26 P0.3.3.35 Stepper motor Fig.Input/ Output Registers Fig.37 Different drive modes showing coil current on a 4-phase unipolar steppermotor Fig.3.40 Interfacing Stepper Motor to Microcontroller Fig.39 Common Stepper Motor Types Fig.3.3.3.38 Rotar allignment Fig.3. P3 .3.Fig.41 Interfacing circuit Fig 3.29 TMOD Register Fig.36 Animation of a simplified stepper motor (unipolar) Fig.3.2 Comparator circuit .43 Solar cell Fig 4.34 Voltage regulator Fig.3.31 IE Register Fig.3.

beyond which reflectance degrades rapidly. The energy contributed by the direct beam drops off with the cosine of the angle between the incoming light and the panel. it is estimated that trackers are used in at least 85% of commercial installations greater than 1MW from 2009 to 2012.1 Basic concept Sunlight has two components. but from the perspective of any fixed location the visible portion is 180 degrees during an average 1/2 day . This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity. In flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) applications. trackers are used to enable the optical components in the CPV and CSP systems. the reflectance (averaged across all polarizations) is approximately constant for angles of incidence up to around 50°. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels. reflectors. Tracking systems are found in all concentrator applications because such systems do not produce energy unless pointed at the sun. In addition. and the "diffuse sunlight" that carries the remainder . The sun travels through 360 degrees east to west per day. 1. The optics in concentrated solar applications accept the direct component of sunlight light and therefore must be oriented appropriately to collect energy. maximizing collection requires the sun to be visible to the panels as long as possible. In concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrated solar thermal (CSP) applications. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam.Chapter 1 Introduction Solar tracker A solar tracker is a device that orients a payload toward the sun. trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming sunlight and a photovoltaic panel. As a result. For example trackers that have accuracies of ± 5° can deliver greater than 99. In standard photovoltaic applications. the "direct beam" that carries about 90% of the solar energy.6% of the energy delivered by the direct beam plus 100% of the diffuse light. lenses or other optical devices.the diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day and increases proportionately on cloudy days. high accuracy tracking is not typically used in non-concentrating PV applications.

Rotating the panels to the east and west can help recapture those losses. according to the table above. A recent review of actual production statistics from southern Ontario suggested the difference was about 4% in total.period (more in spring and summer. increasing collection in the summer in northern or southern latitudes. The sun also moves through 46 degrees north and south during a year. making the effective motion about 150 degrees. the plane of the solar panel will receive perpendicular Sun’s rays for only a fraction of time. the plain of the solar panel must always be perpendicular to the Sun’s incident rays. A tracker rotating in the east-west direction is known as a single-axis tracker. . the total yearly losses are reduced compared to a system tilted at the spring/fall solstice angle (which is the same as the site's latitude). This compares unfavorably with the 24-32% improvement between a fixed-array and single-axis tracker. In ordinary solar power generation system. in fall and winter). causing losses of 8. so if the panels are tilted closer to the average summer angles. By employing single axis solar tracker technique.2 Problem statement To generate maximum output power. less. which was far less than the added costs of the dual-axis systems.Hence the system doesn’t make optimum usage of the available Sun’s energy. This biases collection toward the summer. Local horizon effects reduce this somewhat. Generally speaking. The same set of panels set at the midpoint between the two local extremes will thus see the sun move 23 degrees on either side. A solar panel in a fixed orientation between the dawn and sunset extremes will see a motion of 75 degrees to either side. Hence the power generation can be increased using single axis solar tracker technique. the plain of the panel is rotated to an optimum position so that the panel absorbs maximum amount of incident Sun’s energy and hence generating more output power. will lose 75% of the energy in the morning and evening. and thus. There is considerable argument within the industry whether the small difference in yearly collection between single and dual-axis trackers makes the added complexity of a two-axis tracker worthwhile. the losses due to seasonal angle changes is complicated by changes in the length of the day. 1.3% A tracker that accounts for both the daily and seasonal motions is known as a dual-axis tracker.

This will ensure the solar panel receiving optimum sunlight if external force is applied to move the STR. 18-20 December 2011. Zarafi published in 2011 International Conference on Business. Tanvir Arafat Khan. A prototype of automatic solar tracker ensures feasibility of this design . Bangladesh describes a microcontroller based design methodology of an automatic solar tracker.1. Liew and M. M. W. Afarulrazi. Liew and M. The STR will automatically adjust the position of the robot so that it always faces the same direction. Utomo. Dhaka. ShahrearTanzil. which is from east to west and vice versa. The designed tracker has precise control mechanism which will provide three ways of controlling system. S M ShafiulAlam published in 6th Interna-tional Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ICECE 2010. W. K. K. Summary In the paper entitled." Solar Tracker Robot using Microcontroller" by A." Design and Construction of an Automatic Solar Tracking System by Md. Light dependent resistors are used as the sensors of the solar tracker. In this paper the design methodology of a microcontroller based simple and easily programmed automatic solar tracker is presented. S M ShafiulAlam published in 6th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ICECE 2010. RifatRahman.B. Summary In the paper entitled.L. The efficiency of the solar energy conversion can be optimized by receiving maximum light on the solar panel. RifatRahman. Afarulrazi. Servo motor is the actuator used to move the solar panel due to the high torque and small in size. Dhaka. Paper 2 "Design and Construction of an Automatic Solar Tracking System by Md.M. 18-20 December 2010. STR is microcontroller based and built to move the solar panel in one axis. S. Engineering and Industrial Applications describes to design and develop an automatic Solar Tracker Robot (STR) which is capable to track maximum light intensity. M. S. Tanvir Arafat Khan. Engineering and Industrial Applications. A small prototype of solar tracking system is also constructed to implement the design methodology presented here.3 Literature survey Paper 1 "Solar Tracker Robot using Microcontroller" by A. Zarafi published in 2011 International Conference on Business.L.M. Bangladesh.B. ShahrearTanzil. Utomo.

ZlatkoBundalo published in Serbia. double-axis solartracking mechanism using embedded system design in order to optimize the efficiency of overall solar energy output. The paper begins with presenting background . Solar tracking allows more energy to be produce because the solar array is ableto remain aligned to the sun.Nis. This paper is about moving a solar panel along with the direction of sunlight. The paper begins with presenting background theory in light sensors and stepper motors as they apply to the project. The control circuit for the solar tracker is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller (MCU).Nis.October 7-9. it uses a gear motor to control the position of the solar panel. This is programmed to detect the sunlight through the photocells and then actuate the motor to position the solar panel where it can receive maximum sunlight. FeridSoftic.In the conclusions are given discussions of design results. The objective is to design and implement an automated." IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROTOTYPE FOR A TRADITIONAL SO-LAR TRACKING SYSTEM" by Nader Barsoum published in the 2009 Third UKSim Euro-pean Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom." Microcontroller Based Solar Tracking System" by AleksandarStjepanovic. Paper 3 "IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROTOTYPE FOR A TRADITIONAL SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM" by Nader Barsoum published in the 2009 Third UKSim European Sympo-sium on Computer Modeling and Simulation. ZlatkoBundalo published in Serbia. which obtains its data from a PIC16F84A microcontroller. Paper 4 "Microcontroller Based Solar Tracking System" by AleksandarStjepanovic.October 7-9. 2009. 2009 describes the design and construction of a microcontroller based solar panel tracking system.methodology. Summary In the paper. which detects the sunlight using photocells. Summary In the paper entiled. FeridSoftic. SladjanaStjepanovic. SladjanaStjepanovic.

The focus of the parabolic reflector is theoretically calculated down to an infinitesimally small point to get extremely high temperature. The designs of the gear and the parabolic reflector are carefully considered and precisely calculated. This auto-tracking system is controlled with two 12V. The paper continues with specific design methodologies pertaining to photocells. stepper motors and drivers. The temperature at the focus of the parabolic reflector is measured with temperature probes. 6W DC gear box motors. voltage regulation. This two axis auto-tracking system has also been constructed using PIC 16F84A microcontroller. Time Delays are used for stepping the motor and reaching the original position of the reflector. microcontroller selection. physical construction. The assembly programming language is used to interface the PIC with two-axis solar tracking system. The five light sensors (LDR) are used to track the sun and to start the operation (Day/Night operation). and a software/system operation expla-nation. Paper 5 "Microcontroller-Based Two-Axis Solar Tracking System" by LwinLwinOo and Nang KaythiHlaing published in Second International Conference on Computer Research and Development. .theory. light sensors and stepper motors as they apply to the project. The parabolic reflector or parabolic dish is constructed around two feed diameter to capture the sun’s energy. Summary In the paper entiled " Microcontroller-Based Two-Axis Solar Tracking System" by LwinLwinOo and Nang KaythiHlaing published in Second International Conference on Computer Research and Development describes to develop and implement a prototype of two-axis solar tracking system based on a PIC microcontroller. The two-axis solar tracking system is constructed with both hardware and software implemen-tations. The paper concludes with a discussion of design results and future work.