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Problem 1. Six points are chosen on the sides of an equilateral triangle ABC : A1 , A2 on BC ; B1 , B2 on CA; C1 , C2 on AB . These points are the vertices of a convex hexagon A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 with equal side lengths. Prove that the lines A1 B2 , B1 C2 and C1 A2 are concurrent.

A C1 B2 C2

B1 C B

A2

A1

Solution: In triangles AB2 C1 and BC2 A1 , A = B . Therefore, if BC2 A1 > AB2 C1 , then BA1 C2 < AC1 B2 . But |A1 C2 | = |B2 C1 |. Therefore, the law of sines implies |BA1 | > |AC1 | |BC2 | < |AB2 |. On the other hand, we have |BC2 | + |AC1 | = |AB2 | + |CB1 |. Therefore, |BC2 | < |AB2 | |AC1 | > |CB1 |. By a similar argument, we have: |BA1 | > |AC1 | |AC1 | > |CB1 | |CB1 | > |BA1 |. The contradiction shows that |BA1 | = |AC1 | = |CB1 |. Thus, the three triangles AB2 C1 , BC2 A1 and CA2 B1 are congruent. This implies that the triangle A2 B2 C2 is equilateral and A1 B2 , B1 C2 and C1 A2 are its heights. Therefore they are concurrent.

Problem 2. Let a1 , a2 , . . . be a sequence of integers with innitely many positive terms and innitely many negative terms. Suppose that for each positive integer n, the numbers a1 , a2 , ..., an leave n dierent remainders on division by n. Prove that each integer occurs exactly once in the sequence. Solution: Let An = {a1 , ..., an }. Elements of An are distinct, because they are distinct modulo n. Observe that, for ai , aj An , k := |ai aj | < n, because, otherwise, ai , aj Ak and ai aj mod k . Therefore, max An min An < n. But An consists of n distinct integers. Therefore, for mn = min An , An = {mn , mn + 1, . . . , mn + n 1}. There are innitely many negative and positive numbers in the sequence; therefore, all integers have to appear in our sequence. This nishes the proof.

Problem 3. Let x, y and z be positive real numbers such that xyz 1. Prove that x5 x2 y5 y2 z5 z2 + + 0. x5 + y 2 + z 2 x2 + y 5 + z 2 x2 + y 2 + z 5 Solution: The above inequality is equivalent to 1 1 1 3 (1) + 2 + 2 2 . 5 2 2 5 2 2 5 x +y +z x +y +z x +y +z x + y2 + z2 We have (Cauchy-Schwarz) (xyz 1) Therefore,

y +z + y2 + z2 y z + y2 + z2 1 2 . x5 + y 2 + z 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2

2 2

(x5 + y 2 + z 2 ) (y z + y 2 + z 2 ) ( x5 y z + y 2 + z 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 .

Similarly,

x +z + x2 + z 2 1 2 x2 + y 5 + z 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2

2 2

and

x +y + x2 + y 2 1 2 . x2 + y 2 + z 5 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2

Problem 4. Consider the sequence a1 , a2 , . . . dened by an = 2n + 3n + 6n 1 (n = 1, 2, . . .). Determine all positive integers that are relatively prime to every term of the sequence. Solution: If p > 3, then 2p2 + 3p2 + 6p2 1 mod p. To see this, multiply both sides by 6 to get : 3 2p1 + 2 3p1 + 6p1 6 mod p, which is a consequence of Fermats little theorem. Therefore p divides ap2 . Also, 2 divides a1 and 3 divides a2 . So, there is no number other than 1 that is relatively prime to all the terms in the sequence.

Problem 5. Let ABCD be a given convex quadrilateral with sides BC and AD equal in length and not parallel. Let E and F be interior points of the sides BC and AD respectively such that BE = DF . The lines AC and BD meet at P , the lines BD and EF meet at Q, the lines EF and AC meet at R. Consider all the triangles P QR as E and F vary. Show that the circumcircles of these triangles have a common point other than P .

A B

E

P R

Q T

F C D

Solution: The circumcircles of the triangles P AD and P BC intersect in points P and T . We claim that T is the desired point, i.e., P , Q, R and T lie on a circle. To prove this we show that the angles T P R and T QR are equal. The angles ADT and AP T are complimentary, therefore ADT = T P C . But T P C is also equal to T BC . Therefore, ADT = T BC . Similarly, T AD = T CB . This implies that the triangles AT D and BT C are equal. In particular, T F D = T EB . This, in turn, implies that the isosceles triangles ET F and BT D are similar. Therefore, QF T = QDT . This means that D, Q, F and T lie on a circle, and thus F DT = RQT . But F DT was also equal to T P R. Hence, T P R = T QR which is as we claimed.

Problem 6. In a mathematical competition 6 problems were posed to the contestants. Each pair of problems was solved by more than 2 5 of the contestants. Nobody solved all 6 problems. Show that there were at least 2 contestants who each solved exactly 5 problems. Solution: Let n be the number of contestants, c be the number of contestants who solved exactly 5 problems and pij be the number of contestants who solved problems i and j , for 1 i, j 6. We know that: pij

i,j

6 2

2n + 1 = 6 n + 3. 5

Also, pij

i,j

5 4 c+ (n c) = 6 n + 4 c. 2 2

Therefore, 4c 3. This shows that there is at least one contestant who solved exactly 5 problems. If 2 n + 1 is not divisible by 5, then we can replace 2 n5+1 in the above argument by 2 n5+2 and this will imply that 4c 6 and hence there are at least two contestants who have solved 5 problems. Now assume that 2 n + 1 is divisible by 5, i.e., n = 5 k + 2, for some positive integer k . Assuming that there is exactly one person who has solved 5 problems and the rest have solved exactly 4 problems will lead to a contradiction, as we now argue in two cases. We call the only person who has solved 5 problems the champion. Case 1. Assume that n is not divisible by 3. Let ai be the number of contestants besides the champion who have solved problem i. Then ai = 4 (n 1) = 4 n 4.

i

Let problem 1 be the problem that the champion missed. There are 5 pairs of problems containing problem 1, and they have been solved by at least 5 2 n5+1 = 2 n + 1 contestants. Since each person who has solved problem 1 has solved exactly 3 other problems, every such person has solved 3 of above 5 pairs of problems. Thus 3 a1 2 n + 1. For i > 1, the champion has solved 4 pairs that include i. The above argument implies, 3 ai 2 n 3. But, n is not divisible by 3. Therefore 3 ai 2 n 2. Adding the above inequalities we get: 3 ai (2 n + 1) + 5 (2 n 2) = 12 n 9, which is a contradiction because the left hand side is 12 n 12.

Case 2. We are left with the case where n is divisible by 3 and is of the form 5 k + 2, i.e., n = 15 h 3, and each pair of problems is solved by at least 6 h 1 contestants. As before, assume that the champion has not solved problem 1 and that a1 be the number of people who have solved this problem. Each of them has solved 3 other problems. So they have each solved 3 pairs of problems containing problem 1. That is: 3 a1 5 (6 h 1) = 30 h 5. But a1 is an integer; therefore, (2) a1 10 h 1. Restricting our attention to 10 pairs of problems that do not contain 1, we observe that there are at least 10 (6 h 1) contestants who have solved at least one of these pairs. On the other hand, the champion has solved 10 pairs, the a1 contestants who have solved problem 1 have solved 3 a1 pairs and the rest have solved 4 2 (15 h 4 a1 ) pairs. That is, 10 + 3 a1 + 4 (15 h 4 a1 ) 10 (6 h 1) 3 a1 30 h 4. 2

This contradicts the inequality (2). Therefore, more than one contestant solved 5 problems.

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