1

The Quiet Wars
Adam Richard Tanielian Institution of International Studies Ramkhamhaeng University LLD English Program Bangkok, Thailand 2011 adam.tanielian@iis.ru.ac.th Abstract: This paper examines legislation on illicit trades like prostitution, drugs, and firearms. A survey of 100 people is used to compare real opinions with legal and political structures, and then to assess democratic function briefly. A comparison of 18 nations and international law is made. Legal, political, economic, social, and scientific references are used in analysis of the issues, and to given basic suggestions for the future of policies. Introduction Vice trades are fascinations, obsessions, fetishes of people all over the world. People sometimes keep lifelong secrets of their lusts for sex, intoxicants, gambling, and other compulsive behavior. Illicit behavior can end lives, break up families, and send once stableminded people into psychosis and other abnormal states. Historically, under the religious State, intoxicants including alcohol, sex, gambling and all manner of vices were easily criminalized, at least outside of the dregs of society. In modern times rights initiatives and economic expansion have made once forbidden products and services far more available than once before. In the past 50 years drugs, prostitution, alcohol, gambling, and other illicit enterprise have been at or near the core of a growth entertainment and pleasure industry. Puritanical rhetoric claims the sinful acts of manufacturing, procuring, buying, selling and or participating in, or merely supporting ideologically or economically, or maintaining a neutral opinion on vice trades are all morally reprehensible an akin to crime. Correlative studies have shown that certain trades are commonly associated with property and violent crime. The post-WWII international political agenda has been shaped and guided by ambitions of eradication of exploitation of peoples, of illicit drugs, and of organizations which supply demands for certain products and services. Meanwhile the arms trade has also proliferated and attracted attention from national and international governing bodies. With no foreseeable end to the trades themselves, regardless of increased budgetary expenditures and international cooperation over decades, many academic, policy, economic, social scientific, medical, and other experts have come out in support of full legalization or decriminalization of the drug trade and prostitution, while none with scruples seriously contest the bans on human and arms trafficking, and other clearly dangerous trades. A great debate is being missed by parties who fail to recognize the points and intentions of the opposition. The new advances in communication and information technology have made it possible for laypeople to read reports which were once private or classified, or on other

2

continents far out of reach. Over time, the facts on matters related to illicit trades are becoming more apparent as reports are disseminated to a global audience, and those facts are not so one-sided as one might have been led to believe 20, 30, 40 years ago or a little more. There are certainly legal prohibitions on certain trades, and for some good reason, but even the criminals in this world are entitled to legal representation and certain rights. Everybody deserves a fair shake. Depriving others of their rights and freedoms, prejudicing others, making our minds up without all the facts in mind, ignoring certain facts to support a political agenda, data mismanagement, exclusion, selection, and manipulation of data are all major ethical and strategic errors, and ultimately only aid the opposition. This report examines legislation, current reports, attitudes and opinions regarding illicit trades. Government and private sources are cited on all assertions. A survey is presented to help quantify and qualify opinions of the general public of sensitive issues. Prostitution, human trafficking, drugs, arms trafficking, and gambling are discussed. Current policies are outlined, and some suggestions are made given the facts discovered in this research. Prostitution and Human Trafficking Prostitution and trafficking are separate legal and moral issues, though they are often featured together in reports. For the purposes of this research, “prostitution” is defined as voluntary employment or work as an adult aged 18 or older for monetary reward in exchange for providing sexual services primarily consisting of but not limited to coitus, sodomy, fellatio, and cunnilingus. “Human trafficking” is the sale of human beings analogous to the slave trade, generally including abduction, fraud, deception, or coercion in the recruitment, transportation, transfer, and unlawful detention of persons bought and sold as products; trafficking of persons may be for the purposes of factory, farm, or in-home labor as in the cases of historical indentured servants or slaves, or in the form of sex slavery or involuntary prostitution. This section of the report examines the international agenda on prostitution and human trafficking and that at the domestic level in select nations. International Law The 2000 UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime includes a Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which the UNODC oversees as the main piece of international law on the subject of trafficking. Forced prostitution, sex slavery, and extreme forms of exploitation fall within the definition for “trafficking in persons”. Party nations must enact legislation to establish as criminal offences acts falling under the trafficking definition. Prevention includes alleviating factors leading to trafficking, like poverty, underdevelopment, and lack of equal rights and opportunities . 1949‟s Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others is another key international agreement, which in Articles 1 and 2 made for punishments of persons who induce others into prostitution
1

1

See UNODC (2004), Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, accessible at http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e.pdf

3
2

including with consent of the prostitute , Article 6 prohibits the registration of prostitutes and State regulation of the trade, and Article 16 requires parties to prevent prostitution and provide rehabilitation and social justice for prostitutes via education, health, social, economic and other services, but this Convention relates more to trafficking and abuse of prostitutes than to voluntary individual sale and purchase of sexual services. UNICEF‟s Convention on the Rights of the Child contains an optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography , though this research will not cover laws designed with the sole intent of protecting minors. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is also an important UN initiative. Article 6 of CEDAW states that parties are to enact legislation and take measures necessary to suppress traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women . However, the CEDAW Committee has called for the decriminalization of prostitution in certain countries (i.e. China), where prostitution and trafficking in women and children are problematic . There is, then, a moral and legal contradiction at CEDAW regarding prostitution, though it is one obviously founded in the need for a more pragmatic approach to the situation. International law is only given effect at the domestic and internal national level. Internationally, voluntary prostitution of adults may only be an issue related to migration aside from the correlated and ancillary trades involving smuggling, pimping, transporting, providing fake passports and documents, etc. National and local legislation generally handles prostitution, whereas international law is more concerned with larger-order violations of human rights and dignity, and though international law may indirectly address prostitution through anti-exploitation and trafficking policies, budgetary and other constraints limit the extent to which international organizations can focus on ordinary prostitution. Mainland Europe Prostitution in most of Europe is commonly viewed as a form of economic activity. Aside from a few religious moral complaints and national laws not following the norm, prostitution is often considered similar to any other profession. The recognition of prostitution as a form of trade, and as a profession or occupation, may be part of the egalitarian social structure in most European countries, or may be part of the feminist and women‟s rights movements of the middle to late 20th century. The following paragraphs give a brief explanation of domestic prostitution laws in select European nations.
5 4 3

2 3

See UN Convention 1949, accessible at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/trafficpersons.htm See UNICEF (2006), Convention on the Rights of the Child, accessible at http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30204.html 4 See UN (1979), CEDAW, accessible at http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm 5 See Amnesty International (2011), CEDAW, Myth #7, accessible at http://www.amnestyusa.org/violenceagainst-women/ratify-the-treaty-for-the-rights-of-women-cedaw/cedaw/page.do?id=1108216

prostitution was considered a profession like any other. As of 2002. Advertisement of sexual services is liberalized. though as of 2003 none had been employed and few owned companies. Buying sex is not criminal. . especially close to schools and child care centers. and thus it is restricted to specific areas.4 Austria Prostitution is legal. As of 1995 it is legal to rent premises for prostitution so long as the prostitutes do not make “abnormal profits”. Finland Prostitution is decriminalized though local governments can prohibit street prostitution. Advertisement for prostitution positions at employment agencies does exist. Prostitutes are registered and undergo a weekly medical examination for diseases. though the law may change to penalize the client. though procuring and facilitating prostitution is illegal. Procuring prostitution is illegal. Germany Prostitution is legal except for in certain areas of Berlin. paid sick leave. Prostitution is legal so long as it does not create a nuisance. and pay income tax. Prostitutes have workers‟ rights. The law does not mention male prostitutes. Portugal Prostitution is decriminalized. Netherlands As of 2001. Belgium Procuring prostitution is illegal. Prostitution is tolerated so long as it does not disturb the public order. Prior to 1998 prostitution was recognized as a way to supplement income. A legal change to a system similar to the Dutch and Swedish one is expected soon. and pension if they are hired by a brothel or own a company. France “Active prostitution” is criminal. Denmark Since 1999 prostitution has been decriminalized. Procuring of prostitution is illegal. but has since been considered a full-time job. and as of 1999 prostitution is prohibited in public places. the exploitation of men is not criminal. German national prostitutes can have social insurance.

The Tasmanian 1935 Police Offences Act does not consider a brothel to be a crime. hospital. disorderly conduct. and prostitution in residential zones an offence. receiving money from a brothel for prostitution an offence. brothels can be offences. advertising or seeking employment in a business. brothel masked as another business not an offence.ksmm. considered a form of economic activity. creating a public nuisance.austlii.europa. In New South Wales. The 1930 Police Offences Ordinance 8 7 6 6 See European Parliament.000. an offence. accessible at http://www. brothel work an offence outside of towns that permit it. Income is subject to taxation and social insurance contributions. Penalties could be up to 10 years and AUS$50. public solicitation and loitering are offences. Prostitution is seen as an offence against equality. The 1987 Summary Offences Act in Northern Territory considers loitering and solicitation in public. Queensland‟s 1931 Vagrants. Gaming and Other Offences Act make soliciting and loitering. brothel work not an offence if the premises are marked as massage. Western Australia‟s 1892 Police Act and more recently 2000 Prostitution Act make loitering and soliciting in public places. A summary of the prostitution regulations in the EU member states. the 1988 Offences Act makes soliciting near a school. sexual harassment. and gender mutilation against women .5 Spain Procuring and prostitution are not criminal so long as it is voluntary. and requires use of condoms . against feminism.eu/hearings/20040119/femm/document1_en.ch/ksmm/en/home/themen/siehe_auch___/prostitution. Foreigners must comply with relevant residence and employment regulations English-speaking Common Law Nations Australia Prostitution is regulated at the state and territory level. accessible at http://www. and as an act of violence.admin. Brothels are illegal in some regions. Sweden Buying or attempting to buy prostitution services is illegal since 1999. church. accessible at http://www. prostituting in the company of a child offences. photographer service businesses. Prostitution. sauna. public nuisance. etc.edu. and soliciting in a public place an offence. “one-woman” brothel.pdf 7 See Swiss Confederation (2010).au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/pa2000205. Victoria‟s 1966 Vagrancy Act and 1986 Prostitution Regulation Act make soliciting and loitering and offence.cgi/download/au/legis/wa/consol_act/pa2000205.txt/cgibin/download. Cantonal and municipal regulations are present.rtf . Switzerland Prostitution is legal. South Australia‟s 1953 Police Offences Act makes soliciting or loitering for prostitution in public and offence.html 8 See Western Australian Prostitution Act of 2000.europarl.

accessible at http://www. and child protection legislation. and injunctions have been used by provinces in efforts to control prostitution. impeding the flow of pedestrian or vehicular traffic are offences punishable by summary conviction. Federal Law. transportation of persons to such places. with up to 10 years imprisonment for cases involving adults.co. which is not legalized. and keeping brothels (EUROPARL). proceeds of crime.act. and provinces enforce the law. Prostitution Laws in Australia.6 9 made persistent solicitation in public an offence . and prostitution in Sections 210 and 213 of the Criminal Code. Procurement carries the most severe penalty for prostitution-related crimes. Provinces may legislate on and regulate morality. Australians seem to have a calm and rational economic sense about the trade considering the case of Melbourne brothel The Daily Planet which made famous financial news with its IPO . who must hold a certificate under Part 3.uk/2/hi/business/2990787. must require use of condoms. Ireland All kinds of prostitution are illegal . Canada Federal law prohibits keeping or using “bawdy-houses” (brothels defined in Section 197).aic.ca/Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb0330-e.gov. they would encroach on federal powers. and Provincial and Municipal Jurisdiction. selling sexual services. Keeping a bawdy-house is punishable by imprisonment for up to 2 years. but if provincial governments were to apply severe punishments. though is not a serious problem in the Canadian population and culture . though the law does not consider “the actual act of exchanging sexual gratification for consideration” as illegal.parl.htm .stm 12 See Barnett (2008). Operators of prostitution businesses. 1992 Prostitution Act in Australian Capital Territory makes only aggravated condition incidents offences .legislation. procuring. The 1867 Constitution Act s. community safety. and Wilson (1990). Bordello shares in high demand. New Zealand The Prostitution Reform Act of 2003 was passed with the purpose of decriminalizing prostitution “while not endorsing or morally sanctioning prostitution or its use”. Highway and traffic.au/documents/F/B/5/%7BFB5E3FDC-1AB5-4F04-A1B89D4B5C30B42C%7Dti22. accessible at http://news. give health information to sex workers and clients. display health information in 9 10 11 12 See Pinto.au/a/199264/current/pdf/1992-64.gov. Scandia. thus the law is designed to reduce the nuisance aspect of the trade by criminalizing certain manners of prostitutes. municipal deterrent programs.bbc. accessible at http://www. Parliament of Canada.procuring. accessible at http://www.pdf 10 See 1992 Australian Capital Territory Prostitution Act. Prostitution in Canada: International Obligations. Australian Institute of Criminology.pdf 11 See BBC (2003). Attempting to sell sexual services in public.91(27) establishes that the federal Parliament has jurisdiction over criminal law matters and that the provinces have no direct jurisdiction related to the criminal law on prostitution in each province.gc.

but is that good?. Election results for San Francisco propositions. SFGate.npr.7 brothels. Newsweek. and Compensation Act of 2001. The State of Michigan can serve as a guide on the law related to prostitution.000 for others.com/2008-11-05/bay-area/17127067_1_anti-prostitution-million-bond-measure-city-voters . NPR. admitting persons to a place for the purpose of prostitution. and up to NZ$10. The Federal government may prosecute in cases involving tax evasion.000. ensure regular health screening of prostitutes or face summary convictions leading to fines of up to NZ$10. Advertisements are banned from radio. The Nevada legal brothel system as a model for AIDS prevention among female sex industry workers. where local and State health departments in cooperation with law enforcement officials mandate condom use. onsite AIDS prevention education.html#dlm197850 14 See Ramirez (2008). accessible at http://www. television. though a legal loophole change has since outlawed it .php?storyId=120359052 17 See Lagos (2008). United Kingdom Prostitution is not illegal if the work is done independently and without disturbing public order.com/2008/06/15/feeling-the-pinch. and habitual clients can be fined.000 for corporate offences. accessible at http://articles. Rehabilitation.000.sfgate. or assignation.govt. accessible at http://www. lewdness. aiding and abetting acts related to prostitution are misdemeanors punishable by up to 3 months imprisonment and or a fine of up to US$500. Providers and receivers of sexual services must use condoms and take steps to minimize health risks or face summary convictions and fines up to NZ$2. Feeling the Pinch. and regular health screenings . and public cinemas. or inviting to commit prostitution. civil rights and or other abuses. Until 2009 prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island.448-462 is regarding prostitution.nlm.000 residents . Soliciting. or offering to engage in prostitution.html 16 See Donnis (2009).gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102196554. accessible at http://gateway. accosting. Voters in San Francisco decided against decriminalizing prostitution in 2008 .nz/act/public/2003/0028/latest/whole. United States of America Prostitution is illegal throughout the USA with the rare exception of licensed brothels in counties in the State of Nevada with less than 400. Brothels and advertisements are criminal. Each State has its own law and policy. Prostitution now outlawed in RI. Immigration for prostitution is prohibited . MCL750. Provisions are made to protect sex workers refusing service under the Social Security Act of 1964 and Injury Prevention. violations of advert restrictions may lead to fines of up to NZ$50. engaging services for the purpose of prostitution.html 15 See Richwald and Williams (1990).org/templates/story/story. No mention of tax is made in the Act. newspaper or periodical except in classified sections. accessible at http://www. and the Health and Safety in Employment Act of 1992 is applicable while prostitutes are at work.newsweek. though the breach of contract may lead to recovery of damages.legislation. persons 16 years or older with 1 prior conviction may face misdemeanor 13 13 14 15 16 17 See Parliamentary Counsel Office of New Zealand (2010).nih. All prostitutes are allowed to refuse services to any person including after a contract has been formed. Prostitution Reform Act of 2003. Inducing or compelling persons into prostitution is and offence punishable by up to 14 years imprisonment.

mi. broad and massive changes to laws have been made to conform with international agreements on drugs. or controllers of prostitutes may face penalties of 3 to 15 years and 60.000 Baht for voluntary prostitution at an establishment. and policies on illicit drugs and those across select nations. the International Opium Convention 18 18 See Chapter LXVII Prostitution. legal.000 to 40. or managers of prostitution businesses or establishments. and as such the topic is politically sensitive and volatile. Michigan Legislature. or accepting earnings from prostitution. street prostitution an offence punishable by up to 1. Section 6 provides for penalties of up to 1 month and or a fine of 1. moral-ethical-legal conflicts. or violence – or placing one‟s wife in a house of prostitution. the issue has evolved since the beginning of the “war(s) on drugs”.gov/(S(bnermc45youjlk45xosun345))/mileg. Leasing houses for prostitution is a misdemeanor punishable by up to 6 months imprisonment and US$750. In 1912. Extensive study of the subject is likely to lead to awareness of various logical fallacies. and inter-governmental organizations such as the United Nations. Section 5 makes public solicitation and loitering.8 penalties up to 1 year imprisonment and or US$1. supervisors. Section 7 makes advertisement of sexual services an offence punishable by 6 months to 2 years and or 10. Drugs International cooperation in reducing access to and supply of illicit drugs is one of the greatest successes of international political. This section of the paper examines international laws. persuading. the legislation and standard legal actions are somewhat generic given rare and slight deviations from a globalized form.legislature. though this section will cover only adult provisions. 2 or more prior convictions is a felony with penalties up to 2 years and or US$2. Owners. or transporting a female for prostitution is a felony punishable by up to 20 years in prison . agreements. International Law The 1909 Shanghai Opium Commission was the start of modern international cooperation on illicit drugs. Pandering – inducing. Thailand The 1996 Prevention and Suppression of Prostitution Act relates to prostitution at various ages. and differences of opinions among expert professionals. accessible at http://www.000. In the modern communication age. encouraging. specifically opium and morphine. Both private and government funded clinical scientific studies involving various illicit drugs are regularly featured in specialty journals and news. and with new discoveries. or doing so by way of coercion.000 to 300.aspx?page=MCLIndex&objectname=mcl -328-1931-LXVII . Though private and public research and debate on the subject varies between and within nations featured in this report. where information asymmetry between governments and the public is reduced. and millions of individuals have been imprisoned due to newer laws which sometimes carry harsh penalties.000 Baht.000. enticing a female to become a prostitute. inveigling. trade and consumption of illicit drugs is an issue which is increasingly morally polarized.000 Baht.000 Baht. threats. In the past 100 years.

html 20 See UNODC (2009). and other similar groups may look to the EU for tested and proven methods and policies on key and sensitive issues. social.emcdda. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was established in 2002. the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) was established in Vienna. In 1988. After WWII. European Union laws follow the 1961. EU members.unodc. listed all controlled substances and created the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was the first international agreement which influenced today‟s drug control policies. OAS. SAARC.html . and punishment standards.org/unodc/en/frontpage/the-1912-hague-international-opium-convention.9 was passed in The Hague with the intent of addressing two other substances: cocaine and heroin. Small and medium sized nations involved in regional unions like ASEAN. despite their difficulties. and 1988 UN Conventions on drugs . 1971. In 2003. the League of Nations was closed and the United Nations (UN) gained control of the international drug control policies under the Economic and Social Council (UNESCO) Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). The 1931 Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotics drugs and 1936 Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs were designed and implemented to reduce the supply of narcotic drugs to medical and scientific purposes only. political.org/documents/wdr/WDR_2008/timeline_E_PRINT. MERCOSUR. accessible at http://www. monetary. In 11 countries 19 19 20 21 See UNODC (2011). accessible at http://www. the League of Nations became the Custodian for the Opium Convention and in 1925 the Opium Convention was expanded to include cannabis. GCC. The 1912 Hague International Opium Convention.unodc. The Single Convention. Mainland Europe The European Union is a guide model for international economic. and to make other trafficking of narcotics international crimes. rehabilitation.europa. The 1953 Opium Protocol limited opium production and trade to medical and scientific purposes. In 1991. have managed to work together and maintain sovereignty. Chronology: 100 years of drug control. By the end of WWI the Hague Convention was ratified by many countries which had suffered drug-related problems in the less than 60 years since the invention of cocaine by German chemist Albert Niemann . the third keystone agreement was made at the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances with the aim of increasing security measures to handle drug cartels which were then posing significant threats. and legal unions worldwide. Narcotic and psychotropic substances are placed on lists at the national levels and individual nations design their own treatment.eu/html. accessible at http://www. Ten years later another landmark agreement was made at the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances in response to growing drug use in various nations. amended in 1972. In 1948 the Synthetic Narcotics Protocol came into force which added new drugs to controlled substances lists. the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime came into force to help handle modern threats posed by international criminal organizations like drug trafficking cartels .pdf 21 See European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2008).cfm/index5622EN. AU. In 1920.

liberalization. „therapy instead of punishment‟ became the standard in Austria. The Narcotic Drugs Act was passed in 1951. Denmark. and harm reduction. Ireland. and the UK . In Latvia. The ECAD emphasizes zero tolerance prohibition and repressive policy measures . Latvia.10 – Belgium. The stark contrast between the two rival models of handling drug use. Malta. and Portugal. and treatment options. accessible at http://www. Discretion is exercised by the judiciary in drug cases when determining the appropriate sentences. penalties. The ECDP ideology includes discussions and debates on legalization. Cyprus. accessible at http://www. and made clear distinction between drug traffickers and tertiary consumers.gov/App/publications/Abstract. In 1998. From 1980. Austria Austrian law recognizes a long list of historical international Conventions in its federal law . Malta. and Austria. Portugal. and between cities themselves. and in attitudes and beliefs directed at suppression initiatives are noticed between urban and rural regions. and frequency of use by the offender are taken into consideration when prosecuting. accessible at http://www. France. type of substance. Spain. Luxembourg. amended in 1971.org/A_PDF/Budgetary_Implications_Marijuana_Decrim.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Index=89%2f05&VonParagraf=0&ResultPag eSize=100 . In 1994. Germany. the Narcotic Substances Act (SMG) replaced the earlier act. and either de facto decriminalized or in the process of decriminalizing in Netherlands. All European nations discussed in this document have laws pertaining to money laundering and specifically related to the financial aspects of drug trades. Italy. and the UK. Ireland. the European Cities on Drug Policy (ECDP) union was formed among a number of cities which consider the prohibitionist strategy on drugs to be a failure and desire to take a more pragmatic approach at the long-term problem. and in Belgium. 1974. the penalties only vary for drug trafficking. and 1985. whereas in the other 14 EU member nations and Norway. Switzerland. 1980. In cases where offenders 24 23 22 22 See Boyd (2006).gv. A review of drug policies in mainland European nations is provided in the following pages paying attention to legislation. addiction. during the Mayor‟s Conference in Stockholm. Luxembourg. the law does not distinguish between drugs and the penalties may be the same regardless of the substance(s) involved.dpfhi.ncjrs.ris.at/Ergebnis. in policy development.aspx?id=164153 24 See Federal Chancellery Austria (2011). but those laws are not a focus in this research. Belgium. Quantity. In 1990. Marijuana has been stated to be decriminalized in Italy. and Luxembourg the penalties only vary for possession of marijuana for personal use.pdf 23 See NCJRS “Tale of Two Cities: Drug Policy Instruments and City Networks in the European Union” (1996). the law provides for different penalties depending on the drug. Drug Policy Action Group research paper on the Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Decriminalization and Legalization for Hawaii. Variations in drug law interpretation. the Netherlands. abuse. sales and trafficking has no doubt had political and legal implications nationally and internationally in the EU system. a resolution was signed by the European Cities Against Drugs (ECAD) union. 1977.bka. Portugal. Spain.

or supplies drugs to somebody or a third person” may be sentenced up to 6 months in prison or to pay a fine for smaller amounts of drugs. There has to be an official reaction for all criminal acts that prosecutors learn about while on duty. The main objective is to prevent and reduce drug use and to decrease the number of new drug users. etc.emcdda. 15g of cocaine.html#_ftn1 26 See NORML (2008). EMCDDA (2004). a fine which rises to €130-250 for a second offence within one year. Belgium According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). as part of a drug trafficking organization with 10 or more members. 3g of heroin. Such offences where there is an element of public nuisance may be punishable by 3 months to 1 year in prison and 25 See Austria Country Profile.” Legislation dates back to 1921.europa. This concerns also the drug addicts who should be helped to guarantee them a better life despite their drug use. and since 2000. MDE. revised in 1975 and 1994. 26 25 “Belgian drug law is based on three main domains: prevention. the Vienna City Council has allowed cannabis consumption for medicinal purposes. The second priority is to protect the community and its members who are facing the drug phenomenon and its consequences.eu/html. particularly imprisonment. 10g of amphetamines. and sentences may be suspended contingent upon completion of treatment programs. and to 8 days – 1 month imprisonment and a fine of €250-500 for a third offence within one year of the second.11 are drug addicts. Finally the judicial approach. In 2008 the Parliament approved a deal where the Health Ministry would oversee production and distribution of medical marijuana . defined by Royal Decree in 1931. 1998 and 2003. Acquisition or possession of large quantities of drugs with intent to distribute is punishable by up to 3 years in prison. the condition is treated as a medical concern and the offender as a sick person. accessible at http://www. As of 1998.org/index. or in cases involving 25 times or more than the definition for „large quantities‟.cfm?Group_ID=7654 . cannabis products have been permitted under prescription guidelines . with sentences up to 5 years for import/export trafficking. delivers. should be the last resort' in order to deal with problematic use of drugs. Such an offender who induces minors to consume drugs may be sentenced up to 3 years in prison. imports. MBDB. accessible at http://norml. Police have no discretionary power in drug cases and must notify on any offence discovered while on duty. treatment and law enforcement. Possession of up to 3g of cannabis or resin. A 2001 Policy Note and the 2003 law provided for separate penalties in cases of cannabis possession for personal consumption. exports. Article 28 of the SMG defines „large quantities‟ as over 20g of THC. up to 15 with prior convictions. possesses.cfm/index5174EN. or of one cannabis plant can be punished by a police fine of €75-125. An offender who “acquires. 30g of MDMA. Leaders of drug trafficking organizations may be sentenced 10 to 20 years or up to life in prison as of a 2001 amendment. Commercial offences as part of a gang may yield up to 10 years in prison. produces.

Possession of negligible amounts may result in a verbal warning without confiscation of the drug . accessible at http://norml. Schedule B includes cocaine. have active leisure time. look for a job. Sections 1 and 2 declare it is illegal to import. Therapy and treatment are a popular options for small-quantity offenders and prosecutors with the aim of convincing users to change behavior. manufacture. stop using drugs. and special attention is paid to the presence or lack of aggravating circumstances. Schedule C includes codeine. Belgium Country Profile.europa. etc. methadone. The nature of the offence is considered in prosecution.12 or a fine of €5.000-500. about 50g or more of amphetamine. Schedule E includes tranquillizers. though drug use is not mentioned as an offence. methadone. supply. increased to at least 3 months imprisonment for more than 10 deals.eu/html. MDMA.org/index.html# . quantity and type of substance involved. cannabis and resin. export. and dealers. courts do consider the nature of the drug and circumstances of the offence when sentencing. Regular users are given options to seek treatment.cfm?Group_ID=6431 See EMCDDA (2004). cocaine. prepared opium. Section 191 of the Criminal Code defines large quantities as about 25g or more of cocaine or heroin. obtain treatment and prove completion of programs. Soporific and narcotic substances include opium. morphine. and up to 20 years for cases involving large scale commercial trafficking organizations . regular users. not refuse urine tests. pipradol and MDMA. As of 2008. as it is also thought that society needs protection against addicts. 1-2 deals with no prior convictions often result in 2 weeks or less imprisonment. Problematic use will result in therapeutic counseling. hallucinogens. process or possess euphoriants. Psychotropic substances include amphetamines. and about 10kg or more of cannabis. sell.000. receive. distinction is made between occasional users. Severe and or repeat offences are punishable by 27 28 27 28 See NORML (2005). upon completion of treatment programs. heroin. accessible at http://www. amphetamines. The emphasis of the Eurphoriants Act was changed in 1996 to the number of deals or attempted deals rather than the amount of the substance.emcdda. offenders may have their judicial record destroyed after 6 months. Trafficking is prohibited and penalties include 3 months to 5 years in prison and or a fine. Denmark The Euphoriants Act of 1955 is the main law for drug offences. community service. increased to 10-20 years in cases involving minors. purchase. up to 15 years for cases involving death of third persons. whether a dealer is financing his/her own habit or making profit. Schedule D includes barbiturates.cfm/index5174EN. 5 schedules are featured on the euphoriants list. and though the law does not distinguish between drug types with regards to penalties. and in accordance with a 1993 directive. Drug law violations are punishable by a fine or imprisonment up to 2 years under section 2(4) of the act. whether minors are involved. Schedule A includes cannabis. heroin. Addicts are treated as sick people who need protection from themselves. Prosecutors exercise discretion in handling of drug cases.

Cases involving heroin dealing nearly always result in criminal proceedings. 1971. accessible at http://www. Long-term and close-proximity treatments are stressed as important under the law. public and private treatment and care facilities.europa. with penalties increased to 16 years for large quantities of the most dangerous drugs. Quality of patients‟ life is a focus of treatment in hospitals. Social Welfare Act. Local needs are emphasized in application of many treatment options under the acts. A 1986 study showed that 2/3rds of all drug offences involved possession and use of relatively small amounts of drugs for personal consumption. Finland In 1966. Chapter 50 of the Penal Code defines drug offences as including possession. offenders are normally punished with a fine of about €260. Prosecutors can also offer suspended sentencing. both in-patient and out-patient. Child Welfare Act. and to treat the judicial process as a way to help drug users and addicts overcome their health problems. Detoxification and substitution treatment are options for drug dependency reduction. and 1988 US Conventions list them. and Mental Health Act regulate services for drug abusers. The Act on Welfare for Substance Abusers. Medical and social treatments for drug abuse are the responsibility of municipalities. and national legislation complies with EU regulations.13 imprisonment of up to 10 years under the act.emcdda. Drug dependent offenders may serve their prison sentence or part of it in treatment facilities outside of the prison system . Ordinary drug offences may be punished by up to 2 years in prison. Progressive policy and legal actions have been designed to help rather than harm drug criminals. For first cases of illegal possession of less than 10g of hashish for personal use.cfm/index5174EN. which is raised 50% for a second offence. and this kind of report led to 1994 and 2001 revisions of drug laws. selling and dealing of drugs. Short prison 29 29 See EMCDDA (2004). For small amounts of drugs. and 1991 and 1994 laws were designed to encourage prosecutors to waive judicial proceedings in drug use cases. Finland was the first Nordic country to make drug use criminal. smuggling. The Narcotics Act classifies drugs as the 1961. growing.html# . and then usual punishment when one is given has been a fine. Possession and personal use are offences punishable by a fine or maximum of 6 months in prison. and in the first half of 2001 prosecution was waived in about 20% of narcotics offence cases. and these more scientific standards grow in popularity over years. Denmark Country Profile. section 50:7 allows prosecutors to waive punishment if the offence is insignificant or if the suspect has sought treatment. manufacture. The 1994 law states that in „ordinary cases‟ there should be no prosecution. and aggravated offences including trafficking up to 10 years with forfeiture of assets possible. Public Health Act.eu/html. Suspended sentences can be granted on condition of a supervised treatment program. about 10% of drug cases investigated and submitted by police led to non-prosecution. Trends in social and life sciences have influenced courts to direct sentencing initiatives toward treatment. and 100% for subsequent offences. By 1998.

un. A 1996 law covered trafficking of narcotics on the high seas. ecstasy (MDMA). Ketamine. Trafficking entails the import. such as MBDB. Finland Country Profile. A 1986 law declared selling and supplying drugs for personal use to be illegal. The Penal Code from 1994 refreshed the 1970 laws while including provisions criminalizing offences like leadership of drug trafficking organization. The nature and quantity of the substance.14 sentences may be replaced by in-patient programs with the focus of treating the substance abuser as a sick person in need of health care rather than as a common criminal .emcdda.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e. including a 3 years plan written in 1999 and a new strategy for the local level in 2001. which corresponds with Article 108 of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea .pdf . or non-prosecute offenders. France A 1970 law created the basic laws on drugs. acquisition of large amounts of drugs.cfm/index5174EN. List III includes psychotropic substances of the 1971 Vienna Convention. export. cannabis. and LSD. In most cases. accessible at http://www. 4-MTA. and a policy designed to repress trafficking. though the judicial authorities exercise some discretion in handling of cases. A 1999 directive requested prosecutors help offenders seek treatment and offer alternatives to prisons for drug users. and opium. and other organized crime-related activities. Illicit substances are classified on four lists according to the 1990 decree. List II includes codeine and propiram. with penalties increasing up to life in prison for extreme cases. prohibit drug use and provide diverse forms of repression of use. transportation. delivery. though the offender may not be required to undergo treatment or counseling. 30 30 31 See EMCDDA (2004). The Ministry of Justice has issued numerous directives regarding the drug trade and legal actions pertaining thereto.html# 31 See 1982 Convention. including voluntary payment of a fine or community service.5 times the value of the merchandise. cocaine. Lists I and II correspond to those in the Single Convention of 1961. Trafficking cases prosecuted under article 414 of the Customs Code may yield a maximum 3 year sentence and fines of 2. List IV includes substances not controlled at the international level. such as amphetamines. and history of the offender help officials decide whether to prosecute. possession. List I includes heroin. methadone.eu/html. The criminal justice system does not distinguish between substances. One survey showed that only 10% of all persons arrested by the police for drug use are prosecuted.000. accessible at http://www. The 1970 law makes public or private use punishable by up to one year in prison and a fine of €3. stating that “the imprisonment of drug users not having committed other related offences must be the last resort”. Nabilone. supply. and is punishable by up to 10 years in prison and a multimillion Euro fine for standard cases.europa. reduce charges. which authorized the boarding and inspection of any ship suspected of narcotics trafficking outside of territorial waters. and to ensure free and anonymous care for users who seek treatment. offenders caught only using drugs receive a warning which may be accompanied by a request to contact a social or health service. Prosecutors have a range of options whereby they may waive and end prosecution of mere users. and THC.

France Country Profile. sentencing. the law has provided for practical decriminalization. community service. Medical detoxification is generally used for arrests in cases involving drugs like heroin to which users develop physical dependency. nature and conditions of the offence. as is the case in the majority of the world. though in cases involving large quantities. and procedures to ease the criminal sanctions placed on drug using offenders and redirect the policy toward a more scientific-based method of therapy and treatment. Basic criminal offences are punishable by up to five years in prison or a fine. but not available as such on special prescription”. administrative offences and penalties. Germany had an Opium Act from the time between WWI and WWII that was the rule on drug abuse and trafficking until more modern legislation was made. but the Act has the dual purpose of assisting the public with addiction management. Germany Like much of Europe. Schedule II includes “licit narcotic drugs. the judge will consider the type and quantity of drug. Sections 29-34 define criminal offences. and to introduce severe minimum penalties for serious drug trafficking under the Crime Suppression Act and the Act on Combating Organized Crime. Section 1 of the Narcotics Act classifies not only drugs included in the UN Conventions.eu/html. In 1981. The court urged prosecutors to take into consideration the “ban on excessive punishment” written in the Basic Law for cases of personal use of cannabis.europa. laws. but in determining sentencing.cfm/index5174EN. Schedule I includes “non-marketable narcotics”. to provide treatment and therapy alternatives to incarceration (sections 35-38). but also those not regulated internationally. The Narcotics Act is designed to control the supply of legitimate narcotics such that the population has sufficient access to medical drugs like diacetylmorphine (heroin) for pain management. The law does not distinguish between the type and classification of drug. and the prosecutor will generally close criminal proceedings so long as the offender completes treatment programs. accessible at http://www.html# . and opinions of the court vary between local government offices in France. the Act to Regulate the Trade in Narcotics was passed and later amended several times to give prosecutors options to waive criminal proceedings in minor personal use cases (decriminalization in section 31a). Schedule III includes “marketable narcotic drugs available on special prescription”. transportation. up to 15 years for serious offences including trafficking. Drug user offenders may avoid imprisonment by seeking treatment. For roughly 90% of cannabis cases. Drug users may legally be held in custody by police at the station for up to 48 hours. prosecution or non-prosecution.15 Application of drug laws.emcdda. imprisonment is obviously more attractive . Since 1981. fines for minor regulatory offences. and importation of drugs are usually treated under the highest measures allowed. Cases involving sales. though the 1999 directives of the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Interior recommended authorities finish insignificant cases with a warning. and therapeutic order alternatives are options prosecutors have to work with. The Narcotics Act of 1971 was based on the 1961 and 1971 UN Conventions. punishments. delayed sentencing. Prosecutors are 32 32 See EMCDDA (2004). Probation. a number of treatment options have been written into codes.

gc. The Criminal Code. fresh hallucinogenic mushrooms. The Opium Act provides maximum penalties of 6 years imprisonment and a fine for dealing Schedule II drugs. The safe-spot program has helped reduce the number of drug-related deaths. no public nuisance is made. drugs are not advertised. maximum penalties for importing or exporting any quantity of cannabis are 4 years imprisonment and or a €67. Primary Education Act. Harm Reduction and Injection Drug Use: an international comparative study of contextual factors influencing the development and implementation of relevant policies and programs. stabilizing their health. and LSD. drug consumption room. Collective Prevention and Public Health Act. though the police may confiscate drugs and refer the offender to a care agency. up to 1 year and or a €6. and preventing the spread of disease. Basic Education Act for Secondary Education. 12 to 16 years for hard drug trafficking.16 encouraged to postpone up to two year prison sentences for addicts on the condition that the offender undergo rehabilitation treatment. In 1995-96. Netherlands The 1912 International Opium Convention at The Hague led to the first Opium Act of 1919. amphetamines.cfm/index5174EN. and amended in 1976. Possession of drugs for personal use is not considered an offence of public interest where a prosecutor would institute criminal proceedings. Under the Opium Act. Care Institutions Quality Act. Code of Criminal Procedure. substitutionbased treatment. with a penalty of 1 month in prison and or a €3. the Police Presidents supported heroin trials . offering counseling.php 34 See EMCDDA (2004).500 fine for cases not exceeding 30 grams of cannabis. The 1976 Opium Act distinguished between „hard drugs‟ and „soft drugs‟. cocaine.html# . Still. Drug use is not a crime.europa. which was revised in 1928. The Abuse of Chemical Substances Act. Germany Country Profile. 34 33 33 See Public Health Agency of Canada (2003).ca/hepc/pubs/hridu-rmudi/germany-eng. and diamorphinebased substitution treatment have been parts of the programs. processed hallucinogenic mushrooms. As of 2008. providing survival assistance. The „separation of markets‟ principle allows coffee shops to sell at most 5 grams of cannabis per person per transaction so long as no more than 500 grams is kept in stock. article 13a of the Opium Act provides for criminal prosecution for drug possession. hard drugs are not sold. penalties can increase by 1/3 for subsequent offences. accessible at http://www. and the Act on Medicines are also relevant to drug users and offenders. accessible at http://www. Schedule I includes „drugs presenting unacceptable risks‟ like opiates. up to 8 years imprisonment and or a €67. and Juvenile Courts Act include important pieces of legislation that help design more humanitarian policing of drug crime .phac-aspc.eu/html.emcdda.000 fine for the production of substances. cannabis oil. codeine. distribution of clean syringes. drugs are divided into two classes.000 fine. “Therapy instead of punishment”. drugs are not sold to minors (under 18) and minors are not admitted on the premises. Schedule II includes tranquillizers and barbiturates. 27 drug consumption rooms and 222 consumption places were set up in 16 cities with the aim of contacting drug addicts regularly. no alcoholic beverages are sold.700 fine for a small amount of other drugs. and cannabis.

Cooperation between justice and care is highlighted . Spain Prior to a 1992 law. 90% of criminal cases are penalized with less than 6 years in prison. and Royal Decree 2829/1977 implemented the 1971 UN Convention. accessible at http://www. will have their drugs seized and the case will be transmitted to a local Commission which meets with the person to evaluate the offender‟s situation with the aim of treatment and rehabilitation.emcdda. preparing or cultivating illicit drugs. Offenders caught with drugs for personal use. Local regulations often determine the course of action. which defines and classifies drugs under domestic national law. and 2000 define some basic elements of the drug control policies.cfm/index5174EN. 1995. prosecutors usually ask for a fine. offering. List 3 includes preparations with controlled substances.cfm/index5174EN. Portugal Country Profile.emcdda. coca derivatives. cannabis and derivatives.eu/html. List 1 includes opiates. selling. and the system supports therapy. 1999.europa. criminal codes and procedures.html# 36 See EMCDDA (2004). Article 25 defines cases of minor importance. and barbiturates. In 2001. which is rarely waived since decriminalization has been in effect. 1996. accessible at http://www. Drug addicts who commit small offences are pressured to participate in treatment programs. whom the police do not suspect or have evidence are involved in sales or trafficking. amphetamines.europa. Autonomous Communities within the nation have passed drug laws for their own jurisdiction. List 2 includes hallucinogenic drugs. The nature of the substance and state of addiction of the trafficker are considered when prosecuting.eu/html. Law 17/1967 implemented the 1961 UN Convention. Lists 5 and 6 include precursors. Suspended sentences provide options for prosecutors and offenders. Chapter III Article 21 of the 1993 Decree defines trafficking as producing.17 Articles 167 and 242 of the Code of Criminal Procedure enable waiver of prosecution. The Decree Law of 1993 classfies drugs into 6 lists. Community service and residence in addiction clinics are used by courts as alternatives to prison. List 4 includes tranquillizers and analgesics. drug possession and use in public places were not prohibited by law. 1-5 years for List 4 drugs.html# . for which penalties of between 1 and 5 years imprisonment (Lists 1-3) and up to 2 years or a fine (List 4) can be assigned . In cases when offenders are proven to be an addict. Netherlands Country Profile. Portugal Decree Laws from 1993. Drug addicts are considered sick people rather than criminals. 36 35 35 See EMCDDA (2004). possession for use of all illicit drugs was decriminalized. penalties are reduced to 3 years (Lists 1-3) and less than 1 year (List 4) for traffickers selling to finance their own habits under Article 26 of Decree Law 15/93. Trafficking of drugs on Lists 1-3 is punishable by 4-12 years imprisonment.

html# 38 See NORML (2010). The 2000 Law on Penalties for Smuggling relates to trafficking. accessible at http://www.europa. The nature and quantity of the drugs and other circumstances of the offence are considered when determining the degree of an offence. Section 8 of the Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act considers narcotics to be medicines or substances which are hazardous to the health. Consumption of narcotics has been considered a punishable offence since 1988. Spain Country Profile. Sativex. prisons or military establishments. and 3-9 years when the drugs cause serious health damage. Fines can be suspended if an offender freely attends an official drug treatment program in accordance with the procedure outlined in the Royal Decree 1079/1993.emcdda. accessible at http://norml. which induce a state of euphoria. Cases involving no aggravating circumstances can yield 1-3 years imprisonment. drugs are introduced into schools.18 Personal drug use and possession is not a criminal offence under the law. The Act on Control of Narcotic Drugs criminalizes unlawful handling of narcotics. probation and delayed sentencing . up to 3 years for ordinary offences. Three degrees of offences are written into the law: minor. 38 37 37 See EMCDDA (2004). Drug addicts may be offered alternative treatment measures upon sentencing for not more than 3 years. Articles 368 and 378 of the Penal Code regulate penalties for illicit drug and precursors trafficking. No distinction is made between narcotic preparations and psychotropic substances. with the exception of small amounts of cannabis or other drugs within a closed circle of abusers. which can reach up to 20 years and 3 months in prison. drugs are sold in public establishments by employees of the establishment or are offered to persons undergoing drug treatment.000. etc. 2 to 10 years for serious offences. Penalties for minor offences include fines or up to 6 months in prison.cfm?Group_ID=8322 . If drugs are sold or if the offender possesses drugs with intent to distribute. Sweden The Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act of 1968 is the main law regulating manufacture. Penalties can be among the severe in Europe when the drugs are adulterated. drugs are sold to minors under 18. supply. large quantities of drugs are involved.eu/html. Spain Approves Marijuana Spray as Medicine. which have addictive properties. cannabis-based medicine. Behaviors associated with drug misuse and trafficking are held together with narcotic drug offences.cfm/index5174EN. ordinary. acquisition.org/index. The Doping Criminal Act and Act on Prohibition of Certain Substances which are Dangerous to the Health are concerned with intoxicants and health hazards. was approved for sale and marketing by Spanish regulators . Minor offences involve personal use or possession for personal use. and serious. Spanish medical researchers have been essential in studying the medicinal effects of illicit drugs. though the Organic Law 1/1992 considered drug consumption in public and illicit possession serious order offences punishable by fines ranging from €300 to €30. of illegal drugs. then the minor offence concept is excluded.

com/time/world/article/0. Time. For sentences of less than 2 years. and as of 2008 penalties for private use of cannabis were rarely enforced . Methadone maintenance treatment has been used since the 1960s for opiate addicts. Canada. prosecution may be stayed or waived for petty offences. accessible at http://www. Parliament of Canada. Suspended sentencing. Cultivation and Sale. Swiss Heroin Program is Put to a Vote.html 44 See LOC (2010). As of 2001.htm 41 See Parliament of Canada (2002). English-speaking Common Law Nations The major 6 English-speaking nations – Australia.aspx?DocId=1032297&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=37 &Ses=2&File=285#3 42 See NORML (2001). dependent upon seriousness of the offence. Section 19 provides for penalties including prison sentences and fines. the government endorsed a draft legislation that recommended police stop enforcing laws regarding the cultivation and sale of small amounts of marijuana . accessible at http://www.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/xx.ca/HousePublications/Publication. treatment. hallucinogens like LSD. The 1924 Narcotics Act followed Switzerland‟s signing the 1912 Opium Convention.8599. Opium. country profiles. therapy and treatment options are attractive to both government and offenders . Swiss Government Moves to Okay Marijuana Use.parl. Switzerland A 4 pillars harm reduction policy is in effect.1862656. and hash are specifically prohibited under Section 8 of the Narcotics Act. heroin. etc. United Kingdom.cfm?Group_ID=4276 43 See Bachmann (2008). Switzerland‟s Drug Policy.parl. Ireland. are options for prosecutors and defendants.eu/html.org/index.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?browse_country_Switzerland 45 See CIA (2011).19 Various alternatives to prison sentencing are provided under the law. English is the second language of the world and world‟s international business language. accessible at http://www.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/371/ille/library/collin1-e. and 1996. The British Empire once spanned the globe and the English Common Law system is still in force 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 See EMCDDA (2004).cia. and United States – account for about 1/3rd of the world GDP (official exchange rate) . accessible at https://www.gc. Offences are handled differently in some of the 26 cantons . accessible at http://norml. accessible at http://www. and fourth enforcement.html# 40 See Collin (2002). Sweden Country Profile. New Zealand. Dependence-producing substances like morphine.emcdda. Prepared for the Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs.html . 1970.00. the Swiss Parliament passed a resolution allowing for controlled heroin prescription as a new form of therapy .time. accessible at http://www. Social and local authorities are responsible for handling cases. The Act was revised in 1951. World Factbook. and thus the English-language systems have immense influence globally.europa. third harm reduction.cfm/index5174EN. for ordinary cases. Switzerland. and cannabis are targeted under legislation. In 1998. The first pillar is prevention. probation. personal use offences are punishable by detention or a fine.gc. 1975.loc. Chapter 8. Decriminalization has been proposed and debated as Switzerland continues to take a rational economic look at the illicit trades . cocaine. the second treatment.

the National Drug Strategy was implemented with the goals of minimizing negative health effects of illicit drug use. In 1985. new government agencies. accessible at https://www. 1948 Paris Protocol. improved enforcement. 1931 Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs. The 1979 Woodward Commission and Williams Inquiry encouraged “more and better law”. In 1997. though Civil Law is the most popular system worldwide as it is practiced in about 150 countries. and prevention of the spread of diseases like hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. In 1992. and generally increased regulatory action. The United States most notably has impacted international drug policy. NGO. and funding for policing drug offences increased. and economic costs associated with drug use. which are mobile and wellfunded internationally. and pharmaceuticals. In the 1960s and 1970s.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/fields/2100. and today some states have decriminalized marijuana while others have not. Source and transit nations in the drug trade pay close attention to the drug policies of the English nations. productivity. the second Opium Convention in 1925. tobacco.20 in about 80 countries which were once part of or influenced by the Empire. evaluation and accountability. especially regarding intravenous drug use during the first years of the HIV/AIDS scare. but also to address problems associated with alcohol. with Islamic Law in force in over 30 nations .cia. and private industry were highlighted not only to reduce consumption and trade of illicit drugs.html . Australia The 1909 International Opium Commission (Shanghai Conference). relaxation of strict burden of proof standards. The English-speaking nations have thorough anti-drug legislation in place and have some of the world‟s most active enforcement agencies. Money laundering and other drug-related financial crime are written into various pieces of legislation in these countries. the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse announced that drug use should be treated as a health issue. an intersectoral approach. The first domestic laws prohibiting the importation and use of non-medicinal cannabis were written in the 1920s. but for the purposes of this report. The 1979 report of the South Australian Royal Commission into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs recommended that minor cannabis consumption not be treated as a criminal offence. law enforcement. education. especially among middle class whites. public awareness of drug use increased with rises in use of illicit drugs. Legal System. Partnerships between health. property crime increased with heroin dependence. raised maximum penalties. mere drug laws are the focus. 1961 and 1971 UN Conventions helped Australia develop its own drug policies. minimizing criminal behavior correlated with drug offences. The plan was founded upon the ideals of harm minimization. 1911 Opium Conference at the Hague. and remarkably persuasive at the global level due perhaps primarily to their economic valuations. and has an aggressive agenda under its 40 year old War on Drugs strategy. maintenance of controls over the supply of drugs. World Factbook. Health and Police Ministers in Australia approved of prescription 46 46 See CIA (2011). social justice. minimizing loss of quality of life. international cooperation.

Parliamentary Library of Australia.21 47 heroin trials by a vote of 6:3. Cultivation of cannabis plants (3 in S AUS.aph.html . accessible at http://www. 2 in NT) and possession of plants (100g in S AUS. Since 1987 in South Australia. selling of ice pipes to a minor is 49 48 47 See Families and Friends for Drug Law Reform. In 1998. Tasmania remains one of the world‟s largest producers of licit opium . Each act contains schedules similar to the 1961 and 1971 UN Conventions. Senate reviews of the drug policy have featured oral arguments in favor of a harm minimization strategy rather than the need to eliminate all drug use.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/fields/2086. the Premier of New South Wales proposed a four year trial of medical cannabis . In 2003.htm 49 See CIA (2011). Poisons and Controlled Substances Act in Victoria. Poisons Act of 1971 in Tasmania. Penalties in Australia are potentially severe though the majority of possession for personal use cases end with a fine of a few hundred AUS dollars and no criminal conviction recorded. Quantities and types of drugs involved. World Factbook. Ministers agreed on a plan designed to divert illicit drug users from the criminal justice system into education and treatment. Under the 1981 Misuse of Drugs Act mere possession can yield 3-5 years imprisonment and fines of AUS$12. with the most dangerous drugs at the top. In 1999. and 1990 Crimes (Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances) Act. and research. Depending on the seriousness of offences. In New South Wales.au/archives/Media%20Releases/Dutch%20trial%20of%20prescription%20heroin%20stron gly%20endorses%20benefits. 1967 Narcotics Act. 1990 Drugs of Dependence Act in the Northern Territory. monitoring and evaluation. though failure to pay tickets can result in court appearances. 1992 in the Australian Capital Territory. Illicit Drugs. the 1981 Drugs. 1989 Drugs of Dependence Act in the Australian Capital Territory.ffdlr.htm 48 See Rickard (2003). treatment. accessible at https://www.000-20.cia. 50g in NT) are considered civil infractions rather than criminal offences. and given various alternatives to prison sentences in criminal cases. though the PM vetoed the trial later that year . a pragmatic approach has been employed. Dutch trial of prescription heroin strongly endorses benefits. training and skills development for users.au/library/pubs/rn/2003-04/04rn13. a “tough on drugs‟ strategy was implemented with funding allocated for supply reduction.000.org. and at the Commonwealth level the 1901 Customs Act. Community-based treatment and local controls were provided. accessible at http://www. and 1996 in the Northern Territory. 1976 Psychotropic Substances Act. minor cannabis offences have been considered civil infractions which may be handled with an on-the-spot fine. criminal history. 25g in ACT. the 1986 Drugs Misuse Act and 2000 Drug Rehabilitation Act in Queensland. 1984 Controlled Substances Act in South Australia. prevention. referred to treatment. 1981 Misuse of Drugs Act in Western Australia.gov. drug offenders may be warned. 5 in ACT. the 1985 Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act and 1998 Drug Court Act are key pieces of legislation on the subject. and due to the complexity of drug issues. conditions of the offence are used to determine an appropriate course of legal action. Legislation related to drugs is made and enforced at the state and territorial level.

and in accordance to the Criminal Code.parl. CA$2. 18 months for summary conviction. 10 years for Schedule III. up to 18 months imprisonment for Schedule IV.act. Trafficking and possession for the purpose of trafficking carries maximum penalties of life in prison for Schedule I or II offences.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/371/ille/library/robin-e.au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/moda1981184. Schedule I includes opiates. ketamine. Part I (4-7) declares that possession of Schedule I substances can yield up to 7 years imprisonment.000 fine and or 6 months imprisonment for first offences. 3 years for Schedule IV. and methamphetamine. prior criminal history of the defendant. the Health Officers Council of British Columbia (HOCBC) published a paper on drug control.8/ . cocaine. tranquillizers. phencyclidine. accessible at http://www. up to 3 years imprisonment for Schedule III.justice. 1 year for summary conviction. Schedule II includes cannabis and its extracts. the court is encouraged to provide rehabilitation.ca/eng/acts/C38. 1 year for summary conviction. Violators of the 1967 Narcotic Drugs Act may be faced with 2-10 years imprisonment and a fine of AUS$1. whether minors or schools were involved. psilocybin. peaceful and safe society”. and alternative sentencing options to offenders in promotion of “respect for the law and the maintenance of a just.comlaw. accessible at http://www. a 2004 Canadian Centre for Substance Abuse survey was cited which found that 60. Schedule IV includes barbiturates. mescaline.cgi/download/au/legis/wa/consol_act/moda1981184.edu.au/a/alt_a198911co/current/pdf/alt_a1989-11co.000 fine and or 1 year imprisonment for subsequent offences. Schedule III includes amphetamines. which featured debate points on legalization and decriminalization. can easily yield 25 years to life in prison .rtf 51 See Narcotic Drugs Act 1967. whether violence or threat thereof was involved in the offence.000 .gc. 4 major schedules plus one for precursors are featured in the act. Under Part I (10). Production of Schedule I or II substances has a maximum penalty of life in prison. Forfeiture of offence-related property is possible under Part II (16) . National Drug Police: Australia.4% of Canadians and 66. In 2005. and anabolic steroids.gov. Canadian Parliament. 18 months for summary conviction. 7 years for marijuana.pdf 53 See MacKay (2001).22 50 punishable by up to 2 years in prison and or a fine of AUS$24.txt/cgibin/download. 3 years for Schedule IV.000 .au/Series/C2004A07597 52 See Drugs of Dependence Act 1989.gov. accessible at http://laws-lois. the courts are to take into consideration the type of substance. CA$1. 10 years for Schedule III.htm 54 See Controlled Drugs and Substances Act 1996-2011.0004. treatment. especially of dangerous drugs like heroin and cocaine. In the paper. such as commercial scale trafficking. accessible at http://www.5% British Columbia residents “somewhat” or “strongly” 50 51 52 53 54 See Misuse of Drugs Act 1981. Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs.gc. The Drugs of Dependence Act 1989 provides for penalties between 2 and 5 years for mere possession of listed drugs . Canada The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is the most important law in the national drug policy. Serious offences. accessible at http://www.austlii. up to 5 years imprisonment for Schedule II.legislation.

an appropriate fine and or up to 3 years in prison for a conviction .cfdp.e.23 supported decriminalization of 15g or less of marijuana. for third and subsequent offences £1. Safe-injection sites in Canada have helped define the nation as remarkably open-minded and healthcare-oriented regarding drug issues . New Zealand As a party to the 1961. A 2000 City of Vancouver poll found that support for legalization of marijuana reached 57%. heroin. accessible at http://www. The 1984 Criminal Justice Act is also relevant to prosecution in drug cases.ie/ResultsTitle. and 1988 UN Conventions. for second offences £400 for summary conviction.html?q=misuse+of+drugs+act&Simple_Search=Acts&Simple_Searc h=SIs 58 See EMCDDA (2004). £1.net/alerts/international-coalition-vancouver-injection-site 57 See Irish Statute Book. and conditions of the offence are considered when deciding on an appropriate sentence for offenders. A Public Health Approach to Drug Control in Canada.700 or more. amendments and revisions of that law have provided for potential seizure and confiscation of assets derived from drug trafficking and dealing. preparations on Schedule 5. International coalition to save Vancouver safe-injection site. orders to complete in-patient and or out-patient treatment programs. Type and quantity of drugs. and support for medical use of heroin for drug treatment was 61%. Penalties for cannabis possession for personal use under the 1984 act are – in first offence cases £500 for a conviction.cfm/index5174EN. Community service. methadone.000 for conviction.idpc. accessible at http://www. suspended sentencing. mandatory 10year minimum sentences in cases involving drugs valued at €12. especially those which are of a serious nature. Misuse of Drugs Act 1977. if the offender were an addict). mescaline. allowing suspects in drug trafficking cases to be detained for up to seven days. accessible at http://www.europa. cocaine. 1971. Ireland The 1977 and 1984 Misuse of Drugs Acts are the main drug laws. New Zealand has a domestic policy which highlights international commitments. Drugs like cannabis. The 1975 Misuse of Drugs Act is the most 55 55 56 57 58 See HOCBC (2005). fines. and opium are on Schedule 1. HOCBC researchers argued that removal of criminal penalties for drug possession for personal use could assist a harm-reduction strategy. and consider individual drug use as a health issue.emcdda.000 and or up to 1 year imprisonment for summary conviction.irishstatutebook. methadone treatment for dependents. accessible at http://www.ca/bchoc. non-violent offenders . random urinalysis. and standard treatment options are alternatives to lengthy jail stays for common. Ireland Country Profile.pdf 56 See IDPC (2011). supervised probation. Judiciary official exercise discretion and it is possible that minimum sentences may be avoided when certain circumstances are present which would make the minimum sentence unjust (i.eu/html. LSD. other psychotropic substances on Schedules 3 and 4. maximum sentences up to life in prison. £300 for a summary conviction. and morphine on Schedule 2.html# . rather than continue on with the “failed criminal-prohibition approach” .

and amphetamine analogues. The harm may be acute or chronic. withdrawal management. Drug Courts help implement policy designed to reduce drug demand and dependency. opium. coca leaves. hydrocodone. second hand smoke.aspx 60 See New Zealand Law Commission (2010). heroin. though the Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Act is important too. deferred sentencing may be assigned contingent upon the defendant voluntarily undergoing treatment. Judges may take into account an offender‟s treatment needs when deciding on an appropriate sentence. communities. and government. and their teams of interdisciplinary specialists take a collaborative approach in a wide range of cases.nz/document/show/71 61 See New Zealand Ministry of Health. 59 59 60 61 See Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. society. up to 3 months in prison and or a NZ$500 fine for Class B and C drugs. Partnerships with NGOs. reduce harm to individuals. child neglect. up to 8 years for Class C drugs.000. ephedrine. accessible at http://talklaw. work and school absenteeism. and communities caused by tobacco smoking.co. illness.govt. Controlling and Regulating Drugs.moh.24 relevant piece of legislation on the topic. methcathinone. Schedule 2 drugs are “Class B” and they include amphetamine. Possession of Class A drugs can lead to 6 months in prison and or a fine of NZ$1. ketamine. cognitive psychotherapy. disease. with the aim to “improve social. local and voluntary groups are a focus to involve all stakeholders. Objectives of the national policy include organizing the local governments and communities with the federal government to prevent all drug use. accessible at http://www. employers. individuals. property crime. Four Schedules of drugs are listed. reduce the costs of drug misuse to individuals.nz/act/public/1975/0116/latest/viewpdf. Detoxification.nsf/indexmh/national-drug-policy-2007-2012-part1 . including alcohol and tobacco. codeine. District Health Boards fund community-based alcohol and drug treatment programs. decreased economic productivity. mental illness. Schedule 4 drugs are precursors . and costs to health services. Schedule 3 drugs are “Class C” and they include cannabis plants and seeds. industry. poor relationship development and sustainability. lysergic acid. up to 14 years for Class B drugs. injury.govt. including high-end offenders. cognitive-behavioral approaches. National Drug Policy 2007-2012. and community reinforcement are options for drug abusers and addicts. economic and health outcomes for the individual. Drug related harm may be death. and risky consumption of alcohol. mescaline. temporary or permanent.nz/moh. and oxycodone. Schedule 1 drugs are “Class A” and they include cocaine. opioid substitution (primarily with methadone). New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. morphine. the community and the population at large” .legislation. GHB. Medicinal cannabis is allowed under license . outpatient counseling. The maximum penalties for dealing Class A drugs under the main Act is imprisonment for life. though the Act discourages imprisonment for Class C drug possession. and methamphetamine. methadone. accessible at http://www. MDMA. Drug policy is based on the principle of harm minimization. reduce the supply and use of illegal drugs. The national drug policy provides various treatment options for addicts and users seeking to appeal to the interests of the criminal justice system. criminal activity. families. violence. cannabis.

There are five basic schedules. mescaline. The Crime and Disorder Act of 1998 takes a community-based approach which compels drug offenders to enter into treatment.1021: . dealing is punishable by up to 14 years in prison and or an unlimited fine. Schedules 3-5 include anabolic steroids.html# See Home Office (2010). accessible at http://thomas. cannabis. adults caught possessing cannabis may be issued a warning or a disorder notice with a fine of £80 .emcdda.cfm/index5174EN. The Drug Trafficking Act of 1994 allowed courts to seize and confiscate assets gained through the drug trade. and oxycodone. peyote. pain killers. Schedule 2 includes amphetamine. which is the most common variety of case in lower courts. hydrocodone. possession. Like other Misuse of Drugs Acts. methylphenidate. codeine. heroin. dealing can lead to life in prison and or an unlimited fine.uk/drugs/drug-law/ 64 See Native American Free Exercise of Religion Act of 1993. Class C drugs include tranquillizers. and grants elevated powers to police for handling of drug crimes. Drugs and the law. morphine. and C. crack. Trafficking penalties vary depending on 62 63 62 63 64 See EMCDDA (2004). methcathinone. Class A includes ecstasy. cocaine. The Customs Excise and Management Act of 1979 provides penalties for import and export of drugs. accessible at http://www. involuntary treatment of offenders who test positive for drugs. heroin. the UK Act has 3 classes: A. This Act follows the 1961 and 1971 UN Conventions. United States of America The 1913 Harrison Act marked the start of a major prohibitionist movement in American law. and ketamine. methamphetamine. Most criminal cases are handled in State and local courts. psilocybin. LSD. and precursors. and pholcodine. opium. GHB. possession is punishable by up to 5 years in prison and or an unlimited fine.25 United Kingdom The UK is another nation with a Misuse of Drugs Act from 1971.gov.europa. opium poppy.eu/html. cocaine. the Native American Free Exercise of Religion Act of 1993 protects “the use. Though peyote is listed on Schedule 2. cannabis. possession can lead to up to 7 years in prison or an unlimited fine or both. magic mushrooms. accessible at http://www. or transportation by an Indian of peyote for bona fide ceremonial use in a Native American religious activity” . barbiturates. The Criminal Justice and Police Act of 2001 allows courts to impost overseas travel bans on drug traffickers.homeoffice. amphetamines prepared for injection. including drug testing on arrest. methylphenidate.loc. The Criminal Justice Act of 1990 follows the 1988 UN Convention. penalties for possession are up to 2 years in prison and or an unlimited fine. B.gov/cgibin/bdquery/z?d103:S. and rights to detain offenders who have swallowed drugs for up to 192 hours . whereas the federal government is concerned primarily with trafficking rather than personal use possession. up to 14 years in prison and or an unlimited fine for dealing. tranquillizers. The Drugs Act of 2005 amended the Misuse of Drugs Act and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act. DMT. THC. Class B drugs include amphetamines. Cannabis was reclassified as a B drug from the C list in 2009. Schedule 1 includes MDMA. but today the Controlled Substances Act is the main federal law pertaining to drugs. and china white. LSD.

Marijuana has been decriminalized in Alaska. and PCP first offences can lead to 5 to 40 years in prison. Although State laws vary. Cocaine. Oregon. First offences for trafficking of 100999kg of marijuana are punishable by 5-40 years in prison.000. Arizona. New Mexico. US$10 million for organizations. peyote. Possession of other controlled substances can be punished by up to 2 years and or a fine of US$2. US$50 million for organizations.26 the quantity and type of drug. Colorado. mandatory life in cases involving serious injury or death. Marijuana has been legalized for medicinal prescription purposes in Alaska. Active State medical marijuana programs. Marijuana possession is a misdemeanor punishable by up to 1 year in prison and a fine of up to US$2. life mandatory in cases involving violence. second offences up to 30 years.000. Maine. US$10 million for organizations. fines up to US$2 million for individuals. New Jersey. accessible at http://www. fines up to US$5 million for individuals. Minnesota. less than 25g up to 4 years and US$25. For offences involving 1kg or more. 20 years to life for cases involving death or injury. fines of US$2 million for individuals. Montana.gov/dea/ See Scott (2010). ecstasy. US$1 million for organizations. fines of US$4 million for individuals. Colorado. for 450g to 1kg. Maryland. Vermont.000. Washington DC.000. 20 years to life for cases involving injury or death. mescaline. and conditions of the offence. California. First offences for trafficking of less than 50kg of marijuana not more than 5 years. and Washington . heroin. Nevada. Misdemeanor prescription drug possession is punishable by up 65 66 65 66 67 See DEA.000 for individuals. second offences 10 years to life. US$8 million to US$75 million in fines. US$10 million for organizations. accessible at http://norml. Possession of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is a felony under MCL Section 333. not less than 20 for violent cases. California. fines up to US$500. Possession of LSD.cga.000. Rhode Island.cfm?Group_ID=3391 . Mississippi.7403. mandatory life for cases involving death or injury. fines up to US$1 million for individuals.000. OLR research report. North Carolina. Hawaii. psilocybin and other hallucinogens is a misdemeanor punishable by up to 1 year and or a fine of US$2.gov/2010/rpt/2010-R-0204. the criminal history of the offender. for this paper Michigan can offer sample penalties for other drugs. First offences for trafficking of 50-99kg of marijuana not more than 20 years.000kg or more of marijuana is punishable by 10 years to life in prison.htm 67 See NORML (2011). and MDMA are up to 10 years and or US$15. First trafficking offences involving 1. Nebraska. US$2 million for organizations . 25-50g up to 4 years and or US$250. New York. US$5 million for groups. accessible at http://www. methamphetamine. LSD. US$5 million for organizations.ct. second offences not more than 10 years. Second offences are punishable by 20 years to life in prison. up to 30 years in prison and or up to US$500. Ohio. US$4 million for individuals. Michigan. Drug Policy. 20 years to life for cases involving death or serious injury.000 for individuals. a penalty of up to life in prison and or a fine up to US$1 million may be assessed. fines up to US$250. fines of US$8 million for individuals and US$20 million for organizations.000. Nevada.justice. Marijuana Decriminalization. Penalties for methamphetamine.000. Maine. and Oregon . Second offences are punishable by 10 years to life in prison. 50-450g up to 20 years and or US$250. Massachusetts.org/index.

community service. 7403. opium was traded and taxed. less than 5kg.legislature. Historically.gov/(S(zfxunz45lm2u2u45fdndbq45))/mileg.aspx?page=GetObject&objectname=mcl -780-131 . Some States and locales have enacted much tougher policies on drugs than other jurisdictions. The health care economic sector in the USA is robust and there is a variety of private and public service agencies for offenders and courts to choose from in designing a treatment program. like many nations in the two decades 68 68 69 See MCL 333. and possession with the intent to distribute penalties in Michigan under Section 333.131(1).000.000 for other controlled substances other than cannabis. 5-45kg. and some minor dealers may be given light sentences depending on the type and quantity of the drug involved and circumstances of the offence. or 200 plants or more are punishable by up to 15 years in prison and or a fine up to US$10 million. importation and exportation. 20-200 plants up to 7 years imprisonment and or US$500. Methamphetamine and ecstasy dealing and manufacturing penalties are increased to up to 20 years imprisonment and or US$25. up to 7 years and or US$10.000.7521 . less than 20 plants up to 4 years imprisonment and or US$20. Harsh penalties are a strong deterrent to use among some sects of the population. Conservative Republican districts generally have stricter regulations and harsher penalties than liberal Democratic districts. Thailand History Thailand is a classic opium producing nation with parts of its northern borders with Myanmar and Laos well within the Golden Triangle. 7521.gov/(S(0vnxi5ydjlugpw45yfxh2eet))/mileg. Lifetime probationers may be granted release from probation after 5 years.000.7401. Thailand joined the 1912 Hague Convention. prosecutors. counties. Minor drug offenders are often granted delayed sentences. locales. Michigan Public Health Code. Discretionary methods among police.legislature. accessible at http://www. and judges can vary a great deal between individuals.aspx?page=GetMclDocument&objectnam e=mcl-chap333 69 See MCL 780. Property obtained through illegal drug dealing may be seized and confiscated by the State under Section 333. Judicial independence has given judges much room for variations between districts and within courthouses.27 to 1 year and a fine of US$1. though the USA remains the world‟s largest illicit drug market and debate on the subject is often featured in national and international news and politics. which may last up to 180 days . 180 day rule. The British Empire‟s East India Trading Company sailed through the region and colonial SE Asia was a hub for opium trading.mi. Officials may seek extralegal punishments via pre-trial and pre-conviction detention. accessible at http://www. Drug offences consistently rank among the highest recorded categories of offences in the USA. In 1922. 7407. but such is not always the case.7401 are basically the same as possession penalties. and other alternative remedies to criminal prosecution in State and local courts.mi. Narcotics manufacturing. Then known better as Siam. treatment options. delivering.000. Cannabis cases involving 45kg or more. States. and regions in the USA. First offences are given special treatment.

Brief history. Possession of category II drugs is punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment and or up to 100. Chapters 2 and 3 cover licensing requirements and duties of licensees. Import or export of category II drugs is punishable by 10 to 10 years and 100. export. or cocaine 3 to 20 years and 60.000 to 400.000 Baht.000 Baht. accessible at http://www. Thailand became a member of the 1961. the Marijuana (Cannabis) Act.000 to 300. Thailand enacted the 1934 Cannabis Act and later the 1939 Kratom Act. Import or production of category III is punishable by 1 to 3 years and 100.000 to 5 million Baht.28 after the International Opium Convention.go. codeine. Section 7 lists 5 classifications: category I consists of “dangerous narcotics such as heroin”.000 to 200. cocaine.000 to 5 million Baht for disposal of drugs. 100g or more of morphine.000 to 1 million Baht. less than 100g morphine. Unauthorized disposal or possession for disposal of category I drugs less than 15 doses of LSD. Current Legislation The 1979 Narcotics Act repealed the previous Narcotics Acts. 1. Thailand passed the Narcotics Act which regulated importation. 1. 3g of heroin is punishable by 4 to 25 years imprisonment and 80. roles and responsibilities.000 Baht. 20 years to life and 2 million to 5 million Baht for morphine. Smoking and selling of opium was legally allowed in Thailand between the mid-1800s and 1959 when rising use of heroin led to a revision of the Narcotics Act to include death as a potential penalty for trafficking. category V includes marijuana and kratom. sale. and 1 million to 5 million Baht. and medicinal opium. category II drugs are permitted for prescription consumption under Section 58. Narcotics Control Division.fda. Possession of category I drugs less than 15 doses of LSD. structure. 1971. though Kratom is not a focus of international law. over 20g of heroin life imprisonment or death.5g of amphetamines or derivatives.000 Baht. Section 57 states that consumption of any category I or V substances is prohibited. 1. category II includes “ordinary narcotics” like morphine. or cocaine 5 years to life and or 500. category III includes prescription drugs like opioid analgesics. possession.5g of amphetamines or derivatives. Import. 4 years to life and a fine of 400. Following the 1925 Opium Convention. opium. opium. 3 to 20g 4 years to life and a fine of 400. or cocaine.000 to 200. offences “committed for the purpose of disposal” are punishable by death.000 Baht. Import or export of category I drugs without appropriate licenses is punishable by up to life imprisonment and a fine of 1 million to 5 million Baht under Section 65. and Kratom Act.000 Baht.000 to 5 million Baht. export of category III up to 1 year and 100.000 Baht.000 to 300. opium. 3g of heroin may be punished by 4 to 15 years in prison and a fine of 80. 3g of heroin may be punishable by 1 to 10 years in prison and 20.5g of amphetamines or derivatives.moph. and 1988 UN Conventions and established the modern Narcotics Act and Psychotropic Substances Act to follow the international lead in drug control .th/fda-net/html/product/addict/index_eng. disposal of or possession for disposal of category IV drugs is punishable by 1 to 10 years and 20.000 to 70 70 See Thailand FDA Ministry of Public Health (2003).000 Baht fines. category IV includes preparations like acetic anhydride and acetyl chloride. production and consumption of narcotics. disposal or possession for disposal 1 to 10 years and or 20.000 to 300.html . retailing or wholesaling less than 15 doses of LSD.

29 200. up to 2 years and or 200. Schedule 4 includes barbiturates and tranquillizer.000 Baht. free from addiction to the psychotropic substances”. and offer probation and other alternatives to prison. biographical information. offer treatment and care. Possession or utilization of Schedule I or II substances may be punishable by 5 to 20 years and or a fine of 100. health and humanitarian doctrine. up to 2 years and 200. possession of category IV up to 5 years and 100.000 to 1. after-care or rehabilitation and restoration of ability for [addicts] in order that such persons may be socially reintegrated. Arms & Firearms Commonsense.5 million Baht. 10kg or more. Occupational therapy. disposal of or possession for disposal of category V less than 10kg. training.000 Baht. Chapter 12 provides penalties. and escapees from rehab centers may be imprisoned for up to 3 months and fined up to 10. the basic principles of the United Nations system outlined in the Charter all support vast gun control. require offenders to undergo therapy and counseling. Schedule 2 includes ephedrine.000 Baht. import or export of category V 2 to 15 years and or 200. psilocybine.5 million Baht. The 2002 Narcotics Addict Rehabilitation Act Chapter 3 grants the courts and prosecutors options to delay sentencing.000-400. Schedule 1 includes DMT.000-200. and life conditions of offenders helps the treatment staff design personalized strategies to assure successful completion of programs . who may be compelled to enter rehab facilities for up to 180 days or until specialists determine the addict is fit to re-enter society. postpone criminal sanctions. Prosecution is not the main focus in handling of narcotics cases according to this act. 2-15 years and or 200. The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1975 lists 4 schedules. addicts who refuse to accept treatment or rehabilitation and restoration of ability.5 million Baht. especially at the international level involving military-grade arms.thailaws. social or community service for the offender helps the addicts and abusers regain skills necessary for life outside of the institution.000 Baht for kratom plants.000 to 1. social ethics. training. education. Section 62 states that no person may possess or utilize any psychotropic substance without a license. possession of category V up to 5 years and 100. religious morals.000 Baht for kratom plants. no person shall consume any Schedule I substance. “The Ministry of Public Health shall have the duty to provide appropriate treatment. pipradrol. up to 1 year and 20. 2-10 years and or 40. and Narcotics Addict Rehabilitation Act at www. Assessment of individual cases.000 Baht for 10kg or more of kratom. The UN Disarmament 71 71 See Narcotics Act. up to 2 years and or 40. and ketamine. no person shall consume a Schedule II substance without a prescription.com .000 Baht. and then reordered to complete treatment. Psychotropic Substances Act.000 Baht for less than 10kg of kratom. and methcathinone.000 Baht. Chapters 2 and 3 contain provisions for licenses and licensees. Schedule 3 includes barbiturates.000-1. Under Sections 114 and 115. phencyclidine.000 Baht. THV. mescaline. pseudoephedrine. provide health services. education. MDA. Production. Section 88 provides from treatment options for addicts. 10kg or more of category IV 1 to 15 years and 100.

The UN Firearms Protocol expects party States to enact domestic legislation to eradicate the illegal manufacture of firearms. and collectors. Europe In Austria. and exchange information about illicit firearms . accessible at http://bjp.org/poa/poahtml. In Belgium. accessible at http://www. production and deployment of conventional weapons of great destructive power. and prohibited most acquisition of guns over 60cm. accessible at http://www. Firearm legislation reform in the EU: impact on firearm availability.rcpsych. shotguns and handguns are required. recreational shooters. minimum age of 21. Explosives. Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects resolves that parties will coordinate efforts to prevent the flow of war weapons across international boundaries . semi-automatic and pump-action rifles. reduction of military expenditures. The 2001 Programme of Action to Prevent. handguns larger than . was required . accessible at http://www. and the . firearm suicide and homicide rates in Austria. Safe firearm storage regulations were enacted. accessible at http://fpc. citizens are allowed to own handguns. where licenses for rifles.org/issues/factsheets/read. semi-automatic firearms or repeating firearms.nraila. different licenses are given to hunters. cooperate to prevent. and obtaining a license entails passing a test.30 Commission recommends measures not only related to nuclear disarmament but also that of conventional weapons and armed forces. and considers dissolution of military alliances and dismantling of foreign military bases. justice & crime in foreign countries.22 caliber were prohibited in 1991. Gun laws.aspx?ID=78 .org/juridico/english/treaties/a-63. CRS Report for Congress. France. and Germany.pdf 76 See OAS Convention text.22 pistols banned in 1997 .org/Depts/ddar/discomm/2102. including long firearms with smooth bore and rifled barrels. Psychological testing. which include handguns. culture.org/FirearmsProtocol/FirearmsProtocol. gun laws are similar to those in Israel. and licenses are required to buy or own a firearm. Convention on Illicit Trade of Arms 2001.htm 73 See UN (2008).gov/documents/organization/45451.aspx 75 See Browne (2005). available at http://www.un. A near-ban on private ownership of firearms is in effect in England. and a 3 day waiting period for category C and D weapons. British Journal of Psychiatry. The United Nations and Gun Control.oas. and availability is similar to 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 72 See UN General Assembly (1996). prohibition of development. In Switzerland. and background checks were for the first time required for category B weapons. combat. the 1997 law following a European Council Directive required firearms owners to specify a reason for obtaining a gun. etc. German laws are strict for Europe. and Other Related Materials reinforces the larger UN agenda in the OAS . The Inter-American Convention on the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms.poaiss. tighten controls on the export and import of firearms. Firearms Protocol.aspx 74 See UN (2010).pdf 78 See NRA-ILA (2001). Ammunition.org/cgi/reprint/191/3/253.state.html 77 See Kapusta et al (2007). accessible at http://www.poaiss. Review of report from Disarmament Commission. and eradicate the illegal manufacture and trafficking of firearms.

Massacre raises issue of gun control in Europe. Netherlands 3. European legislators back tough gun control rules.au/www/agd/agd. after 18 months of negotiations with national governments and gun advocates. pest controllers and bona fide collectors. names and addresses of buyers and sellers.com/time/world/article/0. accessible at http://www. Finland banned the ownership of firearms by anyone under 20. requiring authorization from a local authority consisting of a background check and passing an exam .time. Time. 36 in Cyprus. MEPs to debate tightening gun laws. accessible at http://www. accessible at http://www.00. including government and police. and the guns must be registered and inspected annually.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+IMPRESS+20071126STO13628+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN 82 See Crumley (2009).europarl. firearms safety training. All governments have agreed that self-protection is not a genuine need. submachine guns and imitation pistols are banned . up to 6 rifles and 1 handgun are permitted per owner.html 83 See Time Magazine (2002). Licensing is mandatory for all firearm owners. approved by police for licenses which must be renewed annually. 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 See Kates (2001). set new rules for gun ownership starting in 2010.nytimes. accessible at http://www.gov.ema.time.org/Issues/Articles/Read. and high powered concealable handguns are prohibited. accessible at http://www.html 84 See Australian Attorney-General‟s Department (2011). handguns and semi-automatic weapons are more tightly controlled.nsf/Page/Firearmsregulation_Firearmsregulation . and retired militiamen may buy their issued firearms . Shadow of the Gun. member States are obligated to keep a computerized database of firearms for 20 years. 32 in Sweden. Gun laws around the world: do they work?.html 81 See European Parliament (2007). still.8530991.eu/sides/getDoc. accessible at http://www. Australia Firearms access is limited to persons with a genuine need.com/2007/11/29/world/europe/29iht-29union.aspx?ID=72 80 See Bilefsky (2007). NRA-ILA. In Netherlands gun owners must be 18. Denmark raised maximum sentences for unauthorized possession of arms. age limitations.31 the USA. recreational shooters or hunters that produce proof of permission from a landowner. and safe storage are required .com/time/europe/magazine/2002/0513/guns/laws. NY Times. firearms must be registered. Fully and semi-automatic long arms. Firearms Regulation. and Poland 1 . machine guns. a member of a gun club for at least one year. making 18 the minimum age for purchase and ownership of firearms provided the owner is not deemed a threat to public safety. details about model.europa. sporting shooters with valid membership of an approved club.nraila. serial number.1885130. caliber. Portugal moved to increase penalties for the use of guns in crimes . Some European countries have plenty of guns. automatic and semi-automatic weapons are banned. primary producers.8599. with average guns per 100 people at 46 in Finland. Switzerland enlisted militiamen are required to keep a STGW90 assault rifle at their home. Spain law requires gun owners to be licensed and to undergo medical and psychological testing. The European Parliament. lower in other countries like Estonia and Ireland with 9/100.4.

and ownership. Thailand The Firearms. “C” – collector of pistols and/or restricted weapons.govt. persons incompetent or unsound of mind. “E” – use a MSSA firearm. Highlights of Canada‟s Firearms Laws. New gun control laws have been proposed recently . 89 88 87 86 85 85 See RCMP (2004). load a firearm only when ready to fire.aspx?ID=14197 88 See Congress of the United States (1789). Licenses are required for 16 and 17 year olds to have an airgun. identify your target beyond all doubt. purchase. the right of the people to keep and bear Arms. Dealer‟s licenses are separate from firearms licenses . being necessary to the security of a free State. registration for restricted firearms weapons is required . vagrants. “E&F” – sell MSSAs. accessible at http://www. store firearms and ammunition safely. accessible at http://www. check you firing zone. shall not be infringed. unemployed persons. and persons with certain criminal histories are prohibited from being granted a license . Bill of Rights. United States of America The US Constitution is the main law that regulates firearms manufacture.” Other gun control legislation has been used in attempts to reign the gunrelated problems.org/News/Read/InTheNews. Fireworks.member of a pistol club and possession of a pistol.pdf 87 See NRA-ILA (2010).com . always point firearms in a safe direction. Explosives. but the Acts remain unpopular among outspoken gun advocates. sale.thailaws. licenses are valid for 10 years.police. New Zealand: new gun control laws proposed. pistols and or restricted weapons as a firearms dealer or employee of a dealer). avoid alcohol and drugs when handling firearms.html 89 See Firearms Act 1947 and Arms Control Act 1987 at www.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript. possession. Seven basic rules are laid out in section one: treat every firearm as loaded. and the Equivalent of Firearms Act 1947 and Arms Control Act 1987 require any person owning or possessing a gun to be licensed. accessible at http://www. licenses allow the holder to have and use sporting type shotguns and rifles.ca/cfppcaf/pol-leg/hl-fs-eng.archives. minimum age 18 for a license with a public safety check required.gc.nz/service/firearms/arms-code. New Zealand The Arms Act of 1983 regulates firearms. Amendment II states that “A well regulated Militia.nraila. Ammunition.rcmp-grc.32 Canada The Firearms Act and Criminal Code require businesses and individuals to keep a valid license to possess a firearm. accessible at http://www. License holders must be 16 years old and some firearms need special endorsement (“B” . Threats to public order.htm 86 See 1983 Arms Act.

81:19 against decriminalized magic mushrooms. 75 believed pimping was a 7-10 level offence. participants voted against legalized gambling. 25 found 0-5 years in prison to be reasonable. 86:14 against decriminalized heroin. 71 rated operating a casino between 0 and 3. 22 were students. and 2 worked in health or medicine fields. 8 were social workers or volunteers. 2 Swedish. with 10 the highest. 35 were Christian. 17 preferred 10+ years in prison. 3 were Danish. 92:8 against decriminalized arms trading. 1 was Buddhist. 73:27 against decriminalized prostitution. 33% were aged 24 and below. relevant legislation. 2 participants recommended no sentence for drug trafficking. 1 . 13 provided business services. 19 chose 7-9. 12 worked in technical fields like engineering. 80 said “yes” and 15 said “no”. 95:5 against legalized cocaine. 92:8 against legalized LSD. 73 respondents stated that gambling was a 0-2 grade offence on a scale of 0-10. 56:44 for legalized marijuana. 51:49 for decriminalized marijuana. and respondents were asked to report on their opinions regarding illicit trades. 73:27 against legalized prostitution. 2 were atheist. 16 had master‟s degrees. with 80% aged 46 and below. 38 stated that operating a casino is not an offence. 2 Ukrainian. 89 respondents rated sex trafficking of minors at 10. 3 Swiss. 70% aged 36 and below. 93:7 against legalized ecstasy. 7 worked in customers services including foods. and morality. 4 chose the death penalty. 53 were male and 47 female. The most common grade for prostitution was 5. 4 chose up to 10 years imprisonment plus rehabilitation and counseling. 55% were aged 29 and below. 15 American. 88:12 against decriminalized cocaine. 28 chose 1-4. 25 had high school diplomas only. 88:12 against decriminalized ecstasy.33 Illicit Trades Survey & Comments A convenience sample of 100 people in Chiang Mai. 14 chose rehabilitation and counseling. and 0 nil. 13 Australian or New Zealander. 62 had no official religion or chose not to report. 20 rated it a 5 to 10. 96:4 against legalized heroin. 5 were artists. 36 responded that gambling was not an offence. 15 chose 0 and 15 chose 10. By a vote of 57:43. 9 were teachers. 81:19 against legalized magic mushrooms. 87:13 against decriminalized opium. 13 were retired or reported no occupation. 10 German or Austrian. 2 were government employees not in legal fields. 47 participants grade pimping at a 10. 1 the lowest. 4 abstained. 1 Mexican. and 1 Italian. 25 British or Irish. 24 chose 5-10 years in prison. and 3 had doctoral degrees. 4 worked in legal professions including police and attorneys. 8 Dutch. 99:1 against legalized arms trading. Thailand was taken. 86:14 against decriminalized LSD. 96:4 against legalized opium. Participants decided against decriminalized gambling 64:36. 56 had some college or a bachelor‟s degree or career training. Of the 95 who responded to the question regarding whether or not drugs should be available for prescription use. 6 chose up to 5 years imprisonment and rehabilitation and counseling. 6 rated gambling above 5. 7 Canadian. 10 French. which 23 respondents chose. 3 worked in manual labor or manufacturing. Ages ranged from 18 to 70.

6 at 0. 10 chose 8. A range of opinions was expressed verbally as was recorded in the surveys. 26 chose 10 for poppy farming. The mother and wife expressed her opinion that a change of mind comes with age. registration. 15 responded between 5 and 7 with none between 1 and 4. 2 a 9. This couple admittedly reported with their drug-addict/abuser son and his addict/abuser friends in mind. Taxation and reduction of corrections spending were the most common reasons for supporting legalization and decriminalization of recreational drugs like cocaine. Marijuana distribution was most commonly a 0. 23 between 1 and 4. There was some contradictory reporting on single topics between sections of the survey. The reasons for criminalizing arms trafficking. and other rampant immorality throughout society. heroin. 10 was the mode for narcotics distribution with 30 respondents. 1 a 5. and Anglo-American political rhetoric reminiscent of the 1950s-60s were the apparent basis for most opinions of a negative valence regarding prostitution and drugs. 20 rated it a 1. 32 chose 10 for methamphetamine production. 29 between 1 and 4. 30 rated marijuana possession at a 0. 14 between 7 and 9. (See appendix for more data) . People who commented in favor of legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution recommended supervision. health concerns and economic productivity were second most prevalent. Many people stated that the severity of the offence varies from case to case. yet both the man and the woman approved of adult prostitution and failed to recognize the immorality of English-speaking nations‟ wars. 6 and 8. and LSD. but very few had any knowledge of the medicinal uses of opium. 3 at 0. 2 chose 9. 1 chose 8. 2 a 7. 85 believed human trafficking is a 10. Participants were given an opportunity to voice their opinions on the topics contained in the surveys. 13 between 1 and 4. 17 at 5. 14 between 6 and 9. 1 chose 0. One middle aged native English speaking couple responded in favor of drug prohibition on account of “immorality”. 26 between 5 and 6. 29 between 5 and 9. 34 between 6 and 9. and murder were generally no-brainers for respondents on surveys and in comments. 1 a 0. Murder ranked at a 10 for 92 respondents. 2 chose 0. 10 a 10. MDMA. 2 chose 0. and commented in favor of marijuana for medicinal use. 11 a 5. 10 was the mode for drug trafficking with 39 respondents. 1 an 8. 11 chose 9. 2 chose 0. licensing. Morality. 21 rated narcotics possession a 5. 9 between 1 and 4. 3 a 6. 31 between 6 and 9. 26 rated it between 6 and 9. the suffering caused to Iraqis and Afghanis. and discussion was encouraged. Most respondents had some knowledge of the medicinal purposes of marijuana. 34 ranked it a 1-4. 5 was the second most popular choice with 17. The majority of persons who commented expressed that they had no thorough knowledge of the illicit trades. meaning a nil offence. 7 a 3. 4 a 4. 13 a 2. Arms trafficking rated at a 10 for 59 people. especially of a religious nature. 24 respondents chose 0 for marijuana farming. 8 a 0. human trafficking.34 graded the offence a 3. and taxation. psilocybin mushrooms. frequent health screening. 1 said 5. 16 chose 8. 6 at 10. 16 at 5. 18 chose 5. 3 a 10. sex trafficking of minors. 29 rated it between 1 and 4. 12 at 10. and stated her hypothesis that only the younger participants would respond in favor of legalization or decriminalization of drugs. 1 graded it a 0.

vomiting. whooping cough. drug overdose became the second leading cause of unintentional injury death. bronchitis. Pornography is a multibillion dollar industry and what a lot of people fail to recognize is that it is essentially a form of prostitution whereby people are rewarded for providing sexual services.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVita minsandMinerals/marijuana 93 See Alleyne (2008). Marijuana can also help relieve pain. accessible at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy. kief and other similar drugs.000 years by the Indian and Chinese to help treat beriberi. strychnine poisoning. accessible at http://www.cancer. and stimulate new brain cell growth . increased risk of lung.uk/science/science-news/3485163/Marijuana-may-improve-memory-and-help-fightAlzheimers. epilepsy. stimulate appetite.. How big is porn?. Marijuana has been used for more than 3. sleep problems.35 Relevant Facts and Statistics Pornography Companies like LFP Inc. coughs. gonorrhea and angina.usnews. more 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 See Ackman (2001). Marijuana may help reduce memory loss in old age. respiratory illnesses. mood swings and other side effects . malaria. FriendFinder Networks Inc. depression.. THC. rheumatism. insomnia.gov/publications/pdf/rx_abuse_plan.gov. Private Media Group.co. prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer‟s disease. all drug facts. Health Day. the active ingredient in marijuana.html 91 See Australian Government. In 2002 in the USA.com/2001/05/25/0524porn. may kill brain cancer cells . Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the USA. accessible at http://www. increased risk of schizophrenia. Prescription Drug Abuse Strategy. control nausea and vomiting. Pornography remains legal in many locales where prostitution is strictly prohibited and now with the internet pornographic content providers can reach new and once unreachable markets. memory problems. a 48% increase from 2000. Marijuana may improve memory and help fight Alzheimer‟s. accessible at http://www. depression.au/drugs 92 See American Cancer Society (2008).telegraph. cholera. hallucinations. accessible at www. absent-mindedness. tetanus. mouth.. Active ingredient in marijuana kills brain cancer cells. 257 million prescriptions for opioids were dispensed. Vivid Entertainment LLC. Telegraph UK. accessible at http://health. paranoia and psychosis. throat and tongue cancer.forbes.com/health-news/family-health/cancer/articles/2009/04/01/activeingredient-in-marijuana-kills-brain-cancer 95 See White House (2011).html 94 See Mozes (2009). In 2007. US News & World Report. Playboy Enterprises Inc. learning difficulties. chest pains from heart disease. lowered sex drive. muscle and joint pain. leading to increased overdoses and deaths . In the United States. hashish. Health Effects of Specific Drugs Marijuana can cause anxiety. Marijuana. constipation. just behind motor-vehicle injuries.pdf . prescription drugs are the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana. Department of Health and Ageing. Forbes. gout.australia. In 2009. National Drugs Campaign. and the Floyd Agency operate globally in multimedia publishing and entertainment. upsetting many parents of minors. and asthma . intestinal pain. and reduce anxiety.

Access to Controlled Medications Programme. Heroin. dehydration.ncbi. and 96 See USCDC/ASTHO (2008).hopkinsmedicine. HIV and hepatitis infections through needle sharing. or diacetylmorphine. The World Health Organization‟s Access to Controlled Medications Programme works with policy development on licit opium poppy farming in efforts to supply the demand for essential medications . and death.nih. Heroin.html 102 See Laurance (2006). anxiety. anxiety.maps. decreased emotional control. is a highly addictive drug which is may have side-effects of mood swings. Magic mushrooms can also create mystical experiences may have medicinal use in reducing anxiety in cancer patients 102 101 100 99 98 97 . accessible at http://www. Psilocybin “magic” mushrooms can cause anxiety. serotonin syndrome.org/cancer-studies/study-info. NEJM. hallucinations. anxiety disorders. menstrual irregularity and infertility in women. severe depression. Prescription Drug Overdose: State Health Agencies Respond.int/medicinedocs/index/assoc/s14860e/s14860e. memory impairment.36 96 teenagers used opioid analgesics like Oxycontin recreationally than used marijuana . decreased emotional control. accessible at http://www. severe depression. LSD can induce paranoia. loss of sex drive in men.gov/pubmed/19692689 98 World Health Organization (2007).pdf 97 See Oviedo-Joekes et al (2009). can cause sleep problem. psychosis.pdf 99 See MAPS (2011). and various traumatic mental conditions.html . restlessness. Diacetylmorphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction. panic attacks. and cramping. nerve cell damage.who.org/research/mdma/ 100 See Johns Hopkins Medicine (2006). chronic constipation. Injectable diacetylmorphine was found to be more effective than oral methadone in treatment of opioid addiction . A single dose of LSD is also an effective treatment for alcoholism . high blood pressure. Prescription drugs obviously have a wide range of side-effects and benefits for users. accessible at http://www. accessible at http://apps. vomiting. accessible at http://www. non-fatal and fatal overdose. and a range of mental illnesses. and the entire class of opioids derived from the papaver somniferum are an important class of medicines which are in short supply worldwide.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/lsd-helps-alcoholics-put-down-thebotttle-419523. elevated heart rate. hallucinations. Independent UK. accessible at http://www. lethargy.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/pubs/RXReport_web-a. or ecstasy. Hopkins Scientists Show Hallucinogen in Mushrooms Creates Universal “Mystical” Experience.cdc.org/press_releases/2006/07_11_06. anxiety. insomnia.nlm. Amphetamines can cause chronic sleep problems. psychosis. MDMA has empathogenic effects and can assist in psychotherapy for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and end-of-life anxiety in late-stage cancer patients . Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Psilocybin Cancer Project. grinding of teeth. LSD helps alcoholics put down the bottle.co. infection at site of injections. low blood pressure. opium. accessible at http://www. diarrhea. and . nerve cell damage. MDMA Research.html 101 See Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (2009). depression.bpru. insomnia. violent behavior.independent. morphine.

accessible at http://www. 15% are at-risk drinkers. cancers of the colorectum. 65% are low risk drinkers.html 108 See Dearden and Payne (2009).000 for females. Trends & Issues. Alcohol consumption in Australia causes over 5. accessible at http://www.05 million. In Australia an estimated 5% of the population is dependent on alcohol or engages in high risk drinking.5 million deaths per year.voanews. from nearly 511.who. while 44% reported being intoxicated at the time of their most serious offence.nsf/Content/33F1F1299AD53EA3CA257693001776BE/$ File/tre2. violence or tuberculosis. Adderall is an amphetamine class prescription psychiatric drug that helps treat narcolepsy. which is almost 4% of all deaths worldwide. 6% of all male deaths and 1% of all female deaths worldwide 105 104 103 . Alcohol causes 9% of all deaths aged 15 to 29 and up to 1/3rd of deaths among young people in some regions of the world. and Sunday (54%) homicides were more likely alcoholrelated than homicides on weekdays in a study which found that nearly half of all homicides were alcohol related.health. Saturday (60%). and 15% are non-drinkers. Alcohol is a causal factor in 60 types of diseases (i.com/learningenglish/home/World-Health-Organization-Says-Alcohol-Abuse-is-anInternational-Problem---116281509. Global Alcohol Policy Alliance. greater than deaths caused by HIV/AIDS. and 103 104 See Adderall info at http://psychiatricdrugs. Alcohol-attributable male deaths in England for 2008 were over 10. cirrhosis of the liver.uk/resources/publications/theglobe/globe200902/gl200902_p16. The WHO stated that “many lesser health risks have higher priority” in public and health policy .000. Almost half of all Australian homicides involve alcohol. obesity. Friday (49%).aspx . 73% of homicides where a male victim was killed by a female intimate were related to alcohol consumption 108 . breast. 37% of domestic violence cases involve alcohol.org. The number of alcohol-related hospital admissions in England nearly doubled between 2002/03 and 2009/10. Alcohol and homicide in Australia. .au/internet/alcohol/publishing.pdf 105 See VOA (2011). disability. accessible at http://www. Australian Institute of Criminology.000 to about 1.ias. more than 1 million crimes involved alcohol use.37 death. 22% of homicide offenders were addicted to alcohol and 44% were intoxicated at the time of the offence.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/361-380/tandi372. and attention deficit hyperactive disorder Alcohol Harm & Crime The World Health Organization found that harmful use of alcohol results in approximately 2. over 5.gov.html See WHO Global status report on alcohol and health 2011. accessible at http://www.aic. In 2007-08. larynx and liver) and injuries and a component cause in 200 others.html 106 See Health Australia‟s Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms in Australia report.e.pdf 107 See IAS (2006).int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/msbgsruprofiles. WHO says alcohol abuse a leading cause of death.000 deaths per year 106 .org/meds/adderall. About 47% of 107 Australian homicides between 2000 and „06 were classified as alcohol related . accessible at http://www. A 2003 study found that 34% of regular violent prisoners self-reported addiction to alcohol.

The Costs of Corruption. bribes. victims believed their attackers had been drinking .eu/healtheu/news_alcoholineurope_en.ias.html 116 See Coyle (1999).000 alcohol-attributable crimes were recorded in England for 2009/10. Drugs.000 deaths each year in the EU. and the costs of loss of productivity and unemployment due to alcohol has been estimated at €15 billion to €42 billion.. Considering that US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year 115 114 113 . alcohol was found to be a factor in 60-70% of homicides. Alcohol played a role in roughly 40% of homicides in England and Wales in a 1996-99 study. In 2005-06 in Europe. Alcohol in Europe. the likely scenario is that our statistical discrepancy is rather large. Alcohol is responsible for about 195. 7 million adults reported being in fights when drinking. Drugs trade „the third largest economy‟.net/alcohol/lape/download. At least 23 million Europeans are dependent on alcohol in any given year. accessible at http://www. €12 billion for crime prevention and insurance administration. accessible at http://blogs. and prisons. Pain and suffering and other intangible costs to family members has been estimated at €68 billion.html .600 sexual offences .nih. 116 and the US$5 trillion dollar annual mark for illicit drugs alone is not an impossible estimate. then we can probably use at least half that as a rough estimate for the actual share of world GDP that the illegal drug trade makes up considering that only the top people in the supply chain of illicit drugs need money laundering services. The alcoholattributable crime cost for 2003 in the EU was €33 billion.nwph.contentMDK:20190187~menuPK:34457~pagePK:3 4370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607. Over 415. €15 billion for the police.nlm.pdf 112 See Shaw et al (2006).com/bernddebusmann/2010/03/ 115 See World Bank (2004).00.reuters.uk/news/drugs-trade-the-third-largest-economy-1072489. The role of alcohol and drugs in homicides in England and Wales. and over 6. 70% of beatings. courts.worldbank. terrorism and shadow banking. whereas drugs played a role in about 15% of homicides in the same period 112 111 110 . and 50% of fights and domestic assaults . In a 1995 British Medical Association study.europa.co.000 violent. human 109 See Directgov UK.gov.uk/en/CrimeJusticeAndTheLaw/CrimePrevention/DG_181558 110 See Local Alcohol Profiles for England at http://www. Alcohol and crime.gov/pubmed/16869841 113 See Anderson and Baumberg (2006). Treatment of ill-health caused by alcohol is estimated to cost €17 billion with €5 billion spent on treatment and prevention Budgetary and Economic Considerations If the IMF estimates the global money laundering industry share of global GDP at 2-5% .38 109 45% of all violent crimes. and the intangible cost of the physical and psychological effects of crime was valued at €9 billion to €37 billion. accessible at http://ec.direct. IASUK. money laundering.htm 114 See Debusmann (2010). accessible at http://www. 75% of stabbings.uk/resources/factsheets/crime. We could have an illicit trades sector at near 10% of world GDP. prostitution. but certainly we‟re looking at 5% between drugs. Drunk driving property damage was estimated at €10 billion. Independent UK. and €6 billion for property damage.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. Reuters.independent.htm 111 See IAS Factsheet at http://www. 5% of drinking men and 2% of drinking women have reported a negative impact of alcohol on their work. accessible at http://www. .org. accessible at http://web. including nearly 300.ncbi.

accessible at http://www. so it is not rational to continue on ignoring and denying these illicit proceeds as if they were not influencing major financial markets. The budgetary implications of drug prohibition.pdf 121 See Miron and Waldcock (2010). Additionally. The simple truth is that if the drug control strategies were working so well.pdf 118 See UNODC for WDR Archive.7 billion annually. Jeffery Miron. tax revenues would increase an estimated US$32.6 from other drugs. That‟s a net economic gain of over US$75 billion annually 120 119 118 117 .org/unodc/data-and-analysis/WDR.html 120 See Miron (2008). Forbes. to move on and change. Friedman. US$22. but that only means that laundering activity will take up much of the corrupt payments.cato. We may take these estimates and the political play with as many grains of salt as we wish. So what should we do with that? Certainly we can‟t legalize and tax human trafficking. national. provincial. accessible at http://www. The 2006 WDR mentioned that some commentators say “legalize drugs to reduce crime” .5 billion from cocaine and heroin. The 2008 WDR mentioned legalization of cannabis. in desperate need of a fix or something otherwise entirely spooky. accessible at http://big. and their colleagues are not mere drug addicts spreading propaganda for their own self-interest. Cato Institute. More recent estimates 121 from the Cato Institute are US$41. US$12. there would not be significant opposition or calls for decriminalization and legalization. US$19. Certainly Miron.8 billion at the federal level.assets. estimated that legalizing drugs in the USA would save US$44. and arms trafficking. local. Milton Friedman: Legalize It!.com/2005/06/02/cz_qh_0602pot. and bribes paid are no longer tax deductible in many countries . Journalists are saying it for the sake of 117 See OECD (2009).9 billion from marijuana. but the inclusion of a prominent member of the faculty at one of the world‟s most prestigious universities makes the case for legalization a bit different than some would make it out to be. it is probably time to end that war and close that part of our history.com/miron-economic-report.1 billion per year in government expenditures on enforcement of prohibition. no pun intended.39 trafficking. US$6/7 billion from marijuana. though.3 billion at the State and local level. the Harvard economist.php?pub_id=12192 .huffingtonpost. and it is certainly not economically advantageous to legalize laundering. rests much of the stability and reliability of our global economic system. accessible at http://www. Tax legislation regarding bribes to foreign public officials.forbes.org/pub_display.oecd. US$3.3 billion in savings and US$46.5 billion from other drugs. US$13. The 2009 UN World Drug Report (WDR) mentioned the economic argument for drug legalization. accessible at http://www. 40 years after President Nixon famously declared war on drugs (and American Presidents do not legally have power to declare war on anything or anyone). Making an economic case for legalizing drugs. US$30. On this 5-10%. and international economies.unodc.org/dataoecd/58/10/41353070.7 billion in tax revenue .3 billion from cocaine and heroin.html 119 See Hardy (2005). So who are these commentators? Legendary American economist Milton Friedman and more than 500 other economists in 2005 publicly endorsed a Harvard University economist‟s report in support of ending prohibition of marijuana and changing to a legal sale and tax regime . US$11.

time.html 129 See US Census (2010). and develop a system based upon shame. accessible at http://www2.europa. accessible at http://online. 2006 at http://www. with over 1 million drug users a year in treatment.org/Report 127 See National Drug Control Strategy budgets. People don‟t allow themselves to develop genuine relationships with others in wartime. accessible at http://www. accessible at http://www. and over 1% of the population using hard drugs like cocaine per year amid budget cuts Conclusions The war strategy will likely always inspire the worst in people.1% against a population increase of 9. Obama must end the war on drugs. Top national anti-drug officials have called for it by preferring .html 130 See EMCDDA (2010).fbi. accessible at http://www.com/johann-hari/obama-must-end-the-war-on_b_165785. Maybe folks play rotten games and nasty tricks on each other. see also Global Commission on Drug Policy report at http://www. and because countries like the USA have spent far too much money 123 on it (like US$2. 2010 at http://www.com/2008/10/03/world/americas/03mexico. awkwardness and insincerity becomes normal so much that people stop noticing how awful things are. accessible at http://www. Huffington Post. including an adult offence increase of 9.1% in the same period .globalcommissionondrugs. Between 2000 and 2009 in the USA. efforts to reduce loss of life in street-wars The main points to the legalization argument are the increases to tax revenues. Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe.com/2010/08/10/ex-mexican-president-adds-his-voice-to-calls-to-legalize-drugs.newsweek. increased transparency in economics and banking. Heads of State have spoken in favor of decriminalizing 126 treatment over incarceration drugs like cocaine 124 and former Heads of State have spoken in favor of legalizing drugs in .gov/pdffiles1/ondcp/203723. Statistics show that budgetary expenditures have not made impacts on crime or use of drugs consistent with spending.ncjrs. Quick Facts.1887488.pdf 128 See FBI (2009).5 trillion) 125 .00.huffingtonpost.40 122 the global economy . Mexican President proposes decriminalizing some drugs. A stalemate has formed in Europe too. Legalize Drugs.pdf.census. says Mexican Ex-President.com/time/world/article/0. The War on Drugs. for example.nytimes. See Hari (2009).com/article/SB124225891527617397. lies and double-talk. mutual and self abuse because they don‟t want to know the best parts of life.gov/ucr/cius2009/about/table_title.8599. of hidden agendas. though drug abuse violations increased 6. drug strategy spending increased nearly 50% 129 127 .eu/publications/annual-report/2010 .0% in that 128 period. Ten Year Arrest Trends. NY Times. Table 32.whitehousedrugpolicy.html 123 See Suddath (2009). Prisoners of wars are deprived of basic human rights and life in general is devalued.html 125 See Malkin and Lacey (2008). Wartime is a time of secrets.wsj. guilt. Decriminalization would reduce spending and show a more compassionate approach to handling what many nations consider a health issue rather than common crime. and increased reliability and accuracy in financial reporting. Time. Newsweek.gov/qfd/states/00000. because they don‟t want to allow themselves to feel compassion 122 130 . White House Czar calls for end to „War on Drugs‟. accessible at http://quickfacts.emcdda.html . accessible at http://www.html 124 See WSJ (2009). of grandeur and psychosis made to look like virtue and bravery.gov/publications/policy/10budget/fy10budget.html 126 See Somaiya (2010).

and to work in a field of their choosing. We have a great world of sciences. and accept that their opinions may vary a great deal when reporting in private. and include even the untouchable castes. We should respect people‟s rights to privacy of their person and of their belongings. Needless to say. We should stop trying to control others arbitrarily and without clear reason. without clear reasoning. and work for and with each other. and a costly one at that. It was an interesting try at maintaining historical cultural values. The fact remains that not even the elders have any experience with any time before their birth. and we should allow others to define themselves and listen to others when they say they are being harmed or done an injustice.41 and love for themselves or others. ill-tempered. We should try to live in the here and now quite a bit more. and nothing we should defend our rights or duties to engage in. and children their fathers out to die and suffer the most depraved of conditions in the midst of the mania and delusion that seems to be war. In other words. In matters involving public opinion at this time. We have choices today that we did not have until recently. In summary. Moreover. irrational. illogical. but a pathetic and feeble-minded effort which was inadvisable from the beginning and grew only more so with every blundering repeat of enactments of the same silly agenda year after year. facts. We should genuinely respect people‟s rights to develop their own minds and personalities as they desire. We should respect people‟s rights to privacy in their homes and not enter without permission. and live in accordance with a much higher purpose than what the lot of the voters and elected officials seem to have been . the handling of the prostitution and drug trades has been absurd. A war is nothing that we should want to have around for 40 years or more. or under certain conditions. end at all costs. War is something we should avoid. plain and simple. then we should probably start respecting their rights to do so and their reasons for desiring to do so. we should stop harassing others simply because they think differently. and be tolerant and accepting of diversity. or because they have a different style or attitude about them. and not search them for contraband which does not pose a threat to others. and we can all benefit by allowing people to pay taxes on their incomes and purchases of certain nonessential goods and services. and not interfere with other people‟s lives if they wish to not be bothered. We should probably choose to respect our own and each other‟s privacy rights. and so this idea that the ancients and middle ages and Victorian era and cultures of times before are being done any service via the charade that has been the “act” in the legislative bodies is poppycock. lacking sufficient scientific backing. and sisters their brothers. methodologies. Progressive policies worldwide are supportive of treatment over imprisonment. in case of death or spontaneous violence necessitating lethal self-defense including against friends and family. it was a bad joke. and has most certainly led to harm being done rather than alleviated. and a wide range of experts on various subjects. we must question thoroughly why people report as they do. and nothing we should hold dear. and among close friends or families. and wives their husbands. If people are willing to go to incredible lengths and take immense risks to obtain a product or service which they say makes them feel good. and nothing we should honor or obey or commit ourselves to in any way to any extent. there is sufficient evidence available to support an end of the war paradigm on handling illicit trades. and reject from our lives. Parents send their young men.

0 Percent 44.0 43.0 56.0 Valid Percent 57.0 legalize cannabis Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 44 56 100 Percent 44. congregations. and other resources that have been utterly wasted on policing the lifeless products and women.0 100.0 legalize prostitution Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 73 27 100 Percent 73. This author supports vast changes of some kind.0 Percent 99. Appendix legalize gambling Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 57 43 100 Percent 57.0 .0 100.0 Percent 57. officials. that is for certain. do try to imagine what real progress could have been made toward peace on earth and goodwill toward fellow human beings with all of the moneys and offices.0 legalize arms trafficking Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes 99 1 Percent 99.0 1.0 Valid Percent 73.0 56.0 27.0 100.0 Percent 73.0 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 99.0 1.0 43.0 Valid Percent 44. agencies.0 27. neither of which has shown itself to be any greater harm to any person than what that person allows them to be. In closing.0 100.0 100.42 living in accordance with through the farce that has been the War on Drugs and other policies on harmless economic activities that happen also to upset the clergy and ruthless sinners with the firearms stockades.0 100.0 100.0 100.

0 43 legalize arms trafficking Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 99 1 100 Percent 99.0 Valid Percent 99.0 100.0 100.0 19.0 legalize heroin Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 96 4 100 Percent 96.0 8.0 100.0 100.0 100.legalize lsd Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 92 8 100 Percent 92.0 4.0 100.0 Valid Percent 92.0 Valid Percent 96.0 Percent 81.0 4.0 100.0 4.0 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 96.0 Percent 96.0 4.0 1.0 19.0 100.0 Percent 99.0 legalize mushrooms Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 81 19 100 Percent 81.0 100.0 5.0 .0 Percent 95.0 100.0 legalize opium Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes 96 4 Percent 96.0 5.0 100.0 8.0 100.0 Valid Percent 95.0 Valid Percent 81.0 Percent 96.0 legalize cocaine Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 95 5 100 Percent 95.0 Percent 92.0 1.0 100.0 100.

0 7.0 Valid Percent 64.0 100.44 legalize opium Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 96 4 100 Percent 96.0 Percent 73.0 Percent 93.0 100.0 decriminalize prostitution Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 73 27 100 Percent 73.0 100.0 Valid Percent 73.0 36.0 27.0 Percent 96.0 100.0 100.0 Percent 64.0 legalize ecstasy Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 93 7 100 Percent 93.0 7.0 36.0 decriminalize arms trafficking Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent .0 4.0 4.0 100.0 27.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 decriminalize gambling Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 64 36 100 Percent 64.0 Valid Percent 96.0 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 93.

0 100.0 100.0 decrim mush Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 81 19 100 Percent 81.0 8.0 100.0 14.0 Percent 88.0 92.0 Valid Percent 88.0 100.0 100.0 12.0 100.0 12.0 decrim cann Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 49 51 100 Percent 49.45 Valid no yes Total 92 8 100 92.0 51.0 100.0 51.0 Valid Percent 86.0 decrim coc Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 88 12 100 Percent 88.0 Valid Percent 49.0 100.0 Percent 81.0 100.0 19.0 100.0 14.0 100.0 Valid Percent 81.0 92.0 Percent 49.0 19.0 decrim lsd Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 86 14 100 Percent 86.0 100.0 .0 100.0 Percent 86.0 100.0 100.0 8.

0 Valid Percent 2.0 14.0 decrim ex Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 88 12 100 Percent 88.0 100.0 Percent 88.0 100.0 14.0 24.8 75.0 Percent 86.0 12.0 100.7 4.1 28.2 100.0 decrim opium Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 87 13 100 Percent 87.0 100.0 12.0 Percent 87.6 95.0 17.6 6.0 Valid Percent 87.0 4.1 26.0 13.0 100.2 14.0 100.0 25.0 .0 17.0 100.0 Valid Percent 86.1 53.1 70.0 100.0 100.0 96.0 13.0 25.0 drug traff sen Cumulative Frequency Valid nothing 0-5 years in prison 5-10 years in prison 10+ years in prison death penalty rehab and counseling -5 yrs & rehab -10 years & rehab Total 2 25 24 17 4 14 6 4 96 Percent 2.0 Percent 2.0 6.3 4.8 100.0 14.0 4.0 Valid Percent 88.0 89.46 decrim heroin Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total 86 14 100 Percent 86.

0 5.6 94.0 Valid Percent 38.0 1.0 Operate Casino Cumulative Frequency Valid .0 6.7 77.00 5.00 10.0 4.2 100.0 3.00 8.7 98.00 36 22 15 4 3 8 1 4 1 94 6 100 Percent 36.0 Percent 38.0 15.8 100.00 1.00 38 Percent 38.3 1.8 84.0 gambling Cumulative Frequency Valid .1 93.00 3.0 22.00 7.0 Valid Percent 15.00 4.00 Total Missing Total 11.0 4.47 Missing Total no answer 4 100 4.0 8.00 2.0 80.9 85.7 81.0 95.0 100.3 23.3 3.4 Percent 40.9 100.0 prescription use Cumulative Frequency Valid no yes Total Missing Total 2.0 1.0 94.0 4.5 1.00 15 80 95 5 100 Percent 15.1 4.4 .2 8.0 100.0 Percent 15.1 100.0 Valid Percent 40.3 61.0 100.4 16.

5 68.9 100.00 Total Missing Total 11.0 33.00 2.1 25.6 7.0 5.0 6.00 3.0 5.5 5.0 23.2 14.0 Sex Traff Minor Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent .00 1.5 7.1 100.9 100.7 2.0 58.0 5.0 2.48 1.0 9.2 5.5 83.0 Prostitution Cumulative Frequency Valid .7 93.9 2.00 15 9 2 5 5 23 7 7 5 15 93 7 100 Percent 15.1 9.1 100.4 16.00 10.0 2.0 15.7 97.4 71.3 38.00 5.6 95.8 28.4 24.00 9.1 9.0 7.0 9.5 78.0 3.00 4.7 7.00 10.0 7.00 7.00 4.0 Percent 16.00 5.00 8.0 7.4 3.7 63.00 2.1 75.00 7.1 2.0 2.0 7.00 3.0 100.0 100.0 14.0 94.0 93.00 17 9 7 3 14 2 2 2 94 6 100 17.1 2.0 Valid Percent 16.00 8.0 18.00 Total Missing Total 11.4 5.0 2.0 78.

0 1.00 3.4 4.0 2.00 8.7 90.00 8.00 7.0 1.0 6.49 Valid .00 Mari Possess Cumulative Frequency Valid .0 1.00 10.0 74.0 13.7 100.0 1.0 1.00 6.0 1.1 1.3 100.0 Missing Total 11.0 20.4 93.00 5.0 94.00 2.0 Narco Possess Cumulative Frequency Valid .1 3.2 100.5 .0 100.1 3.00 30 20 13 7 4 11 3 2 1 3 94 6 100 Percent 30.00 8 Percent 8.00 10.0 Valid Percent 8.7 3.00 7.0 4.0 2.8 7.9 53.0 11.0 Valid Percent 31.0 96.00 3.3 13.2 5.0 1.0 Percent 31.2 7.0 7.6 95.3 11.0 1.0 2.7 96.2 67.0 1.0 89.0 100.0 3.00 5.0 1.00 9.0 4.8 100.9 21.00 1.5 Percent 8.00 4.5 78.00 Total Missing Total 11.0 3.0 1.00 Total 1 1 1 1 1 2 89 96 4 100 1.1 92.2 2.1 4.0 2.

0 Percent 16.3 69.0 21.6 22.00 6.00 Total Missing Total 11.00 7.50 1.00 3.5 77.0 .5 9.00 8 4 8 9 21 9 7 7 3 10 94 6 100 8.0 8.0 4.0 10.00 2.2 8.0 5.7 86.6 100.00 6.0 7.00 8.0 8.0 95.4 61.9 89.8 39.0 5.3 13.4 11.0 100.0 Mari Distrib Cumulative Frequency Valid .6 7.00 9.0 6.4 5.00 10.0 21.00 3.0 3.00 5.0 6.4 38.00 16 10 11 8 5 13 3 8 11 4 6 95 5 100 Percent 16.0 4.5 11.0 8.3 100.0 17.9 47.0 10.6 66.00 4.00 5.5 93.3 29.0 9.6 8.2 10.3 9.7 71.3 8.0 3.4 52.00 10.00 Total Missing Total 11.5 4.00 2.00 8.0 7.0 94.8 10.00 9.0 11.2 6.0 8.8 27.0 13.00 7.0 11.4 3.2 89.6 4.0 Valid Percent 16.7 100.0 9.3 78.0 100.4 100.4 7.00 4.00 1.7 3.

00 10.0 10.9 2.00 Total Missing Total 11.0 2.0 Valid Percent 2.00 2.3 100.7 15.5 29.2 4.5 65.4 40.0 .00 2 2 2 4 5 17 6 9 14 2 30 93 7 100 Percent 2.00 5.0 93.3 41.0 7.00 Total Missing Total 11.00 6.6 67.0 30.3 6.0 Narco Dist Cumulative Frequency Valid .0 2.9 12.0 2.00 9.00 9.2 10.00 8.3 5.0 4.2 32.0 11.4 18.1 100.0 7.0 Percent 2.00 7.0 5.8 16.0 2.0 100.0 10.4 16.00 2.00 10.0 17.5 10.00 2 1 2 10 2 10 11 7 47 92 8 100 Percent 2.00 4.0 Percent 2.3 18.0 9.5 9.2 4.0 7.6 51.3 5.1 2.00 3.2 3.0 2.0 14.1 34.2 1.00 5.2 2.0 92.0 1.3 6.0 47.00 7.3 48.0 100.0 8.0 6.00 1.2 10.9 100.00 8.0 Valid Percent 2.7 100.2 2.00 6.51 Pimping Cumulative Frequency Valid .9 50.1 2.00 3.

2 40.6 100.1 5.00 9.00 8.0 1.00 10.00 1.0 18.5 54.0 4.0 4.0 59.0 96.00 4.00 Total Missing Total 11.52 Drug Traffic Cumulative Frequency Valid .0 4.0 39.0 5.00 6.0 Percent 2.7 5.2 59.00 8.4 28.00 6.3 60.0 .0 6.0 100.0 16.0 Arms Traffic Cumulative Frequency Valid .8 39.0 Valid Percent 2.2 100.3 11.00 3.00 2 6 4 5 10 11 59 97 3 100 Percent 2.0 11.2 9.0 1.0 Percent 2.8 100.0 Valid Percent 2.5 27.1 3.0 5.1 33.00 9.1 4.0 1.0 4.00 7.2 12.2 16.0 97.00 2.1 6.00 2 1 1 1 4 18 5 4 16 5 39 96 4 100 Percent 2.1 8.2 4.2 4.0 3.8 5.00 5.00 5.00 7.1 1.0 10.0 1.2 18.2 5.0 100.00 Total Missing Total 11.2 10.00 10.4 100.0 1.0 4.0 5.3 37.4 17.

0 10.1 2.0 16.0 4.00 3.00 7.0 2.1 27.0 7.0 Valid Percent 6.3 2.00 5.0 Poppy Farming Cumulative Frequency Valid .00 6 2 7 11 3 16 10 9 4 1 26 95 5 100 Percent 6.5 100.00 5.0 1.0 85.2 16.0 5.5 47.0 5.0 95.0 3.00 9.0 100.4 11.00 8.53 Human Traff Cumulative Frequency Valid .5 4.4 30.00 2.4 100.8 27.0 100.0 2.1 1.8 10.0 9.6 100.1 89.00 8.0 95.1 7.0 26.0 6.4 71.6 3.0 Percent 6.0 1.3 8.00 Total Missing Total 11.00 10.0 Valid Percent 1.3 2.6 72.00 10.9 67.4 15.5 100.0 11.2 1.00 6.5 9.1 8.0 Mari Farming Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent .0 Percent 1.1 6.4 57.00 1.00 4.00 9.00 Total Missing Total 11.4 10.00 1 1 6 2 85 95 5 100 Percent 1.

0 100.00 8.2 72.0 45.0 100.00 1.0 3.2 12.0 34.00 6.3 7.9 5.0 94.00 9.5 100.0 25.00 2.1 1.8 33.0 Percent 3.4 87.3 17.0 96.1 83.3 6.2 2.00 3.0 2.1 5.0 7.00 4.00 3.00 2.0 16.00 1.0 32.0 1.7 5.00 5.3 17.0 3.0 12.4 7.5 100.54 Valid .0 1.00 Total Missing Total 11.0 9.1 12.3 34.0 5.00 8.00 9.0 .0 5.0 6.00 5.0 14.0 5.3 85.0 2.2 5.0 100.1 1.0 12.8 29.0 Missing Total 11.4 12.00 10.7 49.8 14.00 7.4 41.4 7.2 2.0 25.00 3 2 1 1 5 16 3 12 14 5 32 94 6 100 Percent 3.00 Meth Produc Cumulative Frequency Valid .0 100.00 6.0 Valid Percent 3.1 2.9 78.2 5.0 55.0 9.00 4.0 5.00 10.0 4.3 6.00 Total 24 9 7 7 6 17 5 5 2 2 12 96 4 100 24.0 6.0 2.7 60.0 17.6 66.00 7.0 7.

1 5.0 1.55 Murder Cumulative Frequency Valid .1 94.00 9.0 Valid Percent 1.0 1.00 8.0 2.0 Percent 1.1 3.00 Total Missing Total 11.2 100.0 92.0 1.0 97.0 2.0 1.00 1 1 1 2 92 97 3 100 Percent 1.0 100.8 100.00 10.0 .0 2.00 5.0 3.

56 .

57 nationality * legalize gambl Crosstabulation Count legalize gambl no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA 2 10 8 1 1 3 9 5 9 7 1 yes 1 0 2 7 1 0 4 2 16 8 0 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 .

58

other Euro Total

1 57

2 43

3 100

nationality * legalize prost Crosstabulation Count legalize prost no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 3 10 8 5 1 3 7 5 17 11 1 2 73 yes 0 0 2 3 1 0 6 2 8 4 0 1 27 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100

nationality * legalize arms tr Crosstabulation Count legalize arms tr no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 yes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7

59

british or irish american other NA other Euro Total

24 15 1 3 99

1 0 0 0 1

25 15 1 3 100

nationality * legalize cann Crosstabulation Count legalize cann no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 0 7 4 2 0 2 8 1 16 3 0 1 44 yes 3 3 6 6 2 1 5 6 9 12 1 2 56 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100

nationality * legalize lsd Crosstabulation Count legalize lsd no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch 3 10 10 8 yes 0 0 0 0 Total 3 10 10 8

60

swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total

1 3 12 7 23 12 1 2 92

1 0 1 0 2 3 0 1 8

2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100

nationality * legalize mush Crosstabulation Count legalize mush no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 2 10 10 4 1 3 12 6 22 8 1 2 81 yes 1 0 0 4 1 0 1 1 3 7 0 1 19 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100

nationality * legalize coc Crosstabulation Count legalize coc no yes Total

61 nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro 3 10 10 7 1 3 12 7 24 14 1 3 95 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 5 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 Total nationality * legalize heroin Crosstabulation Count legalize heroin no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 3 10 10 8 1 3 12 7 24 14 1 3 96 yes 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 .

62 nationality * legalize opium Crosstabulation Count legalize opium no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 3 10 10 8 1 3 12 7 24 14 1 3 96 yes 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * legalize ex Crosstabulation Count legalize ex no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA 3 10 10 7 0 3 12 7 23 14 1 yes 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 1 0 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 .

63 other Euro Total 3 93 0 7 3 100 nationality * decrim gamb Crosstabulation Count decrim gamb no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 3 8 8 5 0 3 10 5 11 8 1 2 64 yes 0 2 2 3 2 0 3 2 14 7 0 1 36 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim prost Crosstabulation Count decrim prost no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander 2 9 8 4 2 3 10 yes 1 1 2 4 0 0 3 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 .

64 canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 7 16 9 1 2 73 0 9 6 0 1 27 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim arms tr Crosstabulation Count decrim arms tr no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 0 9 9 5 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 92 yes 3 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim cann Crosstabulation Count decrim cann no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch 1 6 5 5 yes 2 4 5 3 Total 3 10 10 8 .

65 swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 0 3 9 3 14 1 1 1 49 2 0 4 4 11 14 0 2 51 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim lsd Crosstabulation Count decrim lsd no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 1 8 9 6 1 3 13 6 24 12 1 2 86 yes 2 2 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 14 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim mush Crosstabulation Count decrim mush no yes Total .

66 nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro 2 6 9 6 1 3 13 5 24 9 1 2 81 1 4 1 2 1 0 0 2 1 6 0 1 19 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 Total nationality * decrim coc Crosstabulation Count decrim coc no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 1 8 8 6 1 3 13 6 24 14 1 3 88 yes 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 12 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 .

67 nationality * decrim heroin Crosstabulation Count decrim heroin no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 1 8 7 5 1 3 13 6 24 14 1 3 86 yes 2 2 3 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 14 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 nationality * decrim opium Crosstabulation Count decrim opium no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA 0 8 9 5 1 3 13 6 24 14 1 yes 3 2 1 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 .

68 other Euro Total 3 87 0 13 3 100 nationality * decrim ex Crosstabulation Count decrim ex no nationality danish french german and austrian dutch swedish swiss australian or new zealander canadian british or irish american other NA other Euro Total 1 8 9 7 0 3 13 6 24 13 1 3 88 yes 2 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 12 Total 3 10 10 8 2 3 13 7 25 15 1 3 100 .

69 .