In the late 1960s, Herbert Voelcker then an engineering professor at the University of Rochester, now at Cornell University went on sabbatical and asked himself how to do "interesting things" with the automatic, computer-controlled machine tools that were just beginning to appear on factory floors. In particular, Voelcker wanted to find a way to take the output from a computer design program and use it to program the automatic machine tools. With funding from NSF, Voelcker tackled the problem first by developing the basic mathematical tools needed to unambiguously describe three-dimensional parts (see the chapter on Visualization: Staking the Pioneers). The result was the early mathematical theory and algorithms of solid modeling that today form the basis of computer programs used to design almost everything mechanical, from toy cars to skyscrapers. During the 1970s, Voelcker's work transformed the way products were designed, but for the most part they were still made the same old way. That is, either a machinist or a computercontrolled machine tool would cut away at a hunk of metal until what remained was the required part, in much the same way as Michelangelo removed chips of marble from a block until all that remained was a statue of David. But then in 1987, University of Texas researcher Carl Deckard came up with a better idea. Instead of making a part by cutting away at a larger chunk of material, why not build it up layer by layer? Deckard imagined "printing" three-dimensional models by using laser light to fuse metallic powder into solid prototypes, one layer at a time. Deckard took his idea—considered too speculative by industry—to NSF, which awarded him a $50,000 Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) to pursue what he called "selective laser sintering." Deckard's initial results were promising and in the late 1980s his team was awarded one of NSF's first Strategic Manufacturing (STRATMAN) Initiative grants, given to the kind of interdisciplinary groups often necessary for innovation in the realm of manufacturing. The result of Voelcker's and Deckard's efforts has been an important new industry called "free form fabrication" or "rapid prototyping" that has revolutionized how products are designed and manufactured. An engineer sits down at a computer and sketches her ideas on screen with a computer-aided design program that allows her to make changes almost as easily as a writer can change a paragraph. When it's done, the design can then be "printed" on command, almost as easily as a writer can print a draft—except this draft is a precise, three-dimensional object made of metal or plastic.


The method can be used to make things that are more than prototypes. "Because you can control it in this incredible way, you can make objects that you just couldn't think of machining before," says George Hazelrigg, group leader of DMII's research programs. "For example, you can make a ship in a bottle." More practically, the method has been used to make a surface with lots of tiny hooks that resembles Velcro. These new surfaces are proving to be ideal substrates for growing human tissue. NSF-funded researchers have already grown human skin on these substrates and are looking to grow replacements of other organs as well. "So these are pretty fundamental things," Hazelrigg says. "I think it's fair to say that we played a major role in it." Bruce Kramer, acting division director of NSF's Engineering and Education Centers, is even more definite: "For a majority of successful rapid prototyping technologies, the first dollar into the technology was an NSF dollar."

Rapid prototyping is quite a recent invention. The first machine of rapid prototyping hit the markets in the late 1980s. The early rapid prototyping process derived its name from the activities and the purpose for which the earlier machines were utilized. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid prototyping refers to physical objects that are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology.


Additive fabrication has the benefit of creating any shape or geometric feature. The application of rapid prototyping in sculpting is to generate fine arts exhibitions.Rapid prototyping in its earlier days was applied to production of models and prototype parts. involves the use of additive manufacturing technology which actually takes the virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software (AMS). Apart from industrial applications. Once the layers which correspond to the virtual cross section from CAD are formed. virtual. rapid prototyping is used widely for many applications that include manufacturing production-quality parts. horizontal cross sections and then the process of creating successive layers continues till the model in complete. Over here a process called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) takes place wherein the final product is same as the image created. rapid prototyping is also used in sculpting. one may find that the virtual model is almost same as the physical model. On completion of the model. The manufacturing of these quality parts however are very small in numbers. Rapid prototyping as mentioned earlier. But nowadays with the advancement in technology. they are either joined or fused automatically to yield the final shape. PAGE 3 . These designs are further transformed into thin.

Even here the size and the number of models to be created play an equally important role. but when it comes to manufacturing parts in smaller volumes. This STL file format enables the approximation of a shape of a part or the entire assembly using triangular facets. the application of additive fabrication is recommended more and is cost effective. The method used over here also plays an important role. a process called traditional injection molding is more feasible in terms of cost. There are some other techniques that are used in the construction of parts. as the construction process of a model with the contemporary methods can take up a long time which can be several hours to several days. One should consider the meaning of the word rapid as ‘relative’. The use of support material is to provide support to the projecting features during construction. higher is the quality surface. In case of manufacturing polymer products in higher quantities.Working of Rapid Prototyping Machines CAD software and the rapid prototyping machine are connected with a data interface that is called as the STL file format. The technique used in solid free-form fabrication involves the use of two materials in the construction of parts. One of it is the building material of that part and the other is the support material. It actually depends upon the complexity and size of the model. Smaller the facet. PAGE 4 . Sometimes the type of machine being used also influences the time taken for the creation of a new model though the additive systems are applied.

This is an additive manufacturing technique. through the help of a SLS machine. into a mass that represents a desired 3D object. PAGE 5 . metal etc.Prototyping Technologies Some of the prototyping technologies used in various rapid prototyping machines are as follows: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS): This technology involves the use of high power laser for the fusion of tiny particles of plastic. Materials used in this technique are metal powders and thermoplastics.

Laminated object manufacturing (LOM): PAGE 6 . This technology involves the use of eutectic metals and thermoplastics. Scott Crump and is used for applications like modeling. Photo-polymer is the principle material used in this technique. prototyping and production. patterns etc through the Stereo lithography machine.Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): This additive manufacturing technology was invented in the late 1980s by S. Stereo lithography (SLA): This also is an additive manufacturing technology and is used for production of models.

3D Printing: PAGE 7 .Paper material is the base material used in this technology. In this method layers of adhesivecoated plastic. paper or metal laminates are fused together and cut into shape with the aid of a knife or a laser cutter.

in order to produce a particular part. that would be applied to the manufacturing of solid objects. This is an additive fabrication technique. PAGE 8 . 3D has a great potential to prove useful in the production applications. 3D printing technology actually is said to be more affordable. Rapid manufacturing is an advanced form of this technology. easy to use and speedy than the additive manufacturing technologies. Though production applications are actually dominated by the additive manufacturing technologies. Rapid prototyping.This too is an additive manufacturing technology and involves the use of various materials. This process involves the sequential delivery of energy. In this technology successive layers of material create a 3D object. material (material sometimes may not be used) to the specified points in space. is now entering into rapid manufacturing which is more advanced as compared to rapid prototyping machines as it can be used for large products.

performance and output. ideas. The Rapid prototype that is developed by the process of rapid prototyping is based on the performance of earlier designs. a significant and essential part of the system designing process and it is believed to decrease the project cost and risk. Seeing the efficiency of rapid prototypes. 3) Easily the errors in previous design can be detected and errors can be rectified. easily one can get the user feedback. The user can give an early feedback regarding the prototype. Then and there it can be tested for its functionality. This helps in easy implementation of the ideas and better communication of ideas.1. This is rendered from a CAD system. Here the physical objects are automatically created using solid freeform fabrication. As this program makes different models simpler. Rapid prototyping is a well defined process of developing software. popularly known as SFF. functionality. Some of the advantages of rapid prototyping systems are: 1) Reduction in project cost and risk. 5) Greater visualization capabilities are improved right from the first stage if designing. This process of development of working model is quite quick. Factors like manufacturability. 6) All the designing flaws can be detected easily before the manufacturing of the product starts. 2) Can be used in different industries. A rapid rapid prototyping system by and large involves making of a 3D objects based on design data. it is possible to correct the defects or problems in the design by taking corrective measures. Hence. designer and user can discuss the product and work forward to get the best product. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like. Rapid prototyping is. 7) Manufacturer.2 DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES OF RP Rapid prototype is a process wherein a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various product features like design. PAGE 9 . This helps to give the user higher output product. generally.1. presentation and output. a Full color 3D analysis model can be easily created. There are many advantages of rapid prototyping. features. robustness and functionality of design are checked before sending it for production. The product can be produced if the prototype meets the requirements of all designing objectives after sufficient refinement. 4) Only upon the complete satisfaction the complete product is designed.

aerospace. Professionals have made use rapid prototyping systems wisely. Rapid prototyping systems build parts in an additive. A 60 to 90 percent reduction in prototype creation has a direct impact on how quickly companies can release their products to market. Rapid prototyping systems are used in industries such as designing and engineering. medical. you would like to know the industries where this system works well. ANOTHER ADVANTAGES OF RP In today's world. they have been able to meet the future requirements of the customers more successfully. the time spent using rapid prototyping techniques has decreased by as much as 90 percent compared to other prototype methods. companies are using rapid prototyping techniques to build parts for testing and analysis. These systems can be used over and over again to build a variety of different parts within their build size. Because of the competition to get products to market more quickly. The next step after making these adjustments is manufacturing. automotive. faster is better. Rapid prototyping techniques hold a number of advantages--like speed. the quicker designers and engineers can analyze it for design flaws and make necessary adjustments. Creating the tooling for injection molding and other conventional prototyping processes can take days. the same model parts can be made within hours. but expensive. Engineering & Manufacturing Services Inc (EMS) is one of the leading provider of rapid prototyping services and rapid prototype models. Using their skill and expertise. In addition. Time to Market The faster a prototype is created. defense.Seeing so many advantages of rapid prototype. tooling can only be used for creating that particular part. PAGE 10 . time to market. With rapid prototyping. Cost Savings/Reduction Creating the tooling for injection molding prototypes is not only laborious. and cost savings--when compared to traditional prototyping methods. Speed According to "The Benefits of Rapid Prototyping". and consumer products. layer-by-layer manner.

while load on etching is brought to a minimum in the semiadditive pattern plating technique. polyphenolsulfone. 2. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. high-precision machines. Stratasys. (b) Mechanical transfer of the sensitizer in the conducting path by image transfer by printing (stamping). Fused-deposition modelling In this technique. and investment casting wax. Like a baker decorating a cake. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. The basic material for fabrication is a laminate with copper foil bonded to the substrate. Selective plating on conducting areas is carried out by several methods such as : (a) Selective desensitization of areas of the catalyst coated surface by exposure to light of suitable wavelength. weaker material or with a perforated junction. fastened to the part either with a second. of Eden Prairie. filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane.2 EXPLAIN THE ADDITIVE PROCESS Additive process : The raw material for the manufacture of PCB by additive or semiadditive technique is basically an unclad laminate and copper which is pattern plated selectively only where it is the fully additive process. MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower. elastomer (96 durometer).1 EXPLAIN THE SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS Subtractive process : This is the most conventional method of getting the circuit pattern. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first.punched in these clad laminates.2. polycarbonate. Supports are built along the way. screen printing or offset printing method. After the platform lowers. The image of the circuit pattern is produced either by printing and screen printing with ink resist or by photofabrication techniques.3 EXPLAIN THE VIRTUAL PROCESS a. PAGE 11 . CLASSIFY THE THREE MAJOR GROUP PROCESS OF RP 2. so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. Through holes are drilled/. 2. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade).

Schematic diagram of stereolithography. b. As shown in the figure below. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. Stereolithography Patented in 1986. PAGE 12 . The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin.Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid.

A sweeper recoats the solidified layer with liquid. such as nylon. This process continues until the part is complete. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. TX. Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia. Afterwards. 3D Systems is the industry leader. CA. PAGE 13 . and metal. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. Because it was the first technique. elastomer. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. into a solid object. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid.Next. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. The technique. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. To this day. Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. Selective Laser sintering Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. shown in Figure 3. c. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. selling more RP machines than any other company. sintering it together.

the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thinwalled sections. Helisys is no longer in business. Next. As of 2001. developed by Helisys of Torrance. where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. During the build. a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. which will have a wood-like texture. Helisys developed several new sheet materials. CA. layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. the roller bonds the second layer to the first. e. The powder tapes produce a "green" part that must be sintered for maximum strength. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. At one time the term was used to refer to a specific company's technology. making it easier to remove during post-processing. Because the models are made of paper. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. but prior to that it was an early generic term for inkjet-based RP. including plastic. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. Laminated-object manufacturing and solid – ground curing In this technique. After the first layer is cut. The term is not often used at present.. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). water-repellent paper. Ballistic – particle manufacturing A rapid prototyping process which deposits materials by means of inkjet technology. and the laser cuts the second layer. BPM. now defunct. the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage.d. Inc. As shown in the figure below. Crosshatching breaks up the extra material. This process is repeated as needed to build the part. and ceramic and metal powder tapes. PAGE 14 .

 Tukar format 3. 3. Next.Solid – ground curing Developed by Cubital. photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. Convert the CAD model to STL format (STL Data). which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer. 4. Create a CAD model of the design (CAD/CAM). This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. EXPLAIN BASIC METHODOLOGY FOR RP PROCESS USE AS A MANUFACTURING STEP IN PRODUCTION. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers (Check drawing error). SGC cures an entire layer at a time.  Mereka bentuk 2. First. 1. Construct the model one layer atop another (Building). Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing.1. 3.  Pemeriksaan reka bentuk.  Pembinaan PAGE 15 . UNDERSTAND DIRECT MANUFACTURING AND RAPID TOOLING. solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. The mask is then exposed to UV light. which is also known as the solider process. Unlike SLA. the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built.

This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. The second step. the object to be built is modeled using a ComputerAided Design (CAD) software package. tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. Solid modelers. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes.5.  Penyudahan CAD Model Creation: First. Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. "like the facets of a cut jewel. the STL (stereolithography. complicated files require more time to pre-process and build. such as Pro/ENGINEER." 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. Clean and finish the model (Post processing). PAGE 16 . therefore.stl format is universal. and will therefore yield better results. so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. but at the cost of bigger file size. Because STL files use planar elements. Large. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation. To establish consistency. is to convert the CAD file into STL format. Since the .

Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary preprocessing software. thereby shortening build time. Build orientation is important for several reasons. PAGE 17 . Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers. and most allow the user to adjust the size. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. needing little human intervention.7 mm thick. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. depending on the build technique. and thin-walled sections. Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.01 mm to 0. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. In addition.Slice the STL File: In the third step. Several programs are available. Most machines are fairly autonomous. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. First. For example. properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. or powdered metal. paper. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. location and orientation of the model. internal cavities.

Sanding. and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Basic methodology for RP process . Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. PAGE 18 .Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. sealing.

To form the mold. 18 First. When the rubber hardens. RAPID TOOLING Indirect Tooling Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. A more useful variant. leaving some ash to be removed. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense. Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates. a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds. LOM models. Likewise. The tools have fairly good accuracy. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. When the binder cures. a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise. DTM sells Trueform polymer. it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. the "green" metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. 2. or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. The part collapses inward when heated. which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings.4. but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters. 3D Systems introduced QuickCast. 4. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes: 1. The pattern must not expand when heated. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems. 3. If sealed and finished. a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. EXPLAIN RAPID TOOLING USES. To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts. Inc. a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. PAGE 19 . a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. The paper shells burn out. are often used. known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process. as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. for use in its SLS machines. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used. the SLA pattern is plated with nickel. so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern. which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose. Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique.

H13 tool steel. Unlike traditional powder metal processing. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster. not merely sintered. Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable. PAGE 20 . Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene. thus shortening cycle time. LENS produces fully dense parts. that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products.000 injection moldings. polystyrene. In another variation. 2. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties. based on MIT’s 3D Printing process. RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes.com) 3. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. and titanium carbide cermets. cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. but some strong strides are being made: 1. Extrude Hone. The resulting mold can produce up to 50. polypropylene and ABS plastic. In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30. in Irwin PA. but the process currently works only for parts with simple. Realization of this objective is still several years away. LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. which then solidifies. Inconel 625. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core. 4.000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. uniform cross sections. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool. Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable. will soon sell a machine. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance.Direct Tooling To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel.mts. since the metal is melted. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. tungsten.

To meet these requirements. Tools often have complex geometries. PAGE 21 . wearresistant.3dprinting. Peter Hilton. president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord. the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. (Direct Shell Production Casting). electro-discharge machining. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process. and have very low surface roughness (about 0. All are expensive and time consuming. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds. In addition. or by hand. so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. because of the extremely high quality required. tools must be hard. A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling. Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories. indirect and direct.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting. MA.5 micrometers root mean square). molds and dies are traditionally made by CNCmachining.5. believes that "tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more" by using rapid tooling and related technologies. Soligen (www. yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter.

the risk of component failure was reduced. or perhaps a technology. For the studied ‘Upper Case” part. minimize sustain engineering changes and increasing the number of variants of products. A technology that is worth looking forward to the future. Rapid Prototyping is the future for the next generation of design and manufacturing with the traditional way of design and manufacturing found that there are many advantages with Rapid Prototyping. 5. 4. The key advantages highlighted are decreasing development time. injection molding. PAGE 22 . which would be able to take over the current technology. 2. Once the required corrections were carried out no more problems were encountered in the subsequent prototype. The main advantages of Rapid Prototyping is the ability to produce physical models using digital methods instead of traditional impression techniques. 3. Rapid Prototyping is an emerging technology that a brighter and efficient future. The disadvantages of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service.CONCLUSION 1. and the further steps of the component’s mass production process could be carried out.

Source: Mohd Zuhri b.wikipedia.REFERENCE 1. http://en.edu/lamancusa/rapidpro/primer/chapter2.com/questions/subtractive-rapidprototyping-process.me.com/1571938 3. Buku rujukan workshop technology 4.psu. http://www.htm#p rocess 6. Mohamed Yusoff UTem Melaka 2007.expertsmind.additive-process-and-virtual-process3019050.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping 2. http://www. PAGE 23 .aspx 5. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.