LESSON 3 CULTURE 1.

Fill in the blanks with one appropriate term from the list below: industrial revolution material culture social Darwinists Social control normative order self-generating material culture survival of the fittest communicative interaction natural selection cultural relativity national boundaries counterculture accommodation acculturation environments linguistic-relativity hypothesis social culture mutations laws assimilation instincts biological folkways assimilation values language mutual values sociobiology traditions mores acculturation Ideas ethnocentrism genetic Norms Ideologies ideas Sanctions Technologies norms cultural infinite patriarchy hegemony subculture civilization accommodation

In the social sciences, _____________________ refers to all the modes of thought, behavior and production that are handed down from one generation to the next by means of _____________________. Sociologists are concerned primarily with aspects of culture that help explain _____________________ organization and behavior. Culture can be viewed as consisting of three major dimensions: _____________________, _____________________ and _____________________. _____________________ are the ways of thinking that organize human consciousness. Among the most important of these are _____________________, socially shared ideas about what is right. _____________________ are specific rules of behavior that are supported or justified by values; _____________________ are norms that are included in a society’s official written codes of behavior. _____________________ combine ideas and norms; there are systems of values and norms that the members of a society are expected to believe in and act on without question. A society’s _____________________ consists of all the things it produces. _____________________ combine norms and material culture; they are the products and the norms for using them that are found in a given culture. _____________________ refers to the set of rules and understandings that control the behavior of individuals and groups in a culture. The wide array of norms that permit a society to achieve relatively peaceful social control is called its _____________________. _____________________ are rewards and punishments for adhering to or violating norms. Strongly sanctioned norms are called _____________________, while more weakly sanctioned norms are known as _____________________.

Similarities among cultures have resulted from the processes by which cultures spread across _____________________ and become part of a larger. As yet there is no evidence that such genes or sets of genes actually exist. aggression and homosexuality may be genetically programmed in human beings. _____________________ techniques allow humans to adapt to any physical or social environment. People who were able to survive in the urban environment created by the _____________________ were viewed as superior human beings. According to the _____________________. _____________________ in organisms occur more of less randomly. human culture is determined by _____________________ factors. Throughout the world women are at the forefront of cultural change. Thus human evolution is not dependent on genes. who came to be known as _____________________. While more research is needed to answer the question. A more widely accepted view of culture denies that human have innate _____________________ and states that at a certain stage in prehistoric times human culture became _____________________. Spencer used the phrase “_____________________” to describe this ability. instead. Although apes have been taught to use language to some extent. an approach known as _____________________. Herbert Spencer and other social thinkers. Recently there has been much debate over whether the culture of the United States is exercising undue dominance or _____________________ over other cultures throughout the world. attempted to apply Darwin’s theory to humans’ ability to adapt to social environments. it is clear that in many regions of the world there remain extremely strong and diverse cultures that are able to maintain their own _____________________ and _____________________. A less extreme form of that hypothesis recognizes the _____________________ influences of culture and language. According to Darwin’s theory of _____________________. language also determines the possibilities for a culture’s norms beliefs and values. human language is unique in that it allows its speakers to express an _____________________ number of thoughts and ideas that can persist even after their originators are gone. The spread of civilizations can be explained by three processes: _____________________. Mutations that enable an individual organism to survive and reproduce are passed on to the next generation. According to the sociobiologists such behaviors as incest avoidance. The learning of culture is made possible by _____________________. A more recent attempt to attribute social phenomena to biological processes is _____________________.One of the most hotly debated questions in the social sciences is how much. . To understand other cultures it is necessary to suspend judgment about those cultures. It is this process that permits animals and plants to adapt to new _____________________. A _____________________ may be defined as a cultural complex formed by the identical major cultural features of a number of particular societies. challenging norms of _____________________ that maintain the dominance of men over women. if at all. _____________________ and _____________________. The notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other is called _____________________. more advanced culture. A key feature of civilizations is that they invariably expand beyond their original boundaries. which refers to efforts to link _____________________ factors with the social behavior of animals.

less powerful society is able to preserve its culture even after prolonged contact with a major civilization. b. The process by which culturally distinct groups within a larger civilization adopt the language. the process by which successful cultural adaptations are passed down from one generation to the next. hegemony v. but if it challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society.When people from one civilization incorporate norms and values from other cultures into their own. ___ 5. counterculture aa. l. culture ideas norms material culture values laws ideologies technologies social control normative order sanctions mores folkways natural selection o. ___ 6. cultural relativity u. f. j. ___ 2. ethnocentrism t. i. (If a distinct people fails to assimilate fully. social Darwinism q. _____________________ has taken place. values or norms that set them apart from that culture. the relative success of organisms with specific genetic mutations in reproducing new generations with the new trait. . a group of people who hold many of the values and norms of the larger culture but also hold certain beliefs. ___ 4. a. subculture z. civilization w. ___ 3. the set of rules and understandings that control the behavior of individuals and groups in a particular culture. accommodation ___ 1. behavior and production that are handed down from one generation to the next by communicative interaction rather than by genetic transmission. sociobiology r. the tendency to judge other cultures as inferior to one’s own. c. linguistic-relativity hypothesis s. the ways of thinking that organize human consciousness. the belief that language determined the possibilities for thought and action in any given culture. ___ 7. ___ 9. the hypothesis that all human behavior is determined by genetic factors. For each of the following terms. ___ 10. e. all the modes of thought. values and norms of the host civilization and gain equal statuses in its institutions is termed _____________________. h. cultural evolution p. it may become a _____________________). g. k. assimilation y. identify the correct definition and enter the appropriate letter in the blank in front of the definition. ___ 8. strongly sanctioned norms. d. acculturation x. ___ 11. n. 2. the products and the norms for using them that are found in a given culture. m. it is referred to as a _____________________. _____________________ is said to occur. When a smaller.

institutions 3. the process by which culturally distinct groups in a larger civilization adopt the norms. values and language of the host civilization and are able to gain equal statuses in its groups and institutions. systems of values and norms that the members of a society are expected to believe in and act on without question. collected in codes or manuals of behavior and interpreted and applied by other specialists. specific rules of behavior. ___ 25. mores b. all of the above 2. ___ 18. a microwave oven c. patterns of possessing and using the products of culture. weakly sanctioned norms. Encircle the correct answer to each question. ___ 16.___ 12. the Declaration of Independence d. ___ 24. The ideas that support or justify norms are: a. ___ 21. Homer’s Iliad b. the process by which a smaller. values b. ___ 20. ___ 19. the process by which members of a civilization incorporate norms and values from other cultures into their own. ideologies c. from the answers provided below. the ideas that support or justify norms. Which of the following is a cultural product? a. rewards and punishments for abiding by or violating norms. ___ 22. 3. ___ 13. ___ 23. the notion that people who are more successful at adapting to the environment in which they find themselves are more likely to survive and to have children who will be successful. less powerful society is able to preserve the major features of its culture even after prolonged contact with a stronger culture. under power or influence. folkways . 1. ___ 15. ___ 26. a subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society and establishes an alternative lifestyle. ___ 14. the recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their environment. ___ 27. ___ 17. Laws forbidding murder and robbery are an example of: a. the array of norms that permit a society to achieve relatively peaceful social control. a cultural complex formed by the identical major cultural features of a number of societies. norms that are written by specialists. technologies d.

it can be used to express thoughts and ideas that can persist after their originators are gone d. ethnolinguistic perspective 9. Charles Darwin d. cultural relativity c. a folkway d. The view that it is impossible through intentional action to improve on the course of cultural evolution is known as: a. William Graham Summer 5.c. An advanced culture like that of ancient Rome is called: a. genetically programmed c. acculturation 10. linguistic-relativity hypothesis b. the incest taboo is: a. biological reductionism b. sociobiological hypothesis c. ethnocentrism 6. cross-cultural perspective d. determined by legislation 7. Herbert Spencer c. The originator of the theory of natural selection was: a. ethnocentrism b. None of the above is unique to human language. assimilation d. a subculture . According to sociobiologists. formal norms d. Edward O. both a and c 4. words can be used as symbols for things and relationships b. The Europeans’ belief that the native peoples of the “Indies” would benefit from contact with European civilization is an example of: a. Wilson b. social Darwinism c. a cultural norm b. The unique feature of human language is that: a. creationism d. a cultural complex b. 8. it can be learned through observation and imitation c. The idea that language determines the possibility for thought and action in a culture is known as the: a.

protest culture d. which of the following is said to have occurred? a.Social scientists are concerned primarily with such aspect of culture as literature and theater. When a subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society establishes an alternative lifestyle. assimilation c. accommodation d. Ideologies combine values and norms that all the members of a society are expected to believe in and act on without question. T/F 3. people of Cuban origin may be described as a: a. social movement 14. acculturation b. assimilation b.c. counterculture c. an empire 11. civilization b. resistance 4. immigration 12. T/F 2. assimilation c. Within the United States. less powerful society is able to preserve the major features of its culture even after prolonged contact with another society. none of the above 15. When one culture is wiped out by another. When a smaller. microculture d. TRUE or FALSE: T/F 1. Laws. rules and regulations are examples of informal norms. The process by which people incorporate norms and values from other cultures is known as: a. subculture 13. counterculture c. accommodation d. a civilization d. which of the following is said to have occurred? a. acculturation b. microculture b. . accommodation d. acculturation c. it is called a: a.

T/F 5. sociobiology has drawn severe criticism from both social scientists and biologists.T/F 4. . When applied to human societies. There is little that other cultures can do to overcome the dominance of American commercial culture.