Glorious Revolution


Glorious Revolution
"The Bloodless Revolution" redirects here. For a history of the vegetarian movement, see The Bloodless Revolution (book).

The Glorious Revolution

The Prince of Orange lands at Torbay Other names Revolution of 1688 War of the English Succession Bloodless Revolution Participants Location Date Result English, Welsh and Scottish society British Isles 1688–1689 [1]

Replacement of James II by William and Mary Jacobite war in Scotland Williamite war in Ireland War with France; England and Scotland join Grand Alliance Drafting of the English Bill of Rights

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The Glorious Revolution,[a] also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England. King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition by members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king's Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth of the King's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10 June (Julian calendar).[1] This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive, his daughter Mary, a Protestant and the wife of William of Orange, with young James as heir apparent. The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely. Some of the most influential leaders of the Tories united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to resolve the crisis by inviting William of Orange to England,[2] which the stadtholder, who feared an Anglo-French alliance, had indicated as a condition for a military intervention. After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, and anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed, largely because of a lack of resolve shown by the king. However, this was followed by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland.[3] In England's geographically-distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December, James and his wife fled the nation; James, however, returned to London for a two-week period that culminated in his final departure for France on 23 December. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William in February 1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs. The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both socially and politically: Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament for over a century; they were also denied commissions in the army, and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic, the former being a prohibition still in force. The Revolution led to limited toleration for nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights of 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power. Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. It has been seen as the last successful invasion of England.[4] It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the

and James's supporters were the high church Anglican Tories. the resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch Navies shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and later to Great Britain. In May 1686. albeit inaccurately. When James inherited the English throne in 1685. Abandoning the Tories. His Catholicism was of concern to many. James decided to obtain from the English courts of the common law a ruling which affirmed his power to dispense with Acts of Parliament. but the fact that he had no son. and his daughters were Protestants. James hoped to build a coalition that would advance Catholic emancipation. did not ban John Sharp from preaching after he gave an anti-Catholic sermon. In Scotland. was a "saving grace". Dissenters.Wikipedia:No original research 3 Background During his three-year reign.[8] In April 1687. James looked to form a 'King's party' as a James II King of England & James VII King of Scots. on the one hand. and for them.[5] and is an expression that is still used by the British Parliament. between the Divine Right of Kings and the political rights of the Parliament of England. James's attempt to relax the penal laws alienated his natural supporters. which was composed mostly of Tories. Eleven out of the twelve judges ruled in favour of dispensing power. which left him alienated from both parties in England. and nonconformists. as their president. and on the other. King James II became directly involved in the political battles in England between Catholicism and Protestantism. The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. James responded by sending some ecclesiastical commissioners to hold a visitation and install him as president. counterweight to the Anglican Tories.[6] The Glorious Revolution is also occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution. James refused to view Hough's election as valid and told the fellows to elect the Bishop of Oxford. his supporters on the Parliament of Scotland increased attempts to force the Covenanters to renounce their faith and accept episcopalian rule of the church by the monarch.[7] When Henry Compton. James ordered his removal. Oxford to elect a Catholic. he had much support in the 'Loyal Parliament'. The low church Whigs had failed in their attempt to pass the Exclusion Bill to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681.Glorious Revolution 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force. however. in comparison to that war (or even the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685) the deaths in the conflict of 1688 were mercifully few. the Bishop of London. The . Anthony Farmer. The English Civil War (also known as the Great Rebellion) was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688. The fellows believed Farmer ineligible under the college's statutes and so elected John Hough instead. By allying himself with the Catholics. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter as well as the Solicitor General Heneage Finch. because the Tories viewed this as tantamount to disestablishment of the Church of England. However. James's greatest political problem was his Catholicism. The college statutes required them to fill the vacancy within a certain time and so could not wait for a further royal nomination. so in 1687 James supported King of Ireland and Duke of Normandy the policy of religious toleration and issued the Declaration of Indulgence. James ordered the fellows of Magdalen College.

Scotland and Ireland was now likely. More far-reaching purges were applied to the towns: in November a regulating committee was founded to operate the purges. during the first three months of 1688. In October James gave orders for the lords lieutenants in the provinces to provide three standard questions to all members of the Commission of the Peace: would they consent to the repeal of the Test Act and the penal laws. 4 Group portrait of the Seven Bishops whom James ordered imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1688. James instituted a wholesale purge of those in offices under the crown opposed to James's plan. and they were requested to accept the Declaration of Indulgence. The prospect of a Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms of England. In April 1688.[1] James ordered writs to be issued for a general election. William Sancroft. James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence and ordered all clergymen to read it in their churches. until then. Therefore. When they refused most of the fellows were ejected and replaced by Catholics. but who were acquitted of charges of seditious libel. would they assist candidates who would do so. James was convinced by addresses from Dissenters that he had their support and so could dispense with relying on Tories and Anglicans. In December it was announced that all the offices of deputy lieutenants and Justices of the Peace would be revised. who were replaced with Catholics. Matters came to a head in June 1688. the throne would have passed to his daughter. when the King fathered a son. and by 1688 James had more than 34. . It was feared that the location was intended to overawe the City. Mary. hundreds of those asked the three questions who gave hostile replies were dismissed. When the Archbishop of Canterbury.000 men under arms in his three kingdoms.[11] Corporations were purged by agents given wide discretionary powers in an attempt to create a permanent royal electoral machine. and six other bishops (the Seven Bishops) wrote to James asking him to reconsider his policies. To his opponents in Parliament this seemed like a prelude to arbitrary rule.Glorious Revolution fellows then agreed to the Bishop of Oxford as their president but James required that they admit they had been in the wrong and ask for his pardon. so James prorogued Parliament without gaining Parliament's consent. near the capital. James prepared to pack Parliament with his supporters so that it would repeal the Test Act and the penal laws.[9] In 1687. but at trial they were acquitted to the cheers of the London crowd. on 24 August 1688.[14] The army in Ireland was purged of Protestants.[10] In August the lieutenancy was remodelled and in September over one thousand members of the city livery companies were ejected. the English regiments of the army were encamped at Hounslow. At this time. a Protestant. James.[12] Finally.[13] James also created a large standing army and employed Catholics in positions of power within it. they were arrested on charges of seditious libel.

In 1685 he sent the Scottish and English mercenary regiments of his army to England to assist in putting down the Monmouth Rebellion.[22] In August 1687 Count William Nassau de Zuylestein was sent to England. headed by Robert Spencer.[21] After having been assured by James that all rumours about a French alliance were malevolent fabrications. crisis he saw an opportunity to prevent an Anglo-French alliance stadtholder of Guelders. to persuade the Dissenters not to support James and to reassure moderate Catholics. as this would have delivered a blow to the English opposition.[15] However. Zealand.[17] Soon however. Since he had become king the relation between James and his nephew and son-in-law had gradually deteriorated. Zuylestein . James's refusal to enter any anti-French coalition and his efforts to reorganise the Royal Navy increased William's suspicions. Before the birth of James's son on 10 June.[19] In November 1686 James had wished to gain William's support for the repeal of the Test Acts. in the developing English William III. Holland. In the previous years the French navy had enormously grown in strength and the Dutch Republic would no longer be able to resist a combined Anglo-French attack.Glorious Revolution 5 Conspiracy Mary had a husband. 2nd Earl of Sunderland.[20] William's envoy Everhard van Weede Dijkvelt visited England between February and May 1687. Scotland and Ireland. ostensibly to send condolences due to the death of the queen's mother. William had been trying to influence English politics for well over a year.[16] William was also stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic. King of England. with letters of varying importance from leading English statesmen. It is still a matter of controversy whether the initiative for the conspiracy was taken by the English or by the stadtholder and his wife. Dijkvelt returned to the Republic. because of their anti-Catholic position.[18] William feared that even English neutrality would not suffice and that control over the Royal Navy was a prerequisite for a successful naval campaign against France. her cousin William Henry of Orange. which action had generally been interpreted as a covert bid for kingship. William had already acquired the reputation of being the main champion in Europe of the Protestant cause against Catholicism and French absolutism. William assumed it was but the first step towards a total re-Catholicisation of England and was unable to explain how James could hope to achieve this goal unless he had concluded a secret alliance with France. Utrecht and Overijssel. letting Grand Pensionary Gaspar Fagel publish an open letter to the English people in November 1687 deploring the religious policy of James. At first William welcomed the promise of a less pro-French policy. by carrying out a military intervention directed against James. Both were Protestants and grandchildren of Charles I of England. This suited the desires of several English politicians who intended to depose James. in a context of international tensions caused by the revocation by Louis XIV of the Edict of Nantes and the disputed succession of Cologne and the Electorate of the Palatinate. that he was not a Presbyterian. should be replaced by some Catholic French heir. The Quaker William Penn was sent to The Hague but William opposed repeal.[1] William had been third in the line of succession. James's policy of religious tolerance caused tensions to rise between them. proposing that Mary and William. William also instructed Dijkvelt to let it be known that he would support the Church of England. and bring England to the anti-French side. James tried again to gain William's support but William responded by advising James to keep to the law and not to try to extend his prerogative powers. instructed to persuade James to help contain French aggression. then in the preliminary stages of joining the War of the Grand Alliance against France. there was a strong faction at the English court.

The English government intercepted very few of these means of communication. and the most valued in the nation.[23] The correspondence between William and the English politicians was. disguised as a common sailor. when France and England concluded a naval agreement that stipulated that the French would finance an English squadron in The Channel. and in the name of others who trusted them. couriers for the purpose were sometimes used and all Dutch diplomats travelling to and from either country carried the correspondence. Another way was used to keep this clandestine correspondence flowing: letters were sent in merchant ships between London and Amsterdam or Rotterdam. even more inimical to the Dutch state. However. James's packed Parliament would be. fast yachts and small vessels were used for special courier services. he asked for a formal invitation to be issued by a group of leading English statesmen. It is certain however that in April 1688. however. as conspiracy neared completion in 1688. The Seven consisted of Lord Shrewsbury. Lord Devonshire. and so in April. Lord Danby. Henry Compton. and many suspected he was supposititious. author of the Invitation to William. as this would be after the final customs clearance.[26] 6 William seeks English commitment to an invasion William laid careful plans over a number of months for an invasion. sent by ordinary post to genuine addresses in either country and then distributed. Devices were used such as ending a postscript with "etc.[24] It has been suggested that the crisis caused by the prospect of a new Catholic heir made William decide to invade the next summer as early as November 1687. if he was invited by some men of the best interest. with outward bound letters often put on board below Gravesend.[27] In May. with Zuylestein sending back to William letters from them. The Prince answered. Edward Russell. at first.[28] In June. William would not invade England without assurances of English support. He has been described as "the [23] great wheel on which the Revolution rolled". or amenable. he seriously began to prepare for a military intervention and seek political and financial support for such an undertaking. Shortly before the invasion. he believed he could be ready by the end of September to come over. Lord Lumley. which seemed to be the beginning of a formal alliance.[1] reaching him in The Hague on 30 June." which meant spaces were actually written in white or invisible ink. which he hoped to execute in September 1688. invite him to come and rescue the nation and the religion. and have discussions with English statesmen. with the letter to William dated 18 June (Julian calendar). Also. Russell told William that the English opposition to James would not wait any longer for help and they would rise against James in any event.[25] but this is disputed. The invitation declared: Henry Sydney. who should both in their own name. William sent Count Zuylestein to England.Glorious Revolution was sent in part to see how successful. the English government sometimes used to disrupt this correspondence by holding up the whole mail delivery system.[30] did the Immortal Seven (who consisted of one bishop and six nobles) decide to comply. —Gilbert Burnet. and Henry Sidney. that. . ostensibly to congratulate James on the birth of the Prince of Wales but in reality to communicate with William's associates. which was signed by six noblemen (both Whigs and Tories) and one bishop. Gilbert Burnet recorded a conversation at the end of April between William and Admiral Edward Russell: So Russel put the Prince to explain himself what he intended to do. William feared that if he did not now head the conspiracy the English would set up a republic.[29] Only after the Prince of Wales had been born in June. and dispatched by Rear Admiral Herbert. when fast delivery and secrecy was essential.

the people are so generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government. Nothing comparable happened within the Royal Navy. Ernest Augustus and the Elector of Saxony. and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance. For this it was essential that Austria continued opposing the French demands regarding Cologne and the Palatinate. it is almost certain. if they had such a protection to countenance their rising. assured William that they would remain neutral. The officers were enlisted within the British armies and so favoured that the established officer corps began to fear for its position. we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are. and that James's army "would be very much divided among themselves. For this William needed funding by the city of Amsterdam. however. who are desirous of a change. the emperor approved of the expedition. Learning that William promised not to persecute the Catholics in England. Johann von Görtz. When this was refused. it became clear that William had surprisingly strong support within the English army. though it had been feared they would take the French side. usual Stuart vices of cryptocatholicism. promising in turn to try making peace with the Ottoman Empire to free his forces for a campaign in the West.[31] The Seven went on to claim that "much the greatest part of the nobility and gentry" were dissatisfied and would rally to William. In May.. . in relation to their religion.and very many of the common soldiers do daily shew such an aversion to the Popish religion.. that your Highness may be assured.Glorious Revolution We have great reason to believe.[36] The next concern was to assemble a powerful invasion force – contrary to the wishes of the English conspirators.. who predicted that a token force would be sufficient. privy councillor of Hesse-Cassel. as would secure them from being destroyed. he asked that at least those willing would be released from their martial oath to be free to return to Britain.[32] The Seven believed that the situation would be much worse before another year due to James's plans to remodel the army by the means of a packed Parliament or. presenting William as being. that there is the greatest probability imaginable of great numbers of deserters.. on 4 September 1688 he would join an alliance with the Republic against France. In total 104 officers and 44 soldiers returned. In January 1688 he had forbidden any of his subjects to serve the Dutch and had demanded that the Republic dissolve its mercenary Scottish and English regiments.. and who. would willingly contribute to it. there is not one in ten who would do them any service in such a war". Much of the later "spontaneous" support for William had been carefully organised by him and his agents.[34] William's confidant Hans Willem Bentinck launched a propaganda campaign in England. On 14 August Lord Churchill wrote to William: "I owe it to God and my country to put my honour into the hands of Your Highness". John George III. and debauchery.[35] 7 Military and financial support For William the English problem was inextricably intertwined with the situation in Germany. a situation brought about by James himself. In August. should the parliamentary route fail. to Vienna to secretly ensure the support of the Holy Roman Emperor. Only if the attention of Louis XIV was directed to the east. and less able to defend ourselves. in fact. To this William consented as it would purify his army of Jacobite elements. many of the officers being so discontented that they continue in their service only for a subsistence. according to the pamphlets.and amongst the seamen. William sent an envoy. we believe. absolutism. Leopold I. —invitation by The Seven. through violent means which would "prevent all possible means of relieving ourselves". liberties and properties (all which have been greatly invaded). The Duke of Hanover.. a true Stuart but one blessedly free from the. there are nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom. claims after the event by certain captains that they had somehow prevented the English fleet to engage seem to have been little more than attempts at self-aggrandisement. and they are in such expectation of their prospects being daily worse. could William hope to intervene in England without French interference.[33] The Seven also promised to rally to William upon his landing in England and would "do all that lies in our power to prepare others to be in as much readiness as such an action is capable of".

The standard summer equipment of twenty warships was secretly doubled.[39] when asked what security he desired. handed two letters from the French king. In the summer the Dutch navy was expanded to 9000 sailors on the pretext of fighting the Dunkirkers. provided a loan to William. though a relation with the invasion has been denied. By early September. and Celle to man Dutch border fortresses in order to free an equal number of Dutch elite mercenary troops for use against England. apparently proving that real war with France was imminent.[45] totalling about a hundred vessels. In the second they were advised not to interfere with the French policy in Germany.[37] As the Dutch would typically double or triple their total army strength in wartime. William Egon of Fürstenberg. but a tariff war waged by Louis from 1687 against the Republic and French import limitations on herring. to the States-General of the Netherlands. had precisely the opposite effect: many members became extremely suspicious. Hesse-Cassel. Bentinck. The pope had refused to confirm Louis's favourite candidate for the bishopric of Cologne. suggested postponing the invasion until the following year. but without much result. For the immediate future James had to hold his own. William had great trouble convincing the Dutch class of city and provincial rulers. In Germany. that such an expensive expedition was really necessary. From 22 September.[1] Louis XIV seized all Dutch ships present in French ports. The second message proved that the main French effort was directed to the east. who had already been sent in May to Brandenburg to recruit. he personally feared that the French might attack the Republic through Flanders when its army was tied up in England. especially if the Dutch were intimidated. Shortly afterwards. often forcing William to moderate his policies. James hurriedly distanced himself from the first message.[40] Even Pope Innocent XI. you will surely repay me. On 13 July 1688 (Gregorian calendar) it was decided to build 21 new warships. Württemberg. the numbers were low enough to be explained as a limited precaution against French aggression. the Comte d'Avaux. Also. who partly financed the invasion . Additionally. four million of which would ultimately be paid for by a state loan. On 9 September (Gregorian calendar) the French envoy Jean Antoine de Mesmes.616 German mercenaries from Brandenburg. the French king decided to execute a lightning campaign into Germany before the emperor could shift his troops to the West. Lord Danby. had outraged the wealthy merchants. Louis also hoped to keep his Turkish ally in the war this way. Suasso answered: "If you are victorious. not the north.[43] In the first they were warned not to attack James.[44] This however.000 – overseas. only after secret and difficult negotiations by Bentinck with the hesitant Amsterdam burgomasters during June could 260 transports be hired. Nevertheless. Enraged. so there was no immediate danger of a French invasion for the Republic itself.[41] Total costs were seven million guilders. therefore negotiated contracts from 20 July (Gregorian calendar) for 13. though Louis had meant it to be a mere Francisco Lopes Suasso.[38] Further financial support was obtained from the most disparate sources: the Jewish banker Francisco Lopes Suasso lent two million guilders.Glorious Revolution then the world's main financial centre. a major Dutch export. the regents. the burghers were uneasy about the prospect of denuding their homeland of its defences by sending the field army – roughly half of the total peace-time strength of the Dutch States Army of about 30. William was on the brink of cancelling the entire expedition when French policy played into his hand. something Louis expected him to be quite capable of. if not. Marshal Frederick Schomberg was instructed by William to prepare for a Western campaign. an inveterate enemy of Louis XIV of France.[42] 8 The final decision to invade is taken Despite all the preparations. matters had come to a head. the loss is mine". trying to convince the States-General that there was no secret Anglo-French alliance against them. In earlier years Amsterdam had been strongly pro-French. who had known of the invasion plans since May. One of the "Seven".

could not remain secret. Despite being assisted in it by the regular Dutch fleet and field army. Embarkations. the Rotterdam shipping magnate who had organised the transport fleet. William denied any intention "to remove the King from the throne or become master of England". sailing conspicuously on the new frigate Den Briel. had been completed on 8 October. as the States-General made explicit. On 30 September/10 October (Julian/Gregorian calendars) William issued the Declaration of The Hague (actually written by Fagel). under the nominal command of Rear-Admiral Herbert. property and a free Parliament. The States-General allowed the core regiments of the Dutch field army to participate under command of Marshall Schomberg. fearing a French-English alliance. Louis XIV threatened the Dutch with an immediate declaration of war.. his attempt to change the situation in England was. Liberties. William declared: Equestrian portrait of William III by Jan Wyck.[46] when England and France had jointly attacked the Republic. even though most of the new mercenaries had not yet arrived. and useful to their friends and allies. The English envoy Ignatius White. he. gathered in secret session and approved the operation. acting supreme commander.[48][49] in which he assured that his only aim was to maintain the Protestant religion. as was usual. Though William was himself Admiral-General of the Republic. the government of the most important Dutch province. On 29 September the States of Holland. They accepted William's argument that a preventive strike was necessary to avoid a repeat of the events of 1672. 5 November 1688 It is both certain and evident to all men. to the coast. On 26 September the powerful city council of Amsterdam decided to officially support the invasion. the same day James issued a proclamation to the English nation that it should prepare for a Dutch invasion to ward off conquest.[36] 9 Invasion Embarkation of the army and the Declaration of The Hague The Dutch preparations.".. agreeing to make the English "King and Nation live in a good relation. warned his country: "an absolute conquest is intended under the specious and ordinary pretences of religion. i. as soon as they find the occasion". officially a private family affair of William. Torbay. accompanied by Lieutenant-Admiral Willem Bastiaensz Schepers. of the Dutch navy. and the expedition was that day openly approved by the States of Holland. the Marquess d'Albeville. merely acting in his capacity of concerned nephew and son-in-law to James. established by the lawful authority in it. He would respect the position of James.[47] He sailed on the Leyden. that the public peace and happiness of any state or kingdom cannot be preserved. The States ordered a Dutch fleet of 53 warships to escort the troop transports. where the Laws.Glorious Revolution warning. "an attempt to bring this state to its ultimate ruin and subjugation. who for the occasion was appointed Lieutenant-Admiral-General. On 27 September Louis crossed the Rhine into Germany to attack Philippsburg and William began to move the Dutch field army from the eastern borders.000 copies of the English translation by Gilbert Burnet were distributed after the landing in England. This fleet was in fact commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest on the Cortgene and Vice-Admiral Philips van Almonde on the Provincie Utrecht but in consideration of English sensitivities placed. on 6 October. liberty. abstained from operational command. commemorating the landing at Brixham. not an undertaking of the Dutch Republic as such. of which 60. and Customs. install a free parliament and investigate the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales. started on 22 September (Gregorian calendar). where it had trained on the Mookerheide. should they carry out their plans.e. and especially to this State". though carried out with great speed. are openly .

Scotland.[51] On 4/14 October William responded to the allegations by James in a second declaration. but also a very vulnerable one. Louis had in fact delayed his threats against the Dutch until early September because he assumed it then would be too late in the season to set the expedition in motion anyway. and to take such an effectual care.[50] William went on to condemn James's advisers for overturning the religion. He assumed they would equip their full battle fleet. For three weeks the invasion fleet was prevented by adverse south-westerly gales from departing from the naval port of Hellevoetsluis and Catholics all over the Netherlands and the British kingdoms held prayer sessions that this "popish wind" might endure. and Ireland by the use of the suspending and dispensing power. is endeavoured to be introduced. more especially where the alteration of Religion is endeavoured. had not activated any heavier ships – but because it was now so late in the season and conditions on board deteriorated rapidly. "Therefore". avoid battle. and liberties of England. 1st Baron Dartmouth decided to place his fleet at the Gunfleet near the Medway. nor of their Civil Rights. and that a religion. they decided to sail in convoy and. a free and lawful Parliament assembled as soon as is possible". When Admiral George Legge. above all. that the inhabitants of the said state or kingdom may neither be deprived of their Religion. which he himself would for financial reasons be unable to match: in October about thirty English ships-of-the-line had been assembled. to lower the cost of the invasion. However. if their reaction proved negative. all third rates or fourth rates. typically such an enterprise would take at least some months.Glorious Revolution transgressed and annulled.[53] Being ready after the last week of September / first week of October would normally have meant that the Dutch could have profited from the last spell of good weather. James therefore merely suggested to bring the fleet farther out. This was influenced by his belief the Dutch might well attack France instead and his expectation that they would first seek a naval victory before daring to invade – and that it thus would be advantageous to refuse battle. by the blessing of God. as well as his purging of the judiciary. the Religion and Worship of God.[52] The swiftness of the embarkations surprised all foreign observers. in a rather withdrawn location. he declined positioning this fleet at The Downs. Whether he had any at that moment is still controversial. and. William continued. and to carry over with us a force sufficient. on 14/24 October it became the famous "Protestant Wind" by turning to the east. to defend us from the violence of those evil Counsellors. —William of Orange. Fearing a surprise attack. William also condemned James's attempt to repeal the Test Acts and the penal laws through pressuring individuals and waging an assault on parliamentary boroughs.. Oxford. Liberties and customs.. but to have.this our Expedition is intended for no other design. while heavier vessels remained laid up. for striking into the southern North Sea or the Channel the most convenient position. This year they came early however.[56] . that is established among them.[55] Indeed it had originally been the Dutch intention to defeat the English first to free the way for the transport fleet – though they too. upon which those who are most immediately concerned in it are indispensably bound to endeavour to preserve and maintain the established Laws. the establishment of the "manifestly illegal" commission for ecclesiastical causes and its use to suspend the Bishop of London and to remove the Fellows of Magdalen College.[54] 10 English naval strategy James only in late August seriously began to consider the possibility of a Dutch invasion and then overestimated the size of the naval force the Dutch would bring against him. laws. "we have thought fit to go over to England. if possible. as the autumn storms tend to begin in the third week of that month. James's attempt to pack Parliament was in danger of removing "the last and great remedy for all those evils". denying any intention to become king or conquer England. though he well understood it otherwise risked becoming locked up in the Thames estuary by the same easterly wind that would allow the Dutch to cross. which is contrary to law.

212 horse and foot. were shown next to the House of Orange's motto.000 livres. The wind made a return impossible and Plymouth was unsuitable as it had a garrison. William came ashore on 5/15 November.[71] William had his personal guard regiment with him. All is over". William regarded the interference in military matters by non-military personnel with disgust but he was in good humour at this moment and responded with a delicate reproof: "Well. even Laplanders[53] as well as "200 Blacks brought from the Plantations of the Netherlands in America". having lost only one ship that grounded.[68][69] He also brought 20.[65] During the next two days the army disembarked in calm weather. Scots. In response to the threat James had raised five new regiments of foot and five of horse.[62] English naval command now considered to try blockading Hellevoetsluis but decided against it because it was feared that the English fleet would founder on the Dutch coast.[63] Taking advantage of a wind again turned to the east. there were Dutch. what do you think of predestination now?"[65] The English squadron under Lord Dartmouth was forced by the same change in wind to shelter in Portsmouth harbour. Russell told Burnet: "You may go to prayers. near Brixham. Swiss. about seventy supply vessels and sixty fishing vessels serving as landing craft.[35] On 3/13 November the invasion fleet entered the English Channel through the Strait of Dover in an enormous square formation. Rapin de Thoyras. William's cavalry and dragoons amounted to 3.000 stand of arms to equip his English supporters. as well as bringing in Scottish and Irish soldiers. with full colours flying and the military bands playing.[53] among which 49 warships of more than twenty cannon (eight could count as third rates of 60–68 cannon. Je maintiendrai ("I will maintain").[67] compared to James's total forces of about 30. enabling the fleet to sail into Torbay.[57] William's fleet. The words Pro Religione et Libertate ("For Liberty and [the Protestant] Religion"). the slogan of William's ancestor William the Silent while leading the Dutch Revolt against Catholic Spain. Including supply train his force consisted of about 15.[62] Thus they passed twice in sight of the English fleet. with the English fleet in pursuit. William intended to land at Torbay but due to fog the fleet sailed past it by mistake. Louis XIV also sent James 300. the Den Briel (Brill in English). It changed course to the south however when the wind turned more to the north. resupplied and re-equipped with new horses. firing musket volleys.660. 76 fluyts to carry the soldiers. and Swedish regiments. German. Doctor. described it as the most magnificent and affecting spectacle that was ever seen by human eyes.000 men aboard roughly twice the size of the Spanish Armada – and assembled in a tenth of the time – consisted of 463 ships. 120 small transports to carry five thousand horses. On 19/29 October William's fleet departed from Hellevoetsluis and got approximately halfway between the Republic and England when the wind changed to the northwest and a gale scattered the fleet. 28 galliots.000 men.[35] William brought over 11. the Dutch Blue Guards. Many of the mercenaries were Catholic. the invasion fleet departed again on 1/11 November and sailed north in the direction of Harwich where Bentinck had a landing site prepared. At this point. with about 40. At that moment however the wind changed and the fog lifted. Despite suffering from sea-sickness William refused to go ashore and the fleet reassembled. His standard was hoisted. The troops were lined up on deck. English. Devon.[72] . the right and left of the fleet saluting Dover and Calais simultaneously. displaying the arms of Nassau quartered with those of England. Doctor.[58][59] Most warships had been provided by the Admiralty of Amsterdam. to show off its size. with the Brill returning to Hellevoetsluis on 21/31 October.[61] Press reports were released that deliberately exaggerated the damage and claimed the expedition would be postponed till the spring.000.[64] When Burnet was ashore he hastened to William and eagerly enquired of what William now intended to do.[60] though about a thousand crippled horses had been thrown into the sea. by the stormy weather.Glorious Revolution 11 Crossing and landing On 16/26 October William boarded his ship.[66] His artillery train contained 21 24-pounder cannon. nine were frigates). unable to intercept because of the adverse wind and an unfavourable tide. a dangerous lee shore for a blocking force. who was on board one of the ships. 25 ships deep.[70] thus from the colony of Surinam. it has been suggested that the initial move to the north was a feint and indeed James diverted some of his forces in that direction.[58] The Dutch army was composed mostly of foreign mercenaries. nine fireships.

expecting that his English allies would take the initiative in acting against James while he ensured his own protection against potential attacks. The same day a second attempt by Legge to attack the landing site again failed by an adverse southwestern gale. Princess Anne. His forward forces had gathered at Salisbury. on 18 November Plymouth had surrendered to William. James's own daughter. after hearing that some officers had deserted. A slow advance. as a whole the nation neither rallied behind its king. The next day. printer John White started to print the same document for a more widespread distribution. the "Glorious Crossing". deserted to William. which the supreme army commander. where the following day they met with the King's Commissioners to negotiate.[73] 12 William consolidates his position William considered his veteran army to be sufficient in size to defeat any forces (all rather inexperienced) which James could throw against him. but for unknown reasons had refused to arrest the officers involved.[75] but from 12 November. Both were serious losses. a worried James was overcome by a serious nose-bleed that he interpreted as an evil omen indicating that he should order his army to retreat. did the same. fearing that it would cost him domestic support.[79] and who was greatly influenced by Churchill's wife Sarah Churchill. as they had promised. in the first weeks most people carefully avoided taking sides. for fear that this would degenerate into plundering which would alienate the population. Meanwhile. mutual distrust and depression. Some have argued. Lord Churchill of Eyemouth. and James went to join them on 19 November with his main force. Somerset. the Earl of Feversham. In Salisbury. he had paid his troops in advance for a three-month campaign.[35] The Dutch call their fleet action the Glorieuze Overtocht. but it had been decided to avoid the hazards of battle and maintain a defensive attitude in the hope James's position might collapse by itself. to assist a possible attack on the Papal State. James offered free elections and a general amnesty for the rebels.[77] However.[citation needed] On 9 November (Julian calendar) William took Exeter after the magistrates had fled the city. the army would have fought and fought well. In general.[80] By 24 November. had the added benefit of not over-extending the supply lines. but passively awaited the outcome of events. dressed in white. and on 21 November he began to advance. entering on a white palfrey. On 26 November. often by a public reading of the Declaration. In reality. James returned to London that same day. also advised on 23 November. that if James had been more resolute.[74] In the South support from the local gentry was disappointingly limited. by that point James was simply playing for time. and the loyalty of many of James' commanders was doubtful. thus he landed far away from James's army. however.[80] three days later they had reached Hungerford. the Dutch troops were under strict orders not even to forage. William was prepared to wait. in the North. Amid anti-Catholic rioting in London. among them Lord Cornbury.[75] The collapse of James's regime James refused a French offer to send an expeditionary force. he had been informed of the conspiracy within the army as early as September. one of James' chief commanders. where Royalist troops retreated after defeating a small party of scouts.[53] Louis delayed his declaration of war until 16/26 November hoping at first that their involvement in a protracted English civil war would keep the Dutch from interfering with his German campaign. with turbans and feathers. apart from being necessitated by heavy rainfall anyway.[76] In Yorkshire. the mood was one of confusion. having a total strength of about 19.Glorious Revolution The French fleet remained at the time concentrated in the Mediterranean. having already decided to flee the . William's forces were at Sherborne and on 1 December at Hindon. nor welcomed William.000. many nobles began to declare for William. who doubted the authenticity of her new brother. and was received by the mayor of Salisbury. with the two hundred black men forming a guard of honour. the total body count on both sides came to about fifteen. it rapidly became apparent that the troops were not eager to fight. On 4 December he was at Amesbury. He tried to bring the Tories to his side by making concessions but failed because he still refused to endorse the Test Act.[78] The first blood was shed at about this time in a skirmish at Wincanton.

[83] James then left for France on 23 December after having received a request from his wife to join her. they should not prevent him. but allow him to gently slip through". however. He refused the suggestion that he simply arrest James because this would violate his own declarations and burden his relationship with his wife. even though his followers urged him to stay. the town on the Isle of Sheppey. On 9 December a Protestant mob stormed Dover Castle. the king dropping The Great Seal in the Thames along the way. where the Catholic Sir Edward Hales was Governor. especially with the memory of the execution of Charles I still strong. The next day saw James's attempt to escape.000 assembled ready to defend the city. James. William at the same time ordered all English troops to depart from the capital. Bury St. he agreed to James's proposals but also demanded that all Catholics be immediately dismissed from state functions and that England pay for the Dutch military expenses. decided to ask William to restore order but at the same time asked the king to return to London to reach an agreement with his son-in-law. having created according to many a situation of interregnum. even presiding over a meeting of the Privy Council. He received no reply. 13 Departure of King and Queen In the night of 9/10 December.[82] The Dutch officers had been ordered that "if he [James] wanted to leave. oranges. He sent the Earl of Feversham to William to arrange for a personal meeting to continue negotiations. False rumours of an impending Irish army attack on London circulated in the capital. by his own choice. as no lawful Parliament could be summoned without it. Convinced that his army was unreliable. Cambridge. went under Dutch protective guard to Rochester in Kent on 18 December. Already the English navy had declared for William. On 9 December. He feared that his English enemies would insist on his execution and that William would give in to their demands. no local forces were allowed within a twenty-mile radius until the spring of 1690. Upon returning to London on 16 December. In the end it was decided that he should exploit James's fears. Now for the first time it became evident that William had no longer any desire to keep James in power in England. On 8 December William met at last with James's representatives. just as William entered London. and seized it. By fleeing. forming a provisional government. and a mob of over 100. while his forces entered on 17 December. cheered by crowds dressed in orange ribbons or waving. James was welcomed by cheering crowds. he was captured on 11 December by fishermen in Faversham opposite Sheerness. On the same day. there was anti-Catholic rioting in Bristol. a defeat for the King's men. On the night of 11 December there were riots and lootings of the houses of Catholics and several foreign embassies of Catholic countries in London. He took heart at this and attempted to recommence government. Edmunds. The lax guard on James and the decision to allow him so near the coast indicate that William may have hoped that a successful flight would avoid the difficulty of deciding what to do with him. lavishly distributed. He was extremely dismayed by the arrival of Lord Feversham. York. Hereford. James ultimately helped resolve the awkward question of whether he was still the legal king or not. the two sides fought a second engagement with the Battle of Reading.[81] However. The following night a mass panic gripped London during what was later termed the Irish Night.Glorious Revolution country. the Queen and the Prince of Wales fled for France. and Shropshire. the three original commissioners were sent back to James with the message that William felt he could no longer guarantee the king's well-being and that James for his own safety had better leave London for Ham. 27 Lords Spiritual and Temporal. he sent orders to disband it. In December.[81] William and Mary made joint monarchs .

The Lords voted against proclaiming William and Mary monarchs by 52 to 47. The Lords rejected the proposal for a regency in James's name by 51 to 48 on 2 February.[87] On 5 February the Commons voted 282 to 151 for maintaining the original wording of the resolution. The radical Whigs in the Lower House proposed to elect William as a king (meaning that his power would be derived from the people). William took over the provisional government by appointment of the peers of the realm. The Lords also substituted the word "abdicated" for "deserted" and removed the "vacancy" clause. thus sidelining the Tories of the Loyal Parliament of 1685. although as William had been appointed de facto regent by the peers the Convention could be argued to be. for then he would leave for the Republic. as was the legal right of the latter in circumstances when the King was incapacitated.[86] The House of Lords wished to amend this. William in private conversation (with Halifax.[89] . a lawful Parliament. William did not intervene in the election that followed. On 30 December. This elected body consisted of 513 members. Danby.[84] The name "Convention" was chosen because only the King could call a Parliament. but only 193 having been elected in 1685. the two Houses entered into a conference but failed to resolve the matter. Anne declared that she would temporarily waive her right to the crown should Mary die before William. William. 341 of whom had been elected before. Lord Winchester and Lord Mordaunt) made it clear that they could either accept him as king or deal with the Whigs without his military presence. threatened to leave England "if King James came again" and determined to go back to the Netherlands "if they went about to make him Regent". summoned an assembly of all the surviving members of parliament of Charles II's reign. On 28 January a committee of the whole House of Commons promptly decided by acclamation that James had broken "the original contract". and. and Mary refused to be made queen without William as king. elected on 5 January 1689 NS. relegating William to the role of a mere regent. and had left the throne "vacant". The Lords on 6 February now accepted the words "abdication" and "vacancy" and Lord Winchester's motion to appoint William and Mary monarchs. But he let it be known that he was happy for Mary to be queen in name and preference in the succession given to Princess Anne's children over any of William's. speaking to the Marquess of Halifax. The next day. had "abdicated the government". This assembly called for a chosen English Convention Parliament. the moderates wanted an acclamation of William and Mary together. on the advice of his Whig allies. an outcome which was unacceptable to him. Although James had fled the country.[1] which convened on 22 January. and William feared that the king might return.[85] The English Convention Parliament was very divided on the issue.[88] Generally there was a great fear that the situation might deteriorate into a civil war. On 4 February the Lords reaffirmed their amendments to the Commons's resolution by 55 to 51 and 54 to 53. 238 having been members of at least one Exclusion Bill Parliament. he still had many followers. strictly speaking. Shrewsbury. as many were still loyal to James and believed in the Anglican doctrine of non-resistance. however. the Tories wanted to make him regent or only acclaim Mary as Queen.Glorious Revolution 14 Part of the Politics series on Monarchism Politics portal On 28 December.

by prosecuting in the King's Bench for matters cognisable only in Parliament and "divers other arbitrary and illegal courses". • by levying money for the crown by pretence of prerogative than the same was granted by Parliament. excessive bail and fines not required and "cruel and unusual punishments" not to be inflicted. whereby the . maintaining a standing army in peacetime without the consent of Parliament is illegal. levying money without the consent of Parliament is illegal.Glorious Revolution 15 The Bill of Rights The proposal to draw up a statement of the subjects' rights and liberties and James's invasion of them was first made on 29 January in the Commons. that promises of fines and forfeitures before conviction are illegal.[90] The Declaration of Right was in December 1689 enacted in an Act of Parliament. swearing an oath to uphold the laws made by Parliament. On 7 February the Commons approved this revised Declaration of Right. the resolution of 28 January and the Lords' proposal for a revised oath of allegiance. and the laws and liberties of this kingdom". whereupon they adjourned to the Chapel Royal. upon whom the same were to be levied". the commission for ecclesiastical causes is illegal. However on 4 February the Commons decided to instruct the committee to differentiate between "such of the general heads. as are introductory of new laws. by imposing excessive fines and "illegal and cruel punishments inflicted". in the name of all the estates of the realm. by requiring an excessive bail for persons committed in criminal cases. by making "several grants and promises made of fines and forfeitures before any conviction or judgment against the person. It listed twelve of James's policies by which James designed to "endeavour to subvert and extirpate the protestant religion. The Coronation Oath Act 1688 had provided a new coronation oath.[92] The Bill of Rights also vindicated and asserted the nation's "ancient rights and liberties" by declaring: • • • • • • • • • • • the pretended power to dispense with Acts of Parliament is illegal. • by prosecuting the Seven Bishops. Protestant subjects "may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions. It passed the Commons without division. the election of MPs ought to be free. and allowed by law". by employing unqualified persons to serve on juries. with Compton preaching the sermon. with members arguing that the House "can not answer it to the nation or Prince of Orange till we declare what are the rights invaded" and that William "cannot take it ill if we make conditions to secure ourselves for the future" in order to "do justice to those who sent us hither". On 2 February a committee specially convened reported to the Commons 23 Heads of Grievances. The Garter King at Arms proclaimed them King and Queen of England. that freedom of speech and debates in Parliament "ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament". They then went in procession to the great gate at Whitehall. William replied for his wife and himself: "We thankfully accept what you have offered us". jurors in high treason trials ought to be freeholders. which the Commons approved and added some of their own. • • • • • • • • by raising and maintaining a standing army in peacetime without the consent of Parliament. asked William and Mary to accept the throne. by violating the election of MPs. by establishing of the court of commissioners for ecclesiastical causes.[93] On 13 February the clerk of the House of Lords read the Declaration of Right and Halifax. the Bill of Rights 1689. by disarming Protestants and arming Catholics contrary to law. France and Ireland.[91] These were: • by assuming and exercising the dispensing power. and on 8 February instructed the committee to put into a single text the Declaration (with the heads which were "introductory of new laws" removed). it is the right of the subject to petition the king and prosecutions for petitioning are illegal. that Parliament ought to be held frequently.[94] They were crowned on 11 April. from those that are declaratory of ancient rights".

Jacobite uprisings James had cultivated support on the fringes of his Three Kingdoms – in Catholic Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland.000 for the continued presence of the Dutch army in England. but Jacobite resistance was not ended until after the battle of Aughrim in 1691. although some English Jacobites fought on James's side in Ireland. as well as the Glencoe massacre in early 1692. They were also to maintain the laws of God. much blood would be shed before William's authority was accepted in Ireland and Scotland. the true profession of the Gospel. On 14 March a Scottish Convention convened in Edinburgh. in which he threatened to punish all who rebelled against him. Richard Talbot. 1719 and 1745. The English Convention presumed to legislate for Ireland as well. James fled Ireland following his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne. only consenting to pay ₤600. It was led by John Graham. Many. after their acceptance. and the Protestant Reformed faith established by law. who raised an army from Highland clans. but a letter by James received on 16 March. and the dominions thereunto belonging.000 French troops to try to regain the throne in the Williamite war in Ireland. There was nevertheless a Jacobite faction. dominated by the Presbyterians because the episcopalians continued to support James. In Ireland. On 9 March (Gregorian calendar) the States-General responded to Louis's earlier declaration of war by declaring war on France in return. On 9 December 1688 he had already asked the States-General to send a delegation of three to negotiate the conditions. The first Jacobite rebellion. On 7 January they asked William to take over the responsibilities of government. The Irish Jacobites surrendered under the conditions of the Treaty of Limerick on 3 October 1691. leading to an immediate debate over whether or not an endorsement of these documents was implicit in that acceptance. were prepared to resist what they saw as an illegal coup by force of arms.[95] 16 The other kingdoms Although their succession to the English throne was relatively peaceful. Anglo-Dutch alliance Though he had carefully avoided making it public. continued to see the Stuarts as the legitimate monarchs of the Three Kingdoms. but it refused. In Ireland there was no equivalent of the English or Scottish Convention and William had to conquer Ireland by force. took place in 1689. and so held the Kingdom for James. Dundee. but. known as Jacobites. an uprising in support of James in Scotland. and the laws and customs of the same". resulted in his followers leaving the Convention. Despite the Jacobite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie. when over half of their army was killed or taken prisoner. Supporters of James. England stayed relatively calm throughout. who had been discriminated against by previous English monarchs. which then on 4 April decided that the throne of Scotland was vacant. and there were further Jacobite rebellions in Scotland during the years 1715. 1st Viscount of Dundee. in the conquest of all the fortified places in the kingdom except Derry. according to the statutes in parliament agreed on. the uprising in the Scottish Highlands was quelled due to death of its leader. On 11 May William and Mary accepted the Crown of Scotland. when James fled for France. the Claim and the Articles were read aloud. also known as Graham of Claverhouse or Bonnie Dundee. The Convention formulated the Claim of Right and the Articles of Grievances.Glorious Revolution monarchs were to "solemnly promise and swear to govern the people of this kingdom of England. 1st Earl of Tyrconnell led local Catholics. most members of the Scottish Privy Council went to London to offer their services to William. particularly in Ireland and Scotland. William's main motive in organising the expedition had been the opportunity to bring England into an alliance against France. On 18 February (Julian calendar) he asked the Convention to support the Republic in its war against France. and Williamite victories at Dunkeld and Cromdale. James himself landed in Ireland with 6. and the Declaration of Right deemed William to be King of Ireland as well as of England. On 19 April (Julian calendar) . In Scotland there had been no serious support for the rebellion. The war raged from 1689–1691.

also it specified that the two parties would contribute in the ratio of five English vessels against three Dutch vessels.[99][100] Many historians have endorsed Burke's view. In diplomacy and economics William III transformed the English state's ideology and policies. The Dutch economy. being an internal change of constitution and also the criterion for invasion. It has been argued that the invasion aspect had been downplayed as a result of a combination of British pride and successful Dutch propaganda. In 1712 the Republic was financially exhausted. Edmund Burke set the tone for over two centuries of historiographical analysis when he proclaimed that: The Revolution was made to preserve our ancient indisputable laws and liberties. Steven Pincus (2009) argues that it was momentous especially when looking at the alternative that James was trying to enact – a powerful centralised autocratic state. On 18 May the new Parliament allowed William to declare war on France. Indeed. making what was by then the United Kingdom the dominant maritime power of the world. meaning in practice that the Dutch navy in the future would be smaller than the English. 17 The decline of the Dutch Republic Having England as an ally meant that the military situation of the Republic was strongly improved. including Macaulay (1848) and more recently John Morrill. world trade dominance shifted from the Republic to Britain. were prepared to govern with the English Parliament. see Coronation Oath Act 1688) and English Bill of Rights meant that the apparently invading monarchs. even when of lower rank. To make matters worse. It stipulated that the combined Anglo-Dutch fleet would always be commanded by an Englishman. Between 1688 and 1720. and that ancient constitution of government which is our only security for law and liberty. This occurred not because William III was an outsider who inflicted foreign notions on England but because foreign affairs and political economy were at the core of the English revolutionaries' agenda. but this very fact induced William to be uncompromising in his position towards France. It would have been inconceivable without the changes resulting from the events of the 1640s and 1650s. already burdened by the high national debt and concomitant high taxation. On 9 September 1689 (Gregorian calendar). England's role in Europe and the country's political economy in the 17th century refutes the view of many late-20th-century historians that nothing revolutionary occurred during the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89. legitimate heirs to the throne. The revolution of 1688–89 cannot be fathomed in isolation. it withdrew from international politics and was forced to let its fleet deteriorate. It is difficult to classify the entire proceedings of 1687–89 but it can be seen that the events occurred in three phases: conspiracy.[98] World empire or merchant economy? The overthrow of James was hailed at the time and ever since. Pincus says it was not a placid turn of events. as the "Glorious Revolution". using French-style "state-building". On the contrary.[97] The "Glorious Revolution" fulfils the criterion for revolution.Glorious Revolution the Dutch delegation signed a naval treaty with England. This policy led to a large number of very expensive campaigns which were largely paid for with Dutch funds. the main Dutch trading and banking houses moved much of their activity from Amsterdam to London after 1688. which its weakened fleet was no longer able to resist. because it involved the landing of large numbers of foreign troops. William as King of England joined the League of Augsburg against France. some academics have portrayed the "revolution" as a Dutch invasion of Britain. The events were unusual because the establishment of a constitutional monarchy (a de facto republic. invasion by Dutch forces and "Glorious Revolution". the ideas accompanying . trying to depict the course of events as a largely internal English affair. suffered from the other European states' protectionist policies.[96] Revolution or invasion? The events of 1688 are known as the "Glorious Revolution" but since an intensified historical interest due to the third centennial of the event. who captured the consensus of contemporary historiography well when he declared that "the Sensible Revolution of 1688—89 was a conservative Revolution". The Navigation Acts were not repealed.

however. he was ultimately unsuccessful in this respect. Unlike in the English civil war of the mid-seventeenth century. however. The Williamite war in Ireland can be seen as the source of later conflict. in some sense. deserving of the same scholarly attention that 'modern' revolutions attract. the events more closely resemble a coup d'état than a social revolution. and later the United Kingdom. Lord Macaulay's account of the Revolution in The History of England from the Accession of James the Second exemplifies its semi-mystical significance to later generations. as Britain's constitution was reasserted.). government under a system of constitutional monarchy in England. the "Glorious Revolution" did not involve the masses of ordinary people in England (the majority of the bloodshed occurred in Ireland). Catholic emancipation would be delayed for 140 years. make royal appointments. (This is. which has been seen as a precedent for the American War of Independence a century later. With the passage of the Bill of Rights. In New York. The Williamite victory in Ireland is still commemorated by the Orange Order for preserving British and Protestant dominance in the country. he or she could no longer suspend laws. most famously Adam Smith in 1776. In North America. which granted toleration to Nonconformist Protestants. More important in that respect was the need to keep happy his Catholic allies[106] in the coming struggle with Louis XIV. to flee to England.[108] The Revolution led to the Act of Toleration of 1689. but not to Catholics.[] 18 Legacy The Glorious Revolution of 1688 is considered by some as being one of the most important events in the long evolution of the respective powers of Parliament and the Crown in England. or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission – to this day the Army is known as the "British Army" not the "Royal Army" as it is.[101] Since 1689. . Maryland's Protestant Rebellion was directed against the proprietary government. which saw Britain as a commercial rather than an agrarian society. Leisler's Rebellion caused the colonial administrator. the new king William III of England was not Anglican. the 17th century was a century of revolution in England. has been uninterrupted. argued that wealth was created by human endeavour and was thus potentially infinite. This was. including The Troubles of recent times. levy taxes. and ended moves towards absolute monarchy in the British kingdoms by circumscribing the monarch's powers.Glorious Revolution the Glorious Revolution were rooted in the mid-century upheavals. not his main motive for promoting religious toleration. rather than formed anew. due to opposition by the Tories in the new Parliament. including Stephen Saunders Webb. The proponents of this view. Parliament's power has steadily increased while the Crown's has steadily declined. the Glorious Revolution precipitated the 1689 Boston revolt in which a well-organized "mob" of provincial militia and citizens successfully deposed the hated governor Edmund Andros. After 1689 came an alternative understanding of economics. in England at least. back to its original position. Francis Nicholson. 1688. as the Crown remained – and remains – the source of all executive authority in the British army.[102] to suggest that. Consequently.[103] This view of events does not contradict what was originally meant by "revolution": the coming round of an old system of values in a circular motion. Thus. Since then. while technically being a Nonconformist.[104][105] Prior to his arrival in England. but rather was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church. seen as Catholic-dominated. A third event. Parliament's Army and not that of the King.[107] Though he had promised legal toleration for Catholics in his Declaration of October.[] James II was building a powerful militarised state on the assumption that the world's wealth was necessarily finite and empires were created by taking land from other states. a complex issue. with legal implications for unlawful orders etc. This fact has led many historians. These powers were greatly restricted. as a Calvinist and Presbyterian he was now in the unenviable position of being the head of the Church of England. it stamped out once and for all any possibility of a Catholic monarchy. The East India Company was thus an ideal tool to create a vast new English imperial dominion by warring with the Dutch and the Mogul Empire in India.

[12] Jones 1988. 298–302. appendix to book v. 221–222. [8] Carpenter 1956. [41] Kelly. [18] Troost 2001. p. 287. the Parliament of Ireland had been completely under the control of Westminster since Poynings' Law of 1494. p. pp. p. 219–220. pp. 52. but Scotland still had a degree of independence. [34] Dalrymple 1790. [17] Troost 2001. p. [45] Jardine 2008. 150. pp. [4] See e. p. [31] Dalrymple 1790. p. p. 132. pp. pp. [10] Jones 1988. [11] Jones 1988. [43] Jardine 2008. 139. 182. 223–224. 96–98. [13] Jones 1988. Dates with no explicit Julian or Gregorian postscript will be using the same calendar as the last date with an explicit postscript. [35] Rodger 2004. [26] Troost 2001. [46] Jardine 2008. 41. [24] Jones 1988. pp. 232–233. p. pp. [19] Troost 2001. 218–219. [36] Troost 2001. see also [5] In testimony before a House of Lords committee in the autumn of 1689 (). appendix to book v. [9] Western 1972. 38. [39] Jardine 2008. and Ireland at time shared a king but were still theoretically separate realms with their own parliaments. [20] Jones 1988. p. while events in Great Britain and Ireland are usually given using the Julian calendar with the year adjusted to 1 January. p. pp. 109. p. 231. [7] Macaulay 1889. 187. 198. p. 146. 288 [42] Prud'homme van Reine 2009. 37. [33] Dalrymple 1790. [30] It was rumoured that he was a baby who had been smuggled into the royal bedchamber in a warming pan. p. p. In practice. 107–110. 238–239. but this is not now taken seriously. This line of succession was overturned by the Bill of Rights. pp. 368–9. p. [23] Jones 1988. pp. 108–109. p. . p. pp. p. pp. [27] Baxter 1966. [38] Baxter 1966. [28] Baxter 1966. 201. [37] Jardine 2008. [44] As there had been in 1672 with the concerted attack by France and England on the Republic on the basis of the Secret treaty of Dover. [3] England.g. see Succession to the British throne [16] Troost 2001. 53. 191. Events on the European mainland are usually given using the Gregorian calendar. [40] Swetschinsky & Schönduve 1988. [32] Dalrymple 1790. [15] After Mary's sister Anne. 108. appendix to book v. 96–97. 176. p. p. Scotland. pp. appendix to book v. ^ Name of the Glorious Revolution in the languages of Britain and Ireland: • • • • Irish: An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar Scots: Gloryws Revolution Scottish Gaelic: Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor Welsh: Chwyldro Gogoneddus Footnotes [1] In this article "New Style" means the start of year is adjusted to 1 January. p. [14] Childs 1980. [29] Jones 1988. pp. 39. 182–183.Glorious Revolution 19 Notes a. [21] Jones 1988. p. . [2] Coward 1980. 225. 132–33. 222. [22] Jones 1988.

i.Glorious Revolution [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [64] [65] [66] [69] [70] [71] Prud'homme van Reine 2009. 11. [90] Horwitz 1977. 74. Macaulay 1889. 32. Rodger 2004. 27. 259. p. Troost 2001. p. [76] Jardine 2008. [95] Williams 1960. Prud'homme van Reine 2009. 28–29. 16. pp. 4. [106] i. Speck 1989. pp. Rodger 2004. 7. 15. p. p. 561. [88] Horwitz 1977. 175. Jardine 2008. Western 1972. pp. p. pp. p. 138. [93] Williams 1960. [108] Israel 2003. p. 26. [87] Horwitz 1977. Speck 1989. 199. [82] Jardine 2008. xix. 31. xviii. Schuchard 2002. p. p. p. pp. 9–10. 738–773. Macaulay 1889. 26. p. Childs 1980. p. p. p. The First Modern Economy. p. pp. [98] Jardine 2008. 20 [72] Western 1972. pp. p. Spain and the German Emperor [107] Israel 2003. pp. 673-687 [97] See . [96] De Vries. 289. [99] Goodlad 2007. p. xvi. [81] Jardine 2008. 137. pp. Prud'homme van Reine 2009. Jones 1973. Beddard 1988. 10–11. [92] Williams 1960. 201–221. p. pp. [79] Jardine 2008. Prud'homme van Reine 2009. p. 29. pp. [83] Journaal van Constantijn Huygens. pp. 288. 563–564. p. p. p. p. [100] Dekrey 2008. [75] Jardine 2008. Citations . 260. [89] Jardine 2008. 20. 145–146. Prud'homme van Reine 2009. 762. [85] cites: [86] Horwitz 1977. Childs 1980. Macaulay 1889. p. [104] Mitchell 2009. pp. 9. 62 [84] Horwitz 1977.e. p. 27. Williams 1960. p. Jardine 2008. [94] Carpenter 1956. 10. 12. pp. [80] Information Services. 74–75. 10–16. p. p. p. [91] Williams 1960. 56. 19. [105] Black & MacRaid 2000. [103] The importance of the event has divided historians ever since Friedrich Engels judged it "a relatively puny event" (). 565. 290. pp. pp. p. p. [74] Jardine 2008. [77] Jardine 2008. 291. 37–39. 19. 290–291. 17.8. 137–138.

In Burke. "Introduction". History Review • Harris. London. Longmans. • Israel. J. The Anglo-Dutch Moment. • Goodlad. • Engels. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Gary S. • Information Services. Leslie (2009) [1790]. "William of Orange's Itinerary" (http://www. Jonathan I (2003). Jonathan I. The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its World Impact. German Socialist Philosophy. James II. R. publisher?. Studying History (2 ed. Robert (1988). The Protestant Weidenfeld and Nicolson.. Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland's Glory. In Israel. John (1790). Continuum International Publishing Group. Edmund. D. Tim (2006). University of Nottingham. Manchester University Press. Friedrich (1997). Volume I. Graham (2007). Bishop of London. (1991). In ManuscriptsandSpecialCollections/Learning/Conflict/Theme1/ the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controversies Surrounding the Development of Royal Power under Charles II and James II). • Coward. Lisa (2008). Cambridge University Press. 1632–1713. Manuscripts and Special Collections (http://www. "James II. William III. • Macaulay. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). Between Revolutions: Re-appraising the Restoration in Britain 6. The Anglo-Dutch Moment.Glorious Revolution 21 References • Baxter. retrieved 5 August 2010 • Israel. pp. • Israel. 1685-1720. J. • Hoak. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). MacRaid (2000). from the Dissolution of the last Parliament of Charles II till the Capture of the French and Spanish Fleets at Vigo. Phaidon. • Mitchell. D. "Introduction to Socialism: Utopian and Scientific".). Cambridge University Press. Barry (1980). • Horwitz. • Dalrymple. Edward (1956). Popular Edition in Two Volumes. ISBN 0-521-39075-3. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help).aspx). (2008). "3". The Stuart Age. J. Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland. "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controversies Surrounding the Development of Royal Power under Charles II and James II" (http://www.nottingham. London: Longmans. ISBN 0-333-80183-0. Geoffrey (1991). ISBN 978-0-00-719734-7. • Dekrey. "The Dutch role in the Glorious Revolution". The Revolution of 1688 in England. By force or default? The revolution of 1688–1689. London: Longmans. "The Protestant Wind of 1688: Myth and Reality". Green and Co. Manchester University Press. • Childs. C (1973).nottingham. • Beddard. (1988).ac. • Black. The Army. John (1980). Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy. Jonathan I. In Cruickshanks. European Studies Review III: 201–221 • Jones. (year?). and the Glorious Revolution. Oxford University Press.I. In Engles. A Kingdom without a King: The Journal of the Provisional Government in the Revolution of 1688. Henry (1977). Parliament.I. (1989).questia. • Carpenter. Edinburgh. 738–773 Unknown parameter |jounrnal= ignored (help) • Davies. ISBN 978-0-19-953902-4. Harper. Parker.aspx). ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). Palgrave. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact. ISBN 0-521-54406-8. ISBN 0-8264-0748-X. • Jardine. "Of Providence and Protestant Winds: the Spanish Armada of 1588 and the Dutch armada of 1688". Thomas Babington (1889). Allen Lane. The Anglo-Dutch revolution of 1688–89. Being the Life of Henry Compton.. Stephen B (1966). . one of the few scholarly studies that sides with James II and denounces the episode as a Dutch invasion and British defeat • Jones. Donald M. Cambridge University Press. E. ISBN 0-521-39075-3. William of Orange and the admirals". Policy and Politics in the Reign of William III. The History of England from the Accession of James the Second.

Yale University Press. ISBN 978-1-56663-615-5. • McCaffrey. (2007). David (1956). Brill. • Speck. John (1997). • Schwoerer. • Speck. Hamilton-Phillips. eds. The Glorious Revolution (British History in Perspective) (http://www. R. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649—1815. • DeKrey. • Miller. J. Law Book Co. Hilversum. Penguin Group. A. 22 Further reading • Ashley. (2002). ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). • Van der Kuijl. Scott (2013). • Schuchard. Lectures on Legal (2 ed. The Eighteenth-Century Constitution. Ashgate Publishing. Ronald (2009). Also published by Panther History (1968). "The Glorious Revolution" (http://www. Victor (1938). • Prud'homme van Reine. Steven N. (1960). Schönduve. (1988). Wout (2001). J. W. • Windeyer. The English State in the James II.M (2004). De glorieuze overtocht: De expeditie van Willem III naar Engeland in 1688. M. Retrieved 15 August 2010. ed. Eveline (2000). Palgrave Macmillan. The Glorious Revolution of 1688. (1972). Martin's. Hodder & Stoughton. of Australasia. Harvard University Press. L. The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II. Englishmen and the Revolution of 1688. Arjen (1988). (1997). William III ( A brief scholarly biography. ISBN 90-04-12489-6. (2005). Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-674-07309-8. Restoration and Revolution in Britain: A Political History of the Era of Charles II and the Glorious Revolution.. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). L. ISBN 0-7546-5545-8. "Essays". Cambridge University Press. Opkomst en Ondergang van Nederlands Gouden Vloot – Door de ogen van de zeeschilders Willem van de Velde de Oude en de Jonge. London: Blandford Press. In Search of Ireland's Heroes. • Vallance. (2004). W. ISBN 0-582-29222-0.. The Age of William III and Mary II. The Revolution of 1688–89: Changing Perspectives. Amsterdam: De Arbeiderspers. A. Steve (2009). • Williams. ISBN 0-312-16714-8. Restoring the Temple of Vision: Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart. • Cruickshanks. P. J. R. De familie Lopes Suasso: financiers van Willem III.G. • Sowerby. In Windeyer. 1688: The First Modern Revolution.. Carmel (2006). Monarchy and Revolution. E. • Rodger. Articles by scholars. • civil_war_revolution/glorious_revolution_01. • Pincus. The Anglo-Dutch Favourite: The Career of Hans Willem Bentinck. Longman.jsp). Ivan R Dee. England's Glorious Revolution 1688–89: A Brief History with Documents. BBC History. ISBN 0-312-23009-5. W. • Onnekink. (1988). Bedford/St. • Swetschinsky. ISBN 978-0-333-65103-2. Lionel K. • Ogg. Oxford University Press. 1st Earl of Portland (1649–1709).questia. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). ISBN 978-0-300-17143-3. Reluctant Revolutionaries. Edward (2007). • MacCubbin. N. Keith (2002). • Glassey. • Troost. Making Toleration: The Repealers and the Glorious Revolution.).Glorious Revolution • Pincus. com/dp/0312230095). ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help).A. .co. Palgrave Macmillan. 1688–1815. David (2007). (1989). Maurice (1966). Zwolle. A scholarly history of the era. D. Cambridge University Press. ISBN ???? Check |isbn= value (help). The Glorious Revolution (http://www. Stadhouder-koning Willem III: Een politieke biografie. Gary S.shtml). ISBN 0-521-52614-0. A.. Uitgeverij Verloren.

in McFerran.. "This site is an ever-growing compendium of information related to the events and people of the Glorious Revolution of 1688".org/cathen/13007b. "English Revolution of 1688" (http://www. ISBN 1-933648-24-4.aftershocks. aspx) (BBC & Open University) • Hallas. William III and The Act of Settlement > William III (r.htm) Cites Beddard. (2008/09).org/archive/hallas/works/1988/10/orange.Net Encyclopedia (http://eh. Retrieved 15 August 2010.open2.shtml). revolution.html). Einde.royal. 145–149 • in O’Callaghan. • Vallance. The Bloodless Revolution: on In Our Time at the BBC. jacobite. "Declaration of the Prince of Orange.htm).net/encyclopedia/article/quinn. . Marxists’ Internet Archive ( • BBC staff. EH.3. • Prince of Orange (20 November 2001) [1688].htm) transcribed from the Socialist Worker Review (113): 17–20. ed. Matthew.jacobite. "Charles II (1630–1685)" (http://www.marxists. Retrieved 15 August 2010.. • Royal Household at Buckingham Stuart (1972). in Whaples. Anchor Books. ed. Brown Little. 23 External links • Glorious Revolution (http://www. "The Glorious Revolution of 1688" (http://www. Robert. (1988).bbc. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. The Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain's Fight for Liberty. • The Civil War team. Stephen (17 April 2003).uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/ KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/MaryIIWilliamIIIandTheActofSettlement/MaryIIWilliamIII. htm). Donald E. "The Glorious Revolution of 1688" (http://eh. ( listen now (http://www. presented by Tristram Hunt (7 January 2001). "History of the Monarchy >United Kingdom Monarchs (1603 – present) >The Stuarts >Mary II. October 1988.1688). The Jacobite Heritage (http://www. • Wilkes Jr. official web site of the British The Journal of the Provisional Government in the Revolution of 1688 (Oxford: Phaidon Press): 124–128. Edward (2006).co. 10 October 1688" (http:// www.marxists. Duncan. BBC. Aftershocks – The Glorious Revolution (http:/ /www. • Catholic Encyclopedia editors. Noel S. Catholic Encyclopedia. htm).co.Glorious Revolution • Prall. open2. "The Decisive Settlement" ( 1689–1694)" (http://www. "A Kingdom without a King". 1688.

Pacmanfevers. Bastin. Theodore!. FlamingSilmaril. 5 November 1688. Boing! said Zebedee. Thomp. Cjn0001. L Kensington. Optionsstudent. Jeangagnon. Tseno Maximov.wikipedia. Beria. Graham87. Excirial. Sm8900. Iorek85. Menchi. Jory Plummer. Ericoides. TheSeer. 2 anonymous edits File:The Seven Bishops committed to the Tower in 1688 from NPG. Hammersoft. Jayron32. Caltas.jpg  Source: https://en. Analogdrift. Alansohn. Sagacious66. Ruairidh. Karl 334.K. Jeff G.jpg  Source: https://en. from Ukraine. J. Wiki libs. GrahamAsher. Arch Mute Brave. Bobo192. Arundel22.php?title=File:William_III_of_England. Lizzie Harrison. Chris the speller. Arcandam. Flammingo.php?title=File:Francisco_Lopes_Suasso.svg  Source: https://en. Shoeofdeath. Everyking. Jane023. Free Bear. Man vyi. D. Nirvana2013. Andreas Kaganov. Gail. Passend. Ilse@. Gabrielthursday. 1 anonymous edits File:Earl of Romney.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:James II & VII. Jusdafax. Joefromrandb. Hyenaste. Gacasm. 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