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Heat capacity: The energy required to raise the temperature of one mole of a material by one degree. a property that is indicative of a material’s ability to absorb heat from 𝑑𝑄 the external surroundings; 𝐶 = (J/mol − K, or cal/mol − K). 𝑑𝑇 Specific heat (lowercase c) :the heat capacity per unit mass and has various units (J/kgK, cal/g-K). There are really two ways in which this property may be measured: 1. Cv: heat capacity while maintaining the specimen volume constant 2. Cp: heat capacity with constant external pressure, Cp is always greater than Cv HEAT CAPACITY CONTRIBUTIONS(Factors): 1. VIBRATIONAL HEAT CAPACITY: In most solids the principal mode of thermal energy assimilation is by the increase in vibrational energy of the atoms. The vibrational thermal energy for a material consists of a series of elastic waves, which have a range of distributions and frequencies Phonon: a single quantum of vibrational energy (A phonon is analogous to the photon.) On occasion, the vibrational waves themselves are termed phonons. 2. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE HEAT CAPACITY: The Cv is zero at 0 K, but it rises rapidly with temperature; this corresponds to an increased ability of the lattice waves to enhance their average energy with ascending temperature. At low temperatures the relationship where A is a temperature- independent constant. Above what is called the Debye temperature𝜃𝐷 , Cv levels off and becomes essentially independent of temperature at a value of approximately 3R, R being the gas constant 3. Electronic contribution: In that electrons absorb energy by increasing their kinetic energy. Thermal expansion : Most solid materials expand upon heating and contract when cooled. =

Volume changes with temperature

Plot of potential energy versus interatomic distance. Mechanisms of heat conduction: Heat is transported in solid materials by both lattice vibration waves (phonons) and free electrons. and so on. The thermal conductivity: k is a measure of the rate at which heat is transferred through a material. 𝛼𝑣 is approximately 3𝛼𝑙 . Furthermore. With heating. and the total conductivity is the sum of the two contributions thermal conductivities kl and ke represent the lattice vibration and electron METALS: In high-purity metals. and L is a constant. r0. T is the absolute temperature. metals are extremely good conductors of heat because relatively large numbers of free electrons exist that participate in thermal and electrical conduction. Wiedemann–Franz law: the two conductivities should be related according to where is the electrical conductivity. the electron mechanism of heat transport is much more efficient than the phonon contribution because electrons are not as easily scattered as phonons and have higher velocities. 𝛼𝑣 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 For materials in which the thermal expansion is isotropic. and dT/dx is the temperature gradient through the conducting medium. A thermal conductivity is associated with each of these mechanisms. whereas low melting-point metals and polymers have high coefficients. High melting-point metals and ceramics have low coefficients. demonstrating the increase in interatomic separation with rising temperature. or heat flow. the equilibrium interatomic spacing at 0 K. valid only for steady-state heat flow Wher q denotes the heat flux. k is the thermal conductivity. the interatomic separation increases from r0 to r1 to r2 . Thermal expansion from atomic perceptive: increase in the average distance between the atoms. 𝛼𝑙 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟. . per unit time per unit area (area being taken as that perpendicular to the flow direction). Strong bonding leads to a low coefficient of expansion.The coefficient of thermal expansion: describes the dimensional changes that occur in a material when its temperature changes.

increasing the pore volume will. the conductivity begins to increase at higher temperatures.Alloying effect in thermal conduction(metal): Alloying metals with impurities results in a reduction in the thermal conductivity.Stresses resulting from temperature gradients: When a solid body is heated or cooled. the internal temperature distribution will depend on its size and shape. Stresses resulting from restrained thermal expansion and contraction: The magnitude of the stress resulting from a temperature change from T0 to Tf is where E is the modulus of elasticity 2. the thermal conductivity of the material. Thermal stresses may be established as a result of temperature gradients across a body. Thus the phonons are primarily responsible for thermal conduction: ke is much smaller than kl . which is due to radiant heat transfer Porosity in ceramic: materials may have a dramatic influence on thermal conductivity. Temperature effect in thermal conduction(ceramics): the thermal conductivity of most ceramic materials normally diminishes with increasing temperature. Thermal stresses: Thermal stresses are stresses induced in a body as a result of changes in temperature. and the rate of temperature change. Thermal shock resistance: The capacity of a material to withstand this kind of failure . at least at relatively low temperatures . An understanding of thermal stresses is important because these stresses can lead to fracture or undesirable plastic deformation. Thermal shock: Failure of a material caused by stresses introduced by sudden changes in temperature. 1. for the same reason that the electrical conductivity is diminished as shown in the figure Ceramics: Nonmetallic materials are thermal insulators inasmuch as they lack large numbers of free electrons. result in a reduction of the thermal conductivity. under most circumstances.

a high degree of dimensional stability with temperature fluctuations is essential. One such alloy.For some applications. tradename of Kovar 2. Temperature measurement such as thermocouple .Applications: 1. Joints used in bridges There are maintained space for thermal expansion 3. This has resulted in the development of a family of iron-nickel and iron-nickel-cobalt alloys that have lower 𝛼𝑙 .

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