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OF TECHNOLOGY
LIBRARY
PRESENTED BY
J>t
JilliifaiL Fu
tone
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Publi^Itcd
by the
McGrawHill
vircc&sor,s to
New York
McGraw Pubfclung Company
'PuLlislicrs
Book Company
of
(lie
dicBooltDcpnrlmfnis
Hill
PubfoMntf Company
of Books for
1 IicEngnncenn^ and Mining Journal
Electrical
World
hngmcenn^ Record
Electric Railway Journal'
Power and
TIic Ihnifitioer
American Machinist
MctallurgjcaS and CKcmical Enginarimg
ENGfflEEMG MATHEMATICS
A
SERIES OF LECTURES DELIVERED
AT UNION COLLEGE
BY
CHARLES PROTEUS STEIMET2,
PAST TKKSIDFNT
UIFIMC' V\ INSTITUTE
A.M., Pn.D.
OF LLLCTRICVL LXGINLERS
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY
239
WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK
6
BOUVERIE STEEET, LONDON, E.G.
1911
Copyright, JO
11,
BV
McGRAWlIILL BOOK COMPANY
PREFACE.
THE following work embodies the subjectmatter of a lecture course which I have given to the junior and senior electrical engineering students of Union University for a number of
years.
It is generally
conceded that a
fair
knowledge
of
mathe
necessary to the engineer, and especially the electrical engineer. For the latter, however, some branches of mathematics are of fundamental importance, as the algebra of the
matics
is
general number, the exponential and trigonometric series, etc., which are seldom adequately treated, and often not taught at
all in
the usual textbooks of mathematics, or in the college
course of analytic geometry and calculus given to the engineering students, and, therefore, electrical engineers often possess
little
knowledge
of these subjects.
As the
result,
an
electrical
engineer, even if he possess a fail' knowledge of mathematics, may often find difficulty in dealing with problems, through lack of familiarity with these branches of mathematics, which have
become
of
find difficulty in looking
importance in electrical engineering, and may also up information on these subjects.
In the same way the college student, when beginning the study of electrical engineering theory, after completing his finds' himself sadly general course of mathematics, frequently deficient in the knowledge of mathematical subjects, of which
a complete familiarity
led
is
is
required for effective understanding
of electrical engineering theory.
It was this experience which years ago to start the course of lectures which to reproduced in the following pages. I have thus attempted
me some
bring together and discuss explicitly, with numerous practical of mathematics which are of applications, all those branches Added thereto special importance to the electrical engineer.
vi
PKEIWE.
number
of
are a
subjects
to be important for the effective
which experience has shown me and expeditious execution of
electrical engineering calculations.
of
mathematics
is
not sufficient for the engineer, but
it
Merc theoretical knowledge it must
be accompanied by ability to apply
carry out numerical calculations.
and derive resultsto
It is not sufficient to
it
know
how
a phenomenon occurs, and
is
how
may
be calculated, but
very often there
ability
a wide gap between this knowledge and the
indeed, frequently an
to
carry out the calculation;
attempt to apply the theoretical knowledge to derive numerical results leads, even in simple problems, to apparently hopeless
complication and almost endless calculation, so that
of getting reliable results vanishes.
all
hope
Thus considerable space has been devoted to the discussion of methods of calculation,
the use of curves and their evaluation, and other kindred
subjects requisite for effective engineering work,
Thus the following work
is
not intended as a complete
course in mathematics, but as supplementary to the general
college course of mathematics, or to the general knowledge of mathematics which every engineer and really every educated
man
should possess.
illustrating
In
the
mathematical
discussion,
practical
examples, usually taken from the
ing,
field of electrical
engineer
have been given and discussed.
These are sufficiently
numerous that any example dealing with a phenomenon with which the reader is not yet familiar may be omitted and
taken up at a later time.
As appendix
is
given a descriptive outline of the intro
duction to the theory of functions, since the electrical engineer
should be familiar with the
different functions
general relations
between the
which he meets.
Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineer
In relation to
ing/'
"
"Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phe" nomena/ and Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric
7
Phenomena/' the following work is intended as an introduction and explanation of the mathematical side, and the most efficient
method
of
study, appears to me, to
start
with
"
Electrical
its
Engineering
Mathematics,"
and
after
entering
third
chapter, to take
retical
up the reading of the first section of Theo" Electrical Elements," and then parallel the study of
"
PREFACE.
"
vii
Engineering Mathematics/'
"
Theoretical Elements of Electrical
Engineering/' and Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena/' together with selected chapters from "Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric Phenomena/' and after this, once more systematically go through all four
books.
CHARLES
SCHENECTADY, N.
Y.,
P. STEINMETZ.
December, 1910,
CONTENTS.
PAGE
PREFACE
v
CHAPTER
A.
1.
I.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
THE SYSTEM OF NUMBERS.
Addition and Subtraction.
measuring.
addition
Addition.
Origin of numbers. Counting and Subtraction as reverse operation of
1
2.
Limitation of subtraction.
Subdivision of the absolute numbers
3.
into positive and negative Negative number a mathematical conception like the imaginary number. Cases where the negative number has a physical
2
meaning, and cases where
4.
it
has not
4
Multiplication and Division.
tion,
Multiplication as multiple addiDivision as its reverse operation. Limitation of divi
sion
5.
6
Cases where
it
The
fraction as mathematical conception.
has a
8
C.
physical meaning, and cases where it has not Involution and Evolution. Involution as multiple multiplication. Evolution as its reverse operation. Negative expo
nents
7. 8.
9
Multiple involution leads to no Fractional exponents
Irrational
new
operation
10 10 Endless decimal
11
9.
Numbers.
Limitation of evolution.
fraction.
10.
Quadrature numbers.
tion
Rationality of the irrational number Multiple values of roots. Square root of
negative quantity representing quadrature number, or rota
by 90
of positive,
13
H. Comparison
negative and quadrature numbers. Reality of quadrature number. Cases where it has a physical meaning, and cases where it has not
14
12.
General Numbers.
number.
13.
Representation of the plane by the general Its relation to rectangular coordinates
16
Limitation of algebra by the general number. Number of such roots, and their relation
Roots of the
unit.
18 19
ix
14.
The two
reverse operations of involution
x
CONTENTS.
PAGE
15.
Logarithmation.
involution.
Relation between logarithm and exponent of
Reduction to other base.
Logarithm
of negative
quantity
16. Quaternions.
17.
20
Vector calculus of space
22
Space rotors
analysis
and
their relation.
Super algebraic nature of space
22
,
B.
ALGEBRA OF THE GENERAL NUMBER OF COMPLEX QUANTITY.
Rectangular and Polar Coordinates
. .
25
IS.
Powers of
number.
j.
Ordinary or
Relations
real,
and quadrature or imaginary
25
in
19.
Conception of general number by point of plane
coordinates;
in polar coordinates.
rectangular
Relation between rect
angular and polar form
20. Addition
26
Algebraic and geometrical addition
and Subtraction.
and subtraction.
Combination and resolution by parallelo28
gram law
21.
Denotations
30
Conjugate and associate numbers.
Vec
22. Sign of vector angle.
tor analysis
23.
30
33
Instance of steam path of turbine
Multiplication.
24.
25.
Multiplication in rectangular coordinates. ...
.
38 38
Multiplication in polar coordinates.
Vector and operator
Representa
26.
Physical meaning of result of algebraic operation.
tion of result
40
27.
Limitation of application of algebraic operations to physical
quantities,
and
of the graphical representation of the result.
Graphical representation of
current, voltage
28. 29.
algebraic
operations between
Representation of
Division.
and impedance vectors and of operators
40 42
Division in rectangular coordinates
42 43
30.
31.
Division in polar coordinates
Involution and Evolution.
Use
of polar coordinates
44
32.
Multiple values of the result of evolution.
Their location in the
plane of the general number.
of
33.
Polyphase and n phase systems 45
numbers
of
The n values
Vl
and
their relation
46
34. Evolution in rectangular coordinates.
35.
Complexity of result ...
47
Reduction of products and fractions of general numbers by polar
representation.
Instance
48
36.
Exponential representations of general numbers.
The
different
forms of the general number
37.
49
Instance of use of exponential form in solution of differential
equation
50
CONTENTS.
xi
PAGE
38. Logarithmation,
Resolution of the logarithm of a general
number
51
CHAPTER
II,
THE POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL
FUNCTION.
A. GENERAL,
39
40.
The
infinite series of
powers of
a;
52 53
Approximation by
series
41.
Alternate and onesided approximation
54
55
42. 43.
Convergent and divergent
series
Range of convergency. same expression
Use of
series for
Several series of different ranges for
56
in engineering applications
,
.
44 Discussion of convergency
45.
57
approximation of small terms.
Instance of
electric circuit
58
series.
46.
Binomial theorem for development in
ductive circuit
Instance of in
...
in series.
59
47. Necessity of
48.
development
Instance of
(1 fa;)
a,rc
of hyperbola
60 63
Instance of numerical calculation of log
B. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS,
49. Character of
most
differential
equations of electrical engineering,
Their typical forms
64
dy
50.
jil'
Solution
dx
by
scries,
by method
of indeterminate
co
efficients
,
65
coefficients
dz
51.
7dx
az.
Solution
by indeterminate
68
68
52. Integration constant
53.
and terminal conditions
Exponential function
Involution of solution.
70
54. Instance of rise of field current in direct current shunt 55. Evaluation of inductance,
motor
.
.
72
and numerical calculation
through resistance
75
76
56. Instance of condenser discharge
57. Solution
Qt=ay by indeterminate coefficients, by exponential
,
$y
function
58. Solution
78
81
by trigonometric functions
,
.
. ,
59. Relations
tions with imaginary exponent,
60. Instance of condenser discharge
between trigonometric functions and exponential funcand inversely
through inductance.
83
The two
84
differential
integration constants and terminal conditions
61. Effect of resistance
on the discharge.
The general
equation
86
xii
CONTENTS.
PAGE
62.
Solution of the general differential equation
by means
of
of the
exponential
coefficients
function,
by the
method
indeterminate
86
63. Instance of condenser discharge
through resistance and inducof constants.
.
64.
tance. Exponential solution functions. Imaginary exponents of exponential
and evaluation
..
88
Reduction to
91
,
. .
trigonometric functions.
The
oscillating functions
65
of exponential functions) Explanation of tables
92
CHAPTER m. TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES
A. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.
66.
Definition of trigonometric functions on circle
and
right triangle
94
95
67. Sign of functions in different 68. Relations
quadrants
 . .
between sm,
cos,
tan and cot
97
69. Negative,
supplementary and complementary angles
/
(
98
100
70.
Angles
(xn) and
A x
1
71.
Relations between two angles, and between angle and double
angle
302
72. Differentiation
and integration of trigonometric
functions.
Definite integrals
73.
74.
103
The binomial
relations
104
104 105
Polyphase relations
of the triangle Trigonometric formulas
75
13.
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
Constant, transient and periodic phenomena.
odic function represented
76.
Univalent periseries
by trigonometric
106
77
'waves Alternating sine waves and distorted
107
Cal
78. Evaluation of the Constants
from Instantaneous Values.
culation of constant term of series
79.
108
,
Calculation of coscoefficients
110 113
80. Calculation of sincoefficients
81.
Instance of calculating llth harmonic of generator
wave
114
82. Discussion.
Instance of complete calculation of pulsating cur
rent
83.
wave
Calculation of sym
116
Alternating waves as symmetrical waves.
metrical
wave
,
117
...
84. Separation of
85.
*86.
odd and even harmonics and of constant term
120
121
Separation of sine and cosine components
Separation
of
wave
into constant term
and 4 component waves 122
123
87.
88.
Discussion of calculation
Mechanism
of calculation
124
CONTENTS.
xiii
PAGE
89.
90. 91.
C.
Instance of resolution of the annual temperature curve
125
131
Constants and equation of temperature wave
Discussion of temperature wave
132
REDUCTION OF TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES BY POLYPHASE RELATION.
Method
of
92.
separating cmtain
classes
of harmonics,
and
its
limitation
93.
....
134
Instance of separating the 3d and 9th harmonic of transformer
exciting current
136
D. CALCULATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC SEEIES FROM OTHER TRIGONO,
METRIC SERIES,
94. Instance of calculating current in long distance transmission line,
due to distorted voltage wave
95. Circuit equations,
96.
of generator.
Line constants
139
141
and calculation
of equation of current
Effective value of current,
and comparison with the current
143
..
.
produced by sine wave of voltage
97. Voltage
wave
of reactance in circuit of this distorted current
145
CHAPTER
98.
IV.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
Instance of magnetic
Maxima and minima by
permeability.
curve plotting.
Maximum power
maximum
factor of induction
motor as
147
function of load
99. Interpolation of
value in
method
of curve plotting.
Error in case of unsymmetrical curve,
of steam turbine nozzle.
100. Mathematical
point.
101. Instance:
efficiency.
Instance of efficiency
Discussion
149
inflexion
method.
Maximum, minimum and
turbine
Discussion
152
wheel
for
Speed of impulse
maximum
efficiency.
Current in transformer for
maximum
154
102. Effect of intermediate variables.
Instance:
Maximum power
155
in resistance shunting a constant resistance in a constant cur
rent circuit
103. Simplification of calculation
etc.
by suppression of unnecessary terms,
157
inductive transmis
Instance
104. Instance:
sion
Maximum noninductive load on Maximum current in line line.
158
105. Discussion of physical
meaning of mathematical extremum.
160
Instance
106. Instance: External reactance giving
maximum
output of
alter
nator at constant external resistance and constant excitation.
Discussion
107.
161
Maximum
efficiency of alternator
on noninductive
load.
Dis
cussion of physical limitations
162
xiv
CONTENTS,
P*B
108. Fuxtrema with several independent variables.
Method
of math
ematical calculation, and geometrical meaning
109. Resistance
163
and reactance
line,
of
load to give
maximum
output of
1
transmission
at constant supply voltage
65
110. Discussion of physical limitations 111. Determination of extrema
tient.
167
by
of differential quoplotting curve
of current
line
Instance:
Maxima
wave
of alternator of
distorted voltage
on transmission
168
112. Graphical calculation of differential curve of empirical curve,
for determining extrcrna
170 170
in
113. Instance:
Maximum
permeability calculation
114. Grouping of battery cells for
maximum power
maximum
constant
resist
ance
115. Voltage of transformer to give
loss
171
output at constant
173
116. Voltage of transformer, at constant output, to give
efficiency at full load, at half load
maximum
174
117.
Maximum
value
of
(a)
charging current of condenser through
at
inductive circuit
118.
low resistance
;
(b) at
high resistance. 175
At what output is the
efficiency of
an induction generator a max177
imum 9
119. Discussion of physical limitations.
Maximum
efficiency at con
stant current output
120.
178
Relation of
METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
tions
to
number
of observa
number
of
constants.
Discussion
of
errors of
observation
121. Probability calculus and the
'
179
minimum sum
of squares of
1
he
errors
1SI
122.
The
differential equations of the
sum
of least squares
182
123. Instance:
Reduction of curve of power of induction motor
light,
running
into
'
the
component
losses.
Discussion
of
results ....
182
CHAPTER
V.
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION
124. Frequency of small quantities in electrical engineering problems.
Instances.
Approximation by dropping terms of higher order. 1S7
188
125. Multiplication of terms with small quantities 126. Instance of calculation of
1
power of
direct current shunt
motor
.
189
27. Small quantities in
denominator of fractions
190
128. Instance of calculation of induction
of slip
motor
current, as function
191
CONTENTS,
xv
P4GB
129.
Use
of binomial series in approximations of
in
powers and
roots,
and
numerical calculations ...
193
130. Instance of calculation of current in alternating circuit of
low
inductance.
Instance of calculation of short circuit current
of alternator, as function of speed
....
scries in
195
131.
Use of exponential
tions
series
and logarithmic
...
approxima196 198
132. Approximations of trigonometric functions
133. McLaurin's
and Taylor's
series in
approximations
....
.198
134. Tabulation of various infinite series and of the approximations
derived from
135. Estimation
of
them
.
190
Application
to
accuracy of approximation.
short circuit current of alternator
136. Expressions which are approximated
200
by
(1
+)
and by
(1
s)
...
201
137. Mathematical instance of approximation 138.
203
EQUATIONS OP THE TRANSMISSION LINE.
differential
Integration of the
.
. .
equations
204
139. Substitution of the terminal conditions
205
140.
The approximate equations
instance.
of the transmission line
206
141. Numerical
tion
Discussion of
accuracy of approxima.
.
....
207
CHAPTER
A. GENERAL.
142. Relation
VI.
EMPIRICAL CURVES
between empirical curves, empirical equations and
,
rational equations
209
143. Physical nature of
phenomenon.
Points at aero and at infinity.
Periodic or nonperiodic.
law.
Constant terms.
Change
of curve
Scale
210
B. NONPERIODIC
CORVES,
Instance of coreloss curve
Instance of fan
144. Potential Scries. 145. Rational
212
and
irrational use of potential series.
motor torque.
146.
Limitations of potential series
214
PARABOLIC AND HYPERBOLIC CURVES.
bolas and of hyperbolas
Various shapes of para..
.
.
216
147.
The
characteristic of parabolic
and hyperbolic curves.
Its use
and limitation by constant terms
148.
223
224 The logarithmic characteristic. Its use and limitation ... The exponential 149. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC CURVES.
function
150. Characteristics of the exponential curve, their use and limitation
226
by constant term.
hyperbola
Comparison of exponential curve and
227
xvi
CONTENTS.
PAGE
151. Double exponentialfunctions,
152.
Various shapes thereof
.
.
229
EVALUATION OP EMPIRICAL CTJBYES,
investigation of empirical curves
General principles of
.232
of the tungbten lamp,
153. Instance:
The voltampere charactenstic
reduced to parabola with exponent
reduction to radiation law
154.
.
0.6.
Rationalized by
333
The voltampere
characteristic of the magnetite arc, reduced
to hyperbola with exponent 0.5
155.
236 change of
circuit conditions,
Change
of electric current with
reduced to double exponential function of time
356. Rational reduction of
coreloss
339
144,
curve of paragraph
by
242
parabola with exponent 1.6
157. Reduction of magnetic characteristic
1
,
for higher densities, to
. .
hyperbolic curve
C.
244
PERIODIC CURVES.
158. Distortion of pine
159. Ripples
wave by lower harmonics and nodes caused by higher harmonics.
waves
246
Incommen.
surable
24C
CHAPTER
1
VII.
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS
Tabular form of calculation.
...
60.
METHOD OF CALCULATION.
249
251
161. Instance of transmission line regulation
162.
EXACTNESS OF CALCULATION.
tude, approximate, exact
Degrees of exactness:
magni
252 254
163.
Number
of decimals
164. INTELLIGIBILITY OF
ENGINEERING DATA.
Curve plotting for
showing shape of function, and for record of numerical valuer 256
165. Scale of curves.
Principles
259
166. Completeness of record
260
Necessity
of
167. RELIABILITY
OF NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
reliability in engineering calculations
261
168.
169.
Methods of checking
calculations.
Curve plotting
262
253
Some
frequent errors
APPENDIX
A.
A.
NOTES ON THE THEORY OF FUNCTIONS
GENEEAL FUNCTIONS.
analytic
170. Implicit
function.
Explicit
analytic
function.
Reverse function
171. Rational
function.
265
Integer
function.
Approximations
by
266
Taylor's
Theorem
CONTENTS.
172. Abelian integrals and Abelian functions.
xvii
PA.SE
Logarithmic integral
and exponential function 173. Trigonometric integrals and trigonometric functions. bolic integrals and hyperbolic functions
174. Elliptic integrals
267
Hyper269
and elliptic
functions. Their double periodicity 270
175. Theta functions.
Hyperelliptic integrals and functions
271
motion of the pendulum and the surging of synchronous machines 272 272 177. Instance of the arc of an ellipsis
176. Elliptic functions in the
B. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS.
178. Infinite
summation
series.
Infinite
product
series
274
275
276
179. Functions
by
integration.
Instance of the propagation func
tions of electric
waves and impulses
definite integral?
180. Functions
denned by
181. Instance of the
C.
gamma
function
277 277
277
279 279
279
EXPONENTIAL, TRIGONOMETRIC AND HYPEEBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
Relations
182. Functions of real variables 183. Definitions of functions.
184. Functions of imaginary variables 185. Relations to functions of real variables
186. Functions of
complex variables
187. Reduction to functions of real variables
188. Relations
280 280
189. Equations relating exponential, trigonometric
and hyperbolic
281
functions
APPENDIX
TABLE TABLE
I.
B.
TABLES
283
Three decimal exponential unction
Logarithms of exponential functions Exponential function
II.
284
284
285
Hyperbolic functions
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
CHAPTER
I.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
A.
THE SYSTEM OF NUMBERS.
Addition and Subtraction.
i.
From
art of figuring, arithmetic, algebra,
the operation of counting and measuring arose the and finally, more or less,
the entire structure of mathematics.
ages,
During the development of the human race throughout the which is repeated by every child during the first years of life, the first conceptions of numerical values were vague
and crude:
many and
few, big
and
little,
large
and
small.
Later the ability to count, that
developed, and last of
all
is,
the knowledge of numbers,
the ability of measuring,
up today, measuring
ing: steps, knots, etc.
is
to a considerable extent clone
and even by count
.addition.
From counting arose the simplest arithmetical Thus we may count a bunch of horses:
1,
operation
2, 3, 4, 5,
and then count a second bunch
1 i,
of horses,
32 ; *j,
now put
the second bunch together with the
first
one, into ono
bunch, and count them.
That
is,
after counting the horses
2
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
we continue
5
to count those of the second
of the first bunch,
bunch, thus:
1,
2,
3,
4,
G,
7, 8;
which gives addition,
5+38;
or, in general,
a+l>=c.
take away again the second bunch of horses, that the entire bunch of horses, and then count count we means, off those we take away thus:
2
;
We may
1,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
87,
6,
5;
which gives
subtraction,
835;
or, in general,
The
reverse
of putting a
is
group of things together with
another group
is
to take a group
away
;
therefore subtraction
the reverse of addition,
2.
addition and subtraction,
following examples:
Immediately we notice an essential difference between which may be illustrated by the
Addition:
5 horses I 3 horses gives
8 horses,
2 horses,
Subtraction; 5 horses
3
horses gives
Addition:
5 horses +7 horses gives 12 horses, Subtraction: 5 horses 7 horses 'is impossible.
the above
follows that
From
it
we
cannot always subtract;
it is
subtraction
of things
can always add, but we is not always possible;
not,
is
when the number
which we desire to sub
tract
greater than the number of things from which we
desire to subtract.
The same
relation obtains in measuring;
we may measure
a distance from a starting point A (Fig, 1), for instance in steps, and then measure a second distance, and get the total distance
from the starting point by addition: 5
steps,
from
A
to B,
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
then 3 steps, from 8 steps.
3
B
to C, gives the distance from
A
to
(7,
as
5 steps
+3
steps
=8
steps;
$
A
12345678
1
1 1
1
s
1
1
$
,
B
FIG.
1.
C
Addition.
or,
we may
step off a distance,
and then step back, that
is,
subtract another distance, for instance (Fig. 2),
5 steps that
is,
3
steps
=2
steps;
going 5 steps, from
A
to B,
and then 3
steps back,
from
B to
C, brings us to C, 2 steps
away from A.
AC
FIG.
2.
B Subtraction.
in the Trying the case of subtraction which was impossible, = ? 7 from the We 5 the with steps go steps horses, example
starting point, A, 5 steps, to
,
and then step back 7
it,
steps;
here
we
if
find that
sometimes we can do
sometimes we cannot
do
it;
back
of the starting point
A is
a stone wall, we cannot
If A is a chalk mark in the road, we step back 7 steps. and come to in Fig. 3. In the latter back beyond it, step
may
case,
at
i
o
i
a
s
4
s
c
FIG. 3.
A
Subtraction, Negative Result.
at
C we
are again 2 steps distant from the starting point, just
2.
as in Fig,
That
IKS,
53=2 57=2
(Fig. 2),
(Fig. 3).
In the case where we can subtract 7 from
distance from the starting point as
5,
we
get the
same
5,
when we
subtract 3 from
4
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
but the distance
AC
in Fig. 3, while
the same, 2 stops,
is
as
in Fig. 2, is different in character, the one
toward the
left,
the other toward the right,
of
distance units, those to the right
That means, we have two kinds and those to the left, and
have to find some way to distinguish them. The distance 2 in Fig. 3 is toward the left of the starting point A, that is, in that direction, in which we step when subtracting, and
it
thus
appears natural to distinguish
it
from the distance
2 in Fig. 2,
by
calling the former 2, while
we
call
the distance
in
AC
we
in Fig. 2:
+2,
since
it is
in the direction
from A,
which
step in adding.
This leads to a subdivision of the system of absolute numbers,
1,2,3,...
into
two
classes, positive
numbers,
...:
+ 1, +2, +3,
and negative numbers,
1, 2, 3,...:
and by the introduction
of negative
numbers, we can always
carry out the mathematical operation of subtraction:
and,
if
6 is greater
than
c,
a merely becomes a negative number,
realize that the negative
3.
We must therefore
1,
number and
not in
the negative unit,
is
a mathematical
fiction, arid
universal agreement with experience, as the absolute
number
found in the operation of counting, and the negative number does not always represent an existing condition in practical
experience.
we sometimes
number a
reverse to
this.
In the application of numbers to the phenomena of nature, find conditions where we can give the negative
physical meaning,
1
,
expressing
a
relation
as
the
the positive number; in other cases we cannot do For instance, 5 horses 7 horses = 2 horses has no
physical meaning.
best
There exist no negative horses, and at the
we
is
could only express the relation
impossible, 2 horses are missing.
by
saying, 5 horses
7
horses
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
5
In the same way, an illumination of 5 footcandles, lowered
by 3
footcandles, gives
an illumination
footcandles
of 2 footcandles, thus,
5 footcandles
3
=2
footcandles.
If it is tried to
lower the illumination of 5 footcandles by 7
footcandles, it. will be found impossible; there cannot be a
negative illumination of 2 footcandles; the limit
tion, or
is
zero illumina
darkness
string of 5 feet length,
off
From a
2
feet,
we can
cut off 3
feet,
leaving
but we cannot cut
7 feet, leaving
2
is
feet of string.
In these instances, the
negative
number
meaningless,
a mere imaginary mathematical
If
fiction.
falls
the temperature
it
is
5 deg. cent, above freezing, and
If it falls
is
3 deg.,
it will
will
be 2 deg. cent, above freezing
7 deg
just as
be 2 deg. cent, below freezing.
The one case
instance
real
physically, as
the
other,
and
in this
we may
express the relation thus:
+5
+5
that
in
deg. cent.
3
7
deg. cent.
= +2 = 2
deg. cent
,
deg
cent.
deg. cent.
deg. cent.;
temperature measurements by the conventional is, temperature scale, the negative numbers have just as much physical existence as the positive numbers.
The same
is
the case with time,
we may
by
represent future
time, from the present as starting point,
positive numbers,
and past time then will be represented by negative numbers. But wo may equally well represent past time by positive numbers,
this,
and future times then appear as negative numbers.
In
and most other physical
applications, the negative
number
thus appears equivalent with the positive number, and interchangeable: we may choose any direction as positive, and
the reverse direction then
ovor, a difference exists
is
negative.
Mathematically, how
between the positive and the negative the number, positive unit, multiplied by itself, remains a positive unit, but the negative unit, multiplied with itself, does
not remain a negative unit, but becomes positive:
(l)X(l)=(+l),andnot =(1).
6
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
northern latitude and going 7 cleg, Starting from 5 deg. 2 deg. southern latitude, which may bo south, brings us to
expresses thus,
+5
cleg,
latitude
7
deg. latitude
= 2
clog,
latitude.
tions, right
are two opposite direcTherefore, in all cases, where there south latitude, east and north and left on a
line,
and west longitude, future and
there
past, assets
and
liabilities, etc.,
may be application of the negative number; in other cases, where there is only one kind or direction, counting horses,
measuring illumination,
etc.,
there
is
no physical meaning
which would be represented by a negative number. There are still other cases, where a meaning may sometimes be found
and sometimes not; for instance, if we have 5 dollars in our we cannot take away 7 dollars; if we have 5 dollars, in the bank, we may be able to draw out 7 dollars, or we may In the first case, 5 dollars 7 not, depending on our credit,
pocket,
dollars
dollars
is
an
case 5 dollars impossibility, while the second
7
=2
dollars overdraft.
number
which
In any case, however, we must realize that the negative but a mathematical conception, is not a physical,
may
find a physical representation, or
may
not,
depend
conditions to which it is applied. The ing on the physical is just as imaginary, and just as real, thus negative number
which depending on the case to
it is
applied, as the imaginary
number V4, and the only difference is, that we have become familiar with the negative number at an earlier age, where we
were
less critical,
it
and thus have taken
it
for granted,
become
and usually do not realize that it is a mathematical conception, and not a physical reality. When we first learned it, however, it was quite a step to become
familial with
by
use,
accustomed
impossible.
to
saying,
572,
and not simply,
57
is
Multiplication and Division.
4, If
horses,
we have a bunch of 4 horses, and another bunch of 4 and still another bunch of 4 horses, and add together
the three bunches of 4 horses each, we get,
4 horses
+4
horses
+4
horses
= 12
horses;
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
or, as
7
we
express
it,
3X4
The operation
operation,
tion,
horses =12 horses.
of multiple addition thus leads to the next
multiplication.
Multiplication
is
multiple
addi
thus means
a+a+a+...
Just like
out,
(6
terms) =c.
carried
addition,
multiplication can always be
Three groups of 4 horses each, give 12 horses.
Inversely,
if
we have
12 horses, and divide them into 3 equal groups, each
group contains 4 horses.
This gives us the reverse operation
of multiplication, or division,
which
.
is
written, thus:
12 horses
5
or, in general,
.
=4
horses;
If
we have a bunch
of 12 horses,
and divide
it
into
two equal
groups,
we
get 6 horses in each group, thus:
12 horses
n ="
,
horses,
if
we
divide unto 4 equal groups,
12 horses
3 horses.
If
now we attempt to divide the bunch of 12 horses into 5 equal we find we cannot do it; if we have 2 horses in each group, 2 horses are left over; if we put 3 horses in each group,
groups,
we do not have enough
divided
to
make
5 groups; that
is,
12 horses
12 horses
is
usually say; impossible; divided by 5 gives 2 horses and 2 horses left over, which
written,
by 5
is
or, as
we
12
r=2, remainder
2.
8
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Thus
it
is
seen that the reverse operation of multiplication,
or division, cannot always be carried out. divide them into 5. If we have 10 apples, and
3,
we
get 3
apples in
each group, and one apple
left over,
5
o
=3, remainder
1,
we may now
cape
cut the leftover apple into 3 equal parts, in which
In the same manner,
into 5,
in
if
we have 12
apples,
we can
pieces,
divide
by cutting 2 apples each into 5 equal each of the 5 groups, 2 apples and 2 pieces.
and get
To be
all
able to carry the operation of division through for
it
numerical values, makes
necessary to introduce a
new
it.
unit, smaller
than the original unit, and derived as a part of
Thus,
if
we
divide a string of 10 feet length into 3 equal
parts, each part contains 3 feet,
and
1 foot is left over.
One
foot
is
made up
of 12 inches,
and 12 inches divided
into 3 gives
4 inches;
hence, 10 feet divided
Division leads us to a
new form
is
by 3 gives 3 feet 4 inches. of numbers: the fraction.
The
fraction,
however,
just as
much
a mathematical con
ception, which sometimes
may
be applicable, and sometimes
not, as the negative number.
horses, divided into 5 groups,
In the above instance of 12
not applicable,
,
it is
is
12 horses
r
rt
o
2} horses
impossible;
we cannot have
and some
fractions of horses,
and what
we would
get in this attempt would be 5 groups, each compieces of carcass.
is
prising 2 horses
Thus, the mathematical conception of the fraction
plicable to those physical quantities
ap
which can be divided into
smaller units, but
is
not applicable to those, which are indi
visible, or individuals, as
we usually
call
them.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
9
Involution and Evolution.
6. If
we have a product of several equal
factors, as,
4X4X4=64,
it is
written as,
4 3 =64;
or in general,
;
a =c.
of multiple multiplication of equal factors
b
The operation
thus leads to the next algebraic operationwwto'oft just as the operation of multiple addition of equal terms leads to the
operation of multiplication.
The operation
tion, requires the
of involution, defined as multiple multiplica
exponent
b to
be an integer number; 6
is
the
number
of factors.
it
Thus 4~ 3 has no immediate meaning;
be 4 multiplied (3) times with
Dividing continuously by
4,
itself.
would by
i4=4 5
definition
we
get, 4
6
;
4 5 r4=4 4
;
44^4=43still
etc.,
and
if
this .successive
division
by
4
is
carried
further,
we
get the following series:
=42
=41
=4

42
i =
?
;
or, in general,
~ 6=
a&'
10
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
& as a~ Thus, powers with negative exponents;
arc
,
the
reciprocals of the
7.
same powers with
positive exponents:
~
b
.
From
the definition of involution then follows,
a
&
b
Xan =d' +n
)
and a the because a means the product of & equal factors a, n b a is thus Xa a and factors a, product havproduct of n equal
ing
n
b+n
equal factors
a.
For instance,
r
>.
4 3 X4
2
=(4X4X4)X(4X4)=4
arises,
The question now
we can reach any
further mathematical operation,
3
whether by multiple involution For instance,
(4
P=?
?
may
be written,
(43)2.43x43
= (4X4X4)X(4X4X4);
4';
and
in the
same manner,
6
(a
)"^;
w th power, by multiplying
that
its
is,
a power cf
is
raised to the
also,
exponent,
Thus
n
(a*)
=(a
is
n
)
6
;
that
is,
the order of involution
immaterial,
Therefore, multiple involution leads to no further algebraic
operations.
8.
4 3 64;
that
is,
the product of 3 equal factors
4, gives 64.
Inversely, the problem
of 3 equal factors,
may
be, to resolve
64 into a product
Each
of the factors then will be 4.
is
This
reverse operation of involution
thus,
called evolution,
and
is
written
or,
more
general,
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
Vc
6,
11
thus
is
defined as that
or, in
number
a,
which, raised to the power
gives
c;
other words,
Involution thus far was defined only for integer positive
and negative exponents, and the question
arises,
whether powers
1
with fractional exponents, as c& or
Writing,
i
ct>
}
have any meaning.
it is
seen that that
&
is,
is
that number/which raised to the power
is
6,
gives c;
c&
3/c,
and the operation
of evolution thus
can be expressed as involution with fractional exponent,
and
or,
and
Obviously then,
Irrational
Numbers.
be
3 Involution with integer exponents, as 4 =64, can always can also be carried In carried out. cases, evolution
9,
many
out.
For instance,
it cannot be carried out. while, in other cases,
For instance,
12
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Attempting to calculate
$, we
get,
$=1.4142135...,
and
find,
no matter how
far
we carry the
calculation;
wo never
an end, but get an endless decimal fraction; that is, no number exists in our system of numbers, which can express
come
to
^2, but
tion to
we can only approximate it, and carry the approximaany desired degree; some such numbers, as TT, have been
calculated
up to
several hundred decimals.
in
Such numbers as ^2, which cannot be expressed
finite
any
form, but merely approximated, are called irrational
numbers.
The name
is
just as
wrong
There
as the
is
name negative
number,
or imaginary number.
If
nothing irrational
about fe
we draw a square, with
is
1 foot as side, the length of the diagonal of
of the diagpnal
$
is
feet,
and the length
a square obviously
just as rational as the length of the sides.
Irrational numbers thus are those real and existing numbers, which cannot be expressed by an integer, or a fraction or finite
decimal fraction, but give an endless decimal fraction, which
does not repeat.
Endless decimal fractions frequently are met when expressing
common
of
is,
fractions as decimals.
fractions,
These decimal representa
tions
common
however, arc periodic decimals,
that
the numerical values periodically repeat,
and
in
this
respect are different from the irrational number, .and can, due
to their periodic
fraction.
nature, be converted
.
.
into a finite
common
For instance, 2.1387387.
.
Let
x
then,
=
2.1387387,.,,;
lOOOz 2138.7387387....,
subtracting,
999Z2136.6
Hence,
X~
2136.6
"
21366
9990
1187
999
~55T~
2 11_ 555'
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
13
Quadrature Numbers,
10,
The following equation,
1+4 = (+2),
may
be written, since,
hut also the equation,
4+4 =(2),
may
be written, since
Therefore,
4+4
evolution
we thus
first strike
has two values, (+2) and (2), and in the interesting feature, that one
values, gives
and the same operation, with the same numerical
several different results.
Since
all
the positive and negative numbers are used up
as the square roots of positive numbers, the question arises,
What
is
the square root of a negative number?
as
For instance,
it
4 4 cannot be 2,
2
squared gives
the
;
4,
nor can
be +2.
re
solves itself into
4^I=44x(l)=:lr24l, and What is 4^T?
:
question
thus
We
for instance,
have derived the absolute numbers from experience, by measuring distances on a line Fig. 4, from a
starting point A.
i

B
FIG 4
Negative and Positive Numbers.
Then we have seen that we get the same
twice, once
distance from A,
left,
toward the
right,
once toward the
and
this
has led to the subdivision of the numbers into positive and
the positive toward the right, negative numbers. Choosing in Fig. 4, the negative number would be toward the left (or
inversely, choosing the positive
toward the
left,
would give
the negative toward the right). If then we take a number, as +2, which represents a distance
AB
t
and multiply by (1), we get the distance
AC~ 2
14
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Inversely,
if
in opposite direction from' A,
we take
that
is,
AC=
2,
and multiply by (1), we
tion
get
iS=+2;
;
multiplicacleg.
by (1)
reverses the direction, turns
it
through 180
If
we
multiply
+2
/:: l we get by \
+2V1,
a quantity
of
which we do not yet know the meaning.___Multiplying once
more by
VL, we
get
^xV^X^l 2;
Vl,
that
is,
multiplying a number H2, twice by
rotation of gives a
180 deg., and multiplication by
half of 180 deg.;
or,
;
Vl
thus means rotation by
f
by 90 dcg. and
2V^I thus
is
the dis
\90
I'
(D
h
FIG.
5,
tance in the direction rotated 90 deg. from +2, or in quadrature
direction
AD
in Fig. 5,
and such numbers
is,
as
+2V1
thus
are quadrature numbers, that
represent direction not toward
left,
the right, as the positive, nor toward the but upward or downward.
as the negative
numbers,
For convenience
the letter
j,
of writing,
Vf
is
usually denoted
by
Just as the operation of subtraction introduced in the numbers a new kind of numbers, having a direction negative 180 deg. different, that is, in opposition to the positive numof evolution introduces in the quadrature bers, so the operation a new kind of number, having a direction 90 deg. as
n.
number,
2f,
THE C f ENERAL NUMBER.
different; that
is,
15
at right angles to the positive
6.
and the negative
just as
numbers, as illustrated in Fig.
As
seen, mathematically the quadrature
number
is
real as the negative, physically
has a
meaningif
has no meaning
the quadrature
sometimes the negative number two opposite directions exist; sometimes it where one direction only exists. Thus also
a physical
number sometimes has
meaning, in
those cases where four directions exist, and has no meaning,
in those physical problems
where only two directions
exist.
H4
3
2
1
+1
+2
+3
r4
i
For instance, in problems dealing with plain geometry, as
electrical
in
engineering
when
discussing
alternating
current
vectors in the plane, the quadrature numbers represent the
vertical, the ordinary
numbers the horizontal
is
direction,
and then
the one horizontal direction
in the
positive, the other negative,
and
same manner the one
vertical direction
is
is
positive, the
other negative.
Usually positive
chosen to the right and
upward, negative to the left and downward, as indicated in In other problems, as when dealing with time, which Fig. 6.
has only two directions, past and future, the quadrature numbers are not applicable, but only the positive and 'negative
16
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
In
still
numbers.
nation,
other problems, as
when
dealing with illumi
or with individuals, the negative
numbers are not
absolute or positive numbers. applicable, but only the Just as multiplication by the negative unit (1)
rotation
means
1
by 180
cleg,,
or reverse of direction, so multiplication
j,
by the quadrature
unit,
means
rotation by 90
cleg,,
or change
from the horizontal to the vertical direction,
and inversely,
General Numbers.
12.
By
a
line
could be represented
the positive and negative numbers, all the points of from a numerically as distances
chosen point A.
FIG.
7.
Simple Vector Diagram.
By
the addition of the quadrature numbers,
all
points of
the entire plane can
represented as distances from chosen coordinate axes x and y, that is, anyjDoint P of the
now be
plane,
vertical
Fig.
7,
has
a
horizontal
distance,
05 =+3,
js_ given
and
ti
distance,
of the
5P=
of
+2}, and
therefore
by a
For
combination
distances,
0=+3
and j8PH2j.
combining two such distances in quadrature with each other can be expressed by the plus si^n,
convenience, the
a,ct
and the
result of
combination thereby expressed by
OB+BP
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
Such a combination
ture
of
17
number
is
called a general
an ordinary number and a quadranumber or a complex quantity.
jb
The quadrature number
field of usefulness of algebra,
thus enormously extends the
repre
by affording a numerical
are especially useful
sentation of twodimensional systems, as the plane,
by the
general
number af j&.
They
and impor
tant in electrical engineering, as most problems of alternating
currents lead to vector representations in the plane, and therefore can be represented by the general number afj&j that is, the combination of the ordinary number or horizontal distance
a and the quadrature number or vertical distance
}
fb.
o,
FIG. S.
Vector Diagram.
two
Analytically, points in the plane are represented by their coordinates: the horizontal coordinate, or abscissa x, and
y.
the vertical coordinate, or ordinate
Algebraically, in the
coordinates are combined, a being general number a+jb both the x coordinate, jb the y coordinate. Thus in Fig. 8, coordinates of the points are,
Pi'
s=.+3,
2/=+2
P2
:
=+3 y=2,
*=3 y2,
P3
:
x3, </=+2
P4
:
and the points are located
in the plane
by the numbers:
Pa=32/ P 8 =3+2j P4 =32j
18
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
13. Since already the square root of negative
numbers has
extended the system of numbers by giving the quadrature number, the question arises whether still further extensions
of the
system of numbers would result from higher roots of
negative quantities.
For instance,
The meaning
of
of
~l we
find in the
same manner
as that
f=T.
A
positive
1
number a may be represented on the
horizontal
axis as P.
Multiplying a by
^1
gives atf1,
whose meaning we do
tf1,
not yet know. Multiplying again and again by
four multiplications,
we
get, after
is, a; have been carried from a to a, a rotation of 180
a(^l) =
4
that
in four steps
wo
and
41
is
_
dcg.,
1OQ
thus means a rotation of
__
cleg.,
7= 45
4
therefore, a
41
the point PI in Fig.
9,
at distance a from the coordinate
cleg.,
center,
and under angle 45
or, is
which has the coordinates;
#._ and y==j]
V2
V2
represented
by the
general number.
VT, however, may
since
this,
also
mean a
times,
it
rotation
gives
by 135
cleg,
to ?2,
deg,,
repeated
four
;
4x135=540
or the same as 180 deg. or
or
may mean
exist,
a rotation by 225 deg.
by 315
deg.
"
Thus four points
which represent a ^
1
;
the points;
+1+L
dL+L
Therefore,
4f
is
still
a general
number, consisting of an
ordinary and a quadrature number, and thus does not extend our system of numbers' any further.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
In the same manner,
which, multiplied
sents a rotation
19
ty+1 can
be found;
it is
that number,
n times with
360
itself,
gives +1.
Thus
it
repre
by
deg., or
any multiple
.
thereof;
that
is,
360
the x coordinate
is
..
.
360
cos
qX
.
n
the y coordinate sin
gX
n
,
and,
v +l=cos#X
where q
is
360
.
,
360
,
fjsingX
any integer number.
FIG. 9,
Vector Diagram ov1.
There are therefore n different values of
equidistant
Fig, 10.
14.
a^+1,
which
lie
on a
circle
with radius
1, as
shown
for
n=9
in
In the operation of addition, af 6c, the problem
6
is,
a and
find being given to
;
c.
The terms
equivalent,
of addition,
a and
5,
are interchangeable, or
thus:
aH6=Ha,
c
and addition therefore has only
c
one reverse operation, subtraction;
found, thus;
and b being given, a
is
is
ac5, and
is
and a being given, 6
found, thus:
subtraction.
&=ca.
Either leads to the same operation
The same
the case in multiplication;
aX&=c.
The
20
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
a and
5 arc
factors
interchangeable or equivalent;
and the
reverse operation, division,
b
a=r
is
the same as
&=.
arc not interchangeable, and a
In involution, however, a =c, the two numbers a and & a 6 For instance is not equal to b
,
Therefore, involution has two reverse operations:
(a) c
and
b given,
a to be found,
or evolution,
FIG. 10.
Points Determined by
v'l.
(6)
c
and a given,
6
to be found,
or,
logarithmation.
Logarithmation.
15.
Logarithmation thus
is
one
is
of the reverse operations
of involution,
and the logarithm
the exponent of involution.
ponential,
Thus a logarithmic exprcssidn may be changed to an exand inversely, and the laws of logarithmation are
the laws, which the exponents obey in involution.
Powers of equal base are multiplied by adding the t+n b n Therefore, the logarithm of a exponents: a Xa =a
1.
,
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
product
is
21
= log a
2.
(
the sura of the logarithms of the factors, thus log a c Xd
ct log a d.
A power is raised to a power by multiplying the exponents
=0to
is
:
a &)n
Therefore the logarithm of a power
the logarithm of the base,
is
the exponent times
or,
the number under the logarithm
raised to the
power
n,
by multiplying the logarithm by n:
c
n
log a
loga 1 =0, because a c>l, and is negative,
if
=nhga
c,
= 1.
if
If
the base a
> 1,
log c
fl
is positive,
is
if
c<l, but >0.
The
reverse
the
case,
a<l,
Thus, the logarithm traverses
c,
all positive
and
negative values for the positive values of
of a negative
and the logarithm
of finding
itself
number thus can be
neither positive nor negative.
loga
(~c)=log a c+log a (1), and the question
the logarithms of negative numbers thus resolves
finding the value of log a
(
into
1).
the base
There are two standard systems of logarithms one with =2.71828. .*, and 'the other with the base 10 is
.
used, the former in algebraic, the latter in numerical calculations.
Logarithms
of
any base a can
easily be reduced to
any
c
other base.
For instance, to reduce 6=loga
hereof gives, 6 logio a=logio
logio c logio
c to
the base 10; ilog
& means, in the form of involution: a =e.
Taking the logarithm
c,
hence,
logio c
m
r
.
5__
^
or

g 6
c=a
.
logio a
Thus, regarding the logarithms of negative numbers, we need
to consider only logio (1) or log s
If
(
1).
/3log,(l),then
*=!,
and
since, as will be seen in Chapter II,
E
3
*cos
x)f sin x,
it
follows that,
cos
+/ sins
=
1,
*
Regarding
e,
see Chapter II, p. 71.
22
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
Hence,
x=^
;
or
an odd multiple
thereof,
and
where n
/,
to the quadrature number but to no further extension of the system of numbers.
is any integer number. Thus logarithmation also leads
Quaternions.
16.
Addition and subtraction, multiplication and division,
all
involution and evolution and logarithmation thus represent
the algebraic operations, all these operations can be carried out
is
and the system
of
numbers
all
in
which
under
conditions
that of the general number, a+jbj comprising the ordinary number a and the quadrature number jb. The number a as or negative, may be integer, fraction be well as b
may
positive
or irrational.
Since
by the introduction
system
of
of the
quadrature number
jb,
the application of the
line,
numbers was extended from the
to the
or more general, onedimensional quantity, plane, or the twodimensional quantity, the question arises, whether the system of numbers could be
still
further extended, into
three dimensions, so as to represent space geometry.
in
electrical
While
plain
engineering most
problems lead only to
diagrams in the plane, occasionally space figures would be advantageous if they could be expressed algebrafigures, vector
ically.
would be of importance Especially in mechanics this
dealing with forces as vectors in space.
when
In the quaternion calculus methods have been devised to
deal with space problems. The quaternion calculus, however, has not yet found an engineering application comparable with that of the number, or, as it is frequently called, the
general
complex quantity.
The reason
is
that the quaternion
is
not
an algebraic quantity, and the laws
apply to
17.
it.
of algebra do not uniformly
With the rectangular coordinate system
in the
piano,
Fig. 11, the x axis
may
represent the ordinary numbers, the y
Axis the quadrature numbers, and multiplication by For instance, if PI is a point represents rotation by 90 deg.
j^Vl
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
a+j&=3+2?s,
be:
23
the point
P2
,
90 deg. away from PI, would
To extend
as
into space,
we have
to
add the third
or z axis,
Rotation in the plane xy, by 90 deg., in the direction f x to +t/, then means multiplication by j. In the same manner, rotation in the yz plane, by 90 deg.
;
shown
in perspective in Fig. 12.
from
+y
to
+z would be represented by
f
multiplica
FIG. 11.
Vectors in a Plane.
tion with h,
to
and
rotation
by 90 dcg.
k, as
in the zx plane,
from +z
+ x would
be presented by
indicated in Fig. 12.
All three of these rotors,
j,
h,
Is,
would be
is,
V^T,
since each,
that applied twice, reverses the direction,
plication
represents multi
by (1). As seen in Fig.
40,
Jfc
12, starting
from +x, and going to
ft/,
then to
and then
?
to
+x means
;
successive multiplication
to the starting point, the
is,
by
j,
h and
and
since
we come back
must
total operation produces no change, that
tiplication
represents mul
by
(
+1),
Hence,
it
be,
fhk= +1.
24
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is
Algebraically this
tities
is
not possible, since each of the three quan
X/1, and
v'lxVlxV']^ Vl,
and not
(+D.
PIG. 12,
Vectors in Space, jhk=
+ 1.
If
first
we now proceed again from
z
#,
in positive rotation, but
turn in the xz plane, we reach by multiplication with k
axis, ~z, as seen in Fig, 13.
the negative
Further
multiplica
FIG. 13,
Vectors in Space,
1.
tion
by A brings us
to +j/,
and multiplication by
j
to x,
and
in this case the result of
the three successive rotations
by
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
25
order,
90 deg,, in the same direction as in Fig. 12, but in a different is a reverse; that is, represents (1). Therefore,
and hence,
jhk khj.
Thus, in vector analysis law of algebra,
of space, we see that the
fundamental
does not apply, and the order of the factors of a product is not immaterial, but by changing the order of the factors of the
product jhkj
its
sign
was reversed.
Thus common
if
factors
cannot be canceled as in algebra; for instance,
expression,
in the correct
}
done
in algebra, we
this
For
cancel by j, h and k as could be would get +1 = 1, which is obviously wrong. reason all the mechanisms devised for vector analysis
jhk= khj, we should
in space
have proven more difficult in their application, and have not yet been used to any great extent in engineering
practice.
B.
ALGEBRA OF THE GENERAL NUMBER, OR COMPLEX
QUANTITY.
Rectangular and Polar Coordinates.
18.
The general number,
or complex quantity, a+}&,
is
the most general expression to which the laws of algebra apply.
It therefore
can be handled in the same manner and under
the same rules as the ordinary
number
of elementary arithmetic.
The only
feature which
must be kept in mind is that f = 1, and
where in multiplication or other operations placed by its value, I. Thus, for instance,
f
occurs,
it is
re
Hercfrom
it
follows that all the higher
powers of
j
can be
eliminated, thus:
f4j,
.
.
.
eta
26
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
In distinction from the general number or complex quantity,
the ordinary numbers,
scaZars,
+a
and
a, are occasionally called
or real number?.
of the
combination of
Tho general number thus consists a scalar or real number and a quadrature
number, or imaginary number. Since a quadrature number cannot be equal to an ordinary number it follows that, if two general numbers are equal,
their real
components or ordinary numbers, as well as
their
quadrature numbers or imaginary components must be equal,
thus,
if
a+fi=c+jd,
then,
a=c
and
b~d.
Every equation with general numbers thus can be resolved two equations, one containing only the ordinary numbers, For instance, if the other only the quadrature numbers,
into
then,
x=5
19.
and
y=
3.
The
best
way
of getting
a conception of the general
it,
number, and the algebraic operations with
the general
the
is
to consider
number
as representing a point in the plane.
s
Thus
as
general
number a4j6= 6+2.5j may be considered
representing a point P, in Fig. 14, which has the horizontal
distance
from the y
axis,
distance from the x axis,
OA**BP=a=6, and 0#AP=6=2.5.
the vertical
The
then
total distance of the point
is
P from
the coordinate center
and the
is
angle,
which
this distance
OP
makes with the x
axis,
given by
=^~r b
OA
=0.417.
a
AP
2.5
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
27
components, a and
Instead of representing the general number by the two in the form a+jb, it can also be 6, repredistance of the point
sented by the two quantities:
The
P from the
center 0,
and the angle between
this distance
and the x
axis,
tanfl. a
^y
Fio, 14.
Rectangular and Polar Coordinates.
Then
referring to Fig, 14 ;
a=ccostf
and
6=csin#,
also be written in the
and the general number a+jb thus can
form,
The form
a\jb
expresses
6,
the
general
number
by
its
rectangular components a and
and corresponds
a
is
to the rect
angular coordinates of analytic geometry;
b the y coordinate.
the x coordinate,
The form what may be
c(cos
+j
sin
ft]
expresses the general
called its polar components, the radius c
number by and the
28
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
and corresponds to the polar coordinates
c
is
angle
6,
of analytic
geometry,
9 the
or scalar, frequently called the radius vector
phase angle of the general number. While usually the rectangular form a+jb
is
more
con
form c(cos 6 +f sintf) is preferable, venient, sometimes the polar and transformation from one form to the other therefore frequently applied,
Addition and Subtraction,
20. If
this point
ai+#i
is
= 6+2.5j
is
represented
by the point PI;
B i reached by going the horizontal distance and the vertical distance &i 2.5. If a 2 +/5 2 =3+4;/ is repre
=
sented by the point P 2 , this point is reached by going the horizontal distance a 2 =3 and the vertical distance fr 3 =4.
+ (02+^2) = two general numbers (ai+j&i} P which is reached (6+2.5f) + (3+*i); then is given by point 0;
The sum
of the
the sum of the horby going a horizontal distance equal to ao=ai+a 2 = (H3=9 and a izontal distances of PI and P 2
:
7
vertical distance equal to the
sum
of the vertical distances of
;
PI and
general
P2
:
6
=^i+&2=2.5+4=6.5
hence,
is
given
by the
number
Geometrically, point
P
is
derived from points PI and
P
2?
by the diagonal
with"OPi and
OP~o of the parallelogram
OPiP^,
constructed
OP2
it
as sides, as seen in Fig. 15. follows
Herefrom
that addition of general numbers
represents geometrical combination
Inversely,
if
PO represents the
ao+/&o
by the parallelogram number
law.
= 9+6.5],
and PI represents the number
the difference of these numbers will be represented by a point
P2
,
which
is
reached by going the difference of the horizontal
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
distances and of the vertical distances of the points
29
PO and
PI,
P2
thus
is
represented by
0^1 =9 6=3,
and
o&i=6 52.5=4.
Therefore, the difference of the two general numbers (a +f&o)
and
(di
+/&j)
is
given by the general number:
as seen in Fig. 15.
FIG. 15.
Addition and Subtraction of Vectors,
This difference
the parallelogram
a^+jh
is
represented
by one
side
OP 2
of
OPiP^P^ which
has
QP\
as the other side,
and
OP
as the diagonal.
Subtraction of general numbers thus geometrically represents
the resolution of a vector
,
OP
into
two components OP] and
OP"2 by the parallelogram law. Herein lies the main advantage
:
of the use of the general
number in engineering calculation If the vectors are represented by general numbers (complex quantities), combination and
resolution of vectors
by the
parallelogram law
is
carried out
by
30
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
simple addition or subtraction of their general numerical values,
that
is,
21. General
their
by the simplest operation of algebra. numbers are usually denoted by capitals, and and the rectangular components, the ordinary number
letters, thus:
quadrature number, by small
the distance of the point which represents the general
number
A
from the coordinate center
or scalar of the general
is
called the absolute value, radius
number
or complex quantity.
It is
the vector a
in the polar representation of the general
J.
number:
= fl(cos
3 2
.
0f/ sin
0),
and
is given by a= Vfli +aa The absolute value, or scalar,
of the general
number is usually
also denoted
by small letters, but sometimes by capitals, and
it is
in the latter case
distinguished from the general
number by
using a different type for the latter, or underlining or dotting
it,
thus
:
A = a\ + /as
or
;
or
4
~
o,\
+ ja>>
;
i=ai+ja 2
;
or
AGi+jaj
or
AVaf+a/,
;
and
or
= a (cos &\ + jag
on
+ j sin 6)
+ja2=^(cos Q+j
sin 6),
22.
The absolute
value, or scalar, of a general
is,
number
is
always an absolute number, or positive, that
rectangular component
referring to Fig. 16,
is
the sign of the
0.
represented in the angle
Thus
gves,
tan
0 075;
0=37
deg.;
(cos
and
A =5
37 deg.
+ j sin
37
cleg)
.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
The expression
gives
tan
0 =  0.75;
or
37 deg.;
= 180 37 =143
deg.
FIG. 16.
Representation of General Numbers.
Which
that cos 6
deg.
is
of the
two values
cos
9.
of 6
is
the correct one
is
seen from
it
the condition
a\=a
As
a\ is positive,
+4,
follows
must be
positive; cos
(37
deg.)
is
is
positive, cos 143
former value negative; hence the
correct:
A=5{cos(37
deg.)
+j sin(37deg.)}
deg.).
=5(cos 37 deg. j sin 37
Two
such genera!
numbers
as
(4+3f) and
(43j),
or,
in general,
(a+j&)
and
(a}5),
are called conjugate numbers.
Their product
is
an ordinary
.
2 2 and not a general number, thus: (a+2'6)(aj'6)=a +6
32
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The expression
gives
tan
0=~ =0.75;
4
or
Q
0= 37
but since
hence,
deg,
is
=18037 = 143
cleg,;
&i=a cos #=143 deg. is
negative, 4, cos 6
must be negative,
the correct value, and
deg.
4=5(cos 143
+/sin 143
+}' sin
deg,) deg,)
=5(cos 37 deg.
The expression
37
4=01+^2= 43;
gives
0=37
deg,;
or
==180
+37 =217
deg.;
but since ai=a cos 6
hence
is
negative, 4, cos 6
must be negative,
0=217
deg.
is
the correct value, and,
4=5
(cos
217 deg.
+ j sin
217
deg.)
=5(
 cos
37 deg. / sin 37 deg.)
The four general numbers, +4+3j
;
+43j,
and
413/,
ami
4~3j, have the same absolute
value, 5,
in their repre
sentations as points in a plane have symmetrical locations in
the four quadrants, as shown in Fig. 16.
As the
general
number Aai+jaz
it
finds
its
main use
in
representing vectors in the plane,
very frequently is called a vector quantity, and the algebra of the general number is
spoken of as
wdw
analysis.
Since the
general
numbers
4=^1+^2
can be
made
to
represent the points of a plane, they also
may
be called plane
numbers, while the positive and negative numbers, fa and a,
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
may
33
be called the linear numbers, as they represent the points
of a line.
Example: Steam Path
23.
in
a Turbine.
As an example
of
a simple operation with general num
bers one
of
may
calculate the steam path in a twowheel stage
an impulse steam
turbine.
<<(
FIG. 17.
Path of Steam in a Twowheel Stage
of
an Impulse Turbine,
Let Fig. 17 represent diagrammatically a tangential section
through the bucket rings of the turbine wheels.
are the
W\ and
F
2
two revolving wheels, moving
arrows, with
in the direction indicated
feet per sec.
by the
the velocity
$=400
7 are
the stationary intermediate buckets, which turn the exhaust
steam from the
first
bucket wheel Wi, back into the direction
required to impinge on the second bucket wheel
Wz.
s
The
steam
jet issues
from the expansion nozzle at the speed
=2200
34
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
and under the angle 6^20
against the
first
feet per sec,,
cleg.,
bucket wheel W\.
The exhaust
angles of the three successive rows of buckets,
are respectively 24 deg., 30 dcg. and 45 deg.
of the
W
1?
/,
and
W
2
,
These angles are calculated from the section
exit required to pass
bucket
the
steam at
its
momentary
velocity,
and from the height of the passage required to eddies, in a manner which is of no interest here,
give no steam
As
friction coefficient in the
is,
bucket passages
is
may be assumed
of the entrance
A/ =0.12; that
the exit velocity
1^=0.88
velocity of the steam in the buckets.
FIG. 18.
Vector Diagram of Velocities
of
Steam
in Turbine.
Choosing then
velocity of the
as reaxis
the direction of the tangential
?/~axis
turbine wheels, as
the axial direction,
is
the velocity of the steam supply from the expansion nozzle
represented in Fig. 18
by a vector
05
of length s
=2200
feet
per
sec.,
making an angle #0=20
deg. with the zaxis;
hence,
can be expressed by the general number or vector quantity;
=2200
(cos
20 dcg. +j sin 20 deg.)
ft.
=2070 +760;
per
sec.
The velocity of the turbine wheel W\
is
$=400
feet per second,
and represented
direction.
in Fig.
18 by the vector OS, in horizontal
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
The
relative velocity
first
35
with which the steam enters the bucket
passage of the
turbine wheel
W\
thus
is;
(2070 +750}) 400
= 1670 +740}
This vector
is
ft.
per sec.
shown
as
0&\
in Fig, 18.
The angle
passage thus
is
0i,
under which the steam enters the bucket
given by
750
tan
0i=ig70
= 0450,
as
0i=24.3deg.
This angle thus has to be given to the front edge of the buckets of the turbine wheel If i.
The absolute value
of the relative velocity of
steam
jet
and turbine wheel W\, at the entrance
is
into the bucket passage,
si
= V16702 + 7502 = 1830
ft.
per sec,
creases
In traversing the bucket passages the steam velocity deby friction etc., from the entrance value $1 to the
exit value
s2
=si(lfy)
= 1830X0.88 = 1610
ft.
per
see.,
and
as
since the exit angle of the bucket passage has been chosen
deg.,
first
^==24
the relative velocity with which the steam
leaves the
bucket wheel
Wi
is
represented
by a vector
OS~2 in Fig. 18, of length s 2 =161Q, under angle 24 deg.
The
steam leaves the
wheel in backward direction, as seen in 24 thus is the angle between the steam jet and deg. Fig. 17, and the negative xaxis; hence, 02= 180 24 = 156 deg. is the
first
vector angle.
The
relative
steam velocity at the exit from
wheel If i can thus be represented by the vector quantity
1610
(cos
156 deg.
j.
+jw 156 deg.)
W\
is
= 1470 +655
Since the velocity of the turbine wheel
velocity of the
s=400, the
first
steam in space, after leaving the
turbine
36
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is,
wheel, that
the velocity with which the steam
enters the
intermediate
/, is
~(l470+655j)+400
= 1070 +655
and
is
j,
represented
by vector
0/S 3 in Fig. 18.
is
The
direction of this steam jet
given by
to
as
3
03=

=31.6dcg.;
is
or,
18031.0=148.4
deg.
The
latter value
correct, as cos #3 is negative,
and
sin # 3
is
positive.
The steam
of 148.4 deg.
;
jet
thus enters the intermediate under the angle
is,
that
the angle 180
 148.4
31.6 deg. in opposite
direction.
The buckets
of the intermediate / thus
must be
curved in reverse direction to those of the wheel Wi, and must
be given the angle 31.6 deg. at their front edge.
The absolute value
mediate /
is
of the entrance velocity into the inter
58
V1070H655 2 =1255
ft.
per sec.
In passing through the bucket passages, this velocity decreases
by
friction, to
the value;
$4*53(1 fc/)=12S5X0.881105
ft.
per
sec.,
and since the
exit edge of the intermediate
is
given the angle:
#4=30
deg., the exit velocity of the steam from the intermediate
is represented by the vector OS 4 and angle 0430 deg. hence,
;
in Fig. 18, of length s 4 =1105,
S 4 =1105
(cos
30 deg. +j sin 30 deg.)
ft.
=955 +550?
This
is
per sec.
the velocity with which the steam
on the second turbine wheel
W%
and as
this
jet impinges wheel revolves
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
with velocity s=400 the relative velocity that
;
37
is,
the velocity
is,
with which the steam enters the bucket passages of wheel W%,
=(955 +550?) 400
=555 +550/
and
is
ft.
per
sec.;
represented by vector
direction of this
OS 5
in Fig, 18.
The
steam
jet is
given by
550 tan
6
=ggp0.990,
as
5
=44.Sdeg.
Therefore, the entrance edge of the buckets of the second
wheel
W%
must be shaped under angle #5=44.8 deg.
of the entrance velocity
is
The absolute value
s5
= V555 2 +5502 780
ft.
per sec.
In traversing the bucket passages, the velocity drops from
the entrance value $5, to the exit valve,
s6
=s 5 (l~/c/)=780XO,88=690
ft.
per sec.
Since the exit angles of the buckets of wheel
W%
has been
chosen as 45 deg., and the exit 18045=135 deg., the steam
is
in
backward
direction, 6$
=
jet velocity at the exit of the
is
bucket passages of the
last
wheel
given by the general
number
f sin 06)
=690
(cos 135 deg.
ft.
+/
sin 135 deg.)
= 487 +487;
per
sec.,
and represented by vector OS&
Since
in Fig. 18.
5=400
"
is
the wheel velocity,
steam
or "
after leaving
the last wheel
is
W
the velocity of the
2}
that
is,
the "lost"
rejected
velocity,
(487+487?) +400
=
and
is
87+487jft. per
sec.,
represented
by vector OS?
in Fig. 18.
38
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
The
direction of the exhaust steam
is
given by,
tan
7
=
0^=
CM
5.fi,
as
7
=180SO100deg.,
and the absolute velocity
is,
2 2 s 7 = \/87 +487 =495
ft.
per sec.
Multiplication of General Numbers.
24,
If
A = ai+/a 2 and #=&i+j& 2
their product
is
,
are
two
general,
01
plane numbers,
given by multiplication, thus
and
since
f=
1,
AB = (ai&ia 2 &2)+/(ai&2 +
21),
and the product can also bo represented in the plane, by a point,
where,
and
For instance,
A=2+j
multiplied
by
5 = l+l.Sf
gives
d=2XllXl.5=0.5,
C2
=2X1.5+1X1=4;
hence,
C=0.5+4j,
as
shown
25.
in Fig. 19.
relation
The geometrical
is
between the factors
A and
1
and the product C
better shown
by
using the polar expression
hence, substituting,
aiacosal
a2=asin
which gives
I
&i=Z>cos/?l
and
J
n
62
tan/9^
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
the quantities
39
may
be written thus:
4=a(cos a+/sin
and then,
a);
C=AB = ab(Qos
=ab
{
a'+j sin a) (cos $
/5
+
j
sin
$
sin
/?
(cos
a.
cos
sin
a
sin
$
+ /(cos
;
a
f sin
a cos
/
=a5
icos (a
+$ +/
sin (a
+$}
FIG. 19,
Multiplication of Vectors,
that
is,
absolute values or vectors, a and
two general numbers are multiplied by multiplying their their phase angles 6, and adding
a and
/?.
Thus, to multiply the vector quantity,
a+j
19,
sin
fl)
by J3=&i+/6 =&(cos #+/sin/?) the vector
2
i
A=a\+ja2a (cos OA in Fig.
is
which represents the general number A,
increased
ft
by the
given
factor 6
= vV+&22
&2
Oi
,
and rotated by the angle
which
is
by tan/?=rThus, a complex multiplier
multiplicand A, by
B
turns the direction of the
the phase angle of the multiplier B, and
increases the absolute value or vector of A,
by the absolute
value of
B as
factor.
40
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The
multiplier
B
is
as occasionally called an operator,
it
carries out the operation of rotating the direction
and changing
the length of the multiplicand.
26. In multiplication, division and other algebraic operations with the representations of physical quantities (as alter
mathematical nating currents, voltages, impedances, etc.) by
it symbols, whether ordinary numbers or general numbers, the result of the algebraic whether consider is to necessary of two factors, has a operation, for instance, the product
physical meaning, and
this
if
it
meaning
is
such that the product
has a physical meaning, whether can be represented in
the same diagram as the factors.
For instance,
3X4 = 12;
ft,
but 3 horses
2
,
X4
horses does not
give 12 horses, nor 12 horses
but
is
physically meaningless.
if
However, 3
ft.
X4
I
= 12
I
sq.ft.
Thus,
the numbers represent
$.
I
0)
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
A
B
FIG. 20.
C
has horses, multiplication
no physical meaning.
If
they repre
sent feet, the product of multiplication has a physical meaning, which differs from that of the factors. Thus, but a
meaning
if
on the
line in Fig. 20,
it
Ol=3
feet,
054
feet, the
product,
12 square feet, while
has a physical meaning, cannot be
it
a point on the same line; represented any more by
the point
is
jiot
"OC^ 12,
because,
if
we expressed
the distances
OA
aad
05
in inches,
36 and 48 inches
sq.in.,
would be 36x481728
144 inches.
27. In all
it
while the distance
respcctively,Jhe product OC would be
mathematical operations with physical quantities
of the mathenecessary to consider at every step it still has a physical meaning,
is
is
therefore
is
matical operation, whether
and,
if
graphical representation
resorted to, whether the
nature of the physical meaning
representation in the
such as to allow graphical
not.
same diagram, or
An
of
instance of this general limitation of the application of
mathematics to physical quantities occurs in the representation
alternating
current
phenomena by general numbers,
or
complex quantities.
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
An
alternating current can be represented
41
by a vector 01
in a polar diagram, Fig. 21, in
which one complete revolution
or 360 deg represents the lime of one complete period of the
alternating current.
This vector
01 can be
represented by a
general number,
where
i\
is
the horizontal,
i%
the vertical component of the
current vector 01.
FIG, 21.
Current,
E
M F.
and Impedance Vector Diagram.
fre
In the same manner an alternating E.M.F. of the same
quency can be represented by a vector and denoted by a general number,
OE
in the
same
Fig. 21,
An impedance
can be represented by a general number,
Zrjx,
where r
If
is
the resistance
and x the reactance.
,
now we have two impedances, OZ\ and OZ 2 %i=r\ jx\ and Z 2 =r 2 "^2, their product #1 Z2 can be formed mathema
ically,
but
it
has no physical meaning.
42
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
If
we have a current and a voltage,
is
7 = ii
4
/^ and
$ = e\ 4 fea,
the product of current and voltage
the power
P
of tho alter
nating circuit.
The product of the two general numbers 7 and E can be formed mathematically, IE, and would represent a point C
in the vector plane Fig,
M.
mathematical expression IE, which represents
the power
of
This point C, however, and the docs not give it,
P of the
the power alternating circuit, since
P is
not
same frequency as 7 and E, and represented in the same polar diagram Fig.
the
If
therefore cannot be
21,
which represents
1
we have a
of the
current 7 and an impedance Z, in Fig
their product
is
.
21;
7={ 1 f^ 2 and Z=rjx,
voltage
is
a
voltage,
it
and
as the
same frequency
as the current,
can be repreis
sented in the same polar diagram, Fig. 21,
the mathematical product of 7 and Z,
and thus
given by
28.
Commonly,
in the denotation of graphical
diagrams by
as the polar diagram of alternating currents, general numbers, those quantities, which are vectors in the polar diagram, as the
are represented current, voltage, etc.,
by dotted
capitals; E,
7,
while those general numbers, as the impedance, admittance, etc., as operators, that is, as multipliers of one vector, which
appear
for instance the current, to get another vector, the voltage, are
represented algebraically
etc.
by
dot; capitals without
Z=r~jx=
impedance, This limitation of calculation with the mathematical representation of physical quantities
must constantly be kept
in
mind
in all theoretical investigations.
Division of General Numbers.
29.
The
division
gives,
of
two general numbers, A^ai+jat and
B =4i +762,
A.
*~fi~
This fraction contains the quadrature number in the numerator as well as in the denominator.
The quadrature number
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
43
can bo eliminated from the denominator by multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate quantity of the denominator, bijbzj
which
gives:
(ai+7fl 2 )(6i jb*)
(a\b\
+
for instance,
i_6+2.5f
2816.5/
25
=1.120.60?.
If desired,
the quadrature
left in
number may be eliminated from
the numerator and
the denominator by multiplying with
the conjugate
number
of the numerator, thus:
for instance,.
(3+4j)(62.6jJ
29.75
28 + 16.5]
30. Just as in multiplication, the polar representation of
the general number in division
other.
is
more perspicuous than any
44
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Let l=a(cos af /sin a) be divided by JS=6(cos
,
thus;
a(cos a
6 (cos
f f sin
)(cos
/?)
j?
/?
?
j
2
sin
/9)
p +/
sin
(cos
sin
/?)
/?)
a:
__a{ " (cos
a cos /Hsin a
sin
+j(sin
2
/?)
cos
/?
cos
ct
Pin
/?)
j
6(cos /5+sin
ct
=rjcos
That
(a
/?)+/ sin (a/?)}.
is,
general numbers
A
and
5
are divided 6;
by dividing
their vectors or absolute values,
$ and
and subtracting their
phases or angles a and
/?.
Involution and Evolution of General Numbers,
31, Since involution
is
multiple multiplication, and evolu
tion
is
involution with fractional exponents; both can be resolved
into simple expressions
by using the
polar form of the general
number.
a(cos
a+j
sin a),
then
C=A w== a n (cos na+j sin no).
For instance,
if
4=3+ 4/=5(cos 53
then,
deg.+f
sin
sin
53 dcg.);
(7= A
4
=54 (cos 4X53
dog.
+j
4x53
dog.)
625(cos 212 deg. +j sin 212
cleg.)
625( cos 32 deg. /
sin 32 dcg.)
625( 0.848 0.530
j)
= 529 331
If,
j.
A=ai f jct 2 =a
(cos CL+J sin a), then

GvA^A n =a n
=
/
\
QL
/M
J
ff.
cos~Hsinnn
valcos+?sm).
v
n//
a
.
.
CM
n
J
n
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
32.
If,
45
in the polar expression of A,
2?r
:
we
increase the phase
angle a by %n, or by any multiple of
integer number,
2#7r,
where q
is
any
we
get the
same value
of
4, thus;
4=acos(a +2^) +f
since the cosine
sin(a+2<pr)},
and
sine repeat after every 360 cleg, or 2.
is
The nth
root, however,
different:
/y
(7
*/T =v A=va
W cos
\
a+2 9^
n
1 sm +J
,
We
hereby get n different values
as q  0.
of C,
for
it
q=0,
gives
1,
2,
.
.n1;
= g n gives again the same
Since
that
is,
an increase
of the
phase angle by 360 deg., which leaves
cosine
and
sine unchanged.
values,
Thus, the nth root of any general number has n different and these values have the same vector or absolute
differ
term v^, but
its
from each other by the phase angle
and
multiples.
j
For instance, let sin 212 deg.) then,
A
529331f=625
(cos
212 deg.f
= 5(cos
==5(cos
212+360? 1
.
.

212+3600' 
=5(cos53+jsin53)
=5(cosl43+/sinl43)=5(cos37+jsin37)=4+3/
=5(cos233+jsin233)5(cos53+jsin53)=3f4/
323 + / sin 323)
 5(cos 37 f sin 37)
sin 53)
=4 3j
413+j sm 413)=5(cos 53+j
=3+4f
a) differ
The n
roots of a general
number
A=a (cos a+f sin
,
from each other by the phase angles
Tlr
or I/nth of 360 deg.,
and since they have the same absolute value va, it follows, circle with they are represented by n equidistant points of a
radius #a, as shown in Fig. 22, for
that
n=4, and
in Fig, 23 for
46
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Such a system
of
ft
9,
n equal
vectors, differing in phase
called
of
from
each other by
I /nth of
360
cleg., is
an nphase system. The n roots give an nphase system.
33
If
a polyphase system, or the general number thus
For instance,
$T?
sin
A=a
(cos
a +7
a)
=l
;
this
means; a=l, o:=0; and
hence,
l=cos
n
H'sin
'
;
n
P3=34?<
FIG. 22.
Roots
of
a General Number,
n=4.
and the n roots
of the unit are
360
cos
360
cos
(n1)
IV
+/siu (n1)
t\l
.
However,
360
. .
360
/
360
THE GENERAL NUMBER.
hence, the
47
n
roots of 1 arc,
n/r = VI
/
360
cos
..
360\
\
n
+jsm
J
n
, '
I
where q
may
is
be any integer number.
is real,
One
If
of these roots
for
q=0 and is= +1,
}
n
odd,
all
the 'other
roots are
general, or
complex
numbers.
If
n
is
an even number, a second
root, for
q=^,
is
also real:
cos 180 +?' sin 180
=1.
FIG. 23.
Roots
of
a General Number, w=9.
If
n
is
divisible
by
4,
two
roots are quadrature numbers,
and
are
34. Using
the
rectangular
coordinate
expression
of
the
general number, A=a>i
+^2, the
calculation of the roots
becomes
more complicated.
Let
then, squaring,
For
instance,
given
^5=?
C=4
hence,
Since,
if
and
their vertical
two general numbers are equal, components must be equal,
ai=ci C2
2
2
their
it is:
horizontal
and
a
48
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Squaring both equations and adding them, gives,
Hence
:
and
since
then,
and
Thus
and
C2=rMA
and
2
2 +a2 a 2 !,
which
35.
is
a rather complicated expression.
representing
is,
When
physical
quantities
by general
number,
numbers, that
complex quantities, at the end
of the calcula
tion the final result usually appears also as a general
or as a complex of general numbers,
and then has to be reduced
to the absolute value and the phase angle of the physical quantity.
This
is
numbers to
their polar expression.
most conveniently done by reducing the general For instance, if the result
of the calculation appears in the form,
by
substituting
A and so
on.
8
j?)
g_g(cos
af j'sin
tt
s
j?+f sin
Vc(cos y+j'sin
e
y)*
sn
+/ sin
THE GENERAL NUMBER,
Therefore, the absolute value of a fractional expression
49
is
the product of the absolute values of the factors of the numerator, divided
by the product
of
the
absolute values of the
factors of the denominator.
The phase angle
of a fractional expression
is
the
sum
of
the phase angles of the factors of the numerator, minus the
of the phase angles of the factors of the denominator,
sum
For instance,
2
5(4+3j)
v2
2
/
25(cos3Q7+fsm307) 2\/2(cos45+fsm45)^6!5(cosll4+jsmll4)^
125 (cos 37 +/ sin 37)
V2
/
114
+jsin
\
2X307+45+5 o
2X37
/
0.4^o\5jcos263+/sin263}
0.746
j
0.1220.992/}
will
=
0.091 0.74j.
36.
As
be seen in Chapter II:
J^jf_ + tf_ A "16 8
'
Hcrefrom
follows,
by
substituting,
x=6, u=j6,
cos 0+y' sin
0W,
and the polar expression
of the
complex quantity,
a),
A=a(cos a+/sin
thus can also be written in the form,
50
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
s is
where
the base of the natural logarithms,
Since
any number a can be expressed
as a
power
of
any
other number, one can substitute;
1Q
where a Q =log a='jiogio
,
and the general number thus can
also be written in the form,
'
i=
that
is
ao+J a
;
the general number, or complex quantity, can be expressed
in the forms,
=a(cos
a+j
sin a)
The
are
less
last
two, or exponential forms, are rarely used, as they
operations.
convenient for algebraic
They
are
of
importance; however, since solutions of differential equations frequently appear in this form, and then are reduced to the
polar or the rectangular form,
37. For instance, the differential equation of the distribu
tion of alternating current in a flat conductor, or of alternating
magnetic flux in a
flat
sheet of iron, has the form:
and
is
integrated
by
y^Ar
7
*,
where,
hence,
This expression, reduced to the polar form,
is
y=Aie
+cs
(m
cxj
sin ex)
+A
2
r^(cos
a+j sin ex).
TEE GENERAL NUMBER.
Logarithmation.
38. In taking the logarithm of a general
51
number, the ex
ponential expression
logs (01
is
most convenient, thus
:
+^2) = loga a (cos a+j
sin a)
or, if 6
= base
of the logarithm, for instance, 6
'
= 10,
it is:
a logj(oi +702) =log 6
or,
if
3
a
=log & a+ja Iog 6
;
6
unequal
10,
reduced to logio;
logio a
,
logio ^
CHAPTER
II.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
A,
39.
GENERAL.
An
expression such as
represents a fraction; that is, the result of division, and like any fraction it can be calculated; that is, the fractional form
eliminated,
by dividing the numerator by the denominator, thus:
lx
l
Heriee, the fraction (1) can also be expressed in the form;
1rX
This
is
.......
powers
(2)
an
infinite series of successive
of x, or a potcrir
tial series.
In the
same manner, by dividing through, the expression
y
=T+~x
}
...........
(3)
can be reduced to the
infinite scries,
52
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION,
The
infinite series (2) or (4) is
53
another form of representa
tion of the expression (1) or (3), just as the periodic decimal
fraction
is
another representation of 'the
common
number
of
fraction
(for instance 0.6363.
...=7/11).
contains an infinite
terms,
perfect
of
40.
in
As the
series
calculating
numerical
values
from such a
series
exactness can never be reached; since only a
finite
number
terms are calculated, the result can only be an approximation. By taking a sufficient number of terms of the series, however, the approximation can, bo made as close as desired; that is,
numerical values
may
be calculated as exactly as necessary,
so that for engineering purposes the infinite series (2) or (4)
gives just as exact numerical values as calculation
expression
arc used.
(1)
or (2), provided a sufficient
by a finite number of terms
In most engineering calculations, an exactness of rarely is an exactness of 0.01 per cent or even greater required, as the unavoidable variations in the
0.1 per cent is sufficient;
nature of the materials used in engineering structures, and the
accuracy of the measuring instruments impose a limit on the
exactness of the result.
For the value
while,
its
=0,5, the expression
(1)
gives
=
/
i_ Q r=2;
representation by the
series (2) gives
..
y=l +0.5+0.25+0.125+0,0625+0.03125+.
and the
successive approximations of
:
(5)
the numerical values of
y then are
using one term: " two terms: " three terms:
" "
four terms:
y=l y= 1+0.5 y= 1+0.5 +0.25 y= 1+0.5+0.25+0.125
= 1;
=15,
=1.75;
error'
"
fc
1
0.5
=1.875;
fiveterms:
" "
025
0.125 0.0625
closer
2/=l+0,5+0.25+0,125+0,0625=l,9375
successive approximations
It is seen that the
come
and
closer to the correct value,
y=2, but
(2)
in this case
always remain
below
as
are
it;
that
is,
the series
approaches
its limit
from below,
shown
in Fig. 24, in
crosses.
which the successive approximations
marked by
For
re =0.5, the approach of the successive approximations to the limit is rather slow, and to get an accuracy of 0.1 per cent, that is, bring the error down to less than 0.002,
tho value
requires a considerable
number
of terms.
54
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
For a =0.1 the
2/
series (2) is
= l +0.1 +0.01 +0.001 +0.0001+..
are
and the successive approximations thus
1;
2; y
3;
4: 5:
= l; = l.l; = y l.ll; = y l.lll;
j(
t/
= l.llll;
?
and
as,
by
(1) ;
the final or limiting value
is
FIG. 24,
Direct Convergent Series with Onesided Approach,
the fourth approximation already brings the error well below 0.1 per cent and sufficient accuracy thus is reached for most
;
engineering purposes
41.
by using four terms of the series, The expression (3) gives, for a; =0.5, the value,
0880
'risr
Represented by
series (4), it gives

(7)
y~ 10.5 +0.25 0.125 +0.0625 0.03125+
the successive approximations arc;
1st:
y=l
y=l0.5
?/=l0.5+0.25
*1;
=0.5; =0.75; =0,625;
error:
2d:
3d,
4th:
5th:
" " "
+0.333,., 0.1666,, +0.0833,,.
.
2/10.5+0.250125
"
0.04166..
+0,020833...
s/=l0.5+0.25~0.125+0.0625=0.6875;
As
closer
seen, the successive approximations of this scries
come
this
and
closer to the correct value
y= 0.6666
.
.
.
,
but in
case are alternately above and below the correct or limiting
POTENTIAL SEBIE8 AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
value, that
55
is,
the series (4) approaches its limit from both sides,
as
shown
in Fig. 25, while the series (2) approached the limit
still
from below, and
other series
may
approach their limit
from above.
With such
as exhibited
alternating approach of the series to the limit,
series (4), the limiting or final value is
is,
by
between
any two successive approximations, that
approximation
is
the error of any
this
less
than the difference between
and the
next following approximation.
42. Substituting
x=2
into
the
expressions
(1)
and
(2),
equation
(1) gives
2
FIG. 25.
Alternating Convergent Series.
while the infinite series (2) gives
2^1+2+4+8+16+32+.
and the
successive approximations
1;
.;
of the latter thus are
3;
7;
15;
31;
63...;
do not approach closer that is, the successive approximations the on contrary, get further and and closer to a final value, but,
further
away from each
series,
other,
and give
entirely
wrong
results.
which apparently approach They give increasing positive values, while the correct value of the expression, oo for the entire
by
(1), is
j=l.
.
and thus cannot
the series (2) gives unreasonable results, Therefore, for 3 =2, be used for calculating numerical values.
The same
expression
is
of the case with the representation (4)
the
(3) for
i=2.
The expression
(3) gives
5G
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
(4)
while the infinite series
gives
,.,
2/=l2+4S+1632+.
and the successive approximations
1;
of the latter thus arc
1;
+3;
5;
+11;
still
21;...:
are alternately
hence, while the successive values
above
and below the
it
correct or limiting value, they do not approach
with increasing closeness, but more and more diverge there
from.
Such a
tion of
closer
series, in which the values derived by the calculamore and more terms do not approach a final value and closer, is called divergent, while a series is called
if
convergent
the
successive
approximations approach a
final
value with increasing closeness.
43.
all
While a
x,
finite expression,
as (1) or
it
(3),
holds good for
values of
and numerical values of
can be calculated
x,
whatever
may
be the value of the independent variable
an
infinite series, as (2)
and
(4),
frequently does not give a
finite
result for every value of x, but only for values within
a certain
range.
For instance, in the above
is
series,
for
1
<x< + l,
the series
convergent; while for values of x outside of this
is
range the series
divergent and thus useless.
When
it
representing
an expression by an
infinite
is
series,
thus
is,
is
that
convergent; approaches with increasing number of terms a finite
necessary to determine that the scries
limiting value, otherwise the scries cannot be used.
Where
x,
the series
is
convergent within a certain range
it
of
diver
gent outside of this range,
convergency, but outside of
can be used only in the ro^ge o/ this range it cannot be used for
deriving numerical values, but some other form of representation has to be found which
is
convergent.
This can frequently be done, and the expression thus represented by one series in one range and by another series in
another range.
For instance, the expression
, can be written in the
(1),
y.
~~
,
by
substituting,
form
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
and then developed
into a series gives
57
by dividing the numerator
by the denominator, which
or, resubstituting x,
^? + 5? + "'
which
is
1111




convergent for x=2, and for
2=2
it
gives
. .
y=0.50.25+0.1250.0625+.
(9)
With the
successive approximations
:
0.5;
0.25;
0.375;
0.3125...,
which approach the
final
limiting value,
2/=0.333..
44.
An
infinite series
can be used only
if it is
convergent.
Mathematical methods exist for determining whether a series is convergent or not. For engineering purposes, however,
these methods usually are
is
unnecessary; for practical use it not sufficient that a series be convergent, but it must conis,
verge so rapidlythat
the successive terms of the
series
must decrease
at such a great rate
that accurate numerical
results are derived
by the
calculation of only a very few terms;
This, for instance,
two or
is
three, or perhaps three or four.
(2) (4)
the case with the series
and
are
(4) for
still
x =0.1 or
less.
For
a;=0.5, the series (2)
(5)
and
convergent, as seen in
and
(7),
but are useless for most engineering purposes, as
the successive terms decrease so slowly that a large
of
number
and
for
terms have to be calculated to get accurate
is
results,
such lengthy calculations there
If,
no time
in engineering work.
however, the successive terms of a series decrease at such
all
a rapid rate that
the series
is
but the
first
few terms can be neglected,
certain to be convergent.
is
In a series therefore, in which there
it is
a question whether
convergent or divergent, as for instance the series
58
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
or
y= 1
 + 
11111 + r
j
f
77
.
.
.
(convergent),
the matter of convergency
ing calculation, as the series
is
is
of little
useless in
importance for engineerany case; that is docs
;
not give accurate numerical results with a reasonably moderate
amount
of calculation.
to be usable for engineering work, must have the successive terms decreasing at a very rapid rate, and if
series,
A
this is the case, the scries is convergent,
and the mathematical
investigations of convergency thus usually becomes unnecessary
in engineering work.
45. It
expressions as (1) and
(4),
is
would rarely be advantageous to develop such simple (3) into infinite series, such as (2) and
and
(3)
since the calculation of numerical values from (1)
(2)
simpler than from the series
series
and
(4),
even though very
few terms of the
need to be used.
The use
(1)
of the series (2) or (4) instead of the expressions
and
(3)
therefore
is
advantageous only
first
if
these series con
verge so rapidly that only the
for numerical
calculation,
two terms arc required and the third term is negligible;
x.
that
is,
for
very small values of
Thus, for x=0.01, accord
ing to
(2),
0=1+0.01+0.0001+... 1+0.01,
as the next term, 0.0001,
is
already less than 0.01 per cent of
the value of the total expression.
For very small values
of x, therefore,
by
(1)
and
(2),
1__
and by
(3)
and
(4),
ana tnesc expressions
(10) and (11) are useful and very comin used monly engineering calculation for simplifying work. For instance, if 1 plus or minus a very small quantity appears
as factor in the denominator of
an expression,
it
can be replaced
in the
minus or plus the same small quantity as factor numerator of the expression, and inversely.
by
1
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
For example,
ance
r,
if
59
a directcurrent receiving circuit, of resista supply voltage
is
is
fed
TQ,
resistance
by what
eo
over a line of low
the voltage e at the receiving circuit?
is
The
total resistance
rfr
;
hence, the current,
is
i
;
and the voltage
at the receiving circuit
If
now
r
is
small compared with
r,
it is
== ~i+r
r
f
<
r"
(13)
As the next term
of the series
would be
(
)
,
the erroi
made by
if
the simpler expression (13) per cent of
r,
is less
than
1
1
.
Thus
;
r Q is 3
which
is
a
fair
average in interior light0.1
ing circuits, hence,
is
(1 =0.03 2 = 0.0009,
>oV
or less than
per cent;
usually negligible.
is
46. If an expression in its finite form
more complicated
and thereby
instance
if it
less
convenient for numerical calculation, as for
contains roots, development into an infinite series
frequently simplifies the calculation.
Very convenient
of
for
development into an
infinite
series
powers or
roots,
is
the binomial theorem,
.
(14)
where
Thus, for instance,
resistance
r,
in
an alternatingcurrent
}
circuit
of
is,
reactance
x,
and supply voltage e the current
60
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
If this circuit
is
practically noninductive, as an incandescent
is,
lighting circuit;
that
if
x
is
small compared with
r,
(15)
can be written in the form,
and the square root can be developed by the binomial
u=H ;n=, and
Ma
(14), thus,
i
gives
o
2\r/
In this series (17),
is
if
8W
o
less;
16
x=0.1r or
of
that
is,
the reactance

3
M
()
not more than 10 per cent
4
,
the resistance, the third term,
hence, negligible, and the
is
less
than
0.01
o \T /
series
per cent;
is
approximated with
sufficient
exactness by the
first
two terms,
and equation
(16) of the current
then gives
This expression
is
simpler for numerical calculations than
it
the expression (15), as
47.
contains no square root
Development into a series may become necessary, if further operations havo to be carried out with an expression
for
which the expression
is
is
not suited, or at least not well suited.
This
often the case where the expression has to be integrated,
since very few expressions can be integrated.
Expressions under an integral sign therefore very commonly
have to bo developed into an
integration.
infinite series to carry
out the
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
61
EXAMPLE
1.
Of the equilateral hyperbola (Fig
26),
= 2 a# a
the length
calculated.
,
.
.
.
,
(20)
L
of the arc
between x\= 2a and X2=10a
k
is
to be
An element
dl of
the arc
is
the hypothenuse of a right triangle
It, therefore, is,
with dx and dy as cathotes.
(21)
FIG. 26,
Equilateral Hyperbola.
and from
(20),
a2
.
and
Substituting (22) in (21) gives,
dy
a2
(22)
5=?
(23)
hence, the length
L
of the arc,
from
I
xi to
z2
is,
Cm
C^
TTw
L=
dl=Jx
Jl +
^j^
(24)
62
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Substituting
=v;
cl
that
is,
dx^adv,
also substituting
t,
1= ^=2
a
and
i>
2
==10
(25)
gives
r,,
rj
Lo
JL
V
1
V
is
r

The expression under the
tion;
it is
integral
inconvenient for integra
preferably developed into an infinite series,
by the
binomial theorem (14).
'
Write
w=j and
n^
}
then
rr
and
1
j.___i^
i
.
1
1
1
_
7
^
mv
+T
^___^__
1
3Xl28Xt> 16
and substituting the numerical
values,
L=ai
(102)
4^(0.1250.001)
1(0.00780) +
a{8 +0.02070.0001) =8.0206a.
As
seen, in this series, only the first
two terms are appreciable
in value, the third term less than 0.01 per cent of the total,
and hence
rapidly,
negligible,
therefore
the
series
converges
very
and numerical values can
easily be calculated
by
it.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
For
xi
63
<2
a; that
is,
vi
<2, the
series
or,
converges
less rapidly,
and becomes divergent
(17) is
it is
for
xi<a;
vi<l.
Thus
this series
convergent for v>l, but near this limit of convergency
of
no use
for engineering calculation, as
it
it
does not converge
for engineering
with sufficient rapidity, and
calculation only
becomes suitable
2.
when
v^
approaches
EXAMPLE
48. log
if
2.
1=0, and,
therefore log (14 a;)
is
a small quantity
x
is
small,
log (14z) shall therefore be developed in such
its
a series of powers of x, which permits
rapid calculation
without using logarithm tables.
It
is
r
du
then, substituting (14z) for
u
gives,
log (l+x.)=
)
r~
(18)
From
equation
(4)
hence, substituted into (18),
2
log
(1+s)
aH.
.
J(l:c+:c
.)4c
= fdx  (xdx +
(x*dx (x*dx +...
hence,
if
x
is
^^ery small,
first
it
is
negligible,
and, therefore,
all
terms beyond the
are negligible, thus,
while,
if
the second term
still fairly
is still
appreciable in value, the
more
complete, but
simple expression can be used,
(21)
64
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
If
instead of the natural logarithm, as used above, the
is
decimal logarithm
applied
:
required, the following relation
may
be
logic
a=logiodoga=0
a,
4313 logs a,
.
.
(22)
logic a
is
expressed by log
and thus
(19), (20) (21)
assume
the form,
logio(l+ z) =0.4343;
+ ...;
.
(23)
or ; approximately,
(24)
or,
more accurately,
. . .
(25)
B.
49.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.
by an
infinite series is of special
finite
The
representation
value in those capes, in which no
tion
is
is
expression of the func
known, as for instance, if the relation between x and y given by a differential equation.
Differential equations are solved
by separating the
variables,
y,
that
is,
bringing the terms containing the one variable,
on
one side of the equation, the terms with the other variable x on the other side of the equation, and then separately integrating both sides of the equation.
Very
rarely,
however,
is
it
possible to separate the variables in this manner,
it
and where
differential equation exists,
cannot be done, usually no systematic method of solving the but this has to be clone by trying
functions,
until
different
one
is
found which
satisfies
the
equation.
with as functions of time.
In electrical engineering, currents and voltages are dealt The current and c.m.f. giving the
lost in resistance
power
law.
field
are related to each other
field,
by Ohm's
magnetic
self
Current also produces a magnetic
and
this
by
its
changes generates an
e.m.f.
is
the e.m.f. of
inductance.
current;
In
is,
this
case,
e.m.f.
related to the change of
that
the differential coefficient of the current, and
e.m.f., since the e.m.f.
thus also to the differential coefficient of
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
is
65
related to the current
current and therefore,
by Ohm's law. by Ohm's law, the
is, it is
In a condenser, the
e.m.f.,
depends upon
and
is
proportional to the rate of change of the e.m.f. impressed
proportional to the differential
upon the condenser; that
coefficient of e.m.f.
Therefore,
or resistance
in
circuits
having resistance and inductance,
and
e.m.fs.,
and capacity, a relation exists between currents and their differential coefficients, and in circuits
having resistance, inductance and capacity, a double relation of this kind exists; that is, a relation between current or e,m,f.
and
their first
and second
differential coefficients.
The most common differential equations
which
in its simplest
of electrical engineerits differential
ing thus are the relations between the function and
coefficient,
form
is,
or
and where the
circuit has capacity as well as inductance, the
second differential coefficient also enters, and the relation in
its
simplest form
is,
s* ........
or
and the most general form
of this
most common
is,
differential
then equation of electrical engineering
g +a! +ay+60......
The
differential equations (26)
(30)
and
(27)
can be integrated
by separating the (29) and (30); the
50.
variables, but not so with equations (28),
latter require solution
by
trial.
The
general
;
method
of solution
may
be illustrated with
the equation (26)
66
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
To determine whether
this equation
can be integrated by an
infinite series,
choose such an infinite
(26),
series,,
and then, by subit
stituting
it
into equation
;
ascertain whether
left side
satisfies
the equation (26)
that
is,
makes the
equal to the right
side for every value of x.
Let,
(31)
be an
are
infinite series, of
which the
coefficients ao, a\, a*,
%


unknown, and by substituting (31) into the equation (26), determine whether such values of these
still
differential
coefficients
can be found, which make the series
Differentiating (31) gives,
(31) satisfy the
equation (26).
(32)
The
differential equation (26) transposed gives,
Substituting (31) and (32) into (33), and arranging the terms
in the order of x, gives,
fa
 GO) +
(202 a i)x +
(3fls
 az}x2
.=0.
.
(34)
If
then the above
series (31)
is
a solution of the differential
identity; that
is,
equation
(26), the expression (34)
must be an
must hold
If,
for every value of x.
it
however,
holds for every value of
x,
it
does so also
for
=0, and
in this case, all the terms except the first vanish,
and
(34) becomes,
or,
To make
must
(31)
a solution of the differential equation (aiao)
0.
therefore equal
This being the case, the term (ai~flo)
can be dropped
in (34),
which then becomes,
2 f
(2a 2 ai)^l(3a3a2^
or,
(4a4a 3 )^ + (5
5 ~a4)^4.
.
.=0;
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
Since this equation must hold for every value, of
67
x,
the second
term
of the equation
must be
zero, sinco the first term,
x
t
is
not necessarily zero.
This gives.
As
x0.
and,
this equation holds for every value of x,
it
holds also for
first
In this case, however,
all
terms except the
vanish,
2a 2 <zi=0;
hence,
.......
(36)
and from
Continuing the same reasoning,
(34), is
such as Therefore, if an expression of successive powers of x, that is, holds for every value of x, then oil an
identity,
the coefficients of all the powers of x
must separately be zero*
Hence ;
aia^O;
or
a\=a
]
or
3a3 ~a 2 =0;
or
(37)
4a 4 3a3
0;
or
^T^JT;
etc,
etc.,
* The reader must realize the difference between, an expression (34), as as substitution product of a function; that is, an as equation in x, and
identity.
Regardless of the values of the coefficients, an expression (34) as equation number of separate values of ;c, the roots of the equation, which make the left side of (34} equal zero, that is, solve the equation. If, however, the infinite series '(31) is a solution of the differential equation (26), then
gives a
the expression (34), which is the result of substituting (31) into (26), must for a limited number of values of x, which are the roots of the equation, but for all values of t, that is, no matter what value is chosen for as, the left side of (34) must always give the same result, 0, that not be chaagecLby a change of x, or in other words, it must not is, it must hence all the coefficients of the powers of x must be zero. contain
be correct not only
x,
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Therefore,
if
the coefficients of the series (31) are chosen
by equation
(18);
(37), this series satisfies
the differential equation
that
is,
is
the solution of the differential equation,
dy =
11.
51. In
the same manner,
the differential equation
(27),
Iis
solved
by an
infinite series,
and the
coefficients of this series
determined by substituting
clone above.
(40) into (39), in the
same manner as
This gives,
K4a 4 ~aa 3 )2
and, as this equation must be an identity, zero; that is,
3
[...
=0,
.
(41)
all its
coefficients
must be
on
ai
etc.,
aao=0;
or
ai=aoo;
a
2a2aai=0;
or
a2=ai7r=ao7
3aa 3 0;
or
3
;
.
.
.
(42)
'
a
or
a
==a
a 4 =a3
etc.
and the solution
of differential equation (39)
3
is,
aV a% A4 +++....
52. These solutions, (38)
.

(43)
tions (26)
and
(39), are
and (43), of the differential equanot single solutions, but each contains
as
it
an
infinite
number
of solutions,
contains an arbitrary
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
constant ao;
that
is,
69
a constant which
may have any
desired
numerical value.
This can easily be seen, since,
ferential equation,
if
z is
a solution of the
dif
dz
r=az,
dx
multiple, or fraction of
;
then,
any
z,
fa, also is
a solution of the
differential equation;
lT W>
fl
d(h)
since the b cancels,
Such a constant,
ao,
which
is
not determined by the
is left
coeffi
cients of the mathematical problem, but
arbitrary,
and
in
requires
for its
determinations
some
is
further
called
condition
addition to the differential equation,
constant.
It usually is
an integration
ments
of the physical problem,
determined by some additional requirewhich the differential equation
socalled terminal condition, as, for
represents;
that
is,
by a
instance, by having the value of y given for some particular
value of
&,
usually for x =0, or
=oc.
The
differential equation,
thus,
is
solved
by the
function,
#=flo2/o,
.......
(45)
where,
and the
differential equation,
is
solved
'
by the
function,
z=aQZQ
3
}
.......
aV
+ .......
(48)
where,
(At
a%3
/A(f
(
.
+3+1T
}
70
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
and
20
2/o
thus are the simplest forms of the solutions y and z
of the differential equations (26)
and
(39).
53. It
is
interesting
now
to determine the value of ?/.
To
raise the infinite series (46),
which represents yQj to the nth
power, would obviously be a very complicated operation.
However,
and
since from (44)
JT~^
........
.......
^
(52)
by substituting
(51) into (50),
v;
n hence, the same equation as (47), but with y instead of
z.
Hence,
if
y
is
the solution of the differential equation,
then
z=y
n
*s
the solution of the differential equation (52),
dz
r~nz.
dx
However, the solution (48), and (49), is
of this differential equation
from
(47),
that
is,
if
then,
...;


(53)
therefore the series y
is
raised to the nth
power by multiply
ing the variable x
by
n.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
n the value 
71
Substituting
now
1
2/0*
in equation (53) for
gives
111
numerical value.
This numerical value
that
is,
a
constant
.
equals 2.7182828.
Therefore,
.,
and
is
usually represented
by the symbol
e.
hence,
^,^l +x +_+
and
X2
3
.T
J*
+
+
,
.......
+
(55)
+
_
n
i
+ ...;
(56)
therefore, the infinite series,
which integrates above
differential
equation,
is
an exponential function with the base
2.7182818
.........
(57)
The solution
of the differential equation,
thus
is,
2/=o^
and the solution
of the differential equation,
is,
where a
is
an integration constant.
The exponential function thus is one of the most common functions met in electrical engineering problems. The above described method
a
of solving a problem, 'by
assum
ing a solution in a form containing a
coefficients,
,
number
of
unknown
at,
a2
.,
substituting the solution in the problem
coefficients, is called
and thereby determining the
of indeterminate
coefficients*
the method
It is
one of the most convenient
72
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
of
and most frequently used methods
problems,
.
solving
engineering
EXAMPLE
1.
54. In a 4pole 500volt 50kw. directcurrent shunt motor,
the resistance of the
field circuit, inclusive of field
rheostat,
is
250 ohms.
Each
field
pole contains 4000 turns,
and produces
at 500 volts impressed
upon the
field circuit,
8 megalines of
magnetic flux per
pole,
What
is
the equation of the field current, and
field
how much
time after closing the
switch
is
required for the field cur
rent to reach 90 per cent of
its final
value?
Let r bo the resistance of the
of the field circuit,
field circuit,
L
the inductance
and
is,
i
the
field current,
then the voltage
consumed
in resistance
In general, in an electric circuit, the current produces a magnetic field; that is, lines of magnetic flux surrounding the conductor of the current; or, it is usually expressed, interlinked
with the current.
This magnetic
is
field
changes with a change of
the current, and usually
proportional thereto.
A
change
of the magnetic field surrounding a conductor,
however, genis
erates
an
e.m.f. in the conductor,
and
this e.m.f.
field;
proportional
is
to the
rate,
of
change
rate
of the
magnetic
of
hence,
current,
proto
portional
di
"T } WJ
to
the
of
change
the
is
or
with a proportionality factor L, which
called the inductin oppo
ance of the circuit.
This countergenerated e.m.f.
di
is
sition to the current,
Lj
fJ
and thus consumes an e.ml,
consumed by
di
+Lj.j
or
which
is
called the e.m.f.
selfinductance,
Muctance
Therefore,
e.m.f.
}
is
by the inductance, L of the consumed which is proportional to the
field
circuit,
a voltage
rate of change of the
field current, thus,
di
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
73
Since the supply voltage, and thus the total voltage consumed
in the field circuit,
is
6=500
volts,
;
(62)
or,
rearranged,
*_en
'
dt~
Substituting herein,
L
u=eri]
hence,
(63)
du
di
This
is
the same differential equation as (39), with
is
a=~y, L
and therefore
integrated
by the
function,
therefore, resubstituting
from
(63),
 =
and
'I*
This solution (65),
still
contains the
is
unknown quantity
t,
OQ;
and this or, the integration constant,
i for ing the current
determined by know
some
particular value of the time
Before closing the
voltage on the
field,
field
switch and thereby impressing the
current obviously
is
the
field
zero.
In the
is
still
moment
zero;
of closing
is,
the
field switch,
the current thus
that
t0
for
M.
(66)
74
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Substituting these values in (65) gives,
e
,
n
a
0=7+7;
hence,
or
a
= e,
W
is
I
A
(67)
the final solution of the differential equation (62);
Lhat
is,
t
t
it is
the value of the
field current, i, as
function of the time,
after closing the field switch.
After value
io,
infinite time,
ioo, the current
i
assumes the
final
which
is
given by substituting i~oo into equation
(67), thus,
^==^=2 amperes;
hence,
.
,
.
.
(68)
by substituting
(68) into (67), this equation
can also be
written,
=2(irr'),
where
10=* 2
is
.....
field
i
(69)
the final value assumed by the
current.
The time
per cent of
h, after which the field current
has reached 90
its final
value
i
Q
,
is
given by substituting
into (69), thus,
and
rr*o.i.
Taking the logarithm
of
both
sides,
and
ftn^
........
(70)
rlogs
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION. 75
55
The inductance
L
is
calculated from the data given
is
in the problem.
Inductance
measured by the number
of
interlinkages of the electric circuit, with the magnetic
flux
produced by one absolute unit of current in the circuit; that it is, equals the product of magnetic flux and number of turns
divided by the absolute current.
A
current of
i'
2
is
amperes represents 0.2 absolute
is
units,
since the absolute unit of current
of field turns per pole
10 amperes,
The number
of turns
4000; hence, the total
flux
number
full
n= 4X4000 16,000.
or
of
i
Q
The magnetic
at
excitation,
lines
=0.2 absolute units
force.
of current, is given as
$=8xl0 6
magnetic
The inductance
of the field thus is:
9 the practical unit of inductance, or the henry (h) being 10
absolute units.
Substituting
1 = 640 r=250 and
e500, into equation
(67)
and
(70) gives
<>=*^r
Therefore
it
5 88sC

(?1)
takes about 6
its final
sec.
before the
motor
field
has
reached 90 per cent of
value.
The reader
values of
i
is
advised to calculate and plot the numerical
(71), for
from equation
best
HO,
0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0,8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8,
is
10 sec.
table, thus;
This calculation
made
in the
form of a
and,
logs
hence,
0,39 log*
=0.4343;
=0.1694i;
and,
c~ 39f
^
0.1694i.
76
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The values of"~ 039f can
also be taken directly from the
tables of the exponential function, at the
end
of the book.
EXAMPLE
56.
of e
of
2.
A condenser of 20 mf
volts,
.
capacity,
is
charged to a potential
resistance
=10,000
and then discharges through a
is
2 megohms.
What
the equation of the discharge current,
and
after
how
at
long a time has the
the voltage
condenser
dropped to
0.1 its initial value?
A
to
condenser acts as a reserenergy, similar
voir of electric
a tank as water reservoir.
a water tank, Fig, 27,
If in
is
e,
A
the sectional area of the tank,
the height of water, or water
pressure,
and water
flows
out
of the tank, then the
FIG. 27.
height e
Water Reservoir.
decreases
by the
flow of water;
that
the current of water,
i,
is
the tank empties, and
is
proportional to the change of the
de
water level or height of water,
dt
,
and to the area
A
of the
tank; that
is,
it
is,
(72)
The minus
t;
sign stands
on the righthand
side, as for positive
is,
that
is
is,
outflow, the height of the water decreases; that
de
negative.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
In an
77
electric reservoir, the electric pressure or voltage e corresponds to the water pressure or height of the water, and to the storage capacity or sectional area A of the water tank
corresponds the electric storage capacity of the condenser,
called capacity C.
The
current, or,
Sow out
of
an
electric
condenser, thus
is,
The capacity
of
condenser
is,
(7=20
mf=20xlO 6
farads,
The
resistance of the discharge path
is,
r=2X!0 6
ohms;
r,
hence, the current taken by the resistance,
.
is
e
and thus
C
and
=;
dr~Cr
Therefore, from (60) (61),
e
'
and
for
Z=0,
e
=eQ
'
*=
10,000 volts; hence
'
10
;
000=a
,
.......
(74)
= 10,0000.1 of the initial value:
025 '
volts;
is
reached at:
(75)
78
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The reader
is
advised to calculate and plot the numerical
(74), for
values of
e,
from equation
0;
2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 15; 20; 30; 40; CO; 80; 100; 150;
200
sec.
57.
Wherever in an
electric circuit, in addition to resistance,
inductance and capacity both occur, the relations between currents and voltages lead to an equation containing the second
differential coefficient, as discussed above.
The
simplest form of such equation
is:
To
integrate this
by the method
of indeterminate coefficients,
we assume
as solution of the equation (76) the infinite series,
y=ao raix+02X +a^iaiX^ + ......
!
2
(77)
in
which the
coefficients a
,
ai, ao, as,
0,4.
.
.
are indeterminate.
Differentiating (67) twice, gives
f...,
.
(78)
and substituting
(77)
and
(78) into (76) gives the identity,
or,
arranged in order of
x,
(79)
Since this equation (79)
all
is
an
identity, the coefficients of
zero.
powers
of
x must individually equal
This gives for
coefficients
the determination of these hitherto the equations,
indeterminate
7
etc.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
Therefore
79
'
4
^ 4X5~
_
'
;
5
_g
a3
>
oa 5
_flia
:==
;
7
~~
3
:
~~J6~
QjQCfi
^W)<7
(Ldj
etc.,
etc.
Substituting these values in (77),
(80)
In this case, two
terminate, as was to
of
coefficients
ao
and
a\ thus
remain inde
be
expected, as a differential equation
its
second order must have two integration constants in
of solution.
most general form
Substituting into this equation,
that
is,
(81)
(82)
and
6*c*
6 6
ft
*
+a,6
6x+
(83)
80
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
In this case, instead of the integration constants ao and a\, new integration constants A and B can be introduced
the two
by the equations
and
hence,
ail~AB]
,
A=
A
ciQ+aib
2"
and
D aoai6 Bes
~
}
and, substituting these into equation (83), gives,
. + ....
The
however, from
.
(84 )
first
series,
(56), for
~~
n==6
.
+bx
is
e
,
and
the second series from (56), for
n~~b is
is,
te
Therefore, the infinite series (83)
......
that
is, it is
(85)
the
sum
of
two exponential
functions, the one with
a positive, the other with a negative exponent.
Hence, the
differential equation,
S*'
is
........
>,
(76)
integrated by the function,
......
(86)
where,
6=Va.
.......
6Va
is
(87)
However, if a is a negative quantity, and can be represented by
6Jc,
imaginary,
........
(88)
where
c
2
=<z
........
**',
(89)
In this case, equation
(86)
assumes the form,
......
(90)
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
that
if
81
is,
in the differential equation (76) a
is
is
a positive quantity,
=
2
ffr
,
this differential equation
integrated
if,
by the sum
is
of
the two exponential functions (86);
quantity,
tial
however, a
a negative
=c2
;
the solution (86) appears in the form of exponen
functions with imaginary exponents (90).
58. In the latter case, a
form
of the solution of differential
equation (76) can
be
derived which does not
contain the
(80),
imaginary appearance, by turning back to equation
substituting therein
and
a= c 2
,
which
gives,
(91)
C
2 2
X
or, writing"
1 = OQ
and
B 
,
+JJ
 sr + T
sum
of
,
+...
.
The
thus,
solution then
is
given by the
two
infinite series,
and
.
.
(93)
as
(94)
In the
wseries,
a change of the sign of x does not change
the value of w,
u(~cx)=u(+cx)
Such a function
is
.......
(95)
called
an even
function.
82
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
In the
vsorics,
a change of the sign of x reverses the sign
of
v,
as seen from (93);
(96)
Such a function
It
is
called
an odd function.
can be shown that
and
hence,
v(cx)mcx]
,
.
.
(97)
t/=A
where
cos
c+#sin
a,
.....
(98)
A
and
B
are the integration constants, which are to be
determined by the terminal conditions of the physical problem,
Therefore, the solution of the differential equation
has two different forms, an exponential and a trigonometric.
If it is positive,
r^
it is:
2
2/,
......
.....
(100)
**,
(101)
If
a negative,
It is:
yA
cos
cx+B
sin
a ......
(103)
ponential
In the latter case, the solution (101) would appear as exfunction with imaginary exponents;
y^Ae+fc+Bete
As
(104) obviously
.....
(104)
must be the same function as
functions
(103),
it
follows that exponential
with imaginary exponents
functions.
must be
expressible
by trigonometric
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION, S3
5Q.
The exponential
functions and the trigonometric func
tions, according to the preceding discussion, are expressed
by
the infinite series,
v2
>v3
v4
2*5
H?+jr+"
r
}.
.
.
(105)
+
+ ~'"
"l FiL
Therefore, substituting ju for
7/2
x,
7/3
^4
^5
y6
_'^7
/
2
'li
W4
li
6
\
/
U3
U5
U7
However, the
sin u,
first
part of this series
is,
is
cos u, the
latter part
by
(105);
that
J
u
=cos
u+j sin u
(106)
Substituting
u
for
+u
gives,
?"=cosujsin'u
Combining (106) and (107)
gives,
(107)
and
sin
....
w=2/
'J
(108)
for u, gives, Substituting in (106) to (108), jv
e^co
and,
....
(109)
84
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
gives respectively,
Adding and subtracting
cos/yand
sin
j
'[....
jv^ythese equations, (106) to
(110)
By
(110), exponential functions
with imaginary exponents can be transformed into trigonometric functions with real angles, and exponential functions
with real exponents into trignometric functions with imaginary
angles,
and
inversely.
Mathematically, the trigonometric functions thus do not constitute a separate class of functions, but may be considered
as exponential functions with imaginary angles,
and
it
can be
said broadly that the solution of the above differential equations
is
given by the exponential function, but that in this
function the exponent
may
be
real,
is
in the latter case, the expression
or may be imaginary, and put into real form by intro
ducing the trigonometric functions.
EXAMPLE
1.
of
60, A condenser (as an underground highpotential cable) 20 mf. capacity, and of a voltage of eo = 10,000, discharges through an inductance of 50 mh, and of negligible resistance!
What
is
the equation of the discharge current?
of capacity
The current consumed by a condenser
potential difference e
is
C and
it is
proportional to the rate of change
of the potential difference,
and to the capacity; hence,
or,
its
de
Cp,andthe
at
current from the condenser;
discharge
current,
is
The voltage consumed by an inductance I
inductance; hence,
is
proportional
to the rate of change of the current in the inductance,
and to the
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
Differentiating (112) gives,
85
fo
T
fi
dt~
cF
and
substituting this into (111) gives,
' ci
r>
S^
c
2
< 113)
as the differential equation of the problem.
This equation (1131
is
is
the same as (102), for
=77j,
thus
solved
by the
expression,
and the potential
is,
difference at the condenser or at the inductance
by
substituting (114) into (112),
constants,
These equations (114) and (115) still contain two unknown A and B, which have to be determined by the terminal
is,
conditions, that
by the known conditions
,
of current
and
voltage at some particular time.
At the moment
tQj the current
of starting the discharge;
or, at
the time
and the voltage is that to which the condenser is charged, that is, i=0, and e=eo. Substituting these values in equations (114) and (115)
is zero,
gives,
0=4
hence
and
eQ
=J7<B'
)
and, substituting for
gives
A
and
B
the values in (114) and (115),
(116)
t
=eQ cos
86
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Substituting the
numerical values, e
= 10,000
gives,
volts,
C=20
mf.
= 20 X 10 6
farads,
1=50
9 "
mh.=O.Q5h.
C_
L~
hence,
'
an(
_
e
i= 200
6 1.
sin 1000
J
and
is
=10,000 cos 1000
In
f.
The
discharge thus
alternating.
reality, clue to
the unavoidable resistance in the discharge path, the alternations gradually die out, that
is,
the discharge
is
is
oscillating.
The time
of one
complete period
given by,
1000
=2~;
or,
t
Q
=~
Hence the frenquency,
y=
As the
circuit
=
=1 59
cycles per second.
in addition to the
r,
inductance necessarily
contains resistance
besides the voltage
(112),
inductance by equation
resistance, thus
voltage
is
consumed by the consumed by the
ep ri,
(117)
r
and the total voltage consumed by resistance
L, thus
is
and inductance
e
=" +L
l
( 
118 >
'
Differentiating (118) gives,
^=r+lf,
and, substituting this into equation (111), gives,
rtl9)
as the differential equation of the problem.
.
This differential equation
62.
is
of the
more general form,
(22),
The more general
J2,
differential equation (22),
Jn
,
\
(121)
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION,
can,
87
by
substituting,
y+\',
which gives
dy
dz
........
(122)
dTrf?
be transformed into the somewhat simpler form,
~+2c^+a3=G 2 dx dx
It
.......
(123)
^
may
also
be solved by the method
for z
of indeterminate
coefficients,
x,
by substituting
an
infinite series of
powers of
and determining thereby the
coefficients of the series,
As, however, the simpler forms of this equation were solved
by exponential
method
tion
functions, the applicability of the exponential
functions to this equation (123)
may
be directly tried, by the
of indeterminate coefficients.
That
is,
assume as solu
an exponential function,
2
= le to
,
.
.
.
.
(124)
where
A
and
if
6 are
unknown
constants.
6
Substituting (124)
into (123),
such values of
A
and
can be found, which
(124)
is
make
the substitution product an identity,
the differential equation (123).
a solution of
From
(124)
it
follows that,
f=6A dx
b
*; ;
and
~=VAe**,. d 2x
.
(125)
and substituting (124) and
(125) into (123), gives,
=0
As
seen, this equation
is
.....
}
(126)
satisfied for
every value of x
is
that
is, it is
an
identity,
if
the parenthesis
6
2
zero, thus,
+2cfc+a=0,
.....
(127)
and the value
of 6, calculated
by the quadratic equation
(127)
;
thus makes (124) a solution of (123), and leaves
A still undeter
mined, as integration constant,
88
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
From
(127),
6=cv^o;
or, substituting,
(128)
vV^=p,
into (128), the equation becomes,
(129)
6=cp
Hence, two values of b
exist,
(130)
bi=c+p
and
fc 2
=~c;p,
,
.
*
(131)
and, therefore, the differential equation,
l5
is
+2c
l +a* =o
b
>
(132)
solved by
Ae b *'
}
or,
these
two
solutions.
by Ae *, or, by any combination The most general solution is,
of
that
is,
.
.
.
(131)
As
real
roots of a quadratic equation, 61
and
62
niay both be
in the
quantities, or
may
be
complex imaginary, and
latter case, the solution (131)
appears in imaginary form, and
has to be reduced or modified for use, so as to eliminate the
imaginary appearance, by the relations (106) and
(107),
EXAMPLE.
63,
circuit
Assume,
of the
in the
example
in
paragraph
9,
the discharge
condenser of
C=20
h,
mf, capacity, to contain,
besides the inductance,
L=0.05
the resistance, r=125 ohms.
The general equation
of the
problem, (120), dividing by
C
L, becomes,
++
(132)
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
This
is
89
the equation (123), for;
.
,
,
.
(133)
If
p=Vc
2
~a,
then
.
.
.
(134)
and, writing
,
(135)
and
since
j10
s=75
The equation
and
^=2500,
and
(136)
y=750.
from (131) then
is,
of the current
(137)
This equation
still
contains two
,
unknown
quantities, the inte
AI and A 2 which arc determined by the terminal condition: The values of current and of voltage at the
gration constants
beginning of the discharge, or t=G,
This requires the determination of the equation of the
voltage at the condenser terminals.
This obviously
is
is
the voltage
consumed by
resistance
and inductance, and
expressed by
equation (118),
M
(118)
90
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
di r
hence, substituting herein the value of
(137), gives
i
and
}
from equation
^Y^r^l +4 ^A^
(138)
and
;
substituting the numerical values
(137)
(133)
and
(136)
into
equations
and
(138), gives
and
?
(139)
At the moment
the current
is
of
the beginning of the discharge, Z=0,
is
zero
and the voltage
10 000; that
;
is,
j0;
0; e
= 10,000
......
(140)
Substituting (140) into (139) gives,
0=Ai+A 2
hence,
,
10,000
= HXUi 4 254 2
;
A 2 4i;
4i=133.3;
1 2  133.3.
Therefore, the current and voltage are,
'
.
.
.
.
(142)
The reader
values of
i
is
advised to calculate and plot the numerical
and
0,
and
of their
two components,
for,
*=0
;
0,2, 0.4, 0.6, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5,
6X10~ 3
sec.
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
64,
91
Assuming, however, that the resistance
of the discharge
circuit is only
r=80 ohms
(instead of 125 ohms, as
assumed
above
r
2
;
^ in equation (134) then becomes 3600, and there(_/
fore:
sVSeOOCOvCi^eoj,
and
_
_
p.^600/.
The equation
form,
of the current
(137) thus appears in imaginary
i=B mt {Aie+^
is also
is
t
+A
2
rm
it
}.
.
.
.
(143)
The same
true of the equation of voltage.
As
it
obvious, however, physically, that a real current
real
e.m.f.,
it
must be coexistent with a
imaginary form
follows
that this
is
of the expression of current
and voltage
only
and that apparent,
sions; the
in reality,
by substituting
for the exponential
functions with imaginary exponents their trigononetric expres
imaginary terms must eliminate, and the equation
in real form. (116) appear
According to equations (106) and (107),
cos 600^+? sin 600i;l
(144)
Substituting (144) into (143) gives,
. .
(145)
where BI and #2 are combinations
constants
of the previous integration
A\ and A%
thus,
J?i=At+l 2 By
,
and
S 2 jUi^2).
.
.
(146)
the condenser e.m,L, substituting the numerical values,
then becomes, given by equation (138),
e=
 mt
{
(40+3Qj)4i(cos 600i+?
f
sin
6K)
600i)
}
(4030j)i 2 (cos 60W/sin
= r soo'l (40Bi +30
2 )cos
600t + (40B 2
 30Bi) sin
600/J.
(147)
92
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Since for
=0, {==0 and e=10,000
(147),
volts (140), substituting
into (145)
and
0=Bi and
Therefore,,
10,000 =40 Si
+30 B 2
.
Bi=0 and 5 2 =333
and, by (145) and (147),
.
.
e=10,000
 800
(148)
'
(cos 600
*
+ 1.33
sin 600
1.
,
As seen
and
;
in this case the current i
is
larger,
and current
e.m.f. are the
product of an exponential term (gradually
;
decreasing value) and a trigonometric term (alternating value)
that
is,
they consist of successive alternations of gradually
decreasing amplitude.
functions.
Practically
Such functions are
all
called
oscillating
disturbances
in
electric
circuits
consist of such oscillating currents
and
voltages.
600*=27T gives, as the time of one complete period,
T=^=0.0105
and the frequency
is
sec.;
/=
=95,3 cycles per
sec.
In this particular case, as the resistance
the oscillations die out rather rapidly.
is
relatively high,
The reader
values of
i
is
advised to calculate and plot the numerical
and
e}
and
of their exponential terms, for every
30
T
degrees, that
periods,
is,
T
T
etc., for
for
i=0, TT, 2y^, 3rr,
the
first
two
and
also to derive the equations,
and
calculate
and plot
;
the numerical values, for the same capacity, C=20 mf. and same inductance, L=0.05fe, but for the much lower resistance,
r=20 ohms.
65. Tables of
e
+x
x
,
x and z~ ,
for
5 decimals, and tables of
the
log
e
+x
and log e~
for 6 decimals, are given at
end of
x the book, and also a table of z~ for 3 decimals.
For most
engineering purposes the latter
is
sufficient;
accuracy
is
required, the 5 decimal table
may
where a higher be used, and for
POTENTIAL SERIES AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION.
highest accuracy interpolation by the logarithmic table
93
may be
employed.
For instance,
136847_?
From
the logarithmic table,
logs'
10
=5.657055, =8.697117,
3 log s
logs
6
=9.739423,
=9.965256,
logs
08
between log

4
= 9.998263,
=9.997829)
?
and logs(interpolated,
added
13 6847 log s
0005
= 4.056984 = 0.056984  6.
From common
logarithmic tables,
7
= 1.14021 XlO' 6
.
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES,
A.
66,
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.
electrical engineer,
For the engineer, and especially the
a perfect familiarity with the trigonometric functions
trigonometric formulas
is
and
almost as essential as familiarity with
the
multiplication
it
is
table.
To use
trigonometric
methods
efficiently,
not sufficient to
understand
trigonometric
required,
formulas enough to be able to look them up
when
but they must be learned by heart, and in both directions; that
is,
an expression similar to the
left side of
a trigonometric for
mula must immediately
similar to the right side
of the formula.
recall the right side,
and an expression
recall the left side
must immediately
Trigonometric functions are defined on the
the right triangle.
circle,
and on
Let in the
circle,
Fig. 28, the direction to the right
and
upward be considered as positive, to the left and downward as negative, and the angle a be counted from the positive horizontal
OA
}
counterclockwise as positive, clockwise as negative.
s of
The
projector
the angle a, divided by the radius,
is
called sin a;
the projection c of the angle a, divided
by the
radius,
is
called cos a.
t
The
divided
intercept
on the vertical tangent at the origin A,
is
by
the radius,
called tan a;
the intercept
ct
on the
horizontal tangent at 5, or 90 deg., behind A, divided
radius,
is
by the
called cot a.
Thus, in Fig. 28,
sina=;
cosa=; (D
tana=;
r'
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
In the right triangle, Fig. 29, with the angles a and ft the 6, and with
c,
opposite respectively to the cathetes a and
hypotenuse
the trigonometric functions are:
sin
a = cos/9==;
c
o
.
cos
a^s
tan a
= cot
/5 r
o
;
cot
a
By
or
the right triangle, only functions of angles
up
to 90
cleg.,
, can be defined, while
by the
circle
the trigonometric
&
functions of
any angle
are given.
Both representations thus
must be so
familiar to the engineer that he can see the trigo
FIG. 28.
Circular Trigonometric
FIG. 29.
Triangular Trigono
Functions.
metric Functions.
nometric functions and their variations with a change of the
angle,
and
in
most cases
of
their numerical values,
from the
mental picture
the diagram.
In the
first
67. Signs of Functions.
quadrant, Fig. 28,
all
trigonometric functions are positive.
as
is
is
s is
In the second quadrant, Fig. 30, the sin a is still positive, in the upward direction, but cos a is negative, since c
left,
toward the
and tan a and
toward the
cot a also are negative, as
t
downward, and
ct
left.
In the third quadrant, Fig. 31, sin a and cos a are both
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
negative:
s
being downward,
c
toward the
t
left;
ct
but tan a and
cot a are again positive ; as seen from
and
in Fig. 31.
FIG, 31.
Third Quadrant.
In the fourth quadrant, Fig. 32, sin a downward, but cos a is again positive, as c
tan
a.
is
is
negative, as
s is
toward the right; and cot a. are both
t
negative, as seen from
and
d
in Fig. 32.
In the
the
fifth
quadrant
all
trigonometric
functions
again have the same values
as in the
28, that
first
is,
quadrant, Fig. 360 deg., or 2*,
or a multiple thereof, can be
added
to, or
subtracted from
the angle a, without changing
the trigonometric functions,
FIG. 32.
Fourth Quadrant.
but these
after every
functions
repeat 360 deg., or 2^;
that
is,
have
lit
or 360 deg. as their period.
SIGNS OF FUNCTIONS
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
68. Relations
97
between
sin
a and cos
a.
Between
sin
a and
cos
a the
relation,
exists; hence,
sin
a=
cos
2
(4a)
cos
is
a
of those
Equation (4) both directions.
one
which
is
frequently used in
sum
sin
2
of
For instance, 1 may be substituted for the the squares of sin a and cos a, while in other cases
a +cos 2 a
1
may
sin
2
be substituted for
2
1.
a + cos a
=
/sincA
cos
sin
For instance,
Relations between Sines and Tangents.
tan
a=(5)
a:
cot a
a
;
hence
"
'
tan a
(Sa)
tana = As tan a and
a are
1
cot a' cos
far less convenient for trigonometric
calculations than sin
a and
cos a,
and therefore
are less fre
quently applied in trigonometric calculations,
it is
not neces
sary to memorize the trigonometric formulas pertaining to but where these functions occur, sin a and tan a and cot
^
and
cos
a are substituted
for
them by equations
if
(5),
and the
calculations carried out with the latter functions,
and tan a
or cot
sin
a resubstituted
.,
.
in the final result,
the latter contains
a a
,
,
or
its reciprocal.
cos
In
electrical engineering
tan a or cot a frequently appears
the phase of alternating
angle of a vector
as the startingpoint of calculation of currents.
For instance,
if
a
is
the phase
98
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
quantity, tan a Is given as the ratio of the vertical component
over the horizontal component, or of the reactive component over the power component.
In this case,
if
sma = ===,
or,
if
and
cosa =^===^;
(
.
(5ft)
coU4,
sina!=
_
,
and
cos
a =7===:.
.
.
(5c)
The secant
little
functions,
and versed
sine
functions
are
so
used in engineering, that they are of interest only as curiosities, They are defined by the following equations
:
1
sec OLcos a
1
.
cosec
a=
sin
a
a,
a,
sinvers a
= 1 sin
cosversa=lcos
69, Negative
Angles.
From the
circle
diagram
of
the
trigonometric functions follows, as
shown
that
is,
in Fig. 33, that
is,
when
changing from a positive
angle,
counterclockwise
s,
t,
rotation, to a negative angle, that
clockwise rotation,
and
ct
reverse their direction
,
but
c
remains the same; that
is,
COS
(~a}= +COS
a,
tan
cot
() = tan a, = (~a) cota
;
cos a thus
"
is
an
"
even function/' while the three others are
odd functions/'
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES,
Supplementary
Angles.
99
From the
circle
diagram
s
of
the
trigonometric functions follows, as shown in Fig. 34, that by
in the
changing from an angle to same direction, but
its
c,
supplementary angle,
t,
remains
and
ct
reverse their direction,
and
all
four quantities retain the same numerical values, thus,
sin
^aj = +sm
a,
cos
(&)(7t~~a)
cos a,
tan
cot
= =
tan a,
(TT
a)
FIG. 33. Functions of Negative
FIG. 34
Functions of Supplementary
Complementary Angles.
Changing from an angle a to
a, as
its
complementary angle 90 a, or ^ 2
the signs remain the same, but s and
their numerical values, thus,
sin
c,
seen from Fig. 35,
ct
and also t and
exchange
/*
hra
Vs
\
i
=cosa,
/
(3)
tanj
=
Cot(^a)=tanQ:.
70.
Angle (a;r).
Adding, or subtracting n to an angle a,
of the trigonometric functions
gives the
same numerical values
FIG. 35.
Functions of Complementary Angles.
FIG. 36.
Functions of Angles Plus
or
Minus
TT.
as a, as seen in Fig. 36, but the direction of s
and
c is
reversed,
while
t
and
ct
remain in the same
sin
direction, thus,
'
(a7r)=sin
a,
PiG. 37. Functions of Angles+ ^.
FIG. 38. Functions of Angles Minus
.
Angle(a^V
Adding ^, or 90
s
deg. to
t
an angle
a, inter
changes the functions,
and
c,
and
and d, and
also reverses
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
101
the direction of the cosine, tangent, and cotangent, but leaves
the sine in the same direction, since the sine
is
positive in the
second quadrant, as seen in Fig. 37.
Subtracting
functions, s
j,
or 90 deg
from angle
a, interchanges the
and
c,
and
t
and
ck,
and
also reverses the direction,
except that of the cosine, which remains in the same direction; that is, of the same sign, as the cosine is positive in the first
and fourth quadrant,
as seen in Fig. 38.
Therefore,
cos(a+) '
\
/
=

(10)
^ a
="
tan
I
f^
cot
a,
cot
(
a
H
1
= tan
,
sm
(a] = ar=
(ID
cos
tan
a
=
cot
= tan a, \a~ ^/ \
1
Numerical Values.
From
the circle diagram, Fig 28,
etc.,
follows the numerical values:
102
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
71. Relations
between
Two
Angles.
The
following relations
are developed in textbooks of trigonometry:
sin (a
I
ft
=sm
a cos /3+cos a
sin ft sin ft (13)
sin ft
sin (a ft
=sin a cos /9cos a
cos (a +/?) cos (a/9)
= cos a
cos /9sin
a
=cos a cos /?+sin a
sin ft
.
Herefrom
pairs:
follows,
by combining these equations
+cos (a
(13)
in
cos
sin
a
a
cos /?= Jf cos (a +/?)
sin
/?=?{cos (aftcos
(a+
(14)
sin
a a
cos/? =4 {sin
(a+ft+sin
(a
cos
sin/
By
substituting a\ for (a+/?), and ft for (a/?) in these
equations (14), gives the equations,
smaHsLa/J,
2sin^icos^^
(15)
sin ai
sin
cos a 1+ cos ft
cos
aicos
ft
= 2
sin
sn
nometric formulas.
These three sets of equations are the most important trigoTheir memorizing can be facilitated by
sine functions to' products of unequal functions,
noting that cosine functions lead to products of equal functions,
and
inversely,
products
of
equal
functions
resolve
into
cosine,
products of unequal functions into sine functions.
functions show a reversal of the sign, thus:
Also cosine
the cosine of a
sum is given by a difference of products, the cosine of a difference by a sum, for the reason that with increasing angle the cosine function decreases, and the cosine of a sum of
angles
thus would be
less
than the cosine
of the single angle.
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
Double Angles,
103
From
sin
(13) follows,
by substituting a
a,
2
?
for
/?
:
2a= 2
sin
2
a cos
cos
2a=cos ashi
(16)
=2
cos
2
a
1,
= 12 sin2 a.
Herefrom follow
.
,
1cos 2 a
and
cos
2
a
=
l+COS2
Ct
(16a)
72. Differentiation.
r
(si
(17)
7
(
cos x)
=  sinsnegative, as with an
The
sign of the latter differential
is
increase of angle a, the cos
a
decreases,
Integration.
S<
(18)
/
flerefrom follow the definite integrals:
Jgj
Jo
n /flj./tV^n.
1
(18a)
^
a
p
+
JT
.
.
(186)
cos fa + a)da =  2 sin
(c 4 a)
;
JC
104
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
(18c)
f
1C
r r
73. Binomial.
=+1;
(18$
+1.
One
of
the
most frequent trigonometric
the
operations in electrical engineering is the transformation of
binomial, a cos
a +6
sin a, into a single trigonometric function,
by the
substitution,
a=c
cos
p and 6=c sin
p;
?),
hence,

(19)
where
and
:;....
and 6==c cos
.
(20)
or,
by the transformation, a=c
sin q
q,
a cos a+frsin a=csin (a !),
.
(21)
where
c=\/a 2 +?) 2
74. Polyphase Relations.
and
tan^=r.
(22)
(23
sm(a+a 2.
\
/
2mu\
n
/
=>
,,
where
m and n are integer numbers.
The points on the
circle
Proof.
which defines the
trigo
nometric function,
by
Fig.. 28,
of the angles (ct
+ a,^\,
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
105
are corners of a inscribed in the circle and regular polygon, therefore having the center of the circle as center of gravity.
For instance for n = 7,
;
m=2,
they are shown as PI,
P^
.
.
.
P7,
in Fig. 39.
The
cosines of these angles are the projections on
the vertical, the sines, the projections on the horizontal diameter, and as the sum of the projections of the corners of any polygon,
FIG. 39.
Polyphase Relations.
FIG. 40.
Triangle.
on any line going through its center sums of equation (23) are zero.
of gravity,
is
zero,
both
^A
>
i
/
2mt7r\
/
\
_
cos
(a+a
\
I cos
/
(a+6
/
^A
>
*
.
/
\
sin
a+a
n
2mix\
]
.
sm
\
a+o
7
J
.
,
sm (a:+a
cos
[a+b
n^5 2mwr\
=
n
&
cos (a6),
n
)
/
2mix\
n , )=^cos (ao),
7 ,
(24)
.
.
1=^ sm
,.
(ao).
These equations are proven by substituting for the products the single functions by equations (14), and substituting them
in equations (23).
75. Triangle.
If in
a triangle a,
&
and
7
are the angles;
opposite respectively to the sides
a, b, c, Fig. 40,
then,
(25)
mp+mr=&+b+c,
i
....
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
106
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
or
.
ab sin r
Area=
c
2
(27)
sin
sin
,
sin/
B.
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
phenomena usually
are
either
is
76. Engineering,
constant,
transient, or periodic.
Constant, for instance,
the terminal
it
voltage of a storagebattery
and the current taken from
through a constant resistance. Transient phenomena occur during a change in the condition of an electric circuit, as a
change
of load;
or,
disturbances entering the circuit from the
it,
outside or originating in
etc.
Periodic
phenomena
are the
alternating currents and voltages, pulsating currents as those
produced by
rectifiers,
in the airgap of
the distribution of the magnetic flux a machine, or the distribution of voltage
of
around the commutator motion of the piston
of the
the
directcurrent machine, the
in the steamengine cylinder, the variation
mean
daily temperature with the seasons of the year, etc.
is,
}
The
characteristic of a periodic function, y=f(x)j
that
at constant intervals of the
independent variable x
called
the cycles or periods,
occur.
same values
of the dependent variable y
*
or of space,
Most periodic functions of engineering are functions of time and as such have the characteristic of univalence;
that is, to any value of the independent variable x can correspond only one value of the dependent variable y. In other words, at any given time and given point of space, any physical
phenomenon can have one numerical value only, and obviously, must be represented by a univalent function of time and space.
Any
univalent periodic function,
w _ ff r \
/i \
i//W;
UJ
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
can be expressed by an
series, of the
107
infinite trigonometric series, or Fourier
form,
.
;
....
(2)
or, substituting for
convenience, cx=Q, this gives
m30+...;
or, combining the sine and cosine functions
.....
by
(3)
the binomial
(par. 73),
...
C3
,.
^
sn

where
1
O
L*7l
tan/J n =;
(5)
or
tan j^=r.
The proof hereof
is
given by showing that the coefficients
a n and & n of the series
(3)
can be determined from the numerical
(1),
values of the periodic functions
thus,
Since, however, the trigonometric function,
and therefore
univalent
7
also the series of trigonometric functions
(3)
is
it
follows that the periodic function (6), y=/o(0), valent, to be represented
77.
must be uni
by a trigonometric series. The most important periodic functions in currents and e.m.fs. engineering are the alternating
they
are, in first
electrical
Usually
approximation, represented by a single trigo:
nometric function, as
or,
that
is,
they are assumed as sine waves.
108
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Theoretically, obviously this condition can never be perfectly
attained,
and frequently the deviation from
pine shape
is suffi
cient to require practical consideration, especially in those cases,
where the
electric circuit contains electrostatic capacity, as is
for instance, the case
with
longdistance transmission lines,
underground cable systems, high potential transformers, etc. However, no matter how much the alternating or other
periodic
wave
differs
much
the wave
"
is
from simple sine shape that is, however distorted," it can always be represented
by the trigonometric series (3). As illustration the following
(A] The determination
function; that
is,
applications of
the
trigo:
nometric series to engineering problems
of
may
be considered
of
the
equation
the periodic
the evolution of the constants a n and b n of
if
the trigonometric series,
function
alternator
are
given.
the numerical values of the periodic
for
Thus,
instance,
the
wave
of
an
may be taken by oscillograph or wavemeter, and by measuring from the oscillograph, the numerical values of the periodic function are derived for every 10 degrees, or every
The problem then
to determine
its
5 degrees, or every degree, depending on the accuracy required. from the numerical values of the wave, is,
equation.
it
While the oscillograph shows the
is
shape of the wave,
calculate
obviously
as
not possible therefrom to
other
quantities,
from the voltage the current
if
under given
circuit conditions,
the wave shape
is
not
first
is
represented by a mathematical expression.
It therefore
of
importance in engineering to translate the picture or the table of numerical values of a periodic function into a mathematical
expression thereof.
(B) If one of the engineering quantities, as the e.m.f. of
an alternator or the magnetic
machine,
is
flux in the airgap of
an
electric
given as a general periodic function in the form
of a trigonometric series, to determine therefrom other engineering quantities, as the current, the generated e.m.f., etc. A. Evaluation of the Constants of the Trigonometric Series from
the Instantaneous Values of the Periodic Function.
78.
Assuming that the numerical values
that
is,
of
a univalent
periodic function 2/=/o(0) are given;
of 6, the corresponding value of
for
every value
representation, Fig. 41;
or,
known, either by graphical in tabulated form, Table I, but
y
is
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
the equation of the periodic function
represented in the form,
is
109
not known.
It
can be
y=ao+fli
+61
cos
sin
0+a 2
0+6 2
cos
sin
20+ a 3
20+6 5
is,
cos
sin
30+
30
..
+a n cos n0 +
+b n
sin
.
.
.
+
.
..
n0+.
.
.
,
(7)
and the problem now
to determine
the coefficients
ao, ai,
FIG. 41.
Periodic Functions.
TABLE L
Integrate the equation (7) between the limits ri rz*
and
. .
2?r;
f^
ydQ=a Q
dO+ai
Jo
cos
0d0+a 2
Jo
cos20d0+.
rsi
Jo
+a n
(
o
/*2ff
cosn0d0+...+Z>i
I
sin0<W+
sin20<W+...+&J
Jo
/2s
p
Jo
Jo
o
o
/
/o
+a n
ft
/
T
2
.
.
.
V]
/
/o
/o
2ff
fe,/^/
*^
~& /CQSn0/
7
w
"
/o
110
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
All the integrals containing trigonometric functions vanish,
as the trigonometric function has the
limit
2ft
same value at the upper
as at the lower limit 0, that
is,
/
/cos nd ft* 1 = (cos / / n /o n
/sin
AX 2^ cos 0)=0;
nd
2*
/
1
,
n
and the
result
is
/o
n
n2*sinO)=0,
Jo
hence
r
1
ydd
is
an element
is
of the area of the
curve
y,
Fig 41
;
and
one
rydO
thus
the area of the periodic
function
y, for
period; that
is,
where
that
.A
= area
of the periodic function y=fo(6)
for
}
one period;
is,
from
0=0
to tf=27r.
2?r is
the horizontal width of this area A, and
it;
~
In
thus
is
the area divided by the width of
height of the area
that
is,
it is
the average
or, in
A
of the periodic function y,
y.
other
words,
it is
the average value of
Therefore,
<zo=avg. (y}$*
(10)
The
first
coefficient,
%
thus,
is
the average value of the
:
instantaneous values of the periodic function y between tf=0
and #=2*.
Therefore, averaging the values of y in Table
first
I,
gives the
constant
ao.
79.
To determine
the coefficient a n
,
multiply equation (7)
2?:
?
by
cos n6j
and then integrate from
to
for the purpose of
making
the trigonometric functions vanish.
This gives
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
Ill
p*
2/
cos K
W=
+
a
p*
1
cos nOdd \a\\
pr
cos ntf cos ft/0
+
Jo
Jj
Jo
,jf,
f2*
+61
Jo
/"~
<
+&)"' Jo
Hence, by the trigonometric equations of the preceding
section
:
r*
Jo

r*
Jo
"K
" J[cos
r\
Jo
fo
+a n
(7i+2)^+ cos (w2
p
s
1
Jo
T2r
J[ai
Jo
+6
Jp isi
Jo
All these integrals of trigonometric functions give trigonometric functions, and therefore vanish between the limits
and
2;r,
multiplied with a tt
function,
and there only remains the first term of the integral which does not contain a trigonometric
,
and thus remains
finite:
On I Jo
f
2"
1
9 ^oJs^ \^/o
^
/*Y" =a
n7T,
and
therefore,
I
2
hence
i
71
P'
y ycosnftW
On=
Jo
........
(11)
112
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
If
the instantaneous values of y are multiplied with
i
and the product y n =ycosnQ plotted as a curve, z/cosnW is an element of the area of this curve, shown for %=3 in Fig, 42, and thus
I
^ eos
nW
is
the area of this curve; that
is,
(12)
FIG. 42.
Curve
of
y cos 30.
where
An
is
the area of the curve 2/cos n&, between
0=0 and
6=2*.
As
2?: is
the width of this area
An
A ~
,
is
the average height
of this area;
that
is, is
the average value of y cos
is,
n^ and A n
thus
is
twice the average value of y cos n#; that
FIG. 43.
Curve
of
y
sin 30.
The
coefficient
an
of cos
nQ
is
derived
by multiplying
all
the instantaneous values of y
by
cos n0,
and taking twice the
values of this product y cos n6. average of the instantaneous
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
80. & n
is
113
the analogous manner by multiplying y by sin nO and integrating from to 2* by the area of the curve y sin n0, shown in for
j
determined in
Fig. 43,
n=3,
r~ r
Jo
p*
Jo
p,
sin
ysmnOdd^ao]
smn6dd+ai\
Jo
nd cos Odd
sin
n6 cos
2M^+.
p,
.
.
4a
I
sin
n6 cos nWtf +
ra
+5 n
Jo
sin si
2
nfti0K..
=ao
p
s
^o
+a 2
r&
l
^sin(?z+2)^+sm(^2
2!r
+a n
T
Jsin2
Jo
2?r
f 62
i[cos (n
Jo
p*
46J
c/O
[l
=5^
hence,
I
}^=6 n
7r;
70
1
6B
=
P*
ysmnfidQ
;
,
.......
^Jo
(14)
= ^n
where
..........
Hence,
2
(15)
An
f
is
the area of the curve y n '=y sin n6.
6 tt =2avg,
(yannSJo
',
.....
(16)
114
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
coefficient of sin
and the
nO thus
is
derived by multiplying the
instantaneous values of y with sin n6, and then averaging, as
twice the average of y sin nO.
81.
Any
univalent periodic function, of which the numerical
values y are known, can thus be expressed numerically
eqiiation
?
by the
...,
,
(17)
where the
coefficients
a
,
ai, 02,
i;
&2
,
are calculated
as the averages:
avg. (ycos
tf)
.
a 2 =2 avg.
2
(18)
(y cos 20) <)
*;
63=2
6%
avg. avg. (y sin
calculated, without
o n =2 avg. (y cos nff)*;
=2
Hereby any individual harmonic can be
calculating the preceding harmonics.
For instance,
II,
let
the generator c.m.f. wave, Fig. 44, Table
column
2,
be impressed upon an underground cable system
FIG. 44.
Generator e.m.f wave.
.
of such constants (capacity
and inductance), that the natural
670 cycles per second, while the
frequency of the
system
is
is
generator frequency
60 cycles.
The natural frequency
of the
TRIGONOMETRIC' SERIES.
circuit
is
115
then close to that
cycles,
of the
llth harmonic of the generator
wave, 660
and
if
the generator voltage contains an
appreciable llth harmonic, trouble
rise of
may
result
from a resonance
voltage of this frequency; therefore, the llth harmonic
of the generator
wave
is
to be determined, that
is,
an and &n
calculated, but the other harmonics are of less importance.
TABLE
II
In the third column
of Table II thus are given the values
of cos 116, in the fourth
column
sin 110, in the fifth
sin 110.
column
gives
y cos 110, and
as average
in the sixth
column y
The former
+1
915, hence
on=
+3.83, and the latter gives as
of
= average 1.655, hence &n 3.31, and the llth harmonic
the generator wave
is
an
cos 110
fbn
sin
110=3.83 cos 1103.31
=5.07 cos (110 +41)
sin
110
,
116
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
its effective
hence,
value
is
5.07
while the
is,
effective value
of
the total generator wave,
that
the
square
root
of
the
mean
squares
of
the instanta
neous values
y, is
thus the llth harmonic
is
11.8 per cent of the total voltage,
is
and whether such a harmonic
mined from the
ance.
safe or not,
can now be deter
circuit constants,
more
particularly its resist
82. In general, the successive
harmonics decrease; that
is,
with increasing
n,
the values of a n and b n become smaller, and
when
of
calculating a n
and
ln
by equation
calculation
(18), for higher
values
of
n they
are derived as the small averages of a
number
large
quantities,
and the
then becomes incon
venient and
less correct.
Where the
calculated,
it
entire series of coefficients a n
is
and
l)
n
is
to be
thus
preferable not to use the complete periodic
left
function y
t
but only the residual
after subtracting the
harmonics which have already been calculated; that is, after a has been calculated, it is subtracted from y and the differ}
ence,
yi=*ydQj is used for Then ai cos 0+&isin 6
the calculation of ai and
is
6j.
subtracted
from
yi,
and the
difference,
2/2
=l/ifci cos
is
used for the calculation of a^ and & 2

Then
2/3,
a% cos 26
+63
sin
20
is
subtracted from y z and the rest,
,
used for the calculation of as and
In this manner a higher accuracy
fyj,
etc.
is
derived,
and the calcu
lation simplified
function of
by having the instantaneous values of the the same magnitude as the coefficients a n and &.
given in Table III the calculation of the
As
first
illustration, is
three harmonics of the pulsating current, Fig. 41, Table I:
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES,
83. In electrical engineering, the
117
functions are the alternating currents
most important periodic and voltages. Due to
generators,
the
constructive
features
of
alternatingcurrent
alternating voltages and currents are almost always
rical
symmet
waves; that
is,
the periodic function consists of alternate
in shape,
half waves,
which are the same
but opposite in direc
tion, or in other words, the instantaneous values from 180 deg.
to 360 deg. are the
same numerically, but opposite
to 180 deg.,
in sign,
from the instantaneous values between
cycle or period thus consists of
cycles, as
and each
half
two equal but opposite
shown
in Fig. 44.
In the
earlier clays of electrical
engineering, the frequency has for this reason frequently been
expressed by the number of halfwaves or alternations.
In a symmetrical wave, those harmonics which produce a
difference in the shape of the positive
wave, cannot exist; that
zero.
is,
their coefficients a
exist in
and the negative halfand 6 must be
which an increase of
Only those harmonics can
,
the angle 6 by 180 cleg
or
TT,
reverses the sign of the function.
if
This
is
the case with cos nO and sin nO,
is
n
is
an odd number.
an even number, an increase of by r, increases If, the angle n6 by 2~ or a multiple thereof, thus leaves cosntf and sin nO with the same sign. The same applies to o There.
however, n
symmetrical alternating waves comprise only the odd harmonics, but do not contain even harmonics or a constant
fore,
term, and thus are represented by
y=ai
cos 8
+a 3 cos 3fl +a 6 cos
50 K
.
.
in50+
,,
.
.
(19)
When
to
calculating the coefficients &n
and
l n of a
symmetrical
wave by the expression
r.]
(18), it is sufficient to
average from
that
is,
over one halfwave only.
In the second halfwave,
cos
if
n6 and
is
n
nQ have the opposite sign as in the first halfwave, an odd number, and since y also has the opposite sign
sin
in the
second halfwave, 2/cosft# and
y&mnO
in the
second
halfwave traverses again the same values, with the same sign, as in the first halfwave, and their average thus is given by
averaging over one halfwave only. Therefore, a symmetrical univalent periodic function, as an
118
ENGINBERING MATHEMATICS.
TABLE
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
III.
119
120
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is }
alternating voltage and current usually
can be represented
by the expression,
2/=ai cos 0+a<j cos 3
0+as
cos 5
0+a7
cos
70+,.
.
+&isin 0+6 3
where,
GI .2
sin 3
0+i 5 sin5 0+b 7 sin7
+...;
(20)
avg
(y cos 0)
(y cos 30
*;
6i
=2
avg. (y sin
0V;
37
;
3=2 avg
a s =2avg
G7
)
~;
63=2
avg. (y sin 30J
(?/
.
(21)
(2;
cos
50^
r
;
& 5 =2avg. 67
sin
50)^;
ff
.
=2
avg. (y cos 70)
=2
avg. (y sin 70)
84.
From
180 deg. to 360
cleg.,
the even harmonics have
the same, but the odd harmonics the opposite sign as from
to ISO deg.
Therefore adding the numerical values in the
cleg,
range from 180
to 180
cleg.,
to 360 cleg, to those in the range from
the odd harmonics cancel, and only the even har
monics remain.
Inversely, by subtracting, the even harmonics ones remain. and the odd cancel, Hereby the odd and the even harmonics can be separated.
If
2/=y(0) are the
to 180
deg.,
numerical values of
f
a periodic function
of
and y =y(d+7i) the numerical values the same function from 180 deg. to 360 deg.,
from
*)}>
is
'.
.
(22)
a periodic function containing only the even harmonics, and
ft(S)**$\y(6)y(0+*)\
is
.....
;
(23)
is
a periodic function containing only the odd harmonics that
j/i(0)=aicos
0ffls
:
cos 304 a 5 cos 50
+
.
..
+&ism0+&oian30+&5sin50H.,.;
.
.
(24)
= ao+a 2 y<t(Q)
+6 2
sin
cos
20+a 4
cos 40 +
.
.
.
20 4d* sin 40+...,
is
......
(25)
and the complete function
(26)
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
121
By
this
method
it is
convenient to determine whether even
harmonics are present, and if they are present, to separate them from the odd harmonics,
Before separating the even harmonics and the odd harmonics,
it is
usually convenient to separate the constant term
GO from the periodic function y,
values of y from
to 360 deg.
by averaging the instantaneous The average then gives
%
and subtracted from the instantaneous values
o(*)v(0)ao
of y, gives
......
component
t/
(27) of the
as the instantaneous values of the alternating
periodic function; that
is,
the component y Q contains only the
trigonometric functions,
but not the constant term.
series
3/1,
is
then resolved into the odd
85.
and the even
series
2/2:
The alternating wave y
consists of the cosine
components
,
w(0)=ai cos
0+a 2
cos
20+a 3
cos
30+a 4
cos
4#+.
.,
(28)
and the
sine
components
sin 6+1)2 sin 2tf
<0) = &i
that
is,
+& 3
sin
30
+
6 4 sin
4#+.
.
.;
(29)
The
cosine
functions
retain the
same sign
for
negative
angles (0), as for positive angles (
reverse their sign; that
is,
+ 0), while the
=
sine functions
u(6)=+u(8)
Therefore,
if
and
v(6)
v(d).
,
.
.
(31)
the values of y Q for positive and for negative
angles 8 are averaged, the sine functions cancel, and only the
cosine
2/0
functions remain, while .by subtracting the values of
for positive
and
for negative angles, only the sine functions
remain; that
is,
t+tf2u(0
.....
(32)
hence, the cosine terms and the sine terms can be separated
from each other by combining the instantaneous values and for negative angle (0), thus; for positive angle
of
yQ
122
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Usually, before separating the cosine and the sine terms,
u and
above;
v.
first
the constant term a Q
is
separated, as discussed
/0
that
is,
the alternating function
is
= 2/a
usec^
^
the general periodic function y
constant term a
used in equation (33), the
of this periodic function appears in the cosine
term u thus:
}
while v(0) remains the same as
when using yQ
.
86. Before separating the alternating function
j/
into the
is
cosine function
u and the
sine function
v,
it
usually
more
convenient to resolve the alternating function yQ into the odd
series yi,
and the even
series y^ } as discussed in
the preceding
paragraph, and then to separate y\ and y 2 each into the cosine and the sine terms
:
(34)
(35)
In the odd functions u\ and
angle
v\,
a change from the negative
6)
( 6)
that
to the supplementary angle (x
of the trigonometric function
cleg.,
is,
by an odd multiple
2/r
changes the angle of x or 180
plus 180
cleg.,
by a multiple
of
or 360
cleg.,
:
which
signifies a reversal of the function, thus
(36)
However, in the even functions wg and
negative angle
(
^2
a change from the
0)
to the supplementary angle
(z0), changes
hence leaves
:
the angles of the trigonometric function by an even multiple
of x\
that
is,
by a multiple
of 2^ or 360 deg
;
the sign of the trigonometric function unchanged, thus
(37)
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
To avoid
for the
123
the possibility of a mistake,
it is
preferable to use
for the
the relations (34) and (35\ which are the
same
odd and
even
series.
87. Obviously, in the calculation of the constants a n
and
5n
,
instead of averaging from
to ISO deg., the
average can
be
made from 90
from
deg, to
+90 deg
In the cosine function
u(6}, however, the
same
signs,
same numerical values repeated with the to 90 deg., as from to +90 deg., and
to
the multipliers cos n6 also have the same signs and the same
numerical values from
90
deg., as
from
to
+90
deg.
In the sine function, the same numerical values repeat from to 90 deg., as from to +90 deg., but with reversed signs,
and the
multipliers sin
sign,
nO
also
have the same numerical values,
to
but with reversed
deg.
from
cos
90
deg., as
from
to
+90
and
The products u
deg., as
it
nO and
v sin
nd thus traverse the
signs,
same numerical values with the same
between
90
between
is
and +90
deg.,
and
for deriving the
averages,
thus
sufficient to
average only from
to , or
90 deg.; that
Therefore,
is,
over one quandrant.
resolving the periodic
by
function y into the
v,
cosine components
of the constants a n
u and the
and
bn
is
sine
components
the calculation
is,
greatly simplified; that
it is
instead
of averaging over one entire period, or 360 deg.,
necessary
to average over only 90 deg., thus:
2
;
ai=2
2 avg. (ui cos 0)o
;
fri=2 avg.
(vi sin 0)o
K
r
;
d2=2 avg
as
2 (u% cos 20)o
s
62=2
^3
avg.
fa
sin 20)o 2
=2
avg.
<~>
fa
cos 30
V
JT
; /
= 2 avg. u fa
=2
avg.
sin 3#)o 2
JT
;
.
(W\
^VW/^
a 4 =2 avg.
as
(m
cos 4#)
~2
?>
;
4
(0 4 sin
40)o^
n
;
K
=2
avg. (u$ cos 50)0^;
etc.
^5=2
avg.
(y s sin 5&)ifi
,
etc.
where u\
cosine
is
the cosine term of the odd function y\]
of the
u 2 the
that
term
even function y 2
;
ws
is
the cosine term of
0;
is,
the odd function, after subtracting the term with cos
u$=uiai
cos Q,
124
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is
analogously, u^
the cosine term of the even function, after
subtracting the term cos 26]
U4
:
~U2d2
COS 26,
and
in the
same manner,
115=1130,3 cos 30,
'M6
= U4
v*,
fl4COS 40,
and so
terras,
forth;
v\ }
0%
v$,
etc.,
are the corresponding sine
When calculating
90
the coefficients a n and b n by averaging over
deg., or over 180 deg. or
360 deg.,
it
must be kept
v,
in
mind
is,
that the terminal values of y respectively of u or
that
the values for
0=0 and 0=90
deg.
(or
0=180
deg. or 360
deg. respectively) are to be taken as onehalf only, since they
are the ends of the
}
measured area
of the curves
its
a n cos nd and
6 n sin n8 which area gives as twice
average height the values
a n and
b n , as discussed in the preceding.
In resolving an empirical periodic function into a trigonometric
series,
just
as in most engineering calculations, the
is
most important part
results
to arrange the
work so as to derive the
same time
expeditiously
and
rapidly,
and at the
accurately.
By
proceeding, for instance, immediately
by the
general method, equations (17)
and
(18),
the work becomes so
extensive as to be a serious waste of time, while
atic resolution into simpler functions the
by the systemwork can be greatly
into
is;
reduced.
88. In
resolving a general periodic function y(0)
a
trigonometric series, the most convenient arrangement
1.
To separate the constant term %, by averaging
all
the
instantaneous values of y(8) from
to 360 deg. (counting the
deg. one half, as discussed
end values at
above)
:
0=0 and
at
0=360
floavg. {0(0)10*
......
(10)
and then subtracting a from
tion,
y(6), gives the alternating func
2.
To
resolve the
general alternating function ya (8)
into
the odd function
t/i(fl),,and
the even function
s)};
j/ 3
(0),
.
.
.
.
(23)
122)
l
.....
3.
To
resolve y\(ff)
v,
gnd y 2 (0}) into the cosine terms u and
the sine terms
,.
.
.
.
(34)
(35)
4.
To
calculate the constants ai,
a^ u 3
.
..;
5i,
63,
63...
by the averages,
a n =2avg.(ucosfl0)
2";
6B
=2avg.
is
(ysin
?i$)
2
.
If
the periodic function
is, is
known
to contain no even har1
monics, that
a symmetrical alternating wave, steps
and
2 are omitted.
Sep.
10'
FIG. 45.
Mean Daily Temperature
at Schenectady.
89.
As
illustration of the resolution of
a general periodic
wave may be shown the
resolution of the observed
mean
daily
temperatures of Schenectady
throughout the year, as shown * in Fig. 45, up to the 7th harmonics
* The numerical values of temperature cannot claim any great absolute
a relatively small accuracy, as they are averaged over
number
of years only,
and observed by instruments
of only
of illustrating the resolution of
series, this is
For the purpose the empirical curve into a trigonometric
moderate accuracy.
not essential, however,
126
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
TABLE IV
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
TABLE
V.
127
128
ENGINEERING .MATHEMATICS.
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
129
130
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
TABLE
VIII.
u,.
COSIXE SERIES
TABLE IX.
SINE SERIES
*
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
Table
131
IV
gives the resolution of the periodic temperature
function into the constant term ao, the odd series y\ and the
even
series y%.
Table
V
gives the resolution of the series y\
vi,
and
2/2
into
the cosine and sine series Wj,
u^
v%.
Tables
?;2,
VI
to
IX
give the resolutions of the series u\, Vi, M2,
.
and thereby the calculation of the constants a n and b n 90. The resolution of the temperature wave, up to the
7th harmonic, thus gives the coefficients: a =+8.75;
a:
=  13.28;
0.001;
ft^3.33;
62 63
= fl2
a3
= 0.602; = 0.14;
 0.33;
a 4 = 0.154;
a 5 =+0014;
6 4 = +0.386;
65
66 67
= 0.090; =  0.154;
a 6 =40100; a 7 =0022;
or,
= 0,082;
a n cosft0+& nsinn0=c n cos
transforming
by
the
binomial,
Of^j
by
substituting c n
=Va u2 +5 n2
andtan^ u
=
gives r
d=13.69;
c 2 =0.602;
n=+14.15;
or r i=+14.15;
^+89.9,
ra=23.0;
or
^=+44.95+ 180n;
c 3 =+0.359;
or
2=~7
o
c 4 =0.416;
7468.2;
f5=81.15
or
^17.05+90w=+72.95+90m;
5
c s =+0.091;
;
or
=~16.2 ^ o
c 6 =+0184;
r6=57.0;
or
^=~9.5
c 7 =0.085;
r
where n and
m may be any integer number.
132
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Since to an angle f n
,
any multiple
3f)0
'
of
2~ or 360
cleg,
may
Tn
be added, any multiple of
71
may
be
be added to the angle
%
,
and thus the angle
11
may
made
positive,
etc.
91.
The equation
C GS
of the
temperature wave thus becomes:
cos
cos
0=8.7513.69
(014.15)0.602
2(044.95)
0.359 cos 3(052.3) 0.416
4(072.95)
0.091 cos 5(019.77) 0,184 cos 6(020.5)
0.085 cos 7(010.7);
transformed to sine functions by the substitution,
cos
(a)
or,
w=sin (w90):
sin
y= 8.75 +13.69 sin
+0.359
sin
(0104.15) +0.602
2(089.95)
3(082.3) +0.416
sin
4(095.45)
+0.091 sin 5(0 109.77) +0.184
sin
6(095.5)
(6)
+0.085
sin
7(075).
is
The
cosine form
more convenient
for
some purposes,
these
the sine form for other purposes.
Substituting
0=014.15;
(6)
or,
=0104.15,
two
equations
(a)
and
can be transformed into the form,
)
2/=a7513.69cosj9O.G2cos2f/530.S)0.359cos3y38.15 0.416 cos 4(058.8)0.091 cos 5(05.6) 0.184 cos 6(06.35)0 085 cos 7(048.0),
(c)
and
3/8.75+13.69 sin +0.602 sin 2( W4.2)+0.359 sin 3(3+21.85)
+0.416 sin 4(^+8.7) +0.91
+0.184
sin
sin
5(35.6)
7(3+29.15).
(d)
6(3+8.65) +0.085
sin
The
periodic variation of the
is
by
these equations,
temperature j/, as expressed a result of the periodic variation of the
is,
thermomotive
force;
that
the solar radiation.
This latter
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
IP
133
a
minimum on
0,
Dec.
zero of
hence
may
22cl, that is, 9 timedegrees before the be expressed approximately by;
or substituting
ft
respectively d for 0:
(/9+23.15
)
(+23.15).
This means: the
maximum
of
y occurs 23.15 deg. after the
maximum
Near
is,
of z]
in other words, the
temperature lags 23.15
deg.,
or about J period, behind the thermomotive force.
=0,
all
the sine functions in
(d)
are increasing; that
the temperature
wave
rises steeply in spring.
Near
=1SO
cleg.,
the sine functions of the odd angles are
even angles increasing, and the decrease of the temperature wave in fall thus is smaller than the increase
decreasing, of the
in spring.
The fundamental wave
tude ci= 13.69.
greatly preponderates, with ampli
In spring, for
rise
#=
14.5
deg.,
all
the higher harmonics
1.74,
in the
same
direction,
and give the sum
In
fall,
or 12.7
per cent of the fundamental.
for
=14.5+7r, the
cent.
even
harmonics
decrease, the
odd harmonics increase the
steepness,
and give the sum 0.67, or 4.9 per
it
Therefore, in spring, the temperature rises 12.7 per cent
faster,
and in autumn
falls
4.9 per cent slower than corre
sponds to a sine wave,
ture rise in spring,
and the
difference in the rate of temperafall in
and temperature
autumn thus
is
12.7 +4.9 =17.6 per cent.
rate of temperature rise is 9014.5=75.5 the behind temperature minimum, and 23.15+75.5=98.7 deg. minimum of the thermomotive force. the behind deg.
The maximum
As most
periodic functions
met by the
electrical engineer
is,
are symmetrical
alternating
functions, that
contain only
the odd harmonics, in general the
work
of resolution into a
trigonometric series
is
very
much
less
than in above example.
it is
Where such reduction has
to 10 deg.,
to be carried out frequently,
advisable to memorize the trigonometric functions, from 10
up to 3 decimals; that
is,
within the accuracy of
is
the slide rule, as thereby the necessity of looking up tables
134
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
and the work therefore
done
eliminated
ditiously.
tions.
much more
expe
In general, the slide rule can be used for the calcula
As an example
of the simpler reduction of
a symmetrical
alternating wave, the reader
may
resolve into its harmonics,
up
to the 7th, the exciting current of the transformer, of which
the numerical values are given, from 10 to 10 deg. in Table X,
C.
REDUCTION OF TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES BY POLYPHASE RELATION.
92.
tion, as
In some cases the reduction of a general periodic funca complex wave, into harmonics can be carried out
in
a much quicker manner by the use of the polyphase equation,
III,
Chapter
Part
A
is
(23).
Especially
is
this true
if
the com
plete equation of the trigonometric series,
periodic function,
which represents the not required, but the existence and the
be determined, as
for
amount
of
certain
harmonics are to
instance whether the periodic function contain even harmonics
or third harmonics,
and how large they may
be.
,
This method does not give the coefficients a n
*bn
of the
individual harmonics, but derives from the numerical values
of
the
general
wave the numerical values
is
of
any desired
all
harmonic.
its
This harmonic, however,
given together with
multiples;
it
that
is,
when separating the
third harmonic,
appears also the 6th, 9th, 12th, etc. In separating the even harmonics yz from the general wave y in paragraph. 84, by taking the average of the values
in
}
of
y
for angle d,
and the values
of
y
for
angles (0+?r), this
method has already been used. Assume that to an angle
constant quantity
etc., until a,
there
is
successively
added a
0fk,
thus:
6]
9+a; #+2a;
fl+3a;
the
same angle 8 plus a multiple
is,
of 2?r is reached;
0+M=0{2m7r; that
l/?i of
a=
;
or,
in
other words, a
is
a multiple
of 2^.
all
Then the sum
these angles
is
of
the cosine as well
:
as the sine functions of
cos
zero
0+cos (0+a)+cos (0+2a)+cos (0+3a)+.
.
.
+eos(0+[nl]a)=0;
(1)
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
sin
135
0+sin (0+a) +sin (fl+2a) +sin (0+3a) +.
.
.
where
na=2m~
(3)
These equations (1) and (2) hold for all values of a, except for a =2. For a =2^ obviously all the terms of equation (1) or (2) become equal, and the sums become n cos 6 respectively
n
sin
0.
if
Thus,
the series of numerical values of y
sections,
is
divided into
n
successive
each covering
degrees,
and these
sections
added together,
9r\
/
'V\
(4)
In this sum,
(1)
all
the harmonics of the
wave y
cancel
by equations
and
(2),
except the nth harmonic and
sin nO;
its
multiples,
a n cos
nO+bn
a% n cos
2n0+&2
sin 2n0, etc.
in the latter all the terms of the
sum
(4) are equal;
its
that
is,
the
sum
(4)
equals
n times
is
the nth harmonic, and
multiples.
}
Therefore, the nth harmonic of the periodic function y together
with
its
multiples,
given by
(5)
For instance,
for
w=2,
gives the
sum
of all the
even harmonics; that
its
ft
is,
gives the
second harmonic together with
as seen in paragraph 7, and for,
multiples, the 4th, 6th, etc.,
=3,
=
2/3
136
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
its
with gives the third harmonic, together
9th, etc.
multiples, the 6th,
This method does not give the mathematical expression if the harmonics, but their numerical values. Thus, are required, each of the component mathematical
of the
expressions
harmonics has to be reduced from
its
numerical values to
offers
the mathematical equation, and the method then
no
advantage.
It is especially suitable,
however, where certain classes of
its
harmonics are desired, as the third together with
In this case from the numerical values
that
is,
multiples.
the effective
calculated.
value,
the equivalent sine
wave may be
93.
As
illustration
may
be investigated the separation of
the third harmonics from the exciting current of a transformer.
TABLE
X
In table A, are given, in columns 1, 3, 5, the angles 6, from 10 deg. to 10 deg., and in columns 2, 4, 6, the corresponding values of the exciting current
i,
X
as derived
from the hysteresis cycle
of
the iron, or
by calculation by measuring from "the
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
137
photographic film of the oscillograph. Column 7 then gives onethird the sum of columns 2, 4, and 6, that is, the third har
monic with
its
overtones,
{3
.
To
in
find the 9th harmonic
i?
and
its
overtones
ig,
is
the same
method
Table
now
applied to
t'
3,
for angle 30.
This
recorded
X B.
i, its
In Fig. 46 are plotted the total exciting current
third
harmonic 4, and the 9th harmonic
{9.
This method has the advantage of showing the limitation
of the exactness of the results resulting
from the limited num
FIG. 46.
her of numerical values of
i,
on which the calculation
is
based.
Thus, in the example, Table X, in which the values of i are given for every 10 deg., values of the third harmonic are derived
for
that
every 30 deg., and for the 9th harmonic for every 90 deg.; for the latter, only two points per half wave are deteris,
the numerical data, and as the
minate from
wave
two
points per half
it
are just sufficient to locate a sine wave,
follows that
i,
within the accuracy of the
given numerical values of
the
9th harmonic
whether
i
still
a sine wave, or in other words, to determine higher harmonics than the 9th exist, requires for
is
more numerical values than
for every 10 deg.
As
further practice, the reader
may
separate from the gen
PROPERTY OF
138
ENGINEERING .MATHEMATICS.
wave
of current,
I
eral
Q
in
Table XI, the even harmonics
by above method,
and
also the
sum
of the
odd harmonics,
as the residue,
then the odd harmonics
ii
may
be separated from the third
harmonic and
its
multiples,
and
in the
same manner
that
is,
?
13
may
of
be separated from
its
third
harmonics;
9
.
Furthermore, in the
be separated from
its
sum
even harmonics,
iz
its
may
again
second harmonic, i, and
its
multiples,
multiples,
and therefrom,
thus giving
of the 5th
all
is,
and
third harmonic,
16
,
and
its
the harmonics
7th.
up
to the 9th, with the exception
and the
These latter two would require plotting
of numerical values divisible
the curve and taking numerical values at different intervals,
so as to have a
number
by 5
or 7.
It is further
recommended to
resolve this unsymmetrical
exciting current of Table
XI
into the trigonometric series
7th, in the
calculating the coefficients a n
and 6, up to the
8.
by man
ner discussed in paragraphs 6 to
TABLE XI
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
139
D.
CALCULATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES FROM
OTHER TRIGONOMETRIC
94,
SERIES.
generating station has for a long time been supplying electric energy over moderate distances, from a number of 750kw. 4400volt 60cycle threephase generators. The
station
larger
is
An hydraulic
to be increased in size
modern threephase
generators,
by the installation of some and from this station
6000 kw. are to be transmitted over a long distance transmission line at 44,000 volts,
of 60 miles,
ft.
The transmission
No.
line
has a length
and
consists of three wires
B.
&
S.
with 5
between the wires.
The question
mission
line.
arises,
whether during times of
light load the
old 750kw. generators can be used economically on the trans
These old machines give an electromotive force
like that of
wave, which,
most
earlier
machines,
differs
con
siderably from a sine wave, and
it is
to be investigated, whether,
due to this waveshape distortion, the charging current of the
transmission line will be so
greatly increased over the value
sine
which
it
would have with a
wave
of voltage, as to
make
the use of these machines on the transmission line uneconomical or
even unsafe.
Oscillograms of these machines, resolved into a trigonometric series,
give for the voltage between each terminal and the
neutral, or the
tion;
Y
voltage of the threephase system, the equa
e=6o{sin 90.12 sin
(302.3)0
23 sin (591.5)
sin
+0.13
In
first
(796.2)).
.
(1)
approximation, the line capacity
may
be considered
that
is,
as a condenser shunted across the middle of the line;
half the line resistance
and
half the line reactance
is
in series
with the
line capacity,
As the receiving apparatus do not utilize the higher harmonics of the generator wave, when using the old generators,
their voltage has to
be transformed up so as to give the
3
first
harmonic or fundamental of 44 QOO
volts.
V% = 44,000 volts between the lines (or delta) gives 44,000 the This effective is neutral. and line between volts 25,400

140
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
and the maximum value
is:
value,
of the
fundamental voltage
36 kv.; that
is,
wave thus
eo=36, and
25,400x^2=36,000
volts, or
e=36sin 00.12 sin (3tf2.3)0.23
sin
(501.5)
(796. 2)
j,
.
+0.13
sin
(2)
would be the voltage supplied to the transmission
line at
the
transformers. high potential terminals of the stepup From the wire tables, the resistance per mile of No.
B.
&
S.
ohm, copper line wire is r =0.52 The inductance per mile of wire
is
given by the formula:
I =0.74151og7+0.0805mh,
Lf
....
l
(3)
where
ls is
the distance between the wires, and
r
the radius of
the wire.
In the present case, this gives 19 = 5 ft. = 60 in, lr =0 1625 in. Lo= 1.9655 mL, and, herefrom it follows that the reactance, at
,
/= 60
cycles
is
TO
=2^/L
= 0.75 ohms
of wire
is
per mile
(4)
The capacity per mile
given
by the formula:
n C =

0408 t rmf.;
i>
m
(5)
log?
hence, in the present case, Co
=0,0159
mf.,
and tho condensive
reactance
is
derived herefrom as:
ohms;
....
(6)
60 miles of line then give the condensive reactance,
30 mileSj or half the line (from the generating station to the middle of the line, where the line capacity is represented by a
shunted condenser) give: the resistance, r=30r =46.6 ohms
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
the inductive reactance,
lent circuit of the line
141
2=30io=22.5 ohms, and now consists of the resistance
,
the equivar,
inductive
reactance x and condensive reactance x c
in series with each
other in the circuit of the supply voltage
95. If
e.
i=
current in the line (charging current) the voltage
line resistance r is
ri.
consumed by the
The voltage consumed by the inductive reactance x
the voltage consumed
is
Xj
by the condensive reactance xc
is
xc
\
id6,
and
therefore, di
(7)
Differentiating this equation, for the purpose of eliminating
the integral, gives
or
The voltage
e is
given by
(2),
which equation, by resolving
the trigonometric functions, gives
e36
sin
04.32
sin
308.28
sin
50+4.64
cos
sin 70
+0,18 cos 30+0. 22
500, 50
cos 70;
.
(9)
hence, differentiating,
de
cos ^36 do
012.96 cos 3041.4
cos
50+32.5 cos 70
.
0.54sin30~l.lsin50+3.5sm70.
Assuming now
for the current i
(10)
a tiigonometric series with
indeterminate coefficients,
i=a\
cos
+a3
f
cos 30
+a 5
+&3
cos 50
+a 7
cos 70
&! sin
sin 30
+& 5
sin
50
+6 7
sin 70 7
.
(11)
142
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
must give an and
substitution of (10) and (11) into equation (8)
identity,
6 n are
from which equations
is,
for the determination of a n
derived; that
all
since the product of substitution
6,
must
be an identity,
etc.,
the factors of cos
sin 0, cos 30, sin 30,
:
must vanish, and
36
this gives the eight equations
=2770ai+ 15.66J
22 5ai;
22.56i;
=2770^ lo.Gai12.96=2770a 3 + 4fi.8& 3 
202. 5a 3
;
 0.54=27706 3 41.4 =2770a 5 +
46.8a 3 
202. 5& 3
;
7S6 5  562. 5a 5
(12)
:

1.1 27706 5 
78a 5  56.256 5
;
32.5 =2770a 7
+ 109.2&71102.5a 7
;
3.5
=27706 7  109. 2a 7  11Q2.56 7
.
Resolved, these equations give
ai=
61=
13.12;'
0.07; 5.03;
3=63 = 
0.30;
(13)
65
==
1.15;
a7
19.30;
67 
3.37;
hence,
{=13. 12 cos 05. 03 cos 3018. 72 cos 50+19.30
cos 70
+0,07
sin
00.30
sin
301. 15
cos
sin
50+3. 37
sin 70
= 13.12
18. 76
cos
cos
.(14)
(00.3)5.04
(303.3)
(503. 6) +19. 59 cos (709.9).
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES,
*
143
96.
The
effective value of this current
is
given as the square
root of the
sum
of squares of the effective values of the indi:
vidual harmonics, thus
am,
As the voltage between
this gives
line
and neutral
is
25,400 effective,
Q= 25,400X21. 6 =540,000
line,
voltamperes, or 540
k\>
amp. per
thus a total of
rent of the transmission
3Q=1620 kv.amp. charging curline, when using the e.ra.f. wave of
these old generators.
It
thus would require a
minimum
of
line,
3 of
the 750kw.
if
generators to
keep the voltage on the
even
no power
whatever
If
is
delivered from the line.
the supply voltage of the transmission line were a perfect
sine wave, it would, at 44,000 volts
between the
lines,
be given
by
ei=36sin
which
6,
(15)
is
the fundamental, or
i
first
harmonic, of equation
(9).
Then the current
given by
.
would
also be a sine
wave, and would be
iiai cos 6+bi&m
0,
=13.12 cos 0+0.07
sin 0,
(16)
=13.12 cos (00.3),
and
its
effective value
would be
13 1
/!
^=9.3 amp
(17)
This would correspond to a kv.amp. input to the line
3Qi=3 X25.4X9.3=710
The
kv.amp.
distortion of the voltage wave, as given
by equation
(1),
thus increases the charging voltamperes of the line from 710
144
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
kv.amp. to 1620 kv.amp. or 2.28 times, and while with a sine wave of voltage, one of the 750kw. generators would easily be
able to supply the charging current of the
line,
due to the
FIG. 47.
wave shape
It
distortion,
more than two generators
are required,
would, therefore, not be economical to use these generators
line,
if
on the transmission
they can be used for any other
purposes, as shortrdistance distribution.
FIG. 48.
In Figs. 47 and 48 are plotted the voltage wave and the
current wave, from equations (9)
and
(14) repsectively,
and
TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES.
the numerical values, from 10 deg. to 10
145
cleg.,
recorded in
Table XII.
In Figs, 47 and 48 the fundamental sine wave of voltage also shown. As seen, the distortion of current
and current are
is
enormous, and the higher harmonics predominate over the fundamental Such waves are occasionally observed as charg
ing currents of transmission lines or cable systems,
97.
with the transmission
Assuming now that a reactive coil is inserted in series line, between the stepup transformers
line,
coil,
and the
reactive
what
will
be the voltage at the terminals of this
with the distorted wave of charging current the reactive coil, and how does it compare with the traversing voltage existing with a sine wave of charging current?
Let
L inductance,
is
thus
x=2nfL= reactance
of the
coil,
and neglecting
the reactive coil
its resistance,
the voltage at the terminals of
given
by
Substituting herein the equation of current, (11), gives
f
e
=x\ai
sin
#+3as
sin
3#+5as
sin
50+ 7a 7 sin
76
(19)
61
cos
036 3 cos3056 5 cos5076 7
cosTtf j
;
hence, substituting the numerical values (13),
'
e^sf 13.12
sin
015.09
sin
3093.6
sin
50+135.1
sin 70
0.07 cos 0+0,90 cos 30+5.75cos 5023.6 cos70}
(20)
=x{ 13.12
93.8
sin
sin
(00.3)15.12sin (303.3)
(503.6) +139.1
sin
(709.9)
.
This voltage gives the effective value
2 2 2 2 E'=r\/i(13.12 +15.12 +93.8 +139.1 1
i
while the effective value with a sine
wave would be from
(17) ;
hence, the voltage across the reactance z has been increased
12.8 times
by the wave
distortion.
146
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
f
The instantaneous values of the voltage e are given in the = 1. last column of Table XII, and plotted in Fig. 49, for 2 As seen from Fig. 49, the fundamental wave has practically
FIG. 49
vanished, and the voltage fied by the fifth harmonic.
wave
is
the seventh harmonic, modi
TABLE XII
CHAPTER
MAXIMA
IV.
AivD MINIMA.
98. In engineering investigations the
ing the
function,
electric
maxima and
machine
is
the minima, that
frequently occurs. is to be found, at which
problem of determinof a is, the extrema For instance, the output of an
its efficiency is
a max
imum, or, it motor which
desired to determine that load on an induction
or,
gives the highest powerfactor;
that voltage
xS
FIG. 50.
Graphic Solution of
Maxima and Minima.
which makes the cost of a transmission line a minimum; or, that speed of a steam turbine which gives the lowest specific steam consumption, etc.
The maxima and minima of a function, y=f(x), can be found plotting the function as a curve and taking from the curve the values x, y which give a maximum or a minimum. For instance, in the curve Fig. 50, maxima are at PI and P%, minima This method of determining the extrema of at PS and P.
by
}
functions
is
necessary,
if
the mathematical expression between
147
148
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
that
x and
y,
is,
the function y=f(x),
so complicated, as to
Is
unknown, or
if
the
function yf(x)
calculation
this
of
is
make
the mathematical
the
extrema impracticable.
As examples
of
method the
following
may
be chosen;
FIG. 51.
Magnetization Curve.
Example
relation
fli
i.
the permeability
Determine that magnetic density (B, at which of a sample of iron is a maximum. The /*
field intensity 3C,
between magnetic
magnetic density
and permeability ft cannot be expressed in a mathematical equation, and is therefore usually given in the form of an
FIG. 52.
(B
Permeability Curve,
empirical curve, relating
and
3C ; as
shown
in Fig. 51.
From
their
this curve, corresponding values of (8
/D
and
3C are taken,
and
ratio,
that is, the permeability ju=, plotted againstCB as abscissa.
JC
This
is
done in Fig.
52.
Fig. 52 then shows that a
maximum
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
occurs at point
149
jvx
,
for
<B=10.2
kilolines,
/t
=1340, and minima
also for (B =00,
at the startingpoint
P2
,
for (B=0, /t=370,
and
where by extrapolation /i=l. Example 2. Find that output of an induction motor which gives the highest powerfactor. While theoretically
an equation can be found relating output and powerfactor of an induction motor, the equation is too complicated for use.
The most convenient way
of calculating induction motors is to calculate in tabular form for different values of slip $, the
torque, output, current, power and voltampere input, efficiency, " Theoretical Elements powerfactor, etc., as is explained in of Electrical Engineering/' third edition, p. 363. From this
FIG. 53,
Powerfactor
Maximum
of
Induction Motor.
table
factor cos & are taken
P and powercorresponding values of power output and plotted in a curve, Fig. 53, and the
derived from this curve
is
maximum
?=4120,
cos 0=0.904,
For the purpose of determining the maximum, obviously not the entire curve needs to be calculated, but only a short
trial Thus range near the maximum. This is located by in the present instance, P and cos 6 are calculated for $=0,1
and
s
= 0.2. As the latter gives lower powerfactor, the maximum
is
powerfactor
below $=0.2. Then s=0.05
is
calculated and gives
a higher value of cos 6 than $=0.1; that is, the maximum is below $=0.1. Then $=0.02 is calculated, and gives a lower
value of cos 6 than s=0.05.
The maximum value
of cos 6
thus
between $=0.02 and $=0.1, and only the part of the curve between $=0.02 and $==0.1 needs to be calculated for
lies
the determination of the
99.
maximum
of cos
0,
as
is
done in Fig. 53.
When
it
determining an extremum
as a curve, the value of z,
of
by
plotting
a function y=f(x). at which the extreme
150
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is
occurs,
more or
loss inaccurate,
since at the
extreme the
curve
is
horizontal.
is
For instance, in Fig.
that the
53, the
maximum
of the curve
so fiat
value of power P, for which
cos 9
became a maximum, may be anywhere between P=4000
of the curve.
and ?=4300, within the accuracy
In such a case, a higher accuracy can frequently be reached by not attempting to locate the exact extreme, but two points Thus in of the name ordinate, on each side of the extreme,
Fig. 58 the
power PO, at
is
which the
maximum power
cos
factor
of
cos
= 0.904
reached,
is
somewhat
uncertain.
The value
powerfactor,
is
somewhat below the maximum,
(9=0.00,
after the
reached before the
maximum,
at PI =3400,
and
maximum, at ?%
4120 watts.
 4840. The maximum then may
PI and P*, that
is,
be calculated
=:
as halfway between
at
Po=J{Pi+P2}
based on the
This method gives usually more accurate results, but is assumption that the curve is symmetrical on
is,
both sides of the extreme, that
value at the same
abscissa?.
falls off
from the extreme
rate for lower as for higher values of the
is
THiere this
not the case, this method of inter
polation does not give the exact
maximum.
a
Example
that
is,
3,
The
efficiency
of
steam
turbine
nozzle,
the ratio of the kinetic energy of the steam jet to the
energy of the steam available between the two pressures between
which the nozzle operates,
experiment.
that
is,
is
given in Fig. 54, as determined by
As
abscissas are used the nozzle
mouth opening,
the widest part of the nozzle at the exhaust end, as
fraction of that corresponding to the exhaust pressure,
w hile
r
the nozzle throat, that
is,
the narrowest part of the nozzle,
is
assumed as constant.
This curve
is
As ordinates are plotted the efficiencies. not symmetrical, but falls off from the maximum,
mouth,
far
on the
sides of larger nozzle
more rapidly than on
is
the side of smaller nozzle mouth.
The reason
that with
too large a nozzle
mouth the expansion in the nozzle is earned below the exhaust pressure p 2 and steam eddies are produced by this .overexpansion. The maximum efficiency of 94.6 per cent is found at the point
,
P
,
at which the nozzle
IF,
mouth corresponds
to the exhaust
pressure.
however, the
maximum
is
determined as midof the
way between two points PI and
P2
,
on each side
maximum,
MAXIMA AND
at which the efficiency
obtained, which
lies
is
151
the same, 93 per cent, a point P</
side of the
is
on one
maximum.
With unsymmetrical curves, the method of interpolation thus does not give the exact extreme. For most engineering
purposes this
is
rather an advantage.
is
mining the extreme usually
operating conditions.
to select the
The purpose most
of deter
favorable
Since, however, in practice the operating conditions never remain perfectly constant, but vary to some 54 is extent, the most favorable operating condition in
Fig,
not that where the average value gives the
maximum
efficiency
90^
88J
Nozzle Opening
06
FIG. 54.
0.8
09
10
11
Steam Turbine Nozzle
Efficiency; Determination of
Maximum.
(point PO), but the
most favorable operating condition
a
is
that,
where the average efficiency during the range of pressure, occurring in operation,
If
is
maximum.
the steam pressure, and thereby the required expansion
that
is,
ratio,
the theoretically correct size of nozzle mouth,
should vary during operation by 25 per cent from the average,
when choosing
the
maximum
efficiency point
PO as average,
the efficiency during operation varies on the part of the curve
between PI (91.4 per cent) and P 2 (85.2 per cent), thus averaging lower than by choosing the point P '(6.25 per cent below PO)
as average.
part of the curve
cent),
(Fig. 55.)
In the latter case, the efficiency varies on the from the Pi'(90.1 per cent) to P/(90.1 per
152
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Thus in apparatus design, when determining extrema of a function y=f(x)j to select them as operating condition,
consideration
where the curve
point
lies
must be given to the shape of the curve, and is unsymmetrical, the most efficient operating
it
not at the extreme, but on that side of
falls off
is,
at which
the curve
variation
slower, the
more
so the greater the range of
which
may
occur during operation.
This
is
not
always
realized.
is
loo. If the function y=f(x)
plotted
as a curve, Fig.
50, at the extremes of the function, the points PI, of curve Pig. 50, the tangent
P2
,
Pg,
P*
on the curve
is
horizontal, since
94
8h
Nozzle Qpenin!
0.7
i
oi9
I
"IP
n
12
FIG. 55.
Steam Turbine Nozzle
Efficiency; Determination of
Maximum.
at the extreme the function changes from rising to decreasing (maximum, PI and P 2 ), or from decreasing to increasing (min
imum, PS and
P4
),
and therefore
for a
moment
passes through
the horizontal direction.
In general, the tangent
line
of a curve, as that in Fig. 50, is the
and of the curve, which are infinitely close together, and, as seen in Fig. 50, the angle P'P" makes with the horizontal or 8, which this tangent Jaxis,
tv\o points
which connects
P
;
P
}
thus
is
given by:
=
P'Q
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
153
that
At the extreme, the tangent on the curve is horizontal; is, 4#=0, and therefore, it follows that at an extreme
;
of the function,
2/M
........
(1)
The
if
reverse, however,
is
not necessarily the case;
that
is,
at a point z, y
is,
:
^=0,
or
this point
may
not be an extreme;
horizontal
that
a
maximum
minimum, hut may be a
inflection point, as points
P5 and P6 are in Pig." 50.
(Pi and
With
Fig. 50),
increasing x
}
when passing a maximum
rising,
P
2;
y
rises,
then stops
and then decreases
Men passing
decreasing,
again.
a
minimum (P 3 and P 4) y
y
rises,
decreases, then stops
and then increases again.
When
passing a horizontal
inflection point,
again, at
starts
P5
,
then stops rising, and then starts rising or y decreases, then stops decreasing, but then
decreasing again (at
P6
).
The
dition,
points of the function y=f(x), determined
by the con
^=0,
thus require further investigation, whether they
or a
represent a
maximum,
minimum, or merely a
for
horizontal
inflection point.
This can be done mathematically:
passing a
increasing x,
when
maximum, tan
6
changes from positive to negative;
7
that
is,
decreases, or in
other words,
(tan 0)<0.
Since
tan
at a
=7, it thus follows that at a
maximum
j < 0.
Inversely,
minimum tan
is,
6 changes
d
increases, that
r;
from negative to d2 y
or,
2 ^
positive, hence
(tan
#)>0;
>
0.
When
passing
a horizontal inflection point tan 6
first
decreases to zero at
or, inversely,
is,
the inflection point, and then increases again;
tan
8 first increases,
and then decreases again, that
or a
tan
6=
and
T has a
maximum
minimum
at the inflection point,
therefore, r (tan 6)
=
ji^O
at the inflection point.
154
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
In engineering problems
the investigation, whether the
rfv
solution of the
condition of extremes, i
L
l
= 0,
represents
is
a
minimum,
or a
it
maximum
is
,
or
an
inflection
point,
rarely
almost always obvious from the nature of the problem whether a maximum of a minimum occurs, or
required, but
neither.
For instance,
if
the
which the
efficiency
is
of a
problem motor
is
is
to determine the speed at
a maximum, the solution
but a
the
speed =0, obviously
not a
is
maximum
zero.
If
mimimum,
is,
as at
zero speed the efficiency
problem
is
to find
the current at which the output of an alternator
the solution
a
maximum,
i=0
obviously
is
a minimum, and
larger
of the other
two
solutions, i\
and i^ the
gives the
value,
12,
again gives a
minimum,
101.
zero output at shortcircuit current, while the interi\
mediate value
maximum.
The extremes
its
of a function, therefore, are determined
by equating
Example
(steam
the output a
differential quotient to zero, as is illustrated
by the following examples:
4.
In an
impulse turbine, the
speed of the
jet
is
jet or
water
jet) is $j.
At what peripheral speed $2
maximum.
force
is
The impulse
The power
is
proportional to the relative speed of
that
is,
the jet and the rotating impulse wheel;
io (S\S 2 }.
impulse force times speed $2; hence,
(3)
and
is
an extreme for the value of
$>, given
by TT =0; hence,
Si2S 2 =0
and
S 2 =3;
.....
(4)
that
is,
when
the peripheral speed of the impulse wheel equals
half the jet velocity.
Example
e,m.f,
is
5.
In
a
transformer
of
loss,
constant
that
is,
impressed
loss
60== 2300 volts;
the constant
which
independent of the output (iron
loss), is
P^500
watts.
is
The
internal resistance (primary and secondary combined)
r=20
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
ohms.
a
155
At what current
that
is,
i is
the efficiency of the transformer
loss, /,
maximum;
the percentage
is
a minimum?
(5)
The
loss
P=/
J
l
+ri =500+2Ch'2
is
2
The power input
hence, the percentage loss
is,
PI =ei=2300i;
.
.
(6)
*
=
P
p~
=
Pi+n 2

>
(7)
and
this is
an extreme for the value
of current
i,
given by
hence,
or,
P rf2 =
t
and
i=J
/Pi
=5
amperes,
...
(8)
and the output is Po=ei=ll,500 watts. The loss is, P=Pt + n2 =2P{ =1000 watts; that is, the i2r loss or variable loss, is The percentage loss is, equal to the constant loss ? t
.
>l==
I
^=0.087=8.7
&
percent,
and the maximum
efficiency thus
is,
1^0.913=91.3
102. Usually,
per cent.
to
when the problem
is
is
given,
determine
those values of x for which y
directly as function of
(4)
,
an extreme, y cannot be expressed y=f(x), as was done in examples
expressed as function of some other quanand then equations between u, v and x ties, y=f(u, v..)j are found from the conditions of the problem, by which expres
and
(5),
but y
is
.
.
sions of x are substituted for u, v
.
.,
as
shown
in the following
example:
Example
cuit
6.
There
is
a constant current
TO.
iQ
through a
cir
containing a resistor of resistance
This resistor TO
156
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
resistor of resistance
r,
is
shunted by a
r.
What must
make
be the
resistance of this shunting resistor
to
the power con
sumed
let
in
i
r,
a
maximum?
then
(Fig. 56.)
r.
be the current in the shunting resistor
in r
is,
The power
consumed
P=rP
The current
in the resistor TO
r
is
is
(9)
ioi, and therefore the
voltage consumed by
roft'o0; an( ^
^G vo ^a
e
consumed
since
by
r is ri,
and as these two voltages must be equal,
both
r
FIG. 56,
Shunted Resistor.
resistors are in
shunt with each other, thus receive the same
voltage,
and, h^refrom,
it
follows that,
.
r
.
Substituting this in equation (9) gives,
p ^_"X'*
and
this
power
is
an extreme
for
r=0; hence:
hence,
r=r
that
is,
;
........
a maximum,
ro.
if
(12)
the power consumed in r
is
the resistor
r of the shunt equals the resistance
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
Tho
current in r then
is,
157
by equation
(10),
Hfand the power
is,
2
p __ ro?Q "T"
103.
If,
after the
function y=f(x)
(the
equation (11) in
example (6)) has been derived, the
differentiation
is
~=0
is
immediately carried out, the calculation
very frequently
It
is,
much more
complicated
than necessary.
therefore,
advisable not to differentiate immediately, but the function y=f(x\
If
first
to simplify
y
is
an extreme, any expression
differing thereform
a constant term, or a constant
factor, etc., also is
by an extreme.
is the reciprocal of y, or its square, or square root, etc. Thus, before differentiation, constant terms and constant factors can be dropped, fractions inverted, the expression
So
also
raised to
any power or any root thereof taken, etc. For instance, in the preceding example, in equation
(11),
the value of r
If
is
to be found, which
makes
P
a
maximum,
P is
an extreme,
r
which
differs
irom
P by
the omission of the constant factor
roV,
also is
an extreme.
The
reverse of
y^
is
also
an extreme.
(2/2 is
a minimum, where y\
is
a
maximum,
and
inversely.)
(1 1)
Therefore, the equation
can be simplified to the form ;
158
ENGINEERIXG MATHEMATICS
and, leaving out the constant term 2r 0} gives the final form,
*r+
This differentiated gives,
(13)
hence,
r=r
104.
e.m.f.
e,
.
Example
power
is
7.
From
a
source of
constant
alternating
transmitted over a line of resistance TO and
reactance XQ into a noninductive load.
resistance r of this load to give
If
What must
power?
be the
maximum
i current
transmitted over the
is
line,
the power delivered
at the load of resistance r
P=rP
The
is
(14)
total resistance of the circuit
is
is
rfr
;
the reactance
XQ;
hence the current
(15)
and, by substituting in equation (14), the power
is
if
P
is
an extreme, by omitting
e
2
and
inverting,
is
also
an extreme, and
likewise,
is
an extreme.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
Differentiating, gives:
159
y2 _ ~l d7~
~~>
.......
in equation (16),
(17)
r=\ /f7Tz7.
Wherefrom
follows,
by substituting
(r
+Vr
2
+:ro
2 2
)
+;co
2
(13)
Very often the function y=f(x) can by such algebraic
operations, which do not change an extreme, be simplified to
such an extent that differentiation becomes entirely unnecessary, but the extreme
is
immediately seen;
the following example
will serve to illustrate:
(7) ; for
Example 8. In the same transmission circuit as in example what value of r is the current i a maximum?
The current
i is
given,
by equation
(15),
Dropping
e
and reversing,
gives,
Squaring, gives,
dropping the constant term z
2/3
2
gives
2
)
;
= (r+r
(19)
taking the square root gives
160
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
TO gives
dropping the constant term
y5 r;
that
is,
(20)
the current
is
i is
an extreme, when
35/5
=r
is
an extreme,
and
this
the case for
r=0 and r= GO
:
r=0
gives,
(21)
as the
maximum
value of the current, and
r
= co
gives
as the
minimum
value of the current.
from the original equation (1), immediately, or in very few steps, the simplified final equation can be derived.
With some
practice,
105. la the calculation of maxima and minima of engineering quantities x y, by differentiation of the function y=f(x), it must be kept in mind that this method gives the values of
1
which the quantity y of the mathematical equation y =f(x) becomes an extreme, but whether this extreme has a physical
x, for
meaning
that
is,
in engineering or not requires further investigation; the range of numerical values of x and y is unlimited
in the mathematical equation, but
may
x
be limited in its engineeris
ing application.
differentiation of
For instance,
if
a resistance, and the
leads to negative values of x, these have no engineering meaning; or, if the differentiation leads to values of x which, substituted in y=f(x), gives imaginary, or
yf(x)
}
negative values of y, the result also may have no engineering In still other cases, the mathematical result application.
may
trially
give values, which are so far beyond the range of induspracticable numerical values as to be inapplicable.
:
For instance
r,
Example 9. In example (8), to determine the resistance which gives maximum current transmitted over a transline,
mission
the equation (15),
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
immediately differentiated, gives as condition
of the
161
extremes:
*=
dr
2
2fr+r
2!(r+ro) +2o
2
)
}v>+r
2
)
'
+tf
(22)
hence, either
(r
r+r =0;
2
or,
+ro)
+o
2
=oo
hence i=0, the
(23)
the latter equation gives
of current.
r
= x;
minimum
value
The former equation
gives
r=~r
as tne value of the resistance,
. ,
.
(24)
which gives
maximum
current,
and the current would then
be,
by
substituting (24) into (15),
i=20
' (25) ^
The
solution
(24),
however, has no engineering meaning,
as the resistance r cannot be negative.
of i in the range of r
Hence, mathemetically, there exists no maximum value which can occur in engineering, that is,
within the range,
0< r<
oo.
In such a case, where the extreme falls outside of the range of numerical values, to which the engineering quantity is limited, it follows that within the engineering range the quantity continuously increases
toward one limit and continuously
decreases toward the other limit,
and that
therefore the
two
limits of the engineering range of the quantity give extremes.
Thus r^=0
106.
gives the
maximum,
r =00 the
minimum
of current.
Example
10.
An
alternatingcurrent
volts,
generator,
r
of
generated e.m.f.
e=2500
internal
resistance
=0.25
a
ohms, and synchronous reactance o=10 ohms, is loaded by circuit comprising a resistor of constant resistance r=20
of reactance
ohms, and a reactor
r.
x in
series
with the
resistor
What value of reactance x gives maximum output? If i= current of the alternator, its power output is
p= n2=20f;
(26)
162
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is
the total resistance
is
r+r = 20.25 ohms;
the total reactance
is
j+ro=10+x
ohms, and therefore the current
(27)
and the power output, by substituting
(27) in (26), is
P
2QX25QQ2
' '
(rW) + (x+;ro) 2
20.25
2
+ (10fx)
2<
l
j
Simplified, this gives
(29)
hence,
and
z=that
is,
= 10ohms;
(30)
a negative, or condensive reactance of 10 ohms.
be,
The
power output would then
by
substituting (30) into (28),
If,
it is
however, a condensive reactance
7
is
excluded,
that
is,
assumed that E >0 no mathematical extreme
x,
exists in
the
range of the variable
is
which
is
permissible,
and the extreme
at the end of the range,
3=0, and
gives
=245kw
(32)
107.
Example n.
;
In
a
500kw.
alternator,
is
at
voltage
e=2500
loss
the friction and windage loss
^=24
kw., the
field
excitation loss
Pw =6 kw., the iron is P =6 kw., and the y
is
armature resistance r=0.1 ohm,
At what load
the efficiency
a maximum?
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
The sum
of the losses is:
163
P=P +P
tt
3
1
+P/+n^36,000+0:ii
.
.
.
(33)
The output
is
P
hence, the efficiency
is
=ei=2500i;
.......
25QOJ
(34)
po
*
3()GOO+2500t+0.1i;
3'
or, simplified,
hence,
and,
and the output,
at
which the
is
maximum
efficiency occurs,
by
substituting (36) into (34),
P^1500
that
is,
kw.,
at three times
full load.
is
Therefore, this value
of
no engineering importance,
all
but.
means that
at full
load
is
and at
practical overloads the
is
maximum
still rising.
efficiency
not yet reached, but the efficiency
108. Frequently
in
engineering calculations extremes
of
engineering quantities are to be determined, which are functions or
the
maximum power
two or more independent variables. For instance, is required which can be delivered over a
varied
transmission line into a circuit, in which the resistance as well
as the
reactance can be
if
independently.
In other
words,
y=Mi>)
...,,..
(37)
164
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
such a
is
a function of two independent variables u and
7?,
pair of values of
u and
of v
is
to be found, which
makes y a
maximum,
or
minimum.
Choosing any value wo, of the independent variable u, then a value of v can be found, which gives the maximum (or
minimum) value
is
of y,
which can be reached
for
U=UQ.
This
clone
by
differentiating
y=f(uo
}
v) ;
over
v,
thus:
dv
From this
equation (38), a value,
is
derived,
which gives the
maximum
value of y, for the given
value of WQ, and by substituting (39) into (38),
is
obtained as the equation, which relates the different extremes
the different values of
is
of y, that correspond to
w
,
with UQ.
Herefrom, then, that value of UQ
found which gives the
maximum
of
the maxima, by differentiation;
Geometrically, y=f(ufl)
may
}
be represented
v.
by a
surface
in space, with the coordinates y u,
y =f(u Q ,v), then, represents the curve of intersection of this surface with the = plane WQ
constant,
of
this
and the
differentation
gives the
)
intersection
curve.
all
y=/2 (w
the
maximum point then gives the curve
of the various inter
in space,
which connects
maxima
sections with the
WQ planes, and the second differentiation
of this
gives the
maximum
of the
maximum
more
curve y=/2(uo), or the
maximum
maxima
(or
correctly, the
extreme of
the extremes).
Inversely,
it is
possible first to differentiate over u, thus,
(42)
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
and thereby get
165
.......
as the value of u, which
}
(43)
makes y a maximum
,
for the
given
value of V = VQ and substituting (43) into (42)
y=/4
is
W
;
......
.
(44)
obtained as the equation of the maxima, which differentiated
VQ,
over
thus,
f45)
gives the
maximum
of the
maxima,
the
consideration
of
Geometrically,
this
represents
the
intersection curves of the surface with the planes
v= constant.
;
The working of
109.
this will be plain
12.
from the following example
Example
The
alternating voltage
line of resistance
e= 30,000
is
impressed upon a transmission and reactance XQ =50 ohms.
ro=20 ohms
What
Let
should be the resistance r and the reactance x of the
receiving circuit to deliver
maximum power?
The
is
i= current
is
delivered into the receiving circuit.
);
total resistance
(r+r
the total reactance
the current
is
e
i=
,
V(r+r
The power output
is
2
)

(B+XO); hence,
2
......
(46)
Kzfo)
P=n2;
hence, substituting (46), gives
.......
(47)
(a)
For any given value
power,
is
of
r,
the reactance x which gives
}
HP
maximum
derived by
p0.
;
P
simplified,
gives
= (o;+xo) 2 yi
o)=0
hence,
and
x=~x
. ]
.
.
(49)
166
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
for
that
if
is,
any chosen
resistance
r,
the power
is
is
a maximum,
the reactance of the receiving circuit
is,
chosen equal to that
of the line, but of opposite sign, that
as condensive reactance.
Substituting
(49)
into
(48)
r,
gives
the
maximum power
available for a chosen value of
as
:
or, simplified,
^ 2=
hence,
CM/3
Hro) _
r
2
 anc,
2/3
= r+ '<?.
,
I
.
TQ
i
r=l
dr
r
r
and
T=TQ.
.
,
,
.
tKi\ (ol)
and by substituting
(51) into (50), the
maximum power
is,
(6)
For any given value
. . .
of i, the resistance
r,
which gives
maximum
power,
is
n given by r =U.
dP
P simplified
gives,
r =
ar

1
+
r,
r
J
which'
is
the value of
r,
that for any given value of
x,
gives
maximum
power, and this
is,
maximum power by
substituting
(53) into (48)
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
which
is
167
the
maximum power
of x,
that can be transmitted into a
receiving circuit of reactance x.
The value
highest
which makes
is
this
maximum power PO the
maximum,
given by
r~ =0.
PO
simplified gives
and
this
value
is
a
maximum
for (sf
o)=0; that
is,
for
=^o
NOTE.
reactance
If
is
(55)
x cannot be negative, that
is,
if
only inductive
considered,
is
2=0
gives the
maximum
power, and
the latter then
/
L
P
rnfl.x
the same value as found in problem
(7),
equation (18).
Substituting (55) and (54) gives again equation (52), thus,
Pmal
no. Here
solution
is
**
4r
again,
it
requires
consideration,
whether the
practicable
within the limitation of engineering
constants.
"With the numerical constants chosen,
it
would be
z
=750 amperes,
168
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
at the receiving end of the line would be
2
and the voltage
e'
2 ={Vr2+z 2  750V20 + 50 =40,400
volts;
that
is,
the voltage at the receiving end would be far higher
than at the generator end, the current excessive, and the efficiency This extreme case thus is of transmission only 50 per cent.
that by the hardly practicable, and the conclusion would be
use of negative reactance in the receiving
of
circuit,
an amount
power could be delivered, at a sacrifice of efficiency, far greater than economical transmission would permit.
In the case, where capacity was excluded from the receivthe
ing
circuit,
maximum pow er was
r
given by equation (56) as
in. Extremes
of engineering
quantities
,
y,
are usually
determined by differentiating the function,
y=f(x),
.......
(57)
and from the equation,
deriving the values
or x,
which make y an extreme.
Occasionally, however, the equation (58) cannot be solved
for x
}
but
is
either of higher order in
x or a transcendental
f
equation.
In this case, equation (58)
may
be solved by approx
imation, or preferably, the function,
I ........
is
w
plotted as a curve, the values of x taken, at which
is,
that
at
which the curve intersects the Jaxis.
13.
2=0, For instance :
Example
The
e.m.f.
wave
is
of a threephase alternator,
as determined
by
oscillograph,
sin
represented
sin
by the equation,
e=36000(sin 00.12
(302.3) 23
(591,5)
+
(60)
0.13 sin
(79 6.2)}
......
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
This alternator, connected to a longdistance transmission gives the charging current to the line of
169
line,
i= 13.12
cos
(00.3)5.04
cos
(303.3)18.76
cos
(503.6)
(61)
+19,59 cos (70 9.9)
(see
....
Chapter
III,
paragraph 95).
What
are the extreme values of this current,
and at what
phase angles 6 do they occur?
The phase angle
value,
is
d,
at
which the current
i
reaches an extreme
given by the equation
(62)
FIG
57.
Substituting (61) into (62) gives,
s~U 13.12
O/U
sin
(00,3) +15.12
sin
sin
(353.3) +93.8
. .
sin
(503.6) 137.1
This equation
(799.9) =0.
6,
.
(63)
cannot
be solved for
Therefore z
is
plotted as function of 6
by the curve,
Fig. 57,
and from
this
curve the values of 6 taken at which the curve intersects the
zero line,
They
are:
fll; 20; 47
78; 104; ,135; 162.
170
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
the corresponding values of
are;
i
For these angles
8,
are calculated
by equation
{
(61),
and
=+9; _i;
+39; _3Q; +30; 42;
+4
amperes.
of
The
current thus has during each period 14
is
maxima,
which the highest
112. In those
of the function
42 amperes.
cases,
is
y=f(x)
where the mathematical expression not known, and the extreme values
therefore have to be determined graphically, frequently a greater
curve the differential accuracy can be reached by plotting as a of y=f(x) and picking out the zero values instead of plotting
y=f(x)j and picking out the highest and the lowest points. If the mathematical expression of y=f(x) is not known, obviously the equation of the differential curve
z=
ax
(64) is usually
not
known either. Approximately, however, it can frequently be plotted from the numerical values of y=f(x), as
follows:
If
1,
9,
^3 ... are successive, numerical values of r, ... the corresponding numerical values of y,
and
yi, y*,
2/3
approximate points of the
differential curve
z=r
QiX
are given
by the corresponding
values:
asordinates:
a: 2
1
; 7
xi
x 8 j 2
(1),
;
M...
J4X3
113.
Example
14,
In the problem
of iron, of
the
maximum permea(B,
bility point of a
sample
which the
3C curve
is
given
as Fig. 51; was determined
by taking from Fig. 51 corresponding
/n
values of
(B
and
3C,
and plotting //=, against JL
(B in
Fig. 52.
A
the value of
considerable inaccuracy exists in this method, in locating (B, at which p is a maximum, due to the flatness
of the curve, Fig. 52.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
The
successive pairs of corresponding values of
(B
171
and
Table
3C,
I.
as taken from Fig. 51 are given in columns 1
and 2
of
TABLE
I.
In the third column of Table I
(R
is
given the permeability,
of permeability,
<B,
and /=, uC
per
in the fourth
column the increase
&=1, ^;
J/*
the last column then gives the value of
to
which
corresponds.
abscissas.
In Fig. 58, values 4/t are plotted as ordinates, with (B as This curve passes through zero at (B=9.95. The maximum permeability thus occurs at the approximate
kilolines
magnetic density (B=9.95
10
2,
per sq.cm., and not at (B=
as
of Fig.
was given by the less accurate graphical determination 52, and the maximum permeability is ^=1340.
line
As
seen, the sharpness of the intersection of the differential
curve with the zero
feasible
permits a far greater accuracy than
114.
by the method used in instance (1). As illustration of the method of determining extremes,
some further examples are given below:
172
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Example
15.
A
storage
battery of
n=80
cells
is
to be
connected so as to give maximum power in a constant resistance r=0.1 ohm. Each battery cell has the e.mf. 60=2.1
volts
and the
internal resistance r
=0.02 ohm.
How must
the
cells
be connected?
cells
Assuming the
are connected with x in parallel, hence
x
n
m
series.
The
internal resistance of the battery then is
n TO
==
X
X"
ohms, and the total resistance of the
circuit
is
~ro
X"
4 r.
Kilo
11
13
W
FIG. 58.
First Differential Quotient of
(B,/i
Curve
The
tfo
e.m.f. acting
on the
circuit is
e Q}
x
since  cells of e.m.f.
x
are in series.
Therefore, the current delivered
by the battery
and the power which
r,is,
this current produces in the resistance
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
This
is
173
an extreme,
if
is
an extreme, hence,
and
that
is,
=J
_
=20
..
.
=4
cells
are
connected in multiple, and
n
x
jra*
~=\\
\r
cells in series.
115.
loss of
Example
is
16,
power
rise.
limited to 900 watts
In an alternatingcurrent transformer the by the permissible temper
ature
The
internal resistance of the transformer winding
is
(primary, plus secondary reduced to the primary)
2 ohms,
and the core
loss at
2000 volts impressed,
is
400 watts, and
varies with the 1.6th
fore of the voltage,
power of the magnetic density and thereAt what impressed voltage is the output
of the transformer a
If e is
maximum?
is
the impressed e.m.f. and i
into
the current input, the
at
power input
If
the transformer
(approximately,
non
inductive load) isP=ei.
the output
is
.
is
a maximum, at constant
loss,
the input
P
is
also
a
maximum.
The
loss of
power in the winding
2000 volts impressed
e it therefore is
h2 =2i2
The
loss of
power
in the iron at
is
400 watts, and at impressed voltage
x400
\2ooo;
'
and the
total loss in the transformer, therefore,
is
174
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
it
herefrom,
follows that,
e
i=J4oO200(
and, substituting, into Per.
\Te
Simplified, this gives,
M
}
y' *
and, differentiating,
2000 1<6)
"
de
2000 1
'
6
~u
>
and
/
?
V' 6
=1.95.
(__j
Hence,
^1.15
which, substituted, gives
and
e=2300
volts,
.l
)
532.52 kw.
116,
Example
17.
In a 5kw. alternatingcurrent transformer,
is
at 1000 volts impressed, the core loss
60 watts, the $r loss
must the impressed voltage be changed, to give maximum efficiency, (a) At full load of 5kw; (6) at
150 watts.
half load?
How
The core
loss
may
be assumed as varying with the 1.6th
If
.
l
power of the impressed voltage.
e
.
is
the impressed voltage,
=
5000.
ls
^ ^e curren
,
t
at full load,
,, 1M
.
and
i\
=
e
2500.
is
,
the current at
e
half load, then at 1000 volts impressed, the fullload current is
5000
=5 amperes,
and since the
i
2
r loss is
150 watts, this gives
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
the internal resistance of the transformer as
175
r=6 ohms, and
herefrom the
2 i r loss
at impressed voltage e
.
is
respectively,
nz
..
150 XlO 6
_
anc[
2 nj =
..
37.5
X10 6

watts.
Since the core loss
it is
is
60 watts at 1000 volts, at the voltage
e
The
total loss, at full load, thus
is
6
yoy
+150xlQ 6
$
16
37.5
'
.and at half load
it is
X10 6
+
Simplified, this gives
vl6
7~#~'
hence, differentiated,
6 1 #' 6 =3.125X10 X1000
3 6

6
=3.125X10 1()8

;
e
0.78125Xl0 6 Xl000 1 6 =0.78125Xl0 10 8

;
hence,
e = 1373 volts
for
maximum
maximum
efficiency at full load.
and
117.
e=938
Example
volts for
18.
efficiency at half load.
(a)
Constant voltage
e=1000
is
im
of capacity (7=10 mf., through a pressed upon a condenser reactor of inductance L=100 mh., and a resistor of resist
ance
r=40 ohms.
What
is
IV maximum
value of the charg
ing current?
176
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
(5)
An
additional
series,
resistor
of
resistance
r'
= 210 ohms
is
then inserted in
making the total resistance of the condenser charging circuit, r=250 ohms. What is the maximum
The equation
of the charging current of a condenser,
is
value of the charging current?
through
a circuit of low resistance,
("
Transient Electric
Phenomena
and
Oscillations," p. 61):
where
and the equation of the charging current
a circuit of high resistance,
is
of a condenser,
through
("
Transient Electric
Phenomena
and
Oscillations," p, 51),
c
I l=~>
t
^ _ &
2L
2L
where
4L
Substituting the numerical values gives:
(a)
i=10.2
200'
si n
(5)
i=M7\
and
differentiated, this gives:
di\
Simplified
(a)
4^ ^=ir= w
cos 980^sin 980^=0;
hence
tan980f=4.9
980^=68.5
1.2
=1.20
^'
(5)
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
hence,
1500^ ~  = 1.38,
s
log
e
?
= 0.00092
and, by substituting these values of
current, gives the
sec.,
t
into the equations of the
maximum
120+ns 49
values:
(a)
i=10e
an
=7.83r 84fl =7.83X0.53 M
of
amperes;
that
is,
infinite
number
values: +7.83;
4.15;
+.2.20;
46

maxima, of gradually decreasing 1.17 etc.
amperes.
(6)
i=6.667(Example
 s 1 8 *) =3.16
induction
iron loss
118.
19,
In an
generator, the
fric
tion losses are
Py=100 kw.; the
is
2000 kw. at the ter
minal voltage of e=4 kv., and may be assumed as proportional to the 1.6th power of the voltage; the loss in the resistance
of the conductors is
100 kw. at i = 3000 amperes output, and
may
be assumed as proportional to the square of the current, and the losses resulting from stray fields due to magnetic saturation are 100 kw. at 6=4 kv., and may in the range considered be
assumed as approximately proportional to the 3.2th power of the voltage. Under what conditions of operation, regarding output, voltage and current, is the efficiency a maximum?
The
losses
may
be summarized as follows:
Friction loss,
P/= 100 kw.
;
/\l6
Iron
loss,
/
Saturation
loss,
P
is
e
\32
;
5
100^J
hence the total loss
?L=P/+P+P
f
C
+P,
'
=100 1+2 j Y /
[
M +^
1
'
6
/
i
\OUUU,
178
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The output
is
P=ei; hence, percentage
r
of loss is
/A
1+2
(4)
1
*
6
/
i
\
2
/e
1QQ
P.
, A

n3QQQHa
if
~p
is
The
efficiency
a
maximum,
the percentage loss 1
e,
is
a
minimum.
For any value of the voltage
i,
this
is
the case
at the current
given by
jr=0:
hence, simplifying and differ
entiating
A,
3000 2
'
then, substituting
i in
the expression of
\l6
1,
gives
Hi
and
A is
an extreme,
1
1
if
the simplified expression,
^
is
1
___ > M
2
I
__1_/>1'2
43
'
1
2
an extreme, at
08
hence,
2
+
r
I
henre,
IT
=T^
and
<?=5.50kv.,
and, by substitution the following values are obtained A = 0.0323;
:
efficiency 96.77 per
cent;
current
i=8000 amperes;
is
output
P=44,000kw.
119. In all probability, this output
of the generator,' as limited
by
heating.
beyond the capacity The foremost limitais,
tion probably will be the
9t heating
of the conductors; that
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
the
179
maximum
permissible current will be restricted to,
for
instance,
^=5000 amperes.
of current
i,
For any given value
that
is,
the
maximum
efficiency,
minimum
loss, is
found by differentiating,
\1.B
/
/
\2
/
\32l
,l
=~
over
e,
thus:
de~
Simplified, ^ gives
1
f
hence, differentiated,
it
gives
1.2
j
2.26 1
'
2
T
de
*H
\3000/
\l6
J
,11 4>
L. M'4 T
132
A U
(]
J
V4/
11
this gives;
Fort =5000,
(7)
\4/
hence,
=1.065
and
e=4.16kv.;
1= 0.0338,
Efficency 96.62 per cent,
Power P=20,800 kw.
Method
120.
of Least Squares.
of the
An
interesting
is
and very important application
theory of extremes
is
given by the method of least squares, which
used to calculate the most accurate values of the constants
of functions
from numerical observations which are more numei
ous than the constants.
If
y=f(x),
.........
(1)
180
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
c
. .
.
is
a function having the constants
is
a,
6,
and the form
of
the function (1)
known,
for instance,
and the constants a
values of a
b,
c
are not
number
of corresponding values of
known, but the numerical x and y are given,
>
for instance, by experiment, x\, x%, x^ 2:4 ... and y\, 2/2, #3, 2/4 then from these corresponding numerical values x n and y n can be calculated, if the numerical the constant? a, 6, c
. . ,
values, that
is,
the observed points of the curve, are sufficiently
numerous.
If less
point* Xi y\, z 2
,
2/2
are observed, then the equa
tion
(1)
has constants, obviously these constants cannot be
calculated, as not sufficient data are available therefor.
If the
number
of observed points equals the
number
of con
stants,
they are just
sufficient to calculate the constants.
if
For
instance, in equation (2),
^2, 2/2;
(2),
three corresponding values x\, y\,
into equation
^3,
2/3
arc observed,
by substituting these
three equations are obtained:
which are
a, 6, c.
just sufficient for the calculation of the three constants
Threo observations would therefore be
sufficient for deter
mining three constants,
if
correct. This, however, is always contain errors of observation, that
the observations were absolutely not the case, but the observations
is,
unavoidable inacas
curacies,
and constants calculated by using only
in experimental work,
many
observations as there are constants, are not very accurate.
Thus,
are
alwayb
more
observations
made than
just necessary for the
determination of the
constants, for the purpose of getting a higher accuracy.
for instance, in
a comet,
but
if
less
Thus, astronomy, for the calculation of the orbit of than four observations are sufficient,
theoretically
possible hundreds are taken, to get a greater accuracy
in the determination of the constants of the orbit.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
If,
181
then, for the determination of the constants a,
(2), six pairs of
b,
c of
equation
corresponding values of x and y were
determined, any three of these pairs would be sufficient to
give
a,
b,
c,
as seen above, but using different sets of three
observations,
would not give the same values
observations
of a,
6,
c (as it
should,
if
the
were absolutely accurate),
but
different values,
and none
of these values
would have
as high
an accuracy as can be reached from the experimental data, since none of the values uses all observations,
HI
is

If
v=M .......
a, b, c
.
(i)
a function containing the constants
x\
}
.
,,
which are
still
unknown, and
?/i;
2,
y^
3,1/3;
etc.,
are corresponding
experimental values, then, if these values were absolutely correct, and the correct values of the constants a, 6, c chosen,
.
.
.
2/i
/fai) woulrj be true;
that
is,
.
2/2
(5)
=
0, etc.
Due
even
if
to the errors of observation, this
a, b, c
.
is
not the case, but
are the correct values,
yi
*f(xi\
etc.;
(6)
that
is,
a small difference, or
error, exists,
thus
.
.
.
.
If
(7)
3/2=1*2, etc.:
j
instead of the correct values of the constants;
different
a, b, c
.
.
.
.
,
other values were chosen,
errors
#i,
d%
would
obviously result.
From
probability calculation
a, b, c
.
it
.
follows, that,
if
the correct
values of the constants
.
are chosen, the
sum
of the
squares of the errors,
(8)
is less
than
for
any other value
of the constants a, b, c
.
,
.,
that
it is is,
a minimum.
182
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
122.
The problem
of
determining the constants
1
c,
ft,
c.
.
,
thus consists in finding' a set of constants, which makes the
sum
of the square of the errors J a
minimum; that is,
25f) 2 = minimum,
is
.....
. .
.
(9)
the requirement, which gives the most accurate or most probable set of values of the constants a, fc, c Since by (7), d=f(x}y, it follows from 9) as the condition,
which gives the most probable value
of the constants
fl,6,c.,.;
2
2S{/(r)?/!
that
is,
=mmimum;
....
(10)
the least
sum
of the squares of the errors gives the
a,
,
most
probable value of the constants
fo,
c
.
.
To
find the values of a,
6, c
,
which
fulfill
equation (10),
the differential quotients of (10) are equated to zero, and give
dz
This gives as
many
equations as there are constants
and therefore
just suffices for tueir calculation,
a, &/ and the values
.
,
so calculated are the
most probable, that
is,
the most accurate
values.
Where extremely high accuracy
in
is
required, as for instance
astronomy when calculating from observations extending over a few months only, the orbit of a comet which possibly
lasts
thousands of years, the method of least squares must bo
used,
and
is
frequently necessary also in engineering, to get
from a limited number of observations the highest accuracy
of the constants.
123.
As
instance, the
method
of least squares
of
may be applied
in separating
from the observations
an induction motor,
when running light, the component
etc.
losses, as friction, hysteresis,
MAXIMA AND MINIMA.
183
that
In a 440volt 50h.p. induction motor, when running light, is, without load, at various voltages, let the terminal
e,
voltage
the current input
first
i,
and the power input p be observed
as given in the
three columns of Table I:
TVBLE
I
consists of:
The power consumed by the motor while running light The friction loss, which can be assumed as conwhich
is
stant, a; the hysteresis loss,
proportional to the 1.6th
of the voltage, &e
1<c
;
power of the magnetic
of the
flux,
and therefore
the eddy current losses, which are proportional to the square
magnetic
flux,
and therefore
of the voltage, ce
2
;
and the
fir
loss in
the windings.
The
total
power
is,
(12)
From
the resistance of the motor windings, r=0.2 ohm,
of current
i,
and the observed values
the
2 i r loss is
I,
calculated,
and tabulated
from
in the fourth
column
of Table
and subtracted
p, leaving as the total
mechanical and magnetic losses the
values of po given in the
fifth
column
of the table,
which should
be expressed by the equation:
(13)
This leaves three constants,
Plotting
a, &, c,
to be calculated.
now
in Fig. 59 with values of e as abscissas, the
current i and the power p$ give curves, which
show that within
the voltage range of the test, a change occurs in the motor,
184
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
by the abrupt
rise of
is
as indicated
current and of power beyond
473
volts.
This obviously
due to beginning magnetic saturaSince with beginning saturation
tion of the iron structure.
a change of the magnetic distribution
is,
an increase
of the
magnetic stray
field
must be expected, that and thereby increase
of
eddy current
losses, it is
probable that at this point the con
707000
606000
505000
404000
303000
X^o
iO2000
1000
Volt
100
200
300
600
700
FIG. 59.
Excitation Power of Induction Motor.
stants in equation (13) change and no set of constants can be expected to represent the entire range of observation. For the calculation of the constants in (13), thus only the observa3
tions below the range of magnetic saturation can safely be used,
that
is,
up to 473
volts.
(13) follows as the error of
From equation
an individual
observation of e and po:
.
(14)
MAXIMA AND MIMIMA.
hence,
1
i
185
6
+ce 2 ^o 2
H minimum,
.
(15)
thus
:
Pol0;
and,
if
rz
is
the
number
of
observations used (n = 6 in this
gives the
instance, from e=14S to e473), this
following
equations;
.
.
(17)
Substituting in (17) the numerical values from Table I gives,
a + 11.7H0 3
+126cl0 3 = 1550,
}
.
.
(18)
a+15.1HOH170cl03 =1880
hence,
7
j
(19)
and
(20)
The values
in the sixth
of po
}
calculated from equation (20), are given
of
column
Table
I,
and
their differences
from the
observed values in the last column.
As
seen, the errors are in
both directions from the calculated values, except for the three highest voltages, in which the observed values rapidly increase
beyond the calculated, due probably to the appearance
of
a
ISO
loss
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
which does not
exist at lower voltages
the eddy currents
caused by the magnetic stray field of saturation. This rapid divergency of the observed from the calculated values at high voltages shows that a calculation of the constants,
based on all observations, would have led to wrong values, and demonstrates the necessity, first, to critically review series
of observations, before using them for deriving constants, so It as to exclude constant errors or unidirectional deviation.
must be
realized that the method of least squares gives the most probable value, that is, the most accurate results derivable from a series of observations, only so far as the accidental
errors of observations are concerned, that is, such errors which The method of least follow the general law of probability.
squares, however, cannot eliminate constant errors, that is, deviation of the observations which have the tendency to be
in one direction, as caused, for instance, by an instrument reading too high, or too low, or the appearance of a new phenomenon in a part of the observation, as an additional loss in above
Against such constant errors only a critical review and study of the method and the means of observation can guard, that is, judgment, and not mathematical formalism.
instance, etc.
CHAPTER
V.
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION
The investigation even of apparently simple engineerproblems frequently leads to expressions which are so complicated as to make the numerical calculations of a series
124.
ing
of values very
work.
lems,
Fortunately in
cumbersomrie and almost impossible in practical many such cases of engineering prob
and
especially in the field of electrical engineering, the
different quantities
different
which enter into the problem are
of
very
apparently complicated expressions can fiequently be greatly simplified, to such an extent as to permit a quick calculation of numerical values, by neglectciable effect on the accuracy of the result;
magnitude
Many
ing terms which are so small that their omission has no apprethat is, leaves the
result correct within the limits of accuracy required in engineer
ing,
is
which usually, depending on the nature of the problem, 1 per cent to 1 not greater than from per cent. Thus, for instance, the voltage consumed by the resistance
of
an alternatingcurrent transformer
is
at full load current
only a small fraction of the supply voltage, and the exciting current of the transformer is only a small fraction of the full load current, and, therefore, the voltage consumed by the
exciting current in the resistance of the transformer is only a small fraction of a small fraction of the supply voltage, hence,
it is negligible in most cases, and the transformer equations are greatly simplified by omitting it. The power loss in a large generator or motor is a small fraction of the input or output, the drop of speed at load hi an induction motor or direct
current shunt motor
is
a small fraction of the speed,
etc.,
and
the square of this fraction can in most cases be neglected, and the expression simplified thereby.
Frequently, therefore, in engineering expressions containing small quantities, the products, squares an'd higher
187
188
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
of
powers
such quantities
or,
if
may
be dropped and the expression
thereby simplified;
the quantities are not quite as small
of their squares, or
as to permit the neglect
where a high
accuracy
is
required, the
first
and second powers may be retained
resolve the
and only the cubes and higher powers dropped. The most common method of procedure is, to
expression into an infinite series of successive powers of the
small quantity, and then retain of this series only the
term, or only the
smallness of
125.
first
first
two or three terms, etc., depending on the the quantity and the required accuracy.
in the reduction of
The forms most frequently used
expressions containing small quantities are multiplication and
division, the binomial series, the exponential
series,
and the logarithmic
the sine and the cosine series, etc.
s,
Denoting a small quantity by
and where several occur,
by
$1,
s>2,
53
... the following expression
may
be written:
and, since
,si
Si<s 2
is
small compared with the
small quantities
of
and
s2 ,
or, as usually expressed, SiS 2 is
a small quantity
it
higher order (in this case of second order),
may
be neglected,
and the expression written:
(1)
This
is
one of the most useful simplifications: the multiplicais
tion of terms containing small quantities
replaced
by the
simple addition of the small quantities.
If
the small quantities
$1
and
5 2 are
not added (or subtracted)
&,
to 1,
but to other
finite,
that
is,
not small quantities a and
a and b can be taken out as factors, thus,
where
and r must be small quantities.
seen, in this case, Si
As
and
.93
need not necessarily be absobe quite large, provided that
that
is,
lutely small quantities, but
may
a and b are
still
larger in magnitude;
Si
b.
must be small
'
compared with
a,
and
s2
small compared with
For instance,
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
in
189
astronomical calculations the mass of the earth
^which
absolutely can certainly not be considered a small quantity)
is
neglected as small quantity compared with the mass of the
sun.
Also in the effect of a lightning stroke on a primary
distribution circuit, the normal line voltage of 2200
may
be
neglected as small compared with the voltage impressed
lightning, etc.
by
126. Example.
In a directcurrent shunt motor,
e
the imis
pressed voltage
r
is
= 125
volts;
the armatine resistance
;
=0.02 ohm; the field resistance is ri=50 ohms the power consumed by friction is p/300 watts, and the power consumed
iron loss
is
by
^=400
watts.
What
is
the power output of
the motor at
iQ
=
50, 100 and 150 amperes input?
The power produced
product of the voltage
e
at the armature conductors
is
the
generated in the armature conductors,
and the current
at the
i
through the armature, and the power output
is,
motor pulley
p=eip
The current
therefore
is,
r
is
pi
......
(3)
in the
motor field
;
and the armature current
TI
ii'o
,
.......
/
.
(4)
where
TI
is
a small quantity, compared with
and the voltage generated
The voltage consumed by the armature resistance in the motor armature thus
is
m,
is:
(5)
where
rtfi
is
a small quantity compared with
i
e,i.
Substituting herein for
the value
(4)
gives,
Since the second term of (6)
is
small compared with
<?
0j
and
in this second term, the second
i
it
term
is
small comof
pared with
U;
can be neglected as a small term
higher
190
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
that
as small compared with a
order;
is,
small term, and
expression
(6) simplified to
e
= eor Q
i(}
(7)
Substituting (4) and (7) into
(3) givey,
Expression
(8)
contains a product of two terms with small
(1),
quantities, which can be multiplied by equation
gives,
and thereby
V U"U
'
U"U
fj
ft
\v
f
Substituting the numerical values gives,
2 p=125io0.02i 562.5300400
= 125i  0.02i 2  1260
approximately
;
thus, for
i
=50, 100, and 150 amperes; p=4940, 11,040, and
17,040 watts respectively.
127. Expressions containing a small quantity in the
denom
inator are frequently simplified
in the numerator,
by bringing the small quantity
by
by
division as discussed in Chapter II para
graph 39, that
is,
the series,
1

=! :F^+.r2:F^hJ4 Ta 5 f
is
'
L
(101 ' \
which
by:
series,
if
x
a small quantity
s,
can be approximated
1
T+s
~'
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
or,
191
where a greater accuracy
1
is
required,
.
(12)
1
By
where
contained in the numerator
this
is
the same expressions (11) and (12) a small quantity may be brought into the denominator
more convenient, thus
:
(13)
More generally then, an expression
small compared with
the form,
b
a,
like
,
where
s
is
may
bo simplified by approximation to
^r
or,
/
b
9
u
is
cA^i 1 ^/; fl
b(^
8\
U4)
where a greater exactness
required,
by taking in the second
term,
&
&
as
128.
M\IL
I
I

a\
is
a
"
(15)
Example.
What
if
the current input to an induction
eo
is
motor, at impressed voltage
and
slip s (given as fraction ot
synchronous speed)
circuit of the
the impedance of the primary circuit of the motor, and rijxi the impedance of the secondary
TQJXQ
motor at
is
full
frequency, and the exciting current
assuming s to be a small quantity; the motor running at full speed? Let E bo the e.m.f. generated by the mutual magnetic flux, that is, the magnetic flux which interlinks with primary and
neglected;
of the
motor
that
is,
with secondary circuit, in the primary circuit. Since the frequency of the secondary circuit is the fraction s of the frequency
192
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
primary
circuit,
of the
the generated e.m.f. of the secondary
circuit is sE.
Since x\
is
the reactance of the secondary circuit at full
s
frequency, at the fraction
of the secondary circuit
is
s,
of
full
frequency the reactance
of the sec
sxi,
and the impedance
is
ondary
circuit
at
slip
is,
therefore,
rijsxij hence the
secondary current
r
&
is
If the
exciting current
neglected, the primary current
equal? the secondary current (assuming the secondary of the same number of turns as the primary, or reduced to the same
number
of turns);
hence, the current input into the motor
is
Z4 ........
n]sxi
The second term
with the
first
(16) J
in the
denominator
expression
is
small compared
thus
term,
and the
(16)
can be
' approximated by
(17)
The voltage
E
generated in the primary circuit equals the
eQ
,
impressed voltage
minus the voltage consumed by the
current 7 .in the primary impedance; r
j> thus
is
56
7(r pa)
......
+}^)
(18)
Substituting (17) into (18) gives
.....
is
(19)
In expression
(19),
the second term on the righthand side,
which
is
the impedance drop in the primary circuit,
first
small
compared with the
term
e 0j
and
in the factor
(1+y
of this small term, the small
term
j
can thus be neglected
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
as a small
to
193
term
of higher order,
and equation
(19) abbreviated
From
(20) it follows that
and from
(13),
(21)
Substituting (21) into (17) gives
r
'"
and from
(1),
(22)
If
then,
/oo^'io+jV
is
the
is,
exciting
current, the
total
current input into the motor
approximately,
129.
One
of the
most important expressions used
is
for the
reduction of small terms
the binomial series:
If
.r
is
a small term
s ; this
gives the approximation,
........
(25)
194
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
using the second term also,
it
or,
gives
(ls)
n
lns +
~
s
2
(26)
In a more general form,
this expression givey
(a
,V..(l4)^l?Wc.
.
.
(27)
By
the binomial, higher powers of terms containing small
quantities,
and, assuming n as a fraction, roots containing
small quantities, can be eliminated: for instance,
s
a
1
n
.
(
,)
a
l
v(as)
(1T
One
of the
most common uses
of the
binomial series
is
for
the elimination of squares and square roots, and very frequently it can be conveniently applied in mere numerical calculations; as, for instance,
=40,400;
1 \ ___ 2
/
1
\
9Q02.O.Q2 oU
'
1
aQOflh
\
lQOnfi b
1507
300/
0(l 0.02)2
= 10(1
0.01)=9.99;
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
130.
195
Example
i. If r is
the resistance; x the reactance of an
alternatingcurrent
circuit
with
impressed
voltage
e,
the
current
is
If the
reactance x
is
small compared with the resistance
r,
as
is
the case in an incandescent
lamp
circuit, then,
If
is
the resistance
is
small compared with the reactance, as
coil,
the case in a reactive
then,
2\x
Example
2.
How
does
the
shortcircuit
current
of
an
alternator vary with the speed, at constant field excitation?
When an
generated in
alternator
its
is is
short circuited, the total voltage
armature
consumed by the resistance and the
synchronous reactance of the armature.. The voltage generated in the armature at constant
excitation
is
field
is
proportional to
its
speed.
Therefore,
if e
the
voltage generated in the
for
armature at some given speed $ 0;
of
is
instance,
the
rated speed
the machine, the voltago
generated
at
any other speed S
1
'
"So
196
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
O
or. if for
convenience, the fraction
5 is
denoted bv
a,
then
oo
S
ct=7r 00
and
i
e=oe
,
where a
is
the ratio of the actual speed, to that speed at which
is eo
the generated voltage
If
r
is
the resistance of the alternator armature, XQ the
synchronous reactance at speed So, the synchronous reactance at speed S is x=axi), and the current at short circuit then is
Usually
r
and X Q are
of such
magnitude that
r
consumes
at full load about 1 per cent or less of the generated voltage,
while the reactance voltage of x
is of
the magnitude of from
if
20 to 50 per cent. Thus r a is not very small, equation
is
small compared with x 0; and
(29)
can be approximated by
(m
Then
if
io=20r, the following relations exist;
a=
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
z=X0.9688
0.995
0.99875
0.99969
That
is,
the shortcircuit current of an alternator
is
practi
cally constant independent of the speed,
and begins to decrease and trigonometric
only at very low speed?
.
131. Exponential functions, logarithms,
functions are the ones frequently
met
in electrical engineering.
The exponential function
is
defined
by the
series,
e
j:
=lz+++
(31)
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
and,
if
197
x
is
a small quantity,
s,
the exponential function,
may
be approximated by the equation,
^lis;
or,
(32)
by the more general equation,
=las;
and,
if
(33)
a greater accuracy
is
required, the second term
may
be included, thus,
^1
and then
8
+^
(2o2 QrS
(34)
." 7
The logarithm
is
defined
by
log>
:=
I
;
hence,
Resolving
gives
^
J
;
into a series,
iE
by
(10),
and then
integrating,
log*
(lx)=
(iT
T2
J+z^ffH.
T3
r4
r5
)ic
'T4This logarithmic series (36) leads to the approximation,
log, (1
s)
(36)
=5;
(37)
or,
including the second term,
log
it
given
(38)
(ls)=ss 2
is,
,
and the more general expression
respectively,
198
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
and, more accurately,
S
o2
loge(as)=loga^
Since logio
(40)
N=logio
Xlog iV=0.4343
Iog 5 N, equations (39)
and
(40)
may
be written thus,
logio (I
s)~
0.4343*;
.
logio(as)
= logio
a
0.4343
r
the
132.
The trigonometric
;
functions
are represented
by
infinite series
/v2
y4
yG
(42)
X7
which when
s is
a small quantity,
cos
may
sin
be approximated by
s=l
and
s=s;
.
.
.
.
(43)
or,
they
may
be represented in closer approximation
by
(44)
or,
by the more general
cos as =1
expressions,
and
3
(45)
;
siii
as = as
fl
and
6 /'
133. Other functions containing small terms
may
frequently
case,
be
approximated by MacLaurin's series,
MacLaurin's series
is
Taylor's
series,
or
its
special
written thus:
...,.
(46)
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION,
where
/',
199
/", /"',
etc.,
are respectively the
first,
second, third,
etc., differential
quotient of/; hence,
(47)
/(aa)=/(0)+os/'(0).
Taylor's series
is
written thus,
f(b +x) =/(&) +xf(b]
+/"'(
+/"(&)
:
.
(48)
and leads to the approximations
Many
134.
of the previously discussed
approximations can be
for the
considered as special cases of (47) and (49).
As seen in the preceding, convenient equations
containing
series,
approximation of expressions derived from various infinite
small
terms
are
which are summarized
below
;
2
=
.t
+
E
^3
n
x6
.r
x4
(50)
+ '"
;
5
,r
7
f(x) =/(0)
+af(0) +/"(0) +fr/'"(0) +.
.
.
;
200
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The
first
approximations, derived by neglecting
first
all
higher
terras
but the
:
power
of the small quantity
x=s
in these
series, arc
r
2' L~2j

1

(51)
[4
and, in addition hereto
rule,
is
to be
remembered the multiplication
(I$i)(ls 3 )l*i2;
135.
The accuracy
is
by calculating the
This term
approximation can be estimated term beyond that which is used. given in brackets in the above equations (50)
next,
of the
and
(51).
Thus, when calculating a series of numerical values by approximation, for the one value, for which, as seen by the
nature of the problem, the approximation
is
least close, the
next term
is
calculated,
and
if
this
is less
than the permissible
approximation is satisfactory. For instance, in Example 2 of paragraph 130, the approximate value of the shortcircuit current was found in (30), as
.
I
limits of accuracy, the
*
,
1
U2
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
The next term
in the parenthesis of equation (30),
201
by the
71(71!)
binomial, would have been
I r \2
)
.
+
3
5
r
s
2
;
substituting
n = \]
s
=
the next becomes
is
\a,ro/
less
/ +H 8
Y
.
The smaller the
a. '
the
\axo/
exact
the approximation.
a,
The
a0,2.
smallest value of
considered in paragraph 130, was
gives
For i
first
20r,
this
+'( o
)
=0.00146, as the
\axQj
value of the
neglected term, and in the accuracy of the
result this is of the
magnitude
of
 XO.OOU6,
#o
is,
out of
 X 0.9688,
o
the value given in paragraph 130; that
gives the result correctly within
the approximation
AQ^A
0.0015 or within one
sixth of one per cent, which
ing purposes,
is
sufficiently close for all engineer
and with
larger a the values
are
still
closer
approximations,
136. It
is
interesting to
note
the
different
expressions,
which are approximated by (1+s) and by (1s).
Some
of
them
are given in the following;
__
1hs'
11
n
nj
202
ENGINEERING
MA THEM A TICS.
VI 2s;
1
VI His;
1
Vl^s'
j
T+ns'
ns
l2
I
n\
l+ms
j
J
j
lffls
T
r;
etc.
etc.
2t;
1+log.fl+a);
1log.n+s);
etc.
etc.
1fsins;
1sins;
;
1+nsin;
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
203
1fsinns; n
1
sinns;
cosv^;
etc.
COB
V2s;
etc.
137.
the reduction to As an example may be considered
its
of the expression: simplest form,
F=
then,
?!!
Si
,.1+2;
2
.
i
cossrr a
\
a
o+2ia 1+2
;
OoAl/2
204
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
hence,
138. As further example may be considered the equations an alternatingcurrent electric circuit, containing distributed resistance, inductance ; capacity, and shunted conductance, for
of
instance, a longdistance transmission line or
an underground
highpotential cable.
Equations of the Transmission Line.
Let
point;
I
E, the voltage;
be the distance along the line, from some starting I, the current at point I, expressed as
vector quantities or general numbers;
Z
=r
/i
;
the line
impedance per unit length (for instance, per mile);
FO=</O
is
$o
the
= line
ohmie
60,
admittance, shunted, per unit length;
effective
then, r
resistance;
.TO,
the selfinductive reactance;
that
is,
the
condensive
susceptance,
volts,
wattless
charging
of
current divided
tance, that
is,
by
and <?o= energy component
per mile.
dl,
admit
energy component of charging current, divided
by
volts, per unit length, as,
Considering a line element
the voltage, dE, consumed
dl,
by the impedance
the admittance
written:
is
is
Z Q Idl
}
and the current,
consumed by
F
M;
hence, the following relations
may
be
(1)
(2)
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
Differentiating (1),
205
and substituting
(2)
therein gives
(3)
and from
(1) it
follows that,
,
F 1=7/o w
*
l4)
Equation
(3) is
integrated
by
E = At
and
(5)
substituted in (3) gives
JJ=
hence, from (5) and
(4), it
follows
Next assume
I
I?,
the entire length of line;
Z^ZQ,
and
the total line impedance;
Y= kYo, the total line admittance;
and
(8),
then, substituting (9) into (7) are obtained
;
the following expressions
as the voltage and current at the generator end of the line,
139. If
now $o and
into (7)
/o respectively are the
line,
current and
voltage at the stepdown end of the
stituting
for
Z=0, by sub
Z=0
and
(8),
206
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
the series, Substituting in (10) for the exponential function,
== ZY ZYVZY
_ ___
7?TAZ),
and arranging by (li+A 2 ) and (Ai*
herefor the expressions (11), gives
and substituting
L ZY
(13)
ZY
When 2 = Zo, that is,
E\ and
/i
for J?o
and
/o at the generator side,
and
at the stepdown side of the line, the sign of the
second term of equation (13) merely reverses.
140.
From
and
the foregoing,
it
follows that,
if
Z
is
the total
impedance; Y, the total shunted admittance of a transmission
line, *J?o
/o,
the voltage and current at one end;
E\ and
Ji,
the voltage and current at the other end of the transmission
line; then,
where the plus sign applies if E Q) 7 is the stepdown end, the minus sign, if E 7 is the stepup end of the transmission
,
line.
In practically
all cases,
the quadratic term can be neglected,
and the equations
simplified, thus,
ZY]
27

and the
error
made hereby
is
of the
magnitude
of less
than
METHODS OF APPROXIMATION.
Except in the case
of very long lines, the
207
second term
of
Uie second term can also usually be neglected ; which gi
.
.
.
.
,
(16)
Zlf
and the
error
made hereby
is
of the
magnitude
of less
than
o
of the line
141.
impedance voltage and
load
of
line
charging current.
of 60cycle line,
Example. Assume 200 miles
u
on nonamperes.
inductive
= 100,000
volts;
and
'io
= 100
The
line constants, as
taken from tables are
=104
140/
ohms
and F=0.0013/ ohms; hence,
ZY= (0.182 +0.136?);
fli
= 100000(1  0.091  0.068$ + 100 (104  104 j) = 101400 20800 ], in volts; = 100(1  0.091 0.068;)
11
 0.0013/ + 100000
=91136.8], in amperes.
_
The
error
.
zy
is
yr
oob
0.174 XO.QQ13
=7
;
0.226
=0,038,
nnQQ
Neglecting the second term of #i
2/0=17,400, the error
is
0,038X17400660
=0.6 per cent. Neglecting the second term of /i,
volts
"
yE Q =130,
line is
the error
is
0.038
X 130  5
= amperes 3
per cent.
Although the charging current of the
130 per cent
of output current, the error in the current is only 3 per cent.
Using the equations
z2 ?/
2
(15),
which are nearly as simple, brings
;
0.226 2
the error
down
to
^7=
^j= 0.0021
or less than onequarter
per cent.
Hence, only in extreme cases the equations (14) need to be
zV
used.
4
Their error would be
less
than
6
^=3.6X10~
,
or one
threethousandth per cent.
208
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The accuracy
of the preceding approximation can be esti
mated by considering the physical meaning of Z and Y: Z is the line impedance; hence Zj the impedance voltage, and zi
up,
the impedance voltage of the
line,
as fraction of total
voltage;
current,
7
and
is
the shunted admittance; hence
YE
the charging
fraction
r=
YE
r,
the charging current of the
line, as
of total current.
is the Multiplying gives uv=ZY' that is, the constant product of impedance voltage and charging current, expressed
}
ZY
as fractions of full voltage
and
full current, respectively.
In
any economically
its
feasible
length, both of
power transmission, irrespective of these fractions, and especially the first,
must be
relatively small,
its
and
their product therefore is a small
quantity, and
line the
higher powers negligible.
In any economically feasible constant potential transmission
preceding approximations are therefore permissible.
CHAPTER VI
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
A. General.
142.
The
an
results of observation or tests usually are plotted
in a curve.
loss of
Such curves,
for instance, are
given by the core
or,
electric generator, as function of the voltage;
the current in a circuit, as function of the time, etc. When plotting from numerical observations, the curves are empirical,
and the
solved to
first
and most important problem which has to be
find
curves useful is to find equations for the a function, y=f(x\ which represents the curve. As long as the equation of the curve is not known its While numerical values can be taken utility is very limited.
make such
is,
same, that
from
from the plotted curve, no general conclusions can be derived no general investigations based on it regarding the it,
conditions of efficiency, output, etc. An illustration hereof is by the comparison of the electric and the magnetic
circuit.
afforded
In the electric
is
circuit, the relation
a
between
e.m.f.
and
current
given by Ohm's
law,
i=, and calculations are uni
In the magnetic circuit, however, easily versally the term corresponding to the resistance, the reluctance, is not a constant, and the relation between m.m.f. and magnetic flux
and
made.
cannot be expressed by a general law, but only by an empirical curve, the magnetic characteristic, and as the result, calculations of magnetic circuits cannot be
made
as conveniently
and
as general in nature as calculations of electric circuits. If by observation or test a number of corresponding values
of the independent variable x
and the dependent variable y are
determined, the problem is to find an equation, t/=/(z), which represents these corresponding values: x\, x^ fy ... x n, and Vn, approximately, that is, within the errors of yi, 2/2, #3
observation.
209
210
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
The mathematical expression which
represents an empirical
curve
It is
be a rational equation or an empirical equation. a rational equation if it can be derived theoretically as a
may
conclusion from some general law of nature, or as an approximation thereof, but
is an empirical equation if no theoretical reason can be seen for the particular form of the equation.
For instance, when representing the dying out of an electrical current in an inductive circuit by an exponential function of
time,
we have a
rational equation:
the induced voltage, and
therefore,
by Ohm's law, the current, varies proportionally to the
is,
rate of change of the current, that
its differential
quotient,
and
a? the exponential function has the characteristic of being
proportional to its differential quotient, the exponential function thus rationally represents the dying out of the current in an inductive circuit. On the other hand, the relation between the
loss
is
by magnetic hysteresis and the magnetic density
:
W=
1>6
yj(B
,
an empirical equation since no reason can be seen for this law of the 1.6th power, except that it agrees with the observations.
A
rational equation, as a deduction from a general law of
nature, applies universally, within the range of the observations as well as
beyond
it,
while an empirical equation can with
certainty be relied
from which
it is
derived,
upon only within the range of observation and extrapolation beyond this range
fore
becomes increasingly uncertain. A rational equation thereAs regards the is far preferable to an empirical one.
exists
accuracy of representing the observations, no material difference between a rational and an empirical equation. An
empirical equation frequently represents the observations with
accuracy, while inversely a rational equation usually does not rigidly represent the observations, for the reason that
great
in nature the conditions
on which the rational law
is
based are
rarely perfectly fulfilled,
For instance, the representation of a decaying current by an exponential function is based on the
assumption that the resistance and the inductance of the circuit are constant, and capacity absent, and none of these conditions
can ever be perfectly
satisfied,
and thus a deviation occurs from
"
is
the theoretical condition, by what
143.
called
secondary effects."
derive an equation, which represents an empirical curve, careful consideration should first be given to the physical
To
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
nature of the
211
phenomenon which
is
is
to
be expressed, since
thereby the number of expressions which
empirical curve
often
greatly reduced.
may
be tried on the
assistance
is
Much
usually given by considering the zero points of the curve and
the points at infinity.
sent the core loss of
For instance,
if
the observations repre
a transformer or electric generator, the
is,
curve must go through the origin, that
?/=0 for
x=Q and
}
the mathematical expression of the curve y=f(x) can contain
no constant term.
Furthermore, in this case, with increasing
for
#,
y must continuously increase, so that
if
x= GO, y= oo.
a;
Again,
the observations represent the dying out of a current as
it
function of the time,
is
obvious that for
=00, i/=0.
In
representing the power consumed
by a motor when running
without load, as function of the voltage, for
x=Q
}
y cannot be
=0, but must equal the mechanical
like
friction,
and an expression
y= Ax?
cannot represent the observations, but the equation
must contain a constant term.
Thus,
first,
represented by the empirical curve,
(a)
(b)
from the nature of the phenomenon, which it is determined
is
is
Whether the curve
periodic or nonperiodic.
for
Whether the equation contains constant terms, that is, =0, t/7^0, and inversely, or whether the curve passes
is,
through the origin; that
hyperbolic; that
(c)
is,
y=
oo for
j/=0 for #=0, or whether 2=0, or JCQO for y0.
oo.
it
is
What
values the expression reaches for
That
is,
whether for x=oo,
(d)
y=, or y=0, and inversely.
increases or decreases, or
of the curve
reaches
(e)
Whether the curve continuously maxima and minima
Whether the law
may
change within the
range of the observations, by some phenomenon appearing in
some observations which does not occur
for
in the
other.
Thus,
instance, in observations in which the magnetic density
enters, as core, logs, excitation curve, etc., frequently the curve
this case only the data
f
law changes with the beginning of magnetic saturation, and in below magnetic saturation would be used
or deriving the theoretical equations, and the
effect of
magnetic
saturation treated as secondary phenomenon.
Or, for instance,
when studying the
that
is,
excitation current of an induction motor,
the current consumed
when running
light,
at low
voltage the current
may
increase again with decreasing voltage,
212
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
when the
an
instead of decreasing, as result of the friction load,
voltage
is
so low that the mechanical friction constitutes
appreciable part of the motor output.
Thus, empirical curves
can be represented by a single equation only when the physical
conditions remain constant within the range of the observations.
From
the shape of the curve then frequently, with some
experience, a guess can be
made on
it.
the probable form of the
equation which
it is
may
express
In this connection, therefore,
be familiar with the shapes of
of the greatest assistance to
the more
common
forms of curves, by plotting and studying
various forms of equations y=f(x).
By
the apparent shape of the curve
therefore
changing the scale in which observations are plotted may be modified, and it is
desirable in plotting to use such a scale that the
is
average slope of the curve
about 45 deg.
it
A much
greater or
much
lesser slope
should be avoided, since
does not show the
character of the curve as well.
B. NonPeriodic Curves.
144.
series,
the parabolic
The most common nonperiodic curves are the potential and hyperbolic curves, and the exponential
and logarithmic curves.
THE POTENTIAL
Theoretically,
SERIES.
any
set of observations
can be represented
:
exactly by a potential series of
any one
of the following forms
. .
.
.
.
(1)
o++++...; ......
d\
(3)
&2
&3
if
a sufficiently large number of terms are chosen,
For instance,
are given,
if
x i}
y\]
x2
n corresponding numerical values of x and y y^; ... xn y n they can be represented
,
, >
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
by the
give
series (1),
213
when choosing
as
many
terms as required to
n
constants a:
By
substituting the corresponding values xi, y\] x z y 2
,
.
.
,
into equation (5), there are obtained
n
equations, which de
termine the
Usually,
n
constants a
,
ai, 02,
.
.
.
a B i.
is
however, such representation
irrational,
and
therefore meaningless
and
useless.
TABLE
I.
Let, for instance, the
A
first
column of Table
volts,
I represent the
voltage,
TnjpE;
loss,
in
hundreds of
and the second column
direct
the core
p^y,
in kilowatts, of
an 125volt 100h.p.
current motor.
Since seven sets of observations are given,
they can be represented by a potential series with seven constants, thus,
....
(6)
and by substituting the observations in (6), and calculating the constants a from the seven equations derived in this manner,
there
is
obtained as empirical expression of the core loss of
the motor the equation,
y0.5+2a;42.5^1.5a?+Ux*2
This expression
(7),
5
+A
.
(7)
however, while exactly representing
the seven observations, has no physical meaning, as easily
seen
by plotting the individual terms.
In Fig.
60,
V
appears
214
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
number
if
as the resultant of a
of large positive
and negative
is
terms.
Furthermore,
one of the observations
calculated from
omitted,
and the
values,
potential series
series
the remaining six
a
5 reaching up to x would be the result, thus,
....
(8)
0.5
__0,2
(U
of

0.6
1.3
[
14
FIG. 60.
Terms
Empirical Expression
of Excitation
Power.
but the constants a in
ical values
(7)
(8)
would have
(7),
entirely different
numer
from those in
thus showing that the equation
has no rational meaning.
145
The potential
series
(1)
to (4) thus can be used to
represent an empirical curve only under the following conditions:
1.
If
the successive coefficients
ao,
%
02,
.
.
.
decrease in
value so rapidly that within
the range of observation the
higher terms become rapidly smaller
and appear as mere
secondary terms.
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
2.
215
If
the successive
coefficients
a follow a
definite
law,
indicating a convergent series which represents
function, as
3.
some other
an exponential, trigonometric,
the coefficients,
a,
etc.
If all
are very small, with the exception
of
a few
of
them, and only the latter ones thus need to be con
sidered.
TABLE
II.
For instance,
let
the numbers in column 1 of Table II
represent the speed j of a fan motor, as fraction of the rated
speed,
and those
in
column 2 represent the torque
of
y,
that
is,
the
turning
moment
the
motor,
These
values
can
be
represented
by
the equation,
In this case, only the constant term and the terms with
3 x 2 and x have appreciable values, and the remaining terms
probably are merely the result of errors of observations, that
the approximate equation
is
is,
of the form,
(10)
Using the values
of the coefficients
from
(9), gives
(11)
The numerical values calculated from
3 of Table II as
y',
(11) are
given in column
and the
difference
between them and the
observations of column 2 are given in column 4, as y\,
216
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
of
The values
form
column 4 can now be represented by the same
of equation, namely,
(12)
in
which the constants
\
62
,
63 are calculated
by the method
of least squares, as described in paragraph 120 of Chapter IV,
and give
2/i
=0.031 0.093i 2 f0.07f>r 3
(11) gives the final
(13)
Equation
(13)
added to
as,
approximate
equation of the torque,
2 3 i/o=0.53H2.407,T ~0.224i
.
.
.
.
(14)
The equation
(14)
probably
is
the approximation
of
a
rational equation, since the first term, 0.531, represents the
2 bearing friction; the second term, 2.407# (which is
the largest),
represents the
work done by the fan
in
resistance proportional to the square of the speed,
moving the air, a and the
third term approximates the decrease of the air resistance due
to the churning motion of the air created
by the
fan.
it
In general, the potential series rarely has a rational meaning and
is
of limited usefulness;
is
mainly used, where the
curve approximately follows a simple law, as a straight line, by small terms the deviation from this simple law, that is, the secondary effects, etc, Its use, thus, is often
to represent
temporary, giving an empirical approximation pending the derivation of a more rational law.
The Parabolic and the Hyperbolic Curves.
146.
One
of the
most useful
classes of curves in
engineering
are those represented by the equation,
y=a^' u
or,
'
f"\f\\ / l
i0
the more general equation,
&a(ic)*
Equation
(16) differs
is,
(16)
from
(15)
only by the constant terms &
and
c;
that
it
gives a different location to the coordinate
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
center, but the curve shape
is
217
the same, so that in discussing
n
the general shapes, only equation (15) need be considered,
If
n
is
positive,
the curves
y=ax
are parabolic curves,
x.
passing through the origin and increasing with increasing
Itn>l,y
increases with increasing rapidity,
\tn<l,y
increases
with decreasing rapidity.
If
the exponent
is
negative, the curves
n y=ax~ =
are
x
hyperbolic curves, starting from 2/=oo for
to 2/=0 for
ft ft
x=0, and
decreasing
x=
oo.
1 gives the straight
line
through the origin, rc=0 and
=00
horizontal give, respectively, straight
and
vertical lines.
various curve shapes, corresponding to Figs. 61 to 71 give
different values of n.
Parabolic Curves,
Fig. 61.
n=2;
n=4
;
y=x
2
i
the
common
parabola.
Fig. 62.
Fig, 63,
= y x*
;
the biquadratic parabola.
w8;
y=x*.
again the
Fig. 64.
Fig. 65. Fig. 66.
n= }; y= V^;
common
parabola.
n= J;
n=4;
Curves.
y=* $x\ the biquadratic parabola.
y=<^
Hyperbolic
Fig. 67.
n= 1;
2/=; the equilateral hyperbola.
Fig. 68.
n=2; y ?
Fig. 69.
n=4; y^.
n
Fig. 70.
?
;
^.
y.
Fig. 71.
n
;
218
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
cJ
o
a 6
O
o
'o
s
o
2
? C
O
6
d,
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
219
FIG, 64
Parabolic Curve.
j/=v7.
1,0
0,4
06
FIG. 65
1,0
Iff
14
18
18
2.0
Parabolic Curve.
220
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
to
0:6
02
0,2

0,4
I
0,6
I
0,8
I
1,0
I
l8
I
1,4
I
1.6
I
..1.8
FIG. 66.
Parabolic Curve.
ao
08
1{6
I
2,0
3,2
3.6
I
FIG. 67.
Hyperbolic Curve (Equilateral Hyperbola),
?/=,
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
221
**
ta
0:8"
0:4
04
0,8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
4.0
4.4
G. 68.
Hyperbolic Curve.
y=$.
2.0
M
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
'2.4
2.8
,4,0
U
FIG. 69.
Hyperbolic Curve,
y
,
{
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
0,4
08
12
16
20
2,4
38
32
3.6
40
4,
FIG. 70,
Hyperbolic Curve,
y= 
I
I
Qtf
I
0,8
I
1,2
I
1,

20
(
2)

2T8
[
8J8
I
3J6
I
40
A,
FIG. 71.
Hyperbolic Curve,
y
.
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
223
In Fig. 72, sixteen different parabolic and hyperbolic curves
are
drawn together on the same
2, 4, 8,
sheet, for the following values;
7
n=l,
oo
;
}, J, }, 0;
1
2, 4, 8; J, J, .
147. Parabolic arid hyperbolic curves
may
easily be recog
nized by the fact that
ifx
is
changed by a constant factor, y also
changes by a constant factor.
Thus, in the curve
fourfold;
in the curve
is,
y=x yx
1
2
>
'
5
doubling the x increases the y the x increases the y *, doubling
threefold, etc.; that
if
in
=
constant, for constant
q,
,
.
,
(17)
the curve
is
a parabolic or hyperbolic curve,
n y=ax and
,
If
q
is
nearly
1,
that
is,
the x
is
value, substituting
jl+s, where
s is
changed onjy by a small a small quantity,, from
equation
(18),
hence,
ar)7w;
.....
(19)
that
is,
changing x by a small percentage
sx,
y changes by a pro
small percentage nsy. portional
Thus/ parabolic and hyperbolic curves can be recognized by a small percentage change of x, giving a proportional small
percentage change of y
f
and the proportionality
factor
is
the
exponent %; or, a constant factor. seeing whether y hereby changes by As illustration are shown in Fig. 73 the parabolic curves, which, for a doubling of ar, increase y: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 fold.
Unfortunately, this convenient
they can be recognized by doubling x and
way
of
recognizing parabolic
and hyperbolic curves applies only if the curve passes through the origin, that is, has no constant term. If constant terms
exist, as in
equation
(16),
not x and
y,
but (xc) and (yb)
follow the law of proportionate increases,
and the recognition
224
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
that
various values of
c
becomes more
difficult;
is,
and
of
are to be tried to find one which gives the proportionality.
M
148.
W
FIG. 72.
0.6
0.8
1,0
1.
1.4
18
Parabolic and Hyperbolic Curves.
y=x*,
Taking the logarithm
of equation (15) gives
,
= log i/
log a +7i log #;
,
,
(20)
EMPIRICAL CURVES*
that
225
a straight line hence, a parabolic or is, hyperbolic curve can be recognized by plotting the logarithm of y against the logarithm of x. If this gives a straight line, the curve is parabolic
;
or hyperbolic,
its
and the
slope of the logarithmic curve, tan
0=n,
the exponent.
0.2
(U
FIG. 73
0.6
0.8
1.0
1,2
U
1,6
Parabolic Curves,
y*z
contain no constant
is
This again applies only
if
the curve
twin
If
constant lenns exist, the logarithmic line
c
curved
Therefore, by trying different constants
of the
and
5 ; the curvature
logarithmic line changes, and by interpolation such constants can be found, which make the logarithmic line straight,
in this
way, the constants c and b may be evaluated. If constant one exist, that is, only b or only c, the process is only it becomes rather but complicated with both simple, relatively
and
226
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
This fact makes
it
constants.
all
the more desirable to get
from the physical nature of the problem some idea on the existence and the value of the constant terms.
Exponential and Logarithmic Curves.
149.
A
function,
which
is
very frequently met in electrical
engineering, and in engineering
and physics
in general,
is
the
exponential function,
y=at
nx
,
(21)
which may be written in the more general form,
(22)
Usually,
it
appears with negative exponent, that
is,
in the
form,
y=ar**
(23)
Fig 74 shows the curve given by the exponential function
(23)fora=l; wl;thatis,
(24)
as seen, with increasing positive x, y decreases to
at
x= +
oo,
and with increasing negative x, y increases to oo at x=  co. The curve, y= + *, has the same shape, except that the
positive
and the negative
side (right
and
left)
are
interchanged.
Inverted these equations (21) to (24)
thus,
may
also be written
(25)
,t
V
that
is,
as logarithmic curves.
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
150.
The
characteristic of the exponential function (21)
(or,
is,
that an increase ofx by a constant term increases
in (23)
and
(24), decreases)
if
y ly a constant factor.
Thus,
that
an empirical curve, y=f(z), has such characteristic
=
constant, for constant
q,
,
,
,
(26)
A*)
0.6
2,0
0,5}
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0,4
0.4
0.8
1.6
2.0
FIG. 74.
Exponential Function.
j/
tho curve
is
an exponential function; y=as nx and the following
}
equation
may
be written:
(27)
Hereby the exponential function can easily be recognized, and distinguished from the parabolic curve; in the former a
constant term, in the latter a constant factor of x causes
a
change of y by a constant factor.
As
result
hereof,
the
is,
exponential
curve
with
negative
far
exponent vanishes, that
becomes negligibly small, with
greater rapidity than the hyperbolic curve,
and the exponential
228
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
with positive exponent reaches practically
curve
1
function
infinite
values far more rapidly than the parabolic
illustrated
in
.
This
is
Fig.
75,
in
which are shown superimposed
x
,
the exponential
9 4
curve,
c
y=~
i
and
with,
the
hyperbolic
curve,
2/=
at
TTFT? w ^k
1
nc ides
the
exponential
curve
(JJ+1.55J"
3=0 and at x1.
Taking the logarithm
of equation (21) gives log
j^ log a +
plotting
T&log
log
Sj
that
is,
logy
is
a linear function of
line.
x,
and
y against x gives a straight
This
is
characteristic of
0:8
\\
0:4
0.4
0,8
12
1,6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3,2
3.6
4.0
FIG 75
Hyperbolic and Exponential Curved Comparison,
the exponential functions, and a convenient
nizing them.
method
of recog
However, both
of these characteristics
apply onlv
if
x and y
contain no constant terms.
With a
single exponential function,
term of x
thus:
only the constant term of y needs consideration, as the constant may be eliminated. Equation (22) may be written
~4ff M
,
(28)
where
A~ar
c
is
a constant.
An
exponential function which contains a constant term b
line
would not give a straight
when
plotting log
y against
x,
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
but would give a curve.
229
In this case then log (y~V) would be
6, and by interpolation makes the logarithmic curve a
plotted against x for various values of
that value of b found which
straight line,
151.
is
easily
While the exponential function, when appearing singly, recognized, this becomes more difficult with com
FIG. 76.
Exponential Functions, of different coefficients
binations of
in th(^
two exponential functions
exponent, thus,
.....
since for the various values of a*, a 2j
ci, c 2; (luitc
(29) of
a
number
various forms of the function appear.
As such a combination
quently
are plotted in Fign. 70 to 78,
of
two exponential functions
fre
appears in engineering,
some
of the characteristic forms
230
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
FIG. 77.
Exponential Functions.
Fig. 76 gives the following combinations of e~ x
and
(1)
y= e * + Q.5 e *x.
y=e*40.2fi2*;
(2)
(3)
2/=e^;
(4)
ye~*0.2e 2 *;
y aBe _0.5ey^e^^OSfi2
(5)
*;
2
(6)
*;
(7)
y= *~
**.
(8)
y=e^1.5s3'.
EMPIRICAL CURVES,
231
FIG. 78.
Hyperbolic Functions.
of e~ x Fig. 77 gives the following combination
(1)
and e~ Wx
;
yea+O.Sr
10
*;
(2)
Jr;
?/
(3)
 ^0,lr 10a:
e
;
(4)
i,/
*0.5e1
10
*;
(5)
yr^s
^;
10
*.
(6)
ye*1.5r
Fig,
78 gives the hyperbolic functions as combinations of
+a"and
r*thus,
2/=sinh
ajK 6 "*"
1
6
232
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
C. Evaluation of Empirical Curves,
152. In attempting to solve the problem of finding a mathematical equation, y ss f(x) for a series of observations or tests, the corresponding values of x and y are first tabulated and
)
plotted as a curve.
From
the nature of the physical problem, which
is
repre
sented by the numerical values, there are derived as many data as possible concerning the nature of the curve and of the
function which represents
it,
especially at the zero values
and
the
values at infinity.
Frequently hereby the existence or
is
absence of constant terms in the equation
indicated.
The
Xj y,
log x
,r,
and
log y are tabulated
log
log y,
and seen,
and curves plotted between whether some of these curves is a
straight line
and thereby
indicates the exponential function, or
the parabolic or hyperbolic function.
If crosssection
paper
is
available, having both coordinates
divided in logarithmic scale, and also crosssection paper having
one coordinate divided in logarithmic, the other
in
common
x and log y can be saved and x scale, the tabulation of log
and y
directly plotted
on these two forms of logarithmic cross
section paper.
If neither of the four curves:
x, y]
x, log y;
log
x, y]
log x
}
log?/
is
a straight
line,
and from the physical condition the
is
absence of a constant term
assured, the function
is
neither
an exponential nor a parabolic or hyperbolic. If a constant term is probable or possible, curves are plotted between .r,
yb,
logz, log
(yb)
for various values of &,
and
if
hereby
one of the
curves
is
straightens
out,
then,
by
interpolation,
that value of b
found, which
makes one
of the curves
a straight
the curve law. line, and thereby gives if a constant term is suspected in the
In the same manner, x, the value (xc) is
c.
used and curves plotted for various values of
Frequently the
is
existence and the character of a constant term
indicated
by
the shape of the curve; for instance,
if
one of the curves plotted
x log y approaches straightness for x, y log high, or for low values of the abscissas, but curves at the
between
}
}
other end, a constant term
less
may
considerably be suspected, which becomes
appreciable at one end of the range.
For instance, the
x.
effect of the constant c in
(xc) decreases with increase of
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
Sometimes one
of the curves
233
may
This
be a straight line at one
end, but curve at the other
of
end
may indicate the
of
presence
a term, which vanishes for a part
the observations.
In
this case only the observations of the range
which gives a
between the
straight line are used for deriving the curve law, the curve
calculated
therefrom,
and then the
difference
calculated curve
and
the observations further investigated.
indicate
Such a deviation of the curve from a straight Ibe may also a change of the curve law, by the appearance of
exist only for that part' of the curve
secondary phenomena, as magnetic saturation, and in this case,
an equation
may
where the
secondary phenomena are not yet appreciable.
If
neither the exponential functions nor the parabolic and
hyperbolic
curves
satisfactorily
represent
calculating
the
observations,
further trials
II
may
be
made by
and tabulating 
T W
x, y,
and
and plotting curves between x
j
2
,
and (a) 2 +%c) 2
,
etc.,
Also expressions y x may be studied.
, .
Theoretical reasoning baaed on the nature of the
phenomenon
represented
by the numerical data frequently
is
gives an indi
cation of the form of the equation, which
to be expected,
and
inversely, after a
a trial
may
mathematical equation has been derived bo made to relate the equation to known laws and
thereby reduce it to a rational equation. In general, the resolution of empirical data into a mathematical expression largely depends on
trial,
ment based on the shape
can thus be given.
of the curve
the curve shapes of various functions,
directed by judgand on a knowledge of and only general rules
A
number
of
examples
may
illustrate
the general methods of
reduction of empirical data into mathematical functions.
153.
Example
1.
In a 118volt tungsten filament incan
descent lamp, corresponding values of the terminal voltage e " and the current i are observed, that is, the socalled volt" is taken, and therefrom an ampere characteristic equation for
the voltampere characteristic
is
to be found,
the
79.
e
The corresponding values of 6 and i are tabulated in first two columns of Table III and plotted as curve I in Fig.
In the third and fourth column of Table III are given log
234
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
In Fig, 79 then are plotted e, log^; as curve II: curve III; log <?, log i as curve IV.
}
and
log
logi.
e,
i,'as
As seen from
Fig. 79, curve
i
IV
e;
is
a
straight line, that
i
is,
log
=A+n
log
or,
= ae
n
,
which
is
a parabolic curve
(W
0.6
0.8
0.3
10
""
1,8
1,*
1.6
1.8
2:0
8.2
2.4=Zo00
"100
120
ItjO
lE"
9L5
ft!4
<f.3
9.2
9.1
0.45
S.&
0.40
E.S
0.35
8.7
X
i
0.30
is
8,5
0.25
OJO
8.4
W
FIG. 79.
0.15
8
0.10
8.2
0.05
8.L
Investigation of Yoltampere Characteristic of Tungsten
Lamp
Filament,
The constants a and n may now be
as discussed in Chapter IV, paragraph 120.
gives the
calculated from the
numerical data of Table III by the method of least squares,
While
this
method
most accurate
results, it is so laborious as to
be seldom
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
used
in
}
235
engineering;
generally,
values
of
the constants a
and n
sufficiently accurate for
most practical purposes, are
derived by the following method:
TABLE
III.
VOLTAMPERE CHARACTERISTIC OF 118VOLT TUNGSTEN LAMP,
+06 log
loge
log
i
8
211
e
2
0.0245
037
301
0.003
3.568
754
5 572
4
8
0602
0903
0
004
0568
8753
+0001
16 25
00855
1125
1295
1
204
8
932
I 933
9 9
o.ooi
1398
1
9051
.112
050
+ 0001
505
114
0 +0
002
50
01715
1
699
.234
004
64
100
0200
2605
L806
2000
9.801
9416
5 295
+0006
9411
+ +
005
125
2965 3295
2
097
9
472
518
9469
5 518
003
150
180
2176
2 255
08635
9561
9564
0
0
003
200
218
3865 407
2301 2388
9587
'5 610
5
592
005
614
0004
^7=
7612
3040
6.465
avg.
Q.003 =07 per ceat
S'7 14978
A*
7 361
4.425
4425 _
0.6011^06
214
22 585
g505
13 551
06X22 585
^
= 8,50513.551 = 4
3 211
fl
954
495414log i 8 211 + 06
log
and
i=0.01625f os
The fourteen
sets
of
observations are divided
e
into
two
They Then subtracting the two groups 27 from each other, eliminates A, and dividing the two differences 4, gives the
exponent, w =0.6011; this
to assume that n=0.6, and
is
and the sums of log groups of seven each, 7 in Table III arc* indicated as
and
log i formed,
so near to 0,6 that
it is
reasonable
this value
then
is
used.
236
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Now
S14
the
sum
;
of all the values of log e
is
formed, given as
in Table II
and multiplied with
ft
=0.6, and the product
i,
subtracted from the
sum
of all the
log
The
difference
J
then equals 144, and, divided by 14, gives
hence, a 0.01625,
and the voltampere
characteristic of this
tungsten lamp thus follows the equation,
i
log
8.211 +0.6 log
e;
From
resistance
e
and
i
can be derived the power input p=eij and the
r~:
T
0.01625'
and, eliminating
e
from these two expressions, gives
that
is,
the power input varies with the fourth power of the
resistance.
Assuming the resistance r as proportional to the bbsolute temperature T, and considering that the power input into the
lamp
is
radiated from
it,
that
is,
is
the power of radiation
the equation between
the equation between p and
r also is
P Pr
r}
and T, thus,
that
is,
the radiation
is
proportional to the fourth power of the
absolute temperature.
This
is
the law of black
body
radiation,
and above equation
law, that 154.
of the voltampere characteristic of the
tungsten lamp thus appears as a conclusion from the radiation
is,
as a rational equation.
Example 2. In a magnetite arc, at constant arc length, the voltage consumed by the arc, e, is observed for different
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
values of current
i.
237
To
find the equation of the voltampere
characteristic of the magnetite arc;
TABLE
IV.
VOLTAMPERE CHARACTERISTIC OF MAGNETITE ARC.
log
i
log
e
log
(c
40)
(eSO) log (e 30)
9
699
2
204
120
80 54
2079 1903
1
130
90
2
1 1
114
158
120 4
0000
0301
2079
954
806
2 +
4
1973
732
64
0602
903
1875 1792 1748
35
22 16
1
544
45
32
26
1.653
1 1
fO
562
2
1342
1
505
1079
204
415
+
2
V 30 000...
5
874
3=2.584
4
.
4 573
= 2 584...
1
301
1301
0 5034~~0 "
5
2 584
^62584
2584X05
10447
1
292
J=
11
11 739
1
739^6=
956
log
(30)l. 9580. Slog
e30 =90.4i' s
and
t
90 4
e
The
first
four columns of Table
i,
IV
i}
give
i,
e,
log
i,
log
e,
e.
Fig. 80 gives the curves:
III; log
i,
e,
as I;
loge, as II;
logi,
as
log e } as IV.
is
Neither of these curves
a straight
line.
Curve IV
e.
is
for high values of relatively the straightest, especially
This
the existence of a constant term. The existence points toward " counter of a constant term in the arc voltage, the socalled " In Table IV thus is e.m.f. of the arc physically probable.
are given the values (640)
and
log (e40),
curve V.
This shows the opposite curvature of IV.
is less
and plotted as Thus the
constant term
than
40.
Estimating by interpolation, and
log (e 30), the latter,
calculating in Table
IV (30) and
plotted against log
i
gives the straight line
VL The
curve law
thus
is
238
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
with logi Proceeding in Table IV in the same manner as was done in Table III with log e and logi,
and log (e30)
gives
n= 0.5; 4 log a= 1.956;
and
a = 90.4;
\
2.1
2:0
160
15C
140
J
IV
WO
100
90
S8
VI
logi
Q..4
T
_L
FIG. 80.
"
I
10
Investigation of Voltampere Characteristic of Magnetite Arc,
hence
log
030) 1.9560,5
log
i;
EMPIRICAL CURVES,
which
is
the equation of the magnetite arc voltampere charac
teristic.
155.
change
ance,
The change of current resulting from a an electric circuit containing resistinductance, and capacity is recorded by oscillograph and
Example
3.
of the conditions of
gives the curve reproduced as I in Fig, 81.
From
this curve
FIG, 81
.
Investigation of Curve of Current Change in Electric Circuit.
are taken the numerical values tabulated us
t
and
i
in the
first
two columns
given log
of Table V.
In the third and fourth columns are
in the usual
t
and
logi,
and curves then plotted
manner.
is
Of these curves only the one between II in Fig. 81, since it gives a straight as shown,
t.
and logi
the
line for
higher values of
For the higher values
or,
of
t,
therefore,
logi=A6i;
that
is, it is
i=as' nt
'
}
an exponential function.
240
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
TABLE V. TRANSIENT CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS.
log*
2 10
322
9
4 94
2 84
1
461
285
2 09
01248!
i
000
0.
5 SOI
0394 0425
412
0301
292 32 0.121
"
194
1.32 061
250
~0 +0
+
01 02
3
98
1
4258
5 602
321
9799
02
82
00 9 903
09
954
013
1
96
004
1.2136
1.60.90
20058
079
9
134
954
763
1.36
89
03
1
33
001
0.01
088
58
0 0
03
0:
301
9
058
250
20
398
5 531 301
34
20
034
20
477
=48
23 = 9 851
22=01
0753
9 920
_!.,
3
LHi=
3
950
22=0
6
22
=55
j
<
=
5
0
833
832
9416
05Xlog e =0 217
J~l
1
15
J0
534
15
Xlog =0499;
3
j
n=l
07
24 =
7
653
=10
10
25=56
3Xlog
07Xlog=0 0304X3.84=l
^=
304
167
4473XM07 =4784
^ = 3 467
1820
18204=0,455
logza^o 4553 84*log
3.467^5=0
log ii=0
693
6931
To
calculate the constants a
is
and
n, the
range of values
is,
is
used ; in which the curve II
to i=3.
straight;
that
from
^1.2
two
one
As these
are five observations, they are grouped in
pairs, the first 3,
and the
last 2,
and then
for
t
and log
i,
third of the
last
sum
of the first 3,
and onehalf
of the
sum
of the
2 are taken,
Subtracting, this gives,
^=1.15;
4 log i= 0.534.
Since, however, the equation,
i=ae~ nt when
,
logarithmated,
gives
thus
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
it is
241
necessary to multiply At by log
n.
*= 0.4343
This gives
before dividing
it
into log i to derive the value of
w= 1.07.
}
log
Taking now the sum of all the five values of t multiplying by and subtracting from the sum of all the five values of e,
log?;,
5A= 3,467;
hence,
A=log<z=0.693,
and
log
ii
=0.693 l.OTMoge;
of
The current i\ is calculated and given in the sixth column Table V, and the difference i'=A=iii in the seventh
column.
As
seen,
from
=1,2 upward,
for
i\
agrees
i
with
f
the'
observations.
Below
=1.2, however, a difference
remains,
and becomes considerable
apparently
values of
is
t.
low values of L
This difference
due to a second term, which vanishes for higher Thus, the same method is now applied to the
logi',
term
if]
column 8 gives
t.
and
1
in curve III of Fig. 81
is
is
plotted logi' against
line,
This curve
seen to be a straight'
of
t,
that
is,
1/ is
f
an exponential function
in the
Resolving
points of
i
same manner, by using the
first
four
the curve, from tf=0 to 2=0,4, gives
log i 2 =0.4553.84* logs;
fe2.8
and, therefore,
is
the equation representing the current change.
The numerical values are
calculated from this equation
and given under ie in Table V, the amount of their difference from the observed values are given in the last column of this
table.
A
last
still
greater approximation
may
be secured by adding
the calculated values of i% to the observed values of i in the
five
observations,
ii t
and from the
result derive
a second
approximation of mation of ^2.
and by means
of this a second approxi
242
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
156.
As
further example
may
be considered the resolution motor, which had been
of the core loss curve of
an
electric
expressed irrationally by a potential series in paragraph 144
and Table
I.
TABLE VI.
CORE LOSS CURVE.
The
of the
first two columns of Table VI give the observed values voltage e and the core loss Pi in kilowatts. The next
two columns give log
that loge, log?<
is
e
and log P*
Plotting the curves shows
approximately a straight line, as seen in Fig. 82, with the exception of the two highest points of the
curve,
Excluding therefore the last two points, the
vations give
first five
obser
a parabolic
with
curve.
The exponent
w
1,598; that
is,
of this
curve
is
found by Table VI as
sufficient
approximation, as fl=1.6.
To
given
see
how
far the observations agree with the curve, as
by the
equation,
in the fifth
column
1,6 log e
is
A = log a = log Pi 1.6 loge. two values of A differ from
recorded,
As
the
seen, the first
rest.
and in the sixth column, and the last
The
first
value corre
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
spends to such a low value of
the
observation.
243
P
t
as to lower the accuracy of
Averaging then the four middle values,
gives .4=7.282; hence,
log
P
Pi=1.914e
1,6
1.7 1,8
7.282 +1.6 log e, L6 in watts.

1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
FIG, 82.
Investigation of Cuvres.
This equation
is
calculated, as
of
P
c,
and plotted
in Fig. 82.
The observed values
the agreement
is
Pi are marked by circles. As seen, satisfactory, with the exception of the two
This loss probably
an additional loss appears, highest values, at which apparently
which does not exist at lower voltages,
is
due to eddy currents caused by the increasing magnetic stray field resulting from magnetic saturation.
244
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
157.
As a
final
example
may
be considered the resolution
magnetic characteristic, plotted as curve I in Fig, 83, and given in the first two columns of Table VII as 3C and ($>.
of the
TABLE VIL
MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTIC.
Plotting
3C, (B,
log
3C,
log
(B
against each other leads to
no
results, neither
does the introduction of a constant term do
this.
Thus
in the fifth
/D
rtn
and sixth columns
of
Table VII are
calculated
and
,
and are plotted against
rm
3C
and against
(B.
Of these four curves, only the curve
in Pig. 83, as II,
of
against 3C
is
shown
This curve
is,
is
a straight line with the exception
of the lowest values; that
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
245
Excluding the three lowest values of the observations, as not lying on the straight line, from the remaining eight values, as calculated in Table relation VII, the be
following
may
derived,
r =0.211 +0.0507 ft,
ftQ
30
FIG. 83.
Investigation of Magnetization Curve.
and herefrom,
_
0.211+0.0507
S
is
the equation of the magnetic characteristic for values of 3C
from eight upward.
The values
in
calculated from this equation are given as
&c
Table VII,
246
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Iff
The
difference
between the observed values
of, UJ
and the
value given
3C6, could
is appreciable up to by above equation, which now be further investigated, and would be found
to approximately follow
an exponential law.
D. Periodic Curves.
158. All periodic functions
nometric
series,
or Fourier
can be expressed by a trigoseries, as has been discussed in
and the methods of resolution and arrangements devised to carry out the work rapidly have also been disChapter
III,
cussed in Chapter III.
The
resolution of a periodic function thus consists in the
of
determination
the
higher
harmonics,
which are super
imposed on the fundamental wave. As periodic curves are of the greatest importance
trical
in elec
engineering, in the theory of alternatingcurrent phe
nomena, a familiarity with the wave shapes produced by the
different harmonics
sufficient to enable
is
desirable.
This familiarity should be
one to judge immediately from the shape
etc.,
of the
wave, as given by oscillograph,
which harmonics
are present.
The
effect of (or
the lower harmonics, such as the third, the second, fourth,
"
etc.,
fifth,
where present), is to change the shape of the wave, make it differ from sine
seventh, etc.
shape, and in the
Theory and Calculation
Chapter
of
Alternating
current Phenomena," 4th. Ed.,
XXX,
a
number
of
characteristic distortions, such as the flat top,
tooth, double
and triple peaked, sharp zero, been discussed with regard to the harmonics that enter into
peaked wave, saw flat zero, etc., have
their composition.
159. High harmonics do not change the shape of the wave much, but superimpose ripples on it, and by counting the of ripples per half wave, or per wave, the order of the Harmonic can rapidly be determined. For instance, the wave shown in Fig. 84 contains mainly the eleventh as
number
harmonic,
there are eleven ripples per
wave
(Fig. 84).
Very frequently high appear in pairs of nearly the same frequency and intensity, as an eleventh and a thir
harmonics
EMPIRICAL CURVES.
teenth harmonic, etc,
247
In this case, the ripples in the wave
shape show maxima, where the two harmonics coincide, and nodes, where the two harmonics are in opposition, The
presence of nodes makes the counting of the
per complete
number
of ripples
wave more
is,
difficult.
A
convenient method of
procedure in this case
to measure the distance or space
FIG. 84.
Wave
in
which Eleventh Harmonic Predominates.
between the maxima
of
one or a few ripples
in the .range
where
per
they are pronounced, and count the number of nodes
cycle.
For instance, in the wave, Fig. 85, the space of two ripples is about 60 deg,, and two nodes exist per complete
wave.
60 deg. for two ripples, gives 2
X=
360
ou
12 ripples per
FIG. 85.
Wave
in
which Eleventh and Thirteenth Harmonics Predominate.
complete wave, as the average frequency of the two existing
harmonics, and since these harmonics differ by 2 (since there are two nodes), their order is the eleventh and the thirteenth
harmonics.
This method of determining two similar harmonics, with a
little
practice,
becomes very convenient and
useful,
and may
248
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
frequently be used visually also, in determining the frequency In the phenomenon of hunting of synchronous machines, etc.
hunting, frequently two periods are superimposed, forced frequency, resulting from the speed of generator, etc., and the natural frequency of the machine. Counting the number of
of
impulses,
/,
per minute, and the
;
number
of nodes, n, gives
the
two frequencies :/+ and/
2i
and as one
of these frequencies
2i
is
the impressed engine frequency, this affords a check.
Not infrequently waveshape distortions are met, which are not due to higher harmonics of the fundamental wave, In this case there are but are incommensurable therewith.
two
two
entirely unrelated frequencies. This, for instance, occurs in the secondary circuit of the singlephase induction motor;
sets of currents, of the
(where
slip).
frequencies / and (2ffs ) exist the primary frequency and / the frequency of Of this nature, frequently, is the distortion produced by
/
is
arcing grounds, etc., in electric circuits; of the natural frequency of the circuit with the impressed frequency. Telephonic currents commonly show such multiple frequencies, which are not harmonics of
surges,
it
oscillations,
is
a combination
each other.
CHAPTER
VII.
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
160. Engineering work leads to more or less extensive numerical calculations, when applying the general theoretical investigation to the specific cases which are under consideration.
(a)
(6)
(c)
Of importance in such engineering calculations are;
(d)
The method of calculation. The degree of exactness required The intelligibility of the results, The reliability of the calculation.
Method
in the calculation.
a.
of Calculation.
carefully to scrutinize
Before beginning a more extensive calculation, it is desirable and to investigate the method, to find
system
the simplest way, since frequently by a suitable method and of calculation the work can be reduced to a small fraction of
what
it
would otherwise
be,
and what appear to be
complex calculations may thus be carried out quickly and expeditiously by a proper arrangement of the work. The most convenient way usually is the arrangement
hopelessly
in tabular form.
As example, consider the problem of calculating the regulation of a 60,000volt transmission line, of r=60 ohms resist= ance, x 135 ohms inductive reactance, and fe 0.0012 condensive susceptance, for various values of noninductive, inductive,
and condensive
load.
Starting with the complete equations of the longdistance transmission line, as given in "Theory and Calculation of
Transient Electric
;
Phenomena and
and
lead,
Oscillations," Section III,
paragraph 9 and considering that for every one of the various
powerfactors, lag,
a sufficient
number
of
values
249
250
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
have to be calculated to give a curve, the amount of work
appears hopelessly large. However, without loss of engineering exactness, the equation of the transmission line can be simplified
tion, as discussed in
by approxima
Chapter V, paragraph 123, to the form,
ZY_
(1)
ZY
1+
where EQ,
/o are voltage
and current, respectively
at the step
down
end, Ei, l\ at the ^tepup end of the line; and
JJ=rj;c=60
135f
is
the total line impedance;
line
Y=g jb= 0.0012/ is the total shunted
Herefrom follow the numerical values
:
admittance.
,
(60135/)(0.0012j)
it
l0.036/0.08l=0.9190.036j;
ZY
1+
10,012^0.027=0.9730.012?;
1
7Y] +_ =(60135f)(0.9730.012/)
=
S8.40.72j 131.1J
 1.62 = 56.8
131.8?;
l+^U(0.0012j)(0,9730.012j) (ZY] =
0.001168/0.0000144* (0.0144 1.168j)10the following equations
2
hence,
substituting in
(1),
may
be
written:
Ii
 (0.9190.036j)/  (0.0144 +1.
4+5;
>10*~
1
CD.
(2)
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS,
161.
251
Now
the
work
of
calculating a series of numerical
values
is
continued in tabular form, as follows:
1.
100 PER CENT POWERFACTOR.
line
J?o=60 kv at stepdown end of
A = (0 9190
036;')#
=55 12
2;
kv
252
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
2.
90
PER CENT POWERFACTOR, LAG.
cos
0=09;
sin0=Vl0.9 2 =0.436;
j
sin 0)
=
i
(0
9+0.436j);
Si
= (0.919 0.03Gj> + (56.8 131.8/K0.9 +0.436j>o = (0.919 0.036j>o + (108.5  93.8/H = 4 +
'
:
/i '
= (0.9190.036j)(0.9 +0.436j)io (0.0144 +
= (0.843 +0.366j>  (0.0144 +1.168j>
U
/
10 3 =C
D,
as
and now the table
is
calculated in the same
tables
are
manner
in
under
1.
Then corresponding
manner,
calculated,
the
same
lag,
for powerfactor,
=0.8 and =0.7, respectively,
is,
and
for powerfactor 0.9, 0.8, 0,7, lead; that
for
cos
0+]
sin
0=0.8 +0.6]';
0.7+0.714]';
0.90.436]';
0.80.6]';
0.70.714].
Then curves
are plotted for all seven values of powerfactor,
lead.
from 0.7 lag to 0.7
From
these curves, for a
60, 80, 100,
number
of values of i
ii,
,
for instance,
Q,
to =20, 40,
numerical values of
curves,
e^ cos
aro
taken, and plotted
ei
as
which,
i\
}
for the
= 60
at the stepup end, give
IQ,
eo,
and
cos
same voltage 6, for the same
value
that
is,
give the regulation of the line at constant
current output for varying powerfactor.
b.
Accuracy of Calculation.
calculations
require
162.
Not
all
engineering
the
same
degree of accuracy.
alternator
it
When
calculating the efficiency of a large
it is
may
be of importance to deteimine whether
is,
97.7 or 97.8 per cent, that
an accuracy within onetenth
for
per cent
may
be required;
in other cases, as
instance,
when estimating
electric circuit
the voltage which
may
be produced in an
by a
line disturbance, it
may
be sufficient to
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
253
determine whether this voltage would be limited to double
the normal circuit voltage, or whether
it
might be 5 or 10
times the normal voltage. In general, according to the degree of accuracy, engineering calculations may be roughly divided into three classes:
(a)
Estimation of the magnitude
of
an
effect;
that
is,
determining approximate numerical values within 25, 50, or 100 per cent. Very frequently such very rough approximation is sufficient, and is all that can be expected or calculated.
1001.00
0.60
OJfl
7
20
40
0,20
100
I
1%)
FIG. 86
Transmission Line Characteristics.
For instance, when investigating the shortcircuit current
electric generating system, it is of
of
an
importance to know whether
it
this current is
3 or 4 times normal current, or whether
it is
is
40 to 50 times normal current, but
it
immaterial whether
is
45 to 46 or 50 times normal.
In studying lightning
electric
phenomena, and, in general, abnormal voltages in
the discharge capacity of lightning arressystems, calculating the magnitude of the quantity is often sufficient. In ters, etc.,
254
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
of turbine alternators, or the calculating the critical speed machines the of natural period of oscillation synchronous that these to see of it is since only
;
same
importance remote from the normal operating speed speeds are sufficiently
applies,
to give no trouble in opeiation.
(6)
an accuracy Approximate calculation, requiring
of
one
or a few per cent only;
lations fall in this class, especially
a large part of engineering calcucalculations in the realm of
a higher accuracy could be no value, reached in the calculation proper, it would be of are susbased are calculations the which on data the since
design.
Although,
frequently,
ceptible to variations
beyond
control,
due to variation
in
the
material,
b the mechanical dimensions, etc.
current of induction motors Thus, for instance, the exciting to variations of the length due several per cent, may vary by of air gap, so small as to be beyond the limits of constructive exact to a fraction of one per cent, accuracy, and a calculation while theoretically possible, thus would be practically useless,
The
field
calculation of the ampereturns required for the shunt
excitation,
or
for
the
series
field
of
a
directcurrent
as variations in the generator needs only moderate exactness, in the speed regulation of the driving magnetic material,
power,
cent.
(c)
etc.,
produce, differences
amounting to several per
for
Exact engineering calculations,
as,
instance,
the
calculations of the efficiency of apparatus, the regulation of
transformers, the characteristic curves
etc.
of
induction motors,
These are determined with an accuracy frequently amounteven greater. ing to onetenth of one per cent and Even for most exact engineering calculations, the accuracy
is
of the slide rule
is,
usually sufficient,
if
intelligently used, that
used so as to get the greatest accuracy.
Thus, in dividing,
for instance,
297 by 283 by the
283,
slide rule, the proper
way
is 1.
to divide
297283=14 by
and to add the
result to
This gives a greater accuracy than direct division. For accurate calculations, preferably the glass slide should not be used,
but the result interpolated by the eye.
163.
While the calculations are unsatisfactory,
is
if
not carried
desirable,
out with the degree of exactness which
it is
feasible
and
equally wrong to give numerical values with a
number
of
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
ciphers greater than the
tion warrants.
255
method
if
or the purpose of the calcula
For instance,
in the design of a directcurrent
;
generator, the calculated field ampereturns are given as 9738 such a numerical value destroys the confidence in the work of
the calculator or designer, as
it
implies
an accuracy greater
than
and thereby shows a lack of judgment. The number of ciphers in which the result of calculation
possible.,
is
given
should signify
the
exactness,
In
'this
respect
two
systems arc in use:
(a)
Numerical values are given with one more decimal
than warranted by the probable error of the result; that is, the decimal before the last is correct, but the last decimal may
be wrong by several units.
in
This method
is
usually employed
astronomy, physics,
(6)
etc.
Numerical values are given with as many decimals as
that
is,
the accuracy of the calculation warrants;
the last
probably correct within half a unit. For instance, an efficiency of 86 per cent means an efficiency between 85.5
decimal
is
and 86.5 per cent; an efficiency of 97,3 per cent means an This system efficiency between 97.25 and 97.35 per cent, etc.
is
generally used in engineering calculations,
To
get accuracy
of the last decimal of the result, the calculations
then must
be carried out for one more decimal than given in the result.
various percentages of losses, data like the following
For instance, when calculating the efficiency by adding the may be
:
given
Core loss
i*r
2.73 per cent
1.06
.
Friction
0.93
"
Total
Efficiency
172
1004.7295.38
95.4
"
"
Approximately
It
is
obvious that throughout the
of
same calculation the
same degree
It
accuracy must be observed. follows herefrom that the values:
2J;
2.5;
2.50;
2.500,
256
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
while mathematically equal, are not equal in their meaning as
an engineering
2.5
result
:
means between 2.45 means between 2.495
and 2.55;
2.50
and 2.505;
2.500 means between 2.4995 and 2.5005;
while 2^ gives no clue to the accuracy of the value. Thus it is not permissible to add zeros, or drop zeros at
the end of numerical values, nor
to replace fractions as 1/16
is it
permissible, for instance,
by
0,0625, without changing the
meaning
This
is
of
the
numerical value,
as
regards
its
accuracy.
not always realized, and especially in the reduction of
fractions to
common
in
decimals an
unjustified laxness exists
which impairs the
reliability of the results.
For instance,
if
an arc lamp the arc length,
is
for
which the mechanism
statement
is
is
adjusted,
stated to
be 0,8125 inch, such a
ridiculous, as
as great
no arc lamp mechanism can control
for onetenth
an accuracy as implied
an
in this numerical value:
the
value
is
unjustified translation from 13/16 inch.
The
principle thus should be adhered to, that all calcula
tions are carried out for one decimal
more than the exactness
required or feasible, and in the result the last decimal dropped;
that
is,
the result given so that the last decimal
is
probably
correct within half a unit.
c.
Intelligibility of
Engineering Data.
164,
In engineering calculations the value of the results
mainly depends on the information derived from them, that is, on their intelligibility. To make the numerical results and
meaning as whenever a series
their
intelligible as possible, it thus
is
desirable,
of values are calculated, to carefully arrange
them
in tables
and
plot
them
in a curve or in curves.
The
most engineers the plotted curvo gives a much better conception of the shape and the variation
latter is necessary, since for
of
a quantity than numerical tables. Even where only a single point
is
required, as the cpre
electric generator at
loss at full load, or the excitation of
an
rated voltage,
it
is
generally preferable to calculate a few
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
257
points near the desired value, so as to get at least a short piece of curve including the desired point.
thus
a
The main advantage, and foremost purpose of curve plotting is to show the shape of the function, and
thereby give
VbltS
clearer conception of
it
;
but for recording numerical
values, and deriving numerical values from it, the plotted
curve
is
inferior to the table,
400
due to the limited accuracy
possible in
a plotted curve,
and
the further
inaccuracy
600
resulting
when
drawing
a
300
curve through the plotted calculated
points.
To
some
100
extent, the numerical values
taken from a plotted curve, depend on the particular
as
04
FIG. 87,
06
08
10
kind of curve rule used in
plotting the curve.
Compounding Curve.
on the purpose the method of
In general, curves arc used for two different purposes, and for which the curve is plotted, should depend
plotting, as the scale, the zero values, etc,
When
Vblts
550
curves are used to
illustrate the
shape of the
function, so as to
show how
much and
530
in
what manner a
quantity varies as function
of another, large divisions of
inconspicuous
crosssectionit
is
ing are desirable, but
essential
that
the
cross
sectioning should extend to
ifO
the zero values of the function,
even
do
if
the numerical
02
FIG. 88.
04
06
08
10
values
not
extend
so
Compounding Curve.
far, since
otherwise a wrong
impression
ferred.
would
be
con
As
illustrations are
plotted in
Figs. 87 and 88, the
compounding curve
of a directcurrent generator.
The arrange
258
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
is
merit in Fig. 87
of voltage
correct
;
it
shows the
relative
variation
as
function of
the load.
which the Fig. 88 ; in
crosssectioning does not begin at
the scale zero, confers the
FIG. 89
Curve Plotted to show Characteristic Shape.
FIG. 90.
Curve Plotted for Use as Design Data
wrong impression that the variation
than
it
of voltage
is
far greater
really
is.
When
derive
curves
are
used
to
record
numerical values and
is
them from the
curve, as, for instance,
commonly the
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
case with magnetization curves,
of the function coincide
it is
259
unnecessary to have the zero
of the crosssectioning,
with the zero
but
rather preferable not to have
it so, if
thereby a better scale of
the curve can be secured.
ciently
It is
desirable, however, to use suffi
small
crosssectioning
to
make
it
possible to take
numerical values from the curve with good accuracy. This is illustrated by Figs. 89 and 90. Both show the magnetic characteristic of soft steel, for
the range above (B=8000, in which
it is
usually employed.
for
Fig. 89
shows the proper way
of
plotting
showing the shape of the function, Fig. 90 the proper way of plotting for use of the curve to derive numerical values therefrom.
\
\
\
S
in
FIG. 91.
Same Function
Plotted to Different Scales;
I is
correct.
165. Curves should be plotted in such a
manner
as to
show
the quantity which they represent, and
possible.
1.
its
variation, as well as
Two
features are desirable herefor:
To
use such a scale that the average slope of the curve,
or at least of the
more important part
of
it,
does not differ
much from 45 deg. Hereby variations of curvature are best x shown. To illustrate this, the exponential function y=c~ is
plotted in three different scales, as curves
I, II, III,
in Fig. 91.
'
Curve
2.
I has the proper scale.
not
To use such a scale, that the much different from the total
plotting the
total range of ordinates
is
range of abscissas.
Thus
in
when
powerfactor of an induction motor,
Fig, 92, curve I is preferable to curves II or III.
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
These two requirements frequently are at variance with each other, and then a compromise has to be made between
them, that
is,
such a scale chosen that the total ranges
of
the
two
coordinates do not differ much, and at the
is
same time
cleg.
the average slope of the curve
not far from 45
This
area covered usually leads to a somewhat rectangular in curve for as Fig. 91. I, instance, by shown, curve,
by the
In
read,
curve plotting, a scale should be used which
is
easily
Hence, only
full
scalc ;
double scale, and half scald
should be used.
are practically Triple scale and onethird scale
unreadable, and should therefore never be iml.
Quadruple
FIG. 92.
Same Function
Plotted to Different Scales; I
is
Correct,
scale
sirable,
is
and quarter scale are difficult to read and therefore undeand are generally unnecessary, since quadruple scale
not
much
different
from half scale with a ten times smaller
unit,
and quarter
scale not
much
different
from double scale
of a ten times larger unit.
166.
Any
engineering calculation on which
is
it
is
worth
suffi
while to devote any time,
worth being recorded with
cient completeness to be generally intelligible.
Very often in
making calculations the data on which the calculation is based, the subject and the purpose of the calculation are given incompletely or not at all, since they are familiar to the calculator at
the time of calculation,
The calculation thus would be unin
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
tclligiblo to
261
any other
engineer,
and usually becomes
all
unintelli
gible
even to the calculator in a few weeks,
calculations should
In addition to the name and the date,
be accompanied by a complete record of the object and purpose of the calculation, the apparatus, the assumptions made, the
etc., in short,
data used, reference to other calculations or data employed, they should include all the information required
to
make
the calculation intelligible to another engineer without
further information besides that contained in the calculations,
or in the references given therein.
The small amount
of
time
and work required to do
this
is
negligible
compared with the
in
increased utility of the calculation.
Tables and curves belonging to the calculation should
the same
sufficient
way
be completely identified with
intelligible.
it
and contain
data to be
d.
Reliability of
Numerical Calculations.
167.
The most important and
essential
requirement
of
numerical engineering calculations is their absolute reliability. When making a calculation, the most brilliant ability, theoretical
made
knowledge and practical experience of an engineer are useless, and even worse than useless, by a single error in
calculation.
is
an important
Reliability of the numerical calculation
of vastly greater
importance in engineering than in any other field. In pure mathematics an error in the numerical calculation of an
example which illustrates a general proposition, does not detract from the interest and value of the latter, which is the main
purpose;
in physics, the general law
which
is
the subject of
the' investigation
remains true, and the investigation of interest
in the numerical illustration of the
and
error
use,
is
even
if
law an
made.
if
With
the most brilliant engineering design,
however,
in the numerical calculation of a single structural
member an
forces, or
error has been made,
and
its
flies
strength thereby calcuto pieces
lated wrong, the rotor of the
machine
by centrifugal
the bridge collapses, and with
it
the reputation of the
engineer.
The
essential
difference
is
between engineering and
purely scientific caclulations
the rapid check on the correctis
ness of the calculation, which
usually afforded
by the per
262
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
but too
late to correct
formance of the calculated structure
errors.
Thus rapidity of calculation, while by value whatever compared with reliability
ness.
itself useful, is of
no
that
is,
correct
One
of the
first
and most important requirements
is
to secure
reliability is
neatness and care in the execution of the calcula
tion.
If
the calculation
made on any kind
of a sheet of
with frequent striking out and correctpaper, with lead pencil, correct it is practically hopeless to expect ing of figures, etc., more extensive calculations. Thus the work results from
any
should be done with pen and ink, on white ruled paper; if be made by changes have to be made, they should preferably
erasing,
and not by striking
is
out.
In general, the appearance of
its reliability.
the
work
one of the best indications of
in tabular form,
The
arrangement
where a
series of values are calcu
in lated, offers considerable assistance
168. Essential in all extensive
calculations
improving the reliability. is a complete
system of checking the results, to insure correctness. One way is to have the same calculation made independently
by two different calculators, and then compare the results. Another way is to have a few points of the calculation checked
by somebody
else.
Neither
way
is
satisfactory, as
it
is
not
always possible for an engineer to have the assistance of another engineer to check his work, and besides this, an engineer should
and must be able to make numerical calculations
absolutely rely
assisting him.
so that he can
else
on
their correctness
without somebody
In any more important calculations every operation thus should be performed twice, preferably in a different manner.
Thus, when multiplying or dividing by the slide rule, the multiplication or division should be repeated mentally, approximately, as check;
when adding a column
of figures, it should be
added
downward, then as check upward, etc. Where an exact calculation is required, first the magnitude
first
of the quantity should be estimated, if not already known, then an approximate calculation made, which can frequently be done mentally, and then the exact calculation; or, inversely,
after the exact calculation, the result
may
be checked
by an
approximate mental calculation.
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS,
Where a
first
2(53
series of values is to be calculated, it is advisable
to calculate a few individual points,
and then,
entirely
,
independently, calculate in tabular form the series of values
and then use the previously calculated values as check.
should independently be calculated as check.
Or,
inversely, after calculating the series of values a few points
When a
secure
series of values is calculated, it is usually easier to
reliability
than when calculating a single value, since
Therevalues,
in the former case the different values check each other.
fore it is
always advisable to calculate a number of
that
is,
a short curve branch, even
required.
if only a single point is After calculating a series of values, they are plotted
as a curve to see whether they give a smooth curve.
entire curve
is
If
the
irregular, the calculation should be
thrown away,
and the entire work done anew, and if this happens repeatedly with the same calculator, the calculator is advised to find
another position more in agreement with his mental capacity.
If
a single point of the curve appears irregular, this points to
error in its calculation,
if
an
and the calculation
of the point is
is
checked;
the error
is
not found, this point
it
calculated
entirely separately, since
error
error.
is
much more
it is
difficult
to find an
which has been made than
to avoid maldng an
169.
1.
Some
of the
most frequent numerical
is,
errors are:
a misplaced decimal point. This should not be possible in the final result, since the magnierror, that
The decimal
tude
of the latter
should by judgment or approximate calcula
tion be
sufficiently to exclude a mistake by a factor 10. However, under a square root or higher root, in the exponent of a decreasing exponential function, etc., a decimal error may
known
occur without affecting the result so
noticed.
much
as to be immediately
The same
is
is
the case
if
the decimal error occurs in a
term which
relatively small
and thereby does not
affect the result
compared with the other terms, very much. For instance,
motor
characteristics, the
s,
in the calculation of the induction
quantity
rp
+s2 xi2
it
appears, and for small values of the slip
2
is
the second term s%i
small compared with rf, so that a
affect the total value sufficiently to
decimal error in
would
make
2.
it
seriously wrong, but not sufficiently to be obvious.
2.
Omission of the factor or divisor
264
3,
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Error in the sign, that
sign,
is,
the
minus
and
inversely.
using the plus sign instead of Here again, the danger is
especially great,
if the quantity on which the wrong sign is used combines with a larger quantity, and so does not affect
the result sufficiently to become obvious. 4. Omitting entire terms of smaller magnitude, etc.
APPENDIX
A.
NOTES ON THE THEORY OF FUNCTIONS.
A. General Functions.
170.
The most general
algebraic expression of powers of
x and
y,
Or=0,
is
....
m
(1)
the implicit analytic function. It relates y and x so that to every value of x there correspond n values of y, and to every values of x, if value of y there correspond is the exponent of the highest power of a; in (1).
m
Assuming expression
be carried out in
(1)
solved for y (which usually cannot
final form, as it requires the solution of
an
equation of the nth order in y, with coefficients which are expressions of x) } the explicit analytic function,
is
obtained.
Inversely, solving the implicit function
(1)
for
x,
that
.is,
from the explicit function
y,
function of
expressing x as gives the reverse function of (2); that is
(2),
xfity)
........
that
'
(3)
In the general algebraic function, in its implicit form (1), or the explicit form (2), or the reverse function (3), x and y
are assumed as general numbers;
tities;
is,
as
complex quan
thus,
(4)
and likewise are the
coefficients a
o,
oi
o,
nm
.
265
266
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
If all
the coefficients a are real, and x
is
real,
the corre
sponding
n
values of y are either real, or pairs of conjugate
:
complex imaginary quantities y\ +jy% and 2/1^2. 171. For n=l, the implicit function (1), solved
the rational function,
for y, gives
,
^
and
if
in this function (5) the
.
denominator contains no x the
}
integer function,
is
obtained.
For n=2, the implicit function
(1)
can be solved for y as a
quadratic equation, and thereby gives
^
y
~
2(0,0+^ + 0^'
the explicit form
(2) of
,;(7)
that
is,
equation
(1)
contains in this
case a square root.
For n>2, the
complicated, for
finite
explicit
n=3 and
form y~f(x) either becomes very ft=4 ; or cannot be produced in
form, as
it
requires the solution of
an equation of more
is still
than the fourth order.
x,
Nevertheless, y
a function of
etc.
and can
as such be calculated
by approximation,
(1)
To
find the value yi,
which by function
offers a
(1)
corresponds to
x=xij Taylor's theorem
stituting xi in function
rapid approximation.
Subis
is
an expression which the nth order in y, thus: Ffaiy), and the problem now find a value yi, which makes
gives
of
to
However,
where
h=yiy
is
the difference between the correct value
y.
and any chosen value
APPENDIX A
f
267
Neglecting the higher orders of the small quantity
(8),
A,
in
and considering that F(xi,yi) =0,
gives
dy
and herefrom
is
obtained
yi=y+h,
as
first
approximation.
Using this value of y\ as y in (9) gives a second approximation, which usually is sufficiently close.
172.
New
functions
(1)
analytic functions
They
are called
in the
by the integrals of the and by their reverse functions. Abelian integrals and Abelian functions,
arc
defined
or
(2),
Thus
most general
(1)
case
(1),
the explicit function
corresponding to
being
(2)
the integral,
then
is
the general Abeliau integral, and
its
reverse function,
the general Abelian function. function (a) In the case, n=l,
(5),
(2) gives
the rational function
(6).
and
its
special case, the integer function
(6)
Function
can be integrated by powers of
x.
(5)
can be
resolved into partial fractions,
of the following forms
:
and thereby leads to
integrals
(1)
(10)
dx
(4)
268
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Integrals (10),
rational functions, (1), and (3) integrated give the logarithmic function log (a? a), and (10), (4)
i.
(10), (2) gives
the arc function arc tan
functions are logarithmic functions with complex of the rational imaginary argument, this case of the integral function thus leads to the logarithmic function, or the loga
As the arc
rithmic integral, which in
its
simplest form
is
2=
and gives as
I
fix =
*
:,
"(in
J
its
reverse function the exponentid function,
xf
It
is
(12)
expressed by the infinite series,
$ ^
as seen in Chapter II, paragraph 53.
173.
6.
In the case, n==2, function
(2)
appears as the expres
sion (7),
first
which contains a square root of some power of x. Its and as such has already been part is a rational function,
a.
discussed hi
There remains thus the integral function,
dr.
...
..
14)
This expression (14) leads to a
(1)
series of
important functions.
For 39= lor
2,
dx
(15)
By
substitution,
resolution
functions,
into
this
partial
fractions,
(11)
and
be
separation of rational
integral
can
reduced to the standard form,
In the case of the minus sign, this gives
dx
==arcsmx
;
(17)
APPENDIX
and as reverse functions
nowetnc functions.
A.
2o9
thereof, there are obtained the trigo
(18)
In the case of the plus dx
==
sign, integral (16) gives
log
{
Vl+i2  x = arc
}
sinh x
t
,
(19)
and reverse functions thereof are the
1
_
1
(20)
+
2
=
cosh
?.
The trigonometric functions
are expressed
by the
series
;
. ,
.
.
.
(21)
06
as seen in Chapter II, paragraph 58.
The hyperbolic
functions,
by substituting
for
s
+r
and
r*
the series (13), can be expressed by the series:
sinh
z=*+
+++.
.
. . .
(22)
174. In the next case,
p=3
or
4,
/Vfro+frioH
"J
x,
*
.
.
(23)
CQ+CI,
already leads beyond the elementary functions, that
is,
(23)
cannot be integrated by rational, logarithmic or arc functions,
270
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
new
class of functions, the elliptic integrals,
but gives a
and
their reverse functions, the elliptic functions, so called, because
they bear to the
ellipse
a relation similar to that, which the
trigonometric functions bear to the circle
functions to the equilateral hyperbola.
and the hyperbolic
The
integral (23) can be resolved into elementary functions,
classes of elliptic integrals
:
and the three
dx
xdx
. . .
.
(24)
dx
(These three classes of integrals
different forms.)
may
be expressed in several
The
reverse functions of the elliptic integrals are given
by
the elliptic functions:
c=sin am(u,c}'
}
(25)
cPx=dam(u,
c);
known, respectively, as sineamplitude, cosineamplitude, deltaamplitude.
Elliptic
functions are in
is
nometric functions, as
some respects similar to trigoseen, but they are more general,
}
depending, as they do, not only on the variable x but also on
the constant
c.
doubly periodic.
They have the interesting property of being The trigonometric functions are periodic, with
is,
the periodicity 2n, that
repeat the same values after every
change of the angle by
periods pi
2?r.
The
elliptic functions
have two
and p2 that
,
is,
sin
am(u+npi +mp 2)
c)
=sin am(u,
c), etc.;
.
(26)
hence,
increasing the variable
u by any multiple
of either
period pi and
p^
repeats the same values.
APPENDIX
A,
271
The two periods are given by the equations,
PI
CJo 2
(27)
I
= 73 2
Ji
2Vi(l
175* Elliptic functions can be expressed as ratios of two
infinite series,
and these
series,
which form the numerator and
the denominator of the elliptic function, are called thda functions
and expressed by the symbol
fi
6,
thus
i
sn
^te
m
Jpi/
cos am(u,
c)
.
.
(28)
KU
@
%\2pi/
and the four
(x)
functions
may
be expressed
9
by the
series;
=1 2$ cos 2^+2^ cos 4x 2# sn
cos
fe+
.
.
. ;

s
n
~
,
(29)
\vhere
.
and
a=j7r
Pi
.
(30)
In the case of integral function
integrals
(14),
where p>4,
similar^
and
their reverse functions
appear, more complex
272
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
number of periodicielliptic functions, and of a greater They are called hyperelliptic integrals and hyperelliptic means of auxilfunctions, and the latter are again expressed by
than the
ties.
iary functions, the hyperelliptic 6 functions.
176.
Many problems
and
of physics
and
of engineering lead to
elliptic functions,
these functions thus are of considerable
For instance, the motion of the pendulum is expressed by elliptic functions of time, and its period thereby is a function of the amplitude, increasing with increasing ampliimportance.
tude; that
is,
in the socalled
"second pendulum/' the time
of
one swing
is
not constant and equal to one second, but only
approximately so. This approximation is very close, as long as the amplitude of the swing is very small and constant, but
if
the amplitude of the swing of the pendulum
varies
and
reaches large values, the time of the swing, or the period ot
the pendulum, can no longer be assumed as constant and an
exact calculation of the motion of the pendulum by
functions becomes necessary.
elliptic
In electrical engineering, one has frequently to deal with
oscillations
in
similar
to
those
of the
pendulum,
for
instance,
the
hunting or
surging
of
synchronous
is
machines.
In
general, the frequency of oscillation
assumed
as constant,
but where, as in cumulative hunting of synchronous machines,
the amplitude of the swing reaches largo values, an appreciable change of the period must be expected, and where the hunting
is
a resonance effect with somo other periodic motion, as the
engine rotation, the
change cf frequency with increase
of
amplitude of the oscillation breaks the complete resonance
there by tends to limit the amplitude of the swing.
177.
and
As example
of the application of elliptic integrals,
may
be considered the determination of the length of the arc of an
ellipse.
Let the
ellipse of
equation
x2
f=
^2^p
be represented in Fig.
93,
lj
.......
circle,
(31)
with the circumscribed
(32)
APPENDIX
To every point P=x, y
point
A.
of the ellipse
then corresponds a
x,
PI=X,
j/i
on the
circle,
which has the same abscissa
and an angle 0=AOP\.
The
integral,
arc of the ellipse, from
A
to P, then
is
given by the
=a
where
r
I
(l
=,
....
(33)
J 2^(1
^F^,
is
.
.
.
(34)
the eccentricity of the
1
ellipse
.
Rectification of Ellipse.
Thus the problem leads
and
of the
to
an
elliptic integral of
the
first
second
class.
the
of
For more complete discussion of the elliptic integrals and elliptic functions, rcierence must be made to the textbooks
mathematics.
B. Special Functions.
178.
Numerous
special functions have been derived
by the
but
exigencies of
iu the latter of
mathematical problems, mainly
of astronomy,
decades also of physics and of engineering.
Some
them have already been discussed as special general Abelian integral and its reverse function,
nential, trigonometric, hyperbolic, etc., functions.
cases of the
as the expo
274
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Functions
that
is,
as
a
may sum
be represented by an
of
infinite series of
terms;
an
infinite
is,
number
of terms,
which proof
gressively decrease, that
approach
zero.
The denotation
the terms
commonly Thus the exponential
is
S. represented by the summation sign
functions
may
be
written,
when
defining,
0~1;
as
n
T
(35)
vj
which means, that terms
from
are to be added for all values of
n
n=Qto n=cc.
The trigonometric and hyperbolic functions may be written
in the form:
*
'
'
ww
I
v>2
12.
H
<v6
o
2n+l
3*
/p4
.
.
.
1+ 5+^+... 2^;
(38)
Functions also
that
is,
may
be expressed by a series of factors;
as a product of
an
infinite series of factors,
which pro
gressively approach unity.
The product
.
scries
is
commonly
represented
by the symbol
Thus, for instance, the sine function can be expressed in the
form,
2
2
**
2
( 40)
functions.
I79 Integration of known functions frequently leads to new Thus from the general algebraic functions were
APPENDIX
derived the Abelian functions.
A.
275
In physics and in engineering,
integration of special functions in this
manner frequently
leads
to
new
special functions.
of the
For instance, in the study of the propagation through space, magnetic field of a conductor, in wireless telegraphy,
lightning protection, etc.,
is
we
get
new
functions.
If
i=f(t)
t,
the current in the conductor, as function of the time
at a
distance x from the conductor the magnetic field lags by the
time
h=, where S
JO
is
the speed of propagation (velocity of
light).
Since the field intensity decreases inversely proporit
tional to the distance x }
thus
is
proportional to
and the
total magnetic flux then is /
ydx
fIf
(42)
the current
is
an alternating
current, that
(42)
is,
f(t)
a
trigonometric function of time, equation
functions,
"sin
leads to the
x
.
IX]
*f(43)
X
i /COS
If
.
dx.
the current
is
a direct current, rising as exponential
function of the time, equation (42) leads to the function,
/V<fc
0=
I
.
J
*
(44)'
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
Substituting in (43) and
infinite series
(44),
for sinz,
cos 2,
e* their
(21)
and
(13),
and then
integrating, gives
the
following
:
sin
x
"33"
x2
x*
,
(45)
For further discussion
of these functions see
"Theory and
Oscillations,"
Calculation of Transient Electric
Phenomena and
Section IE, Chapter VIII.
i8tf.
If 2/=/(:r) is
a function of x } and
z=
\
f
is
(x)dx**<j>(x)
its
integral; the definite integral,
Z=
I
Pf(x)dx,
no longer
Ja
a function of x but a constant,
For instance,
if
yc(xn}
2
}
then
and the
definite integral
is
Z=
r,
\
P c(xn) dx
2
:
l
Ja
*3
This definite integral does not contain
all
x,
but
is
it
contains
the constants of the
f unction
f(x), thus
a function of
these constants c and n, as
constants.
it
varies with a variation of these
In this manner new functions
integrals.
may
be derived by definite
Thus,
if
y/(x,tt,i>...)
is
(46)
a function of
x,
containing the constants w, v
.
,
,
APPENDIX
The
definite integral,
A.
277
tt,
...)&,
.....
.
, .
(47)
is
not a function of
be a
x,
but
still is
a function of u, v
,
and
may
new
function.
let
1
;
181.
For instance,
S^e'a*then the integral,
.......
(48)
(49)
is
a
new
Some
function of u, called the
properties of this function
gamma function, may be derived by
partial
integration, thus:
.........
if
(50)
n
is
an integer number,
r(u)
= (ul)(u2)...(un)r(un\
,
,
(51)
and
since
f(l)=l,
if
............
..........
(52)
u
is
an integer number, then,
r(w)
=
ul.
(53)
C.
Exponential, Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions.
(a)
FUNCTIONS OF REAL VABIABLES.
182.
The exponential, trigonometric, and hyperbolic func
tions are' defined as the reverse functions of the integrals,
and;
x=*eu
..........
^arcsina;;
(55)
5.
u
C
I
dx
Jvlz2
r
.......
(56)
278
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
x=sinw,
and:
..........
(57)
c.
vlfx2
x=
u
frt\\
,

sinhw;
.
.
,
(GO)
coshu
.....
(61)
From
(57)
and
(58)
it
follows that
sin
2
u+cos 2 u=l
.......
(62)
From
(60)
and
(61)
it
follows that
cos
2
tesin
2
^=1 ......
(w)
(63)
Substituting (#) for z in (56), gives
instead of u,
and therefrom,
......
Substituting (~w) for
(64)
u
in
(60),
reverses the sign of
x,
that
is,
,
k
.
(65)
Substituting (x) for 2 in (58) and (61), does not change
the value of the square root, that
cos
is,
~tt=c
(u)~ cosh u,
,
cosh
,
.
.
.
(67)
Which
sin
signifies
that cos
u and
cosh u are even functions, while
u and
sinh u are odd functions.
(60)
Adding and subtracting
and
(61), gives
(68)
APPENDIX
A.
279
(&)
FUNCTIONS or IMAGINARY VARIABLES.
in, (56)
183. Substituting,
and
(59),
x= jy,
thus y=jx, gives
/T+?'
__
dy
,
?
henc e .ju
7 =cosw
Resubstituting x in both
2
.
.
.
(70)
sinhfu
]
"
^r^
\
*
v^x
2
=cosw=coshftt
vT+;r2 =eoshw=
g,
f
4
f
j
=cos)'w.
(72)
Adding and subtracting,
eH=eos
and
uj
sin
w^cosh fusiuh JM
. .
= cosh ttsinhtt cos jwT} sin fw,
(73)
(c)
FUNCTIONS OF COMPLEX VARIABLES
184. It is;
'=eu (cosflfsinfl);
.
.
*
(74)
280
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,
sin
(up) =sin u cos jv
cos
u
sin jv
(75)
=sinMcoshvjcosMsinhi>
=
sinwfycosw;
cos (u
ju)
= cos u cos p T sin it sin p
(76)
= cos u cosh wTf sin ?^sirih?; =
^
coswT?'
2~~
smU
:
'
sinh(wp)=
=
^
2"~
= sinh u
cosi;
?
^^
2
(77)
v;
cos v
j
cosh w sin
cosh(Mp)=
 5
=
.
cosvij
v
5
smv
(78)
= cosh w cos
etc.
j
sinh u sin u
;
RELATIONS.
185.
From the preceding
related to each
equations
it
thus follows that the
three
are
so
functions,
exponential;
other,
trigonometric,
that that
any one
and hyperbolic, of them can be
expressed by any other one,
so
when
allowing imaginary
and complex imaginary variables, one function is sufficient. As such, naturally, the exponential function would generally
be chosen,
it
Furthermore,
follows, that all functions
with imaginary
and complex imaginary variables can be reduced to functions of real variables by the use of only two of the three classes
,
of functions.
In this
case, the exponential
and the trigono
metric functions would usually be chosen.
Since functions with complex imaginary variables can be
resolved into functions with real variables, for their calculation
tables of the functions of real variables are sufficient.
The
relations,
by which any function can be expressed by
by
:
any
other, are calculated from the preceding paragraph,
the following equations
APPENDIX
cosh u
sinh
A.
281
u = (x
UJ ^ s" (cos
1
'
>
uj sin a),
S JM
sin
m
sinh
1
r1
.
~ 3n
'
=^
pi
; ?
2?
,
.
.
sin
;/t>
=?
.
sinn r = j
.
.
(6)
sin (u
;?;)
=sin u cosh
^
?>
/
cos
ti
sinh v
cos w;
sin
uj
^
;
^
cos
n = cosh
ju
cos
p = cosh v =
cos
v
cos (w
jv)
=
~
~
u cosh
v
v=F
j
sin
v
.
w sinh
v
,
f
T>
COS 'ZiT
2
sln
w
j
sinh
sinh
p
j sin
?i
r
;
(ujv) =sinh w cos
v
j
cosh ^ sin v
cos
sm
cosh
u
= cos in
;
cosh
cosh
p = cos v =

5
5
(ujv) =cosh w cos
vj sinh w sin v
sin
cos
282
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
(6)
And from
and
(d),
respectively
(c)
and
(e),
it
follows that
sinh (u 4p)
= / sin
(v ju) =
j
sin
(
and
Tables of the exponential functions and their logarithms, of the hyperbolic functions with real variables, are given
in the following
Appendix B,
APPENDIX
B.
TWO TABLES OF EXPONENTIAL AND HYPERBOLIC
FUNCTIONS.
TABLE
*
I.
284
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.
TABLE
II.
EXPONENTIAL AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
2 71S282~2
7183,
log
=0 43429450
4343
434 435
0.1
0.2
87
0.3 130 130
4 174 174
5217
6 261 261
7 304 304
8 347 348
9 391 391
1.0434435
1.001000494,
r' ool =0 99900049.
APPENDIX
TABLE
II
B.
285
Continued,
EXPONENTIAL AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
INDEX.
B
Abehan
integrals
and
functions, 276.
Absolute number, 4. value of fractional expression, 49.
of general number, 30. Accuracy of approximation estimated 200.
of
Base of logarithm, 21. Binomial series with small quantities,
193.
theorem, infinite series, 59. of trigonometric function, 104. Biquadratic parabola, 219.
transmission
20S.
line
equations,
Calculation, accuracy, 252. checking of, 262.
of calculation, 252. of curve equation, 210.
Addition, 1. of general number, 28. and subtraction of trigonometric
functions, 102. Algebra of general number or
numerical, 249. reliability, 261.
Capacity, 65.
of curve law, 211, 233. Characteristics of exponential curves,
Change
com
plex quantity, 25. Algebraic expression, 265.
function, 265.
227
of parabolic 223.
and hyperbolic
curves,
of con
Alternating current and voltage vector, 41.
Charging current
maximum
denser, 176.
functions, 117, 125. waves, 117, 125.
Checking calculations, 262.
Ciphers, number 255.
of,
in calculations,
Alternations, 117. Alternator short
circuit
current^
Circle
defining trigonometric
tions, 94.
func
approximated, 195.
Analytical
152.
calculation
of
extrema,
Coefficients,
unknown,
of
infinite
series, 60.
function, 265. Angle, see also Phase angle. Approximate calculation, 254.
Combination of exponential functions,
229.
of general numbers, 28 of vectors, 29.
Approximations giving (1+s) and
(1s), 201.
of infinite series, 53,
Comparison
of
exponential and hyperquantities,
bolic curves, 228.
methods
Area
of,
187.
series, 69, 79.
Complex imaginary
quantity, 17 algebra, 27.
see General
see
Arbitrary constants of
General number,
Arrangement
of triangle, 106. of numerical
tions, 249.
calcula
number.
287
INDEX.
Complementary angles in
metric functions, 99.
Differential equations of second order,
78.
trigono
Conjugate numbers, 31,
Constant, arbitrary of
errors, 186.
series, 60, 79.
Differentiation of trigonometric functions, 103.
Distorted electric waves, 108
factor with parabolic bolic curves, 223.
and hyper
Distortion of wave, 139.
Divergent
series, 56.
phenomena, 106. terms of curve equation, 211.
of empirical curves, 232.
in exponential curves, 228.
Division, 6
of general number, 42. with small quantities, 100.
Double angles
in trigonometric func
with exponential curves, 227.
in
tions, 103.
parabolic
curves, 225.
and
hyperbolic
peaked wave, 246.
270. periodicity of elliptic functions,
scale, 260.
Convergency determinations of series,
57.
of potential series, 215.
E
,21.
Efficiency
162.
of impulse turbine, 154. of induction generator, 177.
Convergent
Coreloss
series, 56.
by
potential series, 213.
maximum
of
alternator,
curve evaluation, 242.
Cosecant function, 98.
Cosh function, 276.
Cosineamplitude, 270.
function, 94.
of transformer, 155, 174.
Electrical
of
engineering,
differential
components
scries, 82.
wave, 121, 125.
equations, 65, 78, 80.
Ellipse, length of arc, 272.
versus function, 98.
Elliptic integrals
and functions, 270.
Cotangent function, 94.
Counting, 1. Current change curve evaluation, 239.
Empirical curves, 209,
evaluation,
232,.
equation of curve, 210,
Engineering,
deffcroiitial
input of induction motor, approxiimated, 191.
equations,
65, 78, 86.
maximum
mission
of
alternating
trans
Equilateral hyperbola, 217.
Errors, constant, 186.
circuit, 159.
of distorted voltage wave, 169.
numerical, 263.
of observation, 180.
Curves, checking calculations, 263.
empirical, 209.
Estimate of accuracy of approximation, 200.
law, change, 233.
rational equation, 210.
Evaluation of empirical curves, 232.
use
of,
257.
Even
functions, 81, 98, 276,
D
Data on calculations and curves, 261. derived from curve, 258.
Decimal
error, 263.
of, in
periodic, 122.
harmonics, 117,
separation, 120, 125, 134.
Evolution,
9.
of general
number, 44,
number
Definite
calculations, 255.
of series, 70.
integrals
of
trignometric
Exact
calculation, 254.
functions, 103.
Exciting
current
of
transformer,
Degrees of accuracy, 253.
Deltaamplitude, 270.
Differential equations, 64.
of electrical engineering, 65, 78,
resolution, 137.
Explicit analytic function, 205.
Exponent,
9.
Exponential Curves, 226. forms of general number, 50,
289
Exponential functions, 52, 268, 275 with small quantities, J96.
tables, 283, 284, 285.
scries, 71.
High harmonics
Hunting
of
in
wave
shape, 246.
synchronous machines,
248.
anil
trignometrie functions,
tion,
<S3,
rela
Hyperbola, arc of, 61. equilateral, 217
Extrapolation on curve, limitation,
210.
Hyperbolic curves, 216. functions, 275
curve shape, 231.
Tables, 2S4, 285.
integrals and functions, 269 Hyperelliptic integrals aud functions,
Extrcma, 147.
analytic determination, 152.
graphical construction of differential
function, 170
272
graphical determination, 147, 150,
IBS.
I
with intermediate variables, 155 with several variables, 163.
simplification ot function, 157
Imaginary number,
26.
quantity, see Quadrature number.
Incommensurable waves, 248
Indeterminate
71.
coefficients,
method,
infinite
Factor, constant, with parabolic and hyperbolic curves, 228.
Indeterminate coefficients of
series, 60.
Fan motor torque by
215.
potential aeries,
Individuals, 8.
Inductance, 65
Infinite scries, 52.
Flat top wave, 24G zero waves, 240
valuea of curves, 211.
Fourier
series,
sec
Trigonometric
of empirical curves, 232.
aericH.
Inflection points of curves, 153.
Fraction,
8.
Impedance
52.
vector, 41
as
Hi'rios,
Implicit analytic function, 265.
Fractional exponents, 11, 44. expressions of general number, 40. Full scale, 260.
Integral function, 266.
Integation constant of
scries, 69,
70
of differential equation, 65.
Functions, theory
of,
265.
by
infinite series, 60.
of trigonometric functions, 103,
Intelligibility of calculations, 256.
Gamma
function, 275.
1,
Intercepts, defining tangent
and co
General number,
algebra, 25.
16.
tangent functions, 94.
Involution,
of general
9.
exponential forms, 50.
reduction, 4$.
numbers, 44,
of
Irrational numbers, 11.
Irrationality
Graphical determination of cxtrema,
147, 150, 168.
representation 213. s,
by
Half angles in trigonometric functions, 103.
Half waves, 117. Half scale, 260.
Least squares, method
of,
179, 186.
Harmonics, even, 117.
odd, 117.
of trigonometric series, 114,
Limitation of mathematical representation, 40.
of
method
of least squares, 186.
two, in wave, 246.
of potential series, 216.
290
INDEX.
series, 54.
Limiting value of infinite Linear number, 33.
see Positive
Numerical calculations, 240
values of trigonometric functions,
101.
and negative number.
Line calculation, 249.
equations, approximated, 204.
of exponential curve, 228.
Logarithm
Observation, errors, ISO.
as infinite series, 63.
of parabolic
Odd
functions, 81, 98, 276.
periodic, 122.
and hyperbolic curves,
225.
harmonics in symmetrical wave,
117.
with small quantities, 197.
Logarithmation, 20.
of general numbers, 51. Logarithmic curves, 226. functions, 268
separation, 120, 125, 134
Omissions in calculations, 263. Operator, 40
Order of small quantity, 188.
Oscillating functions, 92.
paper, 232.
Loss of curve induction motor, 183.
Output, see power.
M
Magnetite arc, voltampere characteristic,
ff
and
~
added and subtracted
in
237.
trigonometric function, 100.
Parabola,
Magnetite characteristic, evaluation,
244.
of effect, determination,
common,
218.
Parabolic curves, 216
Magnitude
253.
Parallelogram law of general numbers
.28.
Maximum,
Maxima,
McLaurin's
see
Extremum.
with small quan
of vectors, 29.
147.
series
Peaked wave, 246.
Pendulum motion,
272.
tities, 198.
Mechanism
Methods
of calculating empirical
Percentage change of parabolic and
hyperbolic curves, 223.
Periodic curves, 246.
curves, 235,
of calculation, 249.
of indeterminate coefficients, 71.
of least squares, 179, 186.
decimal fraction, 12.
phenomena,
106.
Minima, 147.
Periodicity, double, of elliptic functions, 270.
Minimum,
see
Extremum.
Multiple frequencies of waves, 248
Multiplicand, 39.
Multiplication, 6. of general numbers, 39.
of trigonometric functions, 96,
Permeability
49.
maximum,
14S, 170.
Phase angle of fractional expression,
of general
with small quantities, 188.
of trigonometric functions, 102.
number,
28.
Plain number, 32. see General number.
Plotting of curves, 212.
Multiplier, 39.
N
Negative
angles
in
proper and improper, 259.
of empirical curve, 232.
trigonometric
Polar coordinates of general number,
25, 27.
functions, 98.
exponents, 11.
expression of general number, 25,
27, 38, 43, 44, 48.
number, 4. Nodes in wave
sharje, 247.
Nonperiodic curves, 212. Nozzle efficiency, maximum, 150.
Polyphase relation, reducing trigonometric series, 134.
Number,
general,
1.
system
of trigonometric functions, 104, of points or vectors, 46.
INDEX.
Positive number, 4.
291
Roots
of induction
of general
numbers, 45.
Potential series, 52, 212.
"with small quantities, 194.
Power
factor
maximum
of unit, 18, 19, 46.
motor, 149.
Rotation by negative unit, 14.
trans
maximum
of alternating mission circuit, 158
by'quadrature unit,
14.
of generator, 161.
of
shunted resistance, 155.
of storage battery, 172,
of transformer,
Sawtooth wave, 246.
Scalar, 26, 28, 30.
173
of transmission line, 165.
Scale in curve plotting, proper and
not vector product, 42. of shunt motor, approximated, 189.
with small quantities, 194.
Probability calculation, 181. Product series, 274.
of trigonometric functions, 102.
Projection, defining cosine function,
94.
improper, 259, 212.
full,
double, half, etc., 260.
Secant function, 98.
Secondary
effects, 210.
phenomena, 233.
Series, exponential, 71.
infinite, 52.
trigonometric, 106.
Projector, defining sine function, 94.
Shape of curves, 212.
proper in plotting, 259. of exponential curve, 226, 229.
of function,
by curve,
257.
Quadrants,
sign,
of
trigonometric
of hyperbolic functions, 231.
functions, 96.
of parabolic
13.
and hyperbolic
curves,
Quadrature numbers,
Quarter
scale, 260.
217.
Sharp zero wave, 246.
Short circuit current of alternator,
Quaternions, 22.
R
Radius vector
of general
approximated, 195. Sign error, 264.
of trigonometric functions, 95.
number,
28.
Range
of
convergency
of series, 56.
by approximation, 187. Sineamplitude, 270.
Simplification
Rational equation function, 266
of curve, 210.
component
series, 82.
of
wave, 121, 125.
function, 94.
Rationality of potential SGriea, 214.
Real number, 26.
Rectangular coordinates of general
versus function, 98.
Sinn function, 276.
Slide rule accuracy, 254.
number, 25. Reduction to absolute values, 48.
Relations
of
Small quantities, approximation, 187,
Squares, least,
hyperbolic,
trigono
method
of,
179, 186.
metric and exponential functions, 280.
Special functions, 273.
Steam path
Subtraction,
of general
of turbine, 33.
1.
Relativcness of small quantities, 188. Reliability of numerical calculations,
261.
number,
28.
of trigonometrie functions, 102.
Resistance, 65
Summation
series,
274.
Resolution of vectors, 29.
Surging of synchronous machines, 272.
Reversal by negative unit, 14. Reverse function, 265.
Supplementary angles
in
trigonomet
ric functions, 99.
Right triangle defining trigonometric
functions, 94.
Symmetrical curve maximum, 150.
periodic function, 117.
Ripples in wave, 45.
wave, 117.
INDEX.
Trigonometric
series, 106.
Tabular form of calculation, 249. Tangent function, 94. Taylor's series with small quantities,
199.
calculation, 114, 116, 139. Triple harmonic, separation, 136.
peaked wave, 246.
scale, 260.
Temperature wave, 131.
Tungsten filament, voltampere characteristic, 233.
Temporary use of potential series, 216.
Terminal conditions
232.
in exponential curve, 22S. with exponential curve, 227.
in.
of
problem, 69.
Turbine, steam path, 33.
Terms, constant, of empirical curves,
U
and
hyperbolic
parabolic curves, 225.
binomial,
IMvalent functions, 106. Unsymmetric curve maximum,
wave, 138.
151.
of infinite series, 53.
Theorem,
59
infinite
series,
Values
of
trigonometric
functions,
Thermomotive force wave, 133. Theta functions, 271.
Third harmonic, separation, 136.
101.
&
Vector analysis, 32.
multiplication, 39. quantity, 32.
see General
Torque
of
series,
fan motor 215.
by
potential
number,
Transient current curve, evaluation,
239.
representation
29.
by general number,
phenomena,
106.
Transmission line calculation, 249. equations, approximated, 204. Triangle, defining trigonometric functions, 94.
Velocity diagram of turbine steam path, 34. functions of electric field, 275. Versed sine and cosine functions, 98.
Voltampere characteristic of magnetite arc, 237.
trigonometric relations, 106. Trigonometric and exponential functions, relation, 83. functions, 94, 275. series, 82.
of tungsten filament, 233.
with small quantity, 198.
integrals
Zero values of curve, 211.
of empirical curves, 232.
and
functions, 269.
The Hunt Library
Carnegie Institute of Technology
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
138 139