The Roman Marble Sculptures from the North Hall of the East Baths at Gerasa Author(s): Elise A.

Friedland Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jul., 2003), pp. 413-448 Published by: Archaeological Institute of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40025394 . Accessed: 16/04/2013 03:59
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The

Roman

Marble Hall of the
East

Sculptures
Baths
at
ELISE A. FRIEDLAND

from

the

North

Gerasa

Abstract In 1984,Jordanian archaeologistsdiscovered five Roman marble sculptures in the North Hall of the East Bathsat ancient Gerasa(modernJerash,Jordan) . Traditionally,in the RomanNear East,marblesculptureshave been studied as objets d'art,while their role as cultural artifactshas often been overlooked. Nothing could be clearer evidence of "culturalchoice," however,than the importation and display of Roman marble sculptures, carved in non-native stone and sculpted in non-local Graeco-Roman artistic, style.Becausetheir architectural, and social contexts are largely preserved, these sculptures offer an ideal case study for cultural assimilation, urbanization, and the decoration of baths. They were displayed in the basilical hall of an imperial-stylebath, indicating that the Gerasenes adopted the Roman cultural institution of bathing and its architecture. Their sculpturalstyle, carvingtechnique, and isotopic data reveal originsin Thasosand AsiaMinor,demonstratingthe participationof Arabiain the imperialmarble trade. Sixteen statue bases (found with the sculptures) preserve information about the patrons, honorees, and subjects. The sculpturalinstallation suggests that the North Hall mayhave been constructedand decorated in the second half of the second centuryA.D. with a possible renovation in the early third century.By the third century,the

displayincluded mythological figures, portraitsof local elite, a governor of Arabia,and Caracalla,revealing the desires of the Gerasenes to participatein Roman political and social arenas. Thus, the sculptures of the East Baths demonstrate the prominent role of statuaryin urbanization and Romanizationof Arabiaand the ancient Near East* INTRODUCTION

In recent publications on baths and bathing in the Roman world,1scholars have called for further research to exploit "the potential for baths to contribute to our wider understanding of what it was to be Roman in different times and places within the heterogeneous world of the Roman empire."2 In the latest research on the architecture, design, construction, and context of Roman baths, however,the sculptural displays that once enlivened their major halls rarely have been given center stage.3Ironically,it is in the patrons, honorees, subject matter,style, technique, and material of the marble sculptures found in bath buildings throughout the empire that we can discover instances of "culturalchoice" most

*For permissionto studyand publishthese pieces, I would and GhaziBisheh,current like to thankFawwaz Al-Khraysheh of the Departmentof Antiquiand formerDirectors-General ties ofJordan,andAidaNaghawi,Directorof the excavations of the North Hall of the EastBaths,and formerInspectorof indebtedto Ms.Naghawi, I amparticularly atjerash. Antiquities who not onlyaffordedme the invaluable opportunityto pubbut who spent much lish this materialfrom her excavations, her field noteswithme. Forassistance timecarefully reviewing in the cataloguing, study,and photographingof these pieces, I thank Iman Oweiss,Curatorof the JerashArchaeological Chief Restorerof Jerash, Museum,Abdul MajeedAl-Mujali, formerInspectorof Antiquities Monther Al-Dahash, atjerash, at andmuseumsupervisors workmen andthemanyrestoration the Departmentof AntiquitiesOfficeandJerashArchaeologicalMuseum.PierreBikai,Directorof theAmericanCenterof OrientalResearchin Amman,generouslyand unfailinglyasI am indebtsistedwithall mattersof the fieldwork. Likewise, ed to the entire staffof ACOR,especiallyPatriciaBikai,Kurt M.SmithIIofferedinvaluAndrew andHumiAyoubi. Zamora, both at the beginning and end of this project. able assistance During the summersof 2000, 2001, and 2002, Sharon Herof MichMuseumat the University bert,Directorof the Kelsey igan, generouslyprovidedme with researchspacein the muandtimely seum.Chrysanthos artistry, expertise, Kanellopoulos's havegreatlyenriched my understandingof the arassistance 101 (2003) 413-48 American Journal of Archaeology 413

chitectureof the EastBaths.I profitedmuch from discussions Todd of thismaterialwithAndreaM.Berlin,ElaineK.Gazda, E. Gering,SharonC.Herbert, John G.Pedley,DavidS. Potter, AndrewM.SmithII,MelanieGrunowSobM.Barbara Reeves, I especially ocinski,andLaurenE.Talalay. thankjoanA.FriedM. Smith II, Andrew G. land, Elaine K. Gazda, Pedley, John for readC. Stewart MelanieGrunowSobocinski,and Marilyn like to thank R. Bruce I also article. would drafts of this ing Areaders whosecomments Hitchnerandthe twoanonymous A] and suggestionsgreatly mywork improvedthisarticle.Finally, FellowPost-Doctoral has been supportedby a USIA-CAORC two of Oriental Center the American from Research, ship fundsfrom andresearch Grants fromRollins Critchfield College, RollinsCollege.This articleis dedicatedtoJohn G. Pedley,a truementor and teacher. 1DeLaine 1997;DeLaineand Johnston1999;Fagan1999. 2DeLaine 1999, 10. 3The seminal datesto 1981, monographby Manderscheid landmarkarticlewaspublishedin 1983. In the and Marvin's set edited by DeLaineandJohnston most recent two-volume decorationof (1999), no one articlefocuseson the sculptural a specificbath building and its programmatic Yet, meaning. see DeLaine's call to "[treat]decorationas an integralpartof effect"of bathbuildings(DeLaine the intended architectural 1997, 226).

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414

ELISE A. FRIEDLAND

[AJA107

indicative of Romanization.4While many have declared that the role of bathing was so essential to Roman social life that the presence of a bath building in a provincial setting is "a clear indication of it is the statuaryinstalled in these Romanization,"5 bath buildings that animated them and "spoke"to dailyvisitors,peripatetic governmental officials, and visiting emperors. These statues not only relayed messages of health, bodily pleasure, physical fitness, and cultural and intellectual pursuits, they also proclaimed the cultural, social, and political aspirations of their patrons, and often (by association) of their cities. Careful analysis of these messages in the provinces can, therefore, contribute to the larger dialogue on cultural transmission and change in the Roman empire. In the Roman Near East,6the study of these bath statues is particularlyrevealing, because their messages are amplified by their material. There is no nativesource of marbleanywherein the Levant,nor a local tradition of carving marble. Here, all marble artifactshad to be imported from one of the marblerich provinces of the empire such as Asia Minor, Greece, or Italy, either as fully carved monuments, partiallycarvedworks,or uncarvedblocks.7Thus, the importation and display of marble statuary in the Roman Near East providesyet a further index of Romanization,since it must have been a concerted and costly venture for patrons. Traditionally,however, marblesculpturesfrom the Near Easthave been studied as objets d'art, and thus their role as culturalartifacts has often been overlooked.8 Yet, nothing could - and changes be more blatant evidence for identity

thereof under Roman rule- than the importation and display of Roman marble sculptures, carved in non-nativestone and non-local Graeco-Roman style.
The Sculpturesfrom the North Hall

Five life-sizeand larger Roman marble sculptures, discoveredbyJordanianarchaeologistsinJulyof 1984 during rescue excavationsin the North Hall of the East Baths at Gerasa, provide a perfect case study.9 The five sculptures, carved in Graeco-Romanstyle, represent a satyr wearing a nebris(fig. 1; cat. 1), a youthful nude male who may be identified as either Apollo or Dionysos (fig. 2; cat. 2), a figure wearinga floor-length chitonand standing atop a rocky outcrop who may be identified as either an Apollo or a Muse (fig. 3; cat. 3), and two togate men (figs. 4-5; cats. 4-5). 10Two of the three mythological pieces preserved may be associated with sculptural types created during the fourth century B.C. or the Hellenistic period. The satyrwearing the nebris may be a version of the "PouringSatyr" type, originallycreated by Praxiteles around 360 B.C. The nude male may be associated with the Apollo or Dionysos Lykeiostype, also thought to have been created during the middle of the fourth century B.C., perhaps by Praxiteles.The two togate figures must have represented portraits of private individuals, one of whom (fig. 5; cat. 5) was of the equestrianorder. Of the five sculptures discovered, three preserve features that allow them to be dated. One of the togate men (fig. 4; cat. 4) maybe dated by the styleand folds of his toga to the Hadrianic or earlyAntonine period, that is, to the middle of the second century
logue entriesof the sculpturesappearin the appendixto Thomas Weber'srecentlypublished Habilitationsschrift (2002), which I thankhim for sharingwithme, and I havepublished a briefdiscussionof the groupand longercatalogueentriesin 2001), the pieces have never been interpretedwithin their architectural, social,andurbancontexts.In additionto thefive and at leastnine unidentifiable life-sizeand largersculptures, smallfragmentswere recoveredfrom the North Hall, six of ArtemisStorehouseat whicharestilllocatablein the so-called the site.Thesesmallpiecesincludemultipledrapery fragments (Weber2002, pl. 128, G-H; pl. 129, E-I; those I could locate I numberedAS.13,AS.15,and NEB.6);a fragmentof a limb folds nownumberedAS.17) ;a basewithseveral (unpublished, nownumbered aleftfoot (unpublished, of drapery surrounding AS.12); and the corner of a thickbase, atop which standsan unevenlyshaped, four-sidedpillar (unpublished,now numbered NEB.7). Because all of these fragmentsare smalland it is none preserveanyidentifiableiconographyor attributes, them or associate matter to their subject identify impossible withanyof the fivelargerfinds.Thus, these fragmentsdo not types provideany additionalevidence concerningsculptural displayedin the North Hall. luFor formalcatalogueentries,see the appendix.
the Annual of theDepartment of AntiquitiesofJordan (Friedland

anexcellentmodelforviewing 4Smith (1998)provides sculpturalobjetsd'artas materialculture.AlthoughWoolf (2001, 180) does mention statuesof Gaulsin his discussionof the Galliccultural revolution,he givesno specificsregardingtheir material,displaycontext,or subjectmatter. 5Dodge 1990, 112. See alsoWoolf 2001, 180-1, andYegiil 1992, 30-43. 6Here I define the RomanNearEastas the Mediterranean areaeastandsouthof AsiaMinor(modernTurkey) , including theRomanprovinces of Syria, andEgypt. This Palestine, Arabia, areaalso maybe referredto as the Levant. 7For a thoroughstudyof the imperialmarbletradein Roman Palestine, see Fischer 1998. Little recent work on this topic has been done in the other regions of the Levant;however, see Mussche1961. 8 E.g., at the end of a recent article on Gerasa, David Kennedyoutlinesa seriesof questionsregardingthe cityand then enumeratesthe manygenres of unpublishedor unanalyzedmaterialthat might answerthese (1998, 66-9). The 58 marblesculpturesdiscoveredthroughoutGerasago unmentioned, however. 9Aida Naghawi,then Inspector of Jerash, directed these excavationson behalf of the Department of Antiquities of hallin whichthesculptures werefound Jordan.The rectangular is referredto here as the "NorthHall."Although short cata-

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1). The programonlymeasuresthe distancebetweenthe sample and the quarrycentroid.whichhavefocusedon marbleobjectsfound at singlesites in Israel. cat.).It should not be taken literally. the sculptor's signature on the front of the base of the Apollo or Muse (fig. based on the name of the sculptor and on comparison with the letter forms of other inscriptions from Gerasa that are internally dated. 1. Ephesos.4923). fig. 12 Formultiplediscussionsof the role of Thasianmarblein the imperialmarble trade. For example. and Sardis. the physicalcharacteristics were also taken into account. 13 In Palestinein particular.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURES FROM GERASA 415 A. however. table 7. Iznik.D. its centraldatapoint as plotted on a 813C/518O diagram.204. This surveylistsstudiesof marbleoriginsby other scholars.11 Four of the sculptures and three of the fragments are carved of marble from Cape Vathy on Thasos. 5. for AS. Each Denizli. earlyChristian Ionic capitalsin Syria(Herrmannand Sodini 1977. at 50° C and valuesreduced to 25° C The resultsof isotopic analysiswere run through a least squaresprogram that comparesthem to the classicalmarbleisotopic databaseand calculatesthe percent probability for each quarry as a source. 3) is dated to the second half of the second centuryA. OtherAnatolianquarries. cat. since this site "appears whitesculptural onlydolomiticmarblesourceof large-grained marbleused in the Mediterranean region"(Tykot1998). see Herrmann 1990. marbleto this region as well (Fischer1998. Finally.2). The comes suggestionthatthe marbleof the NorthHallsculptures with in both GreeceandAsiaMinorcorresponds fromquarries isotopicresearchfromthe region. 255-6. Marmara. 23June of the marble 2000). a quarryknown to have supplied marble to locations throughout the Mediterranean during the Roman period.12One other sculpture (the togatus.bottom. Pearl's lyhas been extended and republishedbyFischer(1998. 4. 3. can be Pentelikon. that is. and the North Theater at Gerasa(Dodge 1988. ill.All haveupheld Pearl'sconclusions.15.some quarry cent crystals sourcesmaybe ruled out and othersexpected. Fig.Pearlduringhis scientificstudyof imported discoveredin Israel(Pearl1989. Top. 14-28 white marbleartifacts workrecentfor methodologyand 68 for conclusions). 218).. front view.much of whichwas previous conducted by Z. Afyon. 11 were The authorcollected the samples. cat.table7. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The large grain size (indicatinga dolomitic stone) makes CapeVathya very to havebeen the likelyquarrysource. transluwith no foliation or color-banding. comm.Herrmannand Newman1995. The other togatus(fig. 4) and three more fragments are carved of marble whose isotopic data compare to various Anatolian quarries including Marmara.and the analyses conducted at the Centerfor ArchaeologicalSciences. 5) may compare with pieces dated to the earlyAntonine period (mid second century A.13 but other data especiallypetrographyshould also be used in makinga decision on origin"(N. comm. fromthe Thasianmarblehasbeen identifiedin fivesculptures site of CaesareaMaritima(Pearl 1989.thanks to NormanHerz of the University of Georgia. Stable isotopic analyses performed on samples from each of the five sculptures (and from six of the unidentifiable sculpted fragments also found in the room) associate the marble with one quarry in Greece and several quarries in Asia Minor (table I).In the RomanNearEast. Satyrwearinga nebris (cat. 23June 2000).2)..As the Classical MarbleDatabasecontinues to expand. Becausethe marbleof the majority of the North Hall sculptureshas large.who compared the datato his Classical MarbleDatabase:"Stable isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen were determined by a stable isoExtraction of CO2 wascarriedout tope gasmassspectrometer. left profile. of sculpturandAfyonareknownto havebeen majorsuppliers al marble (along with the Greekquarriesof Pentelikonand such as Ephesos.85 on Tue. white.shownas a statistical possibility ruled out since the marbledid not showanypronouncedfoliation (N. two sculpturesfound atTel Naharon(Pearl1989.D.Herz1988.shipped Thasos).D. 1992.pers.192. Therefore.. pers.futurefindings mayaltercurrentconclusions. This content downloaded from 62. 4). Herz. Herz. Aphrodisias/Denizli. 24762) .

extend beyond the date (AD 106) thought to represent the demise of the Decapolis as an indeEven the language pendent administrative unit.14 the legends. then. 278.see Gatier1993.15 A.85 on Tue. 15Seyrig 16 Jones 1937.front view. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 back view.416 ELISE A.M. 18 Forthe Greeknatureof Gerasa.. in some cases perhaps fully carved. From 63 B.right. . highly polished drapery and flesh.17 Though the city subsequentlywas Alexander Jannaeus in the early 70s captured by B.Its coins claim while that Alexander the Great founded Gerasa.C. until the annexation of Transjordan by the Romans in A. from both Greece and Asia Minor. and the marbles from many of these quarries have identical physical characteristics.C. The 14 For the Semiticoriginsof the name of Gerasa. 4. Bowsher shows that Gerasa and its sister Decapolitan cities all "shared constitutional (Greek) civic status and common civic and magisterial titles .18 Indeed. cat. no. Welles 1938. of the sampled pieces is associated with at least two different Turkish quarries. The togate man (fig.left profile.H. because they are not distinguishable from one another by these or other known scientific methods.36-9). [which] in most cases . based on a statue of this general of Alexander.C. and the presence of Nabataeancultsin the city (Kraeling 1938. then.C. 398.and its Greek constitution is believed to date to the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 B.192. 266.16During Seleucid reign of Transjordan. Thus. center. . and material evidence show that Gerasa was a Greek foundation. it is not possible to identify the specific quarryorigins of these sculptures.Gerasa was reinstituted as a free Greek city of the Decapolis in 64/63 B.D. 239. 17 Bowsher1992. Gerasa operated as a free Greek city.C. 137. This content downloaded from 62. 447. .a for Nabataeaninfluence at Gerasa inscription(Welles1938.no.see Millar 1993.Jones concludes that Perdiccaswas the original founder of the city. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and emphatic and plentiful drill-workin the drapery. 2).). 2.M. 1965. J. 19 Bowsher1992.204.For the Greek sculptural types of these statues as well as their Graeco-Romansubject matter and style were.Evidence comes mostlyfrom coins. The available evidence. inscriptions. . quite "athome" in Gerasa. 106. Fig. the isotopic data suggesting Greek and Anatolian origins can be supported by the carving technique of only one piece. Left. singlebilingualNabataean-Greek 1). Apollo or Dionysos Lykeios (cat. A Brief History of Gerasa Although the city's name is Semitic in origin."19 Greeknatureof the Decapoliscities. erected in the city during the third century A. Because most of the sculptures from the North Hall do not preserve enough detail to associate them with specific sculptural workshops. as is shown by the fact that the city counted its years from the Pompeiian era. therefore. and remained under Hasmonaean control until Pompey the Greatarrivedin the Levant. all features that identify this piece as a product of a sculptor trained in the workshops of Asia and Caria in Asia Minor.D.the city was renamed Antioch on the Chrysorhoas. 4) includes a neck strut.see Graf1992. suggests that the sculptures displayed in the North Hall were purchased and imported to Arabia.

Data from Isotopic Analyses of the Sculptures from the North Hall of the East Baths at Gerasa 417 Inv.l NEB. Sa 66 Af98.20 establishment of the province of Arabia.86 -4.13 -7. Apollo or Muse (cat.for the distance see Isaacand Roll 1982.00 -4.5 mm Fine grained lmm 1.30 -2.36 -7.44 3. Ef 47 Th/CV Th/CV Pe 68.46 3.Iz = Iznik.D. but well into In A. road.5 mm 1.52 -4.D. 21 Gerasais approximately47.3 NEB. 12 AS. This content downloaded from 62.5 mm 1 mm 1 mm 0.58 3.13 AS. including the construction of the Temple of Zeus. threeFig.346-7.D.68 3. with subsequent urban development in the second half of the first century A. quartersleft view.9.85 on Tue.with a new road connecting the town to this major north-south artery. 3) .49 3. which are almost exclusively Greek.36 3. and see Isaac 1982. and from Gerasa to Pella.57 2.bottom.7 AS. especially those from the Red Sea north along the Via Nova and from the Mediterranean inland along the Caesarea Maritima-Beth SheanPella axis. 106. Mardate of the extension of the Caesarea the pre-Hadrianic Roll 9." which witnessed the construction of a new temple to Artemis with a huge monumental gateway.79 -5.Mar= Marmara.21Such new exposure certainly brought prosperity to the city.5 mm Finegrained Finegrained Minerals Dol? Dol? Dol? Dol? Dol? Dol? 513C 3.2003] ROMAN MARBLE SCULPTURES FROM GERASA Table 1.6 NEB. Top. De 29 Th/CV Af 94. the South Theater. this one leading all the way to the Levantine port of CaesareaMaritima.5 NEB..All of these roads situated Gerasa at the nexus of a number of important trade routes. 3.. roads were built from Gerasa to Philadelphia. Ef57 Pe = Pentelikon. itima-Scythopolis front view.85 miles (77 km) from the coast. from Gerasato Dium and on to the Arabian capital of Bosra.D.38 -4. Iz 66. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .94 -2.5 mm 1. 129-130 initiated massive urban renovation. Numberslistedbesidequarry Thasos/CapeVathy. NEB. of the inscriptions from the site. Thereafter. Gerasa is said to have entered its "Golden Age.192.Th/CV = Quarrysources:Af = Afyon. and the Cardo.4 NEB.for from Caesareato Scythopolis.71 3. The imperial visit by Hadrian in the winter of A. not only in its Hellenistic phase. togatus Apollo/Muse? Satyr Dionysos/Apollo? Togatus Drapery fragment Base with square pillar Left foot on base Drapery fragment Drapery fragment Limb fragment Grain Size 1. Gerasa wasjust west of the new Via Nova Traiana.85 Possible Quarrya Th/CV Th/CV 73 Th/CV Th/CV Mar 43. 15 AS.37 -3. 10. the Oval Plaza. 17 a Subject Lower portion. Gerasa found itself at the center of a newly redefined region and became an important urban node out of which several roads emerged. during the Antonine period. with the the Roman reign of the area. sourcesare %probability.17 518O -4.see Isaacand Roll 1982. beginning with the Triumphal Arch dedicated to Hadrian and renovations to the South Gate.204.2 NEB.De = Denizli.Ef = Ephesos.46 1. The city's plan is thought to have been laid out sometime around the middle of the first century A.a widened cardowith renovated corin20 Isaac 1992. No.Forthe road.Sa = Sardis. furthermore. and the names of the local patrons testify to the largely Greek character of this city.93 1.

See also Sear 1996.85 on Tue. Whether Isaac's suggestion that Gerasa might have served as the main office for financial administration of Arabia is true or not. at least periodic. from the early second century A. and transformationsthereof. how Roman did it become? Indeed.D. Caracalla furthered this focus on the Near East with his famousjourney through the Eastfrom A. Togate man (cat. two Roman-style theaters. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 Fig. Not only did Severus reorganize the provinces of Syriaand Arabia. seeJohnston 1983 and Levick1969. which is to be expected.26 The question then becomes.Ostrasz1997.. 22Bowersockl983. if not constant. hippodrome. 26 Isaac 1992.D.see Kennedy1998. provides an interesting case for the study of identity. since the Near East enjoyed further prosperityand connection to the imperial core during this period because of Septimius Severus's interests in the Near East.345-6. 345).418 ELISE A.and. a new of the cardo and decumanus. From the first centuryA. we have evidence for a Roman military presence at Gerasa. see and two imperial-styleRoman bath complexes. 124-5.204.his wife.23 In fact. many scholars propose that the East Baths were built in this era.27 This contextual study of the Roman marble sculptures from the North Hall of the East Baths at Gerasa will add to this inquiry into the identity Seigne 1992. during his reign the first Arabsbecame Roman senators. however. and Julia Domna.front view. 27 For one recent study. For the urbanization of Roman Gerasa.110-22. Gerasa. This content downloaded from 62. 25 Isaac 1992.see the many articles in Zayadine 1986 and Institut francais d'archeologie du Proche-Orient 1989. 4. Temple complex. a hippodrome (though it may have been used for Greek-stylechariot racing). belonged to the Syrianaristocracy.22In the early third century A.right. in response to Roman rule. on.24In addition to this distinctly Roman infrastructure. 215-21 7. 24 Forrecentworkon these urbanstructures and others. the south tetrakionia the nymphaeum. how Greekwas Gerasa."none of [these buildings] is said to have been paid for by the imperialauthorities"(Isaac1992. more importantly. at the junction thian capitals. perhaps under the this building continued Severans. 4).right profile.192. Left.with its clearly Greek origins and civic identity.346. Theater of the North Zeus.D. 23 On Caracalla's path. cloaked the Greek city in distinctly Roman facades: a town plan based on a cardo and decumanus. therefore. Roughly two centuries of building at Gerasa. a nymphaeum. on. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . colonnaded streets.and Kehrbergand Kehrberg Manley 2001. many inscriptions mention the governor of Arabia and six are set up for the procurator. Gerasa seems to have had its fair share of Roman administrativepresence. and Ostrasz1997.25 Moreover.D. but conspicuously Roman veneer. it is clear that the city served as a periodic center of Roman administration. the Some of and the West Baths.

16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .29 Fig. provides important evidence for the decoration of provincial baths in the middle empire. To date. furthermore.85 on Tue.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURES FROM GERASA 419 THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF THE SCULPTURES Located immediately to the east of the Chrysorhoas Riverand surrounded today by the central bus station of modern Jerash. well-cut. 6. 29 Fora correctedversionof the plan publishedbyKraeling (1938.204. 434. The sculptural installation documented here. see Braunet al. known therefore. (Chrysanthos built 114) notes that"stonevaultsof at least20 m on massively Based on cataloguesof bathsin wallscan be reconstructed. Finally. known West than the better larger The general display context of the sculptures was. and the bathsat Hammat Gader(4200 m2). 5. limestone ashlars: three aligned along an east-west axis and a fourth to the north of the easternmost hall (figs. 5). Itis meantonlyto providea basic architectural descriptionof the remainsof the EastBathsand something of the scale of the structure. Kanellopoulos) Fig.192. front view of Roman Gerasa and contribute to the dialogue on Romanization and the processes of cultural transmission and change in the Roman empire. the WestBathsat Gerasa(4500m2). 6-7. from a major hall of an imperial-style bath complex in Arabia. the patrons and honorees of dedications in the hall reveal new information about the history of Gerasa and its urbanization and Romanization in the second and third centuries A. 28 The followingdescriptionis based on personalobservationsunlessotherwisenoted.Kraeling providesthe onlypublishedmeasurements forthismonument. Lower portion of a togate man (cat. The chronology of sculptural dedication suggests new dates for the construction and use of the North Hall and perhaps the East Baths.28Though East Baths are as yet unexcavated." the Roman Near East in both Nielsen (1990) and Reeves (1996).however. the ruins of the EastBaths preservethe North Hall and four large chambers. the four largestbaths known to date in the Roman Near Eastare the WesternBathhouseat Beth Shean/Scythopolis (5700m2).D.thoughDodge (1990. pl. the Baths of Diocletianat Palmyra(4335 m2). area H. This content downloaded from 62. no. Plan of the EastBaths. 2001. the well-preserved Baths at Gerasa. it provides new evidence for the connection of Roman Arabia to the more central provinces of Greece and Asia Minor via the imperial marble trade. one of the largest imperial thermae to have been constructed in the Roman Near East. VII). 37.all built of large. 6-7) . plan I. 24.

420 ELISE A. Nor. This content downloaded from 62. see Yegiil 1992. and Philippopolis. 150-1. this date rests on very little evidence and is not secure. Alexandria. The north-south axis through room 3.. More specifically. a frigidariumto the north of the central flankcaldarium along the main axis.85 on Tue. 194. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 192 (fig. Palace of the Baths. Ephesos). 112. this type had a compactplan.32 this small imperial type. 30Kraeling 112. 174 (fig. Palmyra. 326-9).Jerash. dateassignedbyKraeling and acceptedby subsequentscholarsrestson that of a statuebase (Welles1938. a row of heated rooms perpendicular to that main axis on 1938.these bathcomplexesrarely had palaestrae. . Nielsen 1990. no.also see Nielsen 1990.the East Baths may be associated with the variation which has the following layout: a central north-south axis. one thatwasdeeper than it was generally wide. 16) that is not securelyassociatedwith the EastBaths. which include the West Baths at Gerasa. 7. Browning1982. Cuicul). 51. projecting 32 classificaSee Krencker1929 for a reprintof Krencker's tions. and the nasiuminstitutionwasneverparticularly popularin these regions"(113) (for another discussionof the lackof palaestrae in baths of the Easternempire. 131.a basilicathermarum of the frigidarium (again on the main axis). 131. 51-2.192. 197. the Byzantine bath at Gadara. Odessus). and a Other examples of palaestranorth of the basilica. two apodyteria to the north ing that frigidarium. mostly late thermae.204. 8). Nielsen associates the East Baths with a group of monumental. the Vedius BathGymnasium at Ephesos.Aphrodisias). and the Bath-Gymnasium at Odessus. did this type of bath complex have a caldarium. 209 (fig. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 HarvardCollege Library) Fig. Bonfils (HSM983) .30 however. (Courtesyof the Fine Arts Library.31 I suggest that this classification of the East Baths can be further specified.Nielsen etal.D. "because theyare generallylate . n.176 (fig. include the Large South Baths at Cuicul. . which may serve as comparanda for the East Baths. Accordingto Nielsen. 57-8. It is importantto note thatthe earlythird-century A. and that the complex is identifiable as Krencker'ssmall imperial type. Bath C in Antiochia. 226. and the recently excavated Western Baths at Beth Shean/Scythopolis. according to Nielsen.In addition.see Nielsen 1990. The date of the construction for the East Baths is commonly published as the third century A.but wasonly found "nearthe EastBaths"(Welles 1938.33 The imperial-styleEast Baths may be reconstructed as follows (fig. n. the Large Baths at Lambaesis. 196 (fig.220. 383). The massivewest wall of room 1 must have constituted the westernmost (and perhaps the southernmost) end of the complex. room 4. the Bath-Gymnasiumat Aphrodisias.Lambaesis). the baths at Bosra. Yeffiil1992. 131-2.D. 1993. but also because the gym- its south. 33For plans of these baths. 31 Nielsen 1990. 250.

First. 2. the eastern corners remain unexposed. was clearly part of the East Baths complex for several reasons.the East Baths were completed by a basilica. The level of the floor in the North Hall is approximately 1.Finally. and second. may have served as 34DeLaine 1997. In addition. including the North Hall. a passage in the north wall of room 4 leads toward the North Hall. often adjacent to the frigidarium. and to the reconstructed north wall of room 4. the North Hall.35 The North Hall is a rectangular structure 12. 35 The level of the floor of the North Hall washigher than thatof the mainbathingblock. date. and 3 were equipped with down-drains(shafts that held the lead or terracotta pipes that supplied the pools in the various rooms) and were likely used as wet rooms. 8. the passages in the eastern walls of rooms 3 and 4 must have led to other bathing rooms.45 m wide and at least 29 m long (figs.72 m higher than the projectedfloor level of room 4. 36 The northwestern cornerof the hallwasuncovered. the exteriors of both the west and east walls of room 4 preserve carvingsfor the support of a raking roof.That the complex continued to the east is clear from two lines of evidence: first. The North Hall.36The following brief description. long. rooms 1 and 2 were probablybalanced on the other side of the central north-south axis by two similarly sized rooms.61-3) .204.93 m from column O to the ruined. This content downloaded from 62. 390-5. Reconstructiondrawingof the EastBaths. as the hall extendsfurthereastbelowmodernbuildings.see Yegul 1992. for the watersystemsof baths. 153-4. public scale to that of the East Baths and is located near the central bathing block (11. the floor of the North Hallwas1.and fromthisthe southwestern cornercanbe reconstructed. Second.We can estimatethe floor level of room 4 based on the projectedheight of this passageway. Thus. (ChrysanthosKanellopoulos) North Hall apparently provided a central line of symmetry. while another wall extends south from pilaster P in the North Hall towardthe central bathing block. Though it is impossibleto knowthe styleand size of this passage.22 m).or any apodyteria. and identification smallerrooms that were built between it and room 4.85 on Tue.34Their southern position and vaulted ceilings indicate use as tepidaria(rooms 1 and 2) and a caldarium (room 3).we may estimatewhere it lies at the center of based on the top of the arched passageway the north wallof room 4. Room 4. Thus. This difference couldhavebeen bridgedby5 to 12 standard Romansteps leading down into the main bathingblock. extending from its northern end and perpendicular to the north-south central axis. was a minimumof 10 Romanfeet high (approximately 3 m) and a maximumof 18 Roman feet high (5.5 m below the underside of the keystone of this archedpassage. because it connectedthe centralbathingblockto a subsidiary room (DeLaine 1997. with its much larger passagewaysand lack of down-drains. rectangular halls.Althoughthe levelof the floor of the EastBathsis unknown. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .2003] ROMAN MARBLE SCULPTURES FROM GERASA 421 Fig.could have served as the frigidarium. the North Hall is built in a similar grand. extant northern edge of the west wall of room 4) . the hall is exactly parallel to the axis of the main bathing block. Rooms 1.5-3. 9-1 0). both oriented east-west. where all of the statuarywas recovered. The two transeptsflanking room 4. However.192.we mayimaginethata door from the North Hall.

9. 19. the North Hall has four entrances. 188.Naghawigenerouslyprovidedthe size of the room.39The average interaxial column spacing of all 14 intercolumniations is 2. see Marvin1983.40The pilaster bases at the ends of the screened entrances are approxidecoration niches thatwouldhaveaccommodatedsculptural andwhetherthese thinnerwallswouldhavebeen partof such niches. santhosKanellopoulos formakingthisobservation andsupplying these references. 377.7.192.see Kanellopoulos1994. This content downloaded from 62. Friedland) Fig.85 on Tue. is constructed of pinkish-orange limestone. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and between pilaster H and column I are thinner.or decempeda see Vergil. and another at the eastern end of the southern wall beginning with pilaster P and extending eastward for an unknown length. 1 thankChrypertica. 39 Not enough of the North Hall is preservedor has been excavated to determinewhetherthe roomwaselaborated with the northern wall (one between columns A and B and another beginning at column I and extending for an unknown length). between column B and pilaster G.Forthe importanceof accountingfor the architectural provisionsfor statuary. 15. and bases. all screened by columns: one running most of the length of the western side between pilasters C and F. The hall was paved with smooth rectangular white limestone while numerous ceramic roof tiles found pavers. location of entrances. (Chrysanthos of the room's function (not intended as the final publication of this monument) provide an architectural and archaeological context for the sculptural decoration published here. 40 Forparallelsto 10 foot-longinteraxialcolumnspacingin the Decapolis. and informationregardingthe archaeologicalcontext of the statuebases.37The entire structure.Eel 9.204.977 m. books.Ms. In its current state. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 Kanellopoulosand EliseA.figs. two along 37 1amindebtedto AidaNaghawi forallowingme to publish the followingbriefdescriptionof the room.38 within the building indicate that the hall was covered with a flat or raking timber roof. n.422 ELISE A.for the standard10 foot-longRomanmeasuringrod.a portionof a mosaicfloor 38Just wasuncoveredbut not excavated. shafts. 256. Plan of the North Hall showingfindspotsof statuesand statuebases. 18. including architectural features such as column and pilaster capitals. 14. outsidethe hallto the west. perhaps because they served as niches or because these intercolumniations were originally entrances to the room that were later blocked. The walls between pilaster Q and column A. or 10 Roman feet.and inscriptions from her field notesculptures. also Chen 1980.

Both the square shaft and capital are smoothedand decoratedon three sides. and a fourth outside the North Hall on the ruined northern edge of the westernwall of room 4.192. The preserved Corinthian pilaster capitals from the hall (fig. 11) (both in the northeastern corner. and 0. F. N. bottom. includingsquaredCorinthian is preservedin the northernwall4.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURES FROM GERASA 423 view of the northwestern Fig. and P). although its association with the main bathing complex suggests that it may have been constructed contemporaneously. 1. D.41Four squared pilaster capitals are preserved: two among the ashlars and column shaftsin the center of the room (fig. capital.88 m long). mately 0. 11) date to the early third century A. the ashlarmasonryof the wall. corner.view from northeast. a third atop preserved pilaster Q in the northeastern corner of the hall.9 m wide (bases C. This content downloaded from 62. E. B.: the capitals' proportions (narrow volute zone and broad acanthus leaves) and numerous drill channels make them slightly later than the securely dated Severan examples from the Nymphaeum at Gera- was taken (fig.69 m wide.while theirwestsides to insertinto areworkedinto rectangular probably projections. North Hall. M). while the column bases measure approximately 0. O. Top. both measuring 0.85 on Tue. 7) . 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .D.204. 10. 41 A completepilaster.6 m east of the northwestern corner of the room and wasstandingalong with another in the 19th centurywhen the Bonfilsview of the East Baths The dates for construction and use of the North Hall are not known.76 m high.84 m wide (bases A.

11. 414-6.85 on Tue. bathing room (such as a natatio.192. mosaic.55. by which 44 A hypocaustsystem. the architectural context of the marble sculptures discovered in the North Hall seems to have been a major public hall in one of the largest imperial-type bath complexes discovered to date in the Roman Near East. dated to sometime before the fifth or sixth centuries A. architectural phase. presumably in situ (table 2). They were mixed with dirt and architectural fragments. signinum. As many as 8 of the 16 statue bases were found upright on the floor in front of columns. 23fromthe "Podiummonument" 4. the likes of which were dedicated throughout the Roman empire from North Africa to Arabia. 1999.43The architectural form and large scale of the North Hall rule out its identification as any of the smaller auxiliary or laconicum. because of the sculptural decoration. water basins. The East Baths suggest that the Gerasenes adopted the Roman cultural institution of bathing and frequented a large-scale Roman-style bathhouse.400.could have been installed beneath the limestone pavers:Nielsen (1990.44The roof and pavement rule out the hall's use as a palaestra. 45 Nielsen 1990. bathing rooms. It is unlikely that the North Hall functioned as an apodyterium.Naghawidid not lift anyof the paversduringthe courseof the excavations. and proximity to the central bathing block.piscina.Ms.D. KlausFreyberger. such as a sudatorium No evidence was found of hydraulic plaster. 43 The followingdiscussion of the identification of the North Hall employsNielsen's terminologyand definitions for the variousroomsfound in Romanbaths (1990.4. 356-8. North Hall sa and the Tychaion at as-Sanamain and indicate that they were probably produced during the reign of Caracallaor Alexander Severus. whose plan was based on imperial models erected in Rome. 36a. These long rectangular halls or galleries are common in the baths of North Africa and Asia Minor and are thought to have served as social halls.Forotherexamplesof architectural decoration that date to the Severanperiod. 153. indicating that the hall fell out of use after the fifth or sixth centuries A. DeLaine 1993. The deposition suggests a roof collapse.10b). surviving architectural elements. this date may represent only a renovation of the North Hall. or exercise venues.pls. andthe capitals who kindly at Gadara(Freyberger1999).424 ELISE A. see the capitals fromthe Nymphaeum atBosra(Freyberger 1989a. since these courtyardswere open and rarely paved. and.36c. Pilastercapital.10a.204. see Freyberger 1989b. This content downloaded from 62. 160-2 palaestra/basilica and n. see Yegiil 1992.D.42 Except for the thinner walls noted above. 153-66) . therefore. pls. or tubulation within the walls. confirmedthisdate. no evidence exists for rebuilding or renovation of the North Hall. were lying on the stylobate of the hall between columns or near statue bases (fig. 1lb) . These long rectangular 46Yegul often identified as basilicaethermarum.D. andofferedfurther examinedphotosof thepilasters comparanda. frigidarium. the large scale.both a questionable term and unproven function.46 Thus. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the capitalsfrom the Theaterat Bosra (Freyberger 1988. corridors. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 Fig. in several cases. Yet. mustalsohavebeen used in place of marble.45Instead. 9). 14) statesthat of a hypocaust the cover-tiles systemcouldbe coveredwithopus It standsto reasonthatlimestone or marble. pl. while the decorative evidence supports a third-century A. The excavator of the North Hall reported finding Byzantine strata atop the southwestern corner of the building. 67. rectangular shape. as well as its display of a substantial number of sculptural dedications.however. or caldarium) or as any sort of a secondaryheated room (tepidarium or sudatorium). The presence of sculptural dedications also helps confirm this hypothesis.and 37b. The North Hall's scale. suggest that the room probablyfunctioned as a social hall. drains. For recent reviews of the thermarumdebate. hallsare 1992. the room could not have functioned as a wet 42 Forthe architectural decor of the Nymphaeumat Gerasa and the Tychaionat as-Sanamam. and proximity to room 4 of the East Baths point to the North Hall's use as a basilical hall. (as noted above). 231. lack of bathing and heating installations.1001. display the sculptural social context: in the north hall of the east baths The five life-size or larger sculptures and nine other fragments were found in the southeastern and southwestern corners of the North Hall on the limestone pavers of the floor.

or I Square. 0. in situ 10. or I Square. n. H. in situ 8. 6.50 m 1.47the statuaryand heads.25 more in the center of the hall in the area bounded by pilaster H and columns I. of the 25 statues. and 34 inscribedbasesfrom late antiqueAphrodisias. and O. scalloped base Square. coverstatuesthatmaybe securelyassociatedwith specificinscribedstatuebases.p. unk. mus. withinscribedbases onlysixstatuesmaybe securelyassociated (Smith 1999. M. n. mus. in situ 9.32 m 1.595 m 0. This content downloaded from 62. since it is clear that the North Hall continued to the east and that it contained more statue bases.665 m 0. While none of the sculptures can be securely associated with any of the bases discovered in the hall. 7. in situ 4. in situ 2.67 m 0.58 m 0.85 on Tue.56 m 0.53 m 0. mus. = unknown mus.49 m n.= museum. plainly carved I South of G. = not preserved. however. plainly carved South of G.p. This may be a coincidence of survival.For example. H. mus. H nOAIS Hermaphrodite In front of P? Round 15. Gerasa (width and depth represent measurements of the footprint of the statue base) Base No.25 m 1. in situ 5. spoliated Square. To motherland An equestrian Findspot Between M-N inside hall Between O-N outside hall In front of O 2. or Square.192. mus.46 m Width 0. In addition. Statue Bases Found in the 1984 Excavationsof the North Hall of the East Baths. plainly carved In southwest Square. mus.545 m 0. H nOAIE 11.60 m 0.72 m 0.695 m 0. 0.65 m south of Q West of C West of C West of D East of E West of F Style Square.p. n.50 m unk. Depth 0. the sculptures are clearly associated with the North Hall and were once displayed within the hall itself.51m 0.53 m n. at the western entrance and 47 While it is common to discoverstatuesand statuebases it is exceedinglyrareto disfrom the samesculptural display.598 m diam.60 m the statues and some. H.695 m 0. H nOAIS 13. of the statue bases were dislodged from their original display contexts. 0.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 425 Table 2.p. 161).56 m 0.204.49 m 0. spoliated Square.n. 1. in situ 3. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that is. molded base Height 1.585 m diam. n.90 m 0.p.545 m 0.32 m unk.09 m n.p.60 m 0. not seen corner of hall In front of P? Round 0. spoliated Square. though architectural debris was scattered throughout the hall. H nOAIE To Caracalla unk. 1. H 11OAIS To Carbonius Disturbed context Square 16. plainly carved Square. Evidence that the finds preserve a largely in situ sculptural display comes from the fact that. molded base Square.31m 1.53 m unk.. molded base Square.46 m 1. but not all. Note: South of G.42 m 1. Thus. finds of statuarywere discovered only in areas where statue bases were also found in situ.p.52 m 1. molded base Hexagonal. 0.59 m 0. mus. 14. mus.51m 0. H nOAIZ 12. the number of intact or largely intact statue bases discovered (16) is nearly equal to the number of column bases preserved (17).p. Location Patron/Honoree 1.

48At some point in time before the North Hall went out of use. The excavationsof the North Hall.All but two of the baseswith preserved forclamps of cuttings withsomearrangement topswereworked to secure the plinths of statues.as do two otherbasessubsequently documentedbyotherscholars. 3). and 16). social. an experiential approach is used here to allow us to view the hall and its display as one piece of the broader ur48 The followingreconstruction of the sculptural installation isbasedon the datasetandapproximate stratigraphy provided In additionto permissionto byAidaNaghawi. Finally. and their meaning was.52 When approaching the western entrance of the North Hall. the latest datable evidence for construction and sculptural dedication in the North Hall) would have been most likely to understand fully the intended artistic. unlike the other two.Moreover. p.evidence for the subject matter of the displaycomes from both the statues themselves and the inscriptions on several bases (14. constructed through this association. As will be discussed below. Like the nine unidentifiablefragmentsof sculptedmarble.50 To provide a more vivid reconstruction of the sculptural display of the North Hall. this visitor would have encountered an array of statuarydisplayed on more or less matching square molded bases (5. Future workin the NorthHallwouldclarify andaddto the conclusionsbelow. or at least parts of it. 9. 415) and those on bases 15 and 16 (below. though the North Hall may have been a secondary context for both. particularly cornerof the hall.their dimenthatwaslifesionsshowthatallweremade to supportstatuary size or slightlylarger. cat.These cuttingsindicate that wascomposedof marble the entiresculptural statuary program as opposed to bronzepieces.scalloped base (6) whose statue was dedicated by an equestrian. that on the front of the statue of the Apollo or Muse (above. 4.. possible dates for the erection of the sculptural display are suggested by the style of some of the statuary(above. and 9 werefound in situin front of pilasterC.Becausenone of the statuesaresecurelyassociated with any of the basesand becausewe have so little secure evidence for the precise placement of statuesin the hall.In additionto the statuebasespresentedhere.426 ELISE A.49 The arrangement of these different subjects in relation to one another and that of the overall installation can be interpreted from the relativefindspots of the statuaryand the bases. The visitor might have noted the overall uniformity of the The Display: Evidence and Reconstruction Gatieris publishingthese inscriptions content. Pierre-Louis dela as partof a largermultivolumeworkentitled Inscriptions Jordaine. then. and cultural messages of this display. pp. Base5 is largeroverall column D. Anotherinscribedbase is said to come fromthe samesectoras statuebase 15 (Gatier1996. table 3). suppliedme withworking of the inscriptions andgaveme permission to discuss onlytheir If we walk through the North ban image of Gerasa.Alternative placementof statuesis recordedin footnotes. (figs. p. this method of presentingthe evidenceseems appropriate. 4) . imperial-style bath building of the middle empire. builtinto a shop in the centralmarketof Gerasa. 9. This content downloaded from 62. currentlocationsof all of the statuebasesand gaveme permissionto study anddiscuss themin myinterpretation of the sculpturalprogram.theyprovidesome evidencethatthe sculptural programmusthavebeen more extensive." Also on his left. One. 7. 52 In the followingsection.D. 51Favrol996.see cat. he might have noted a hexagonally-shaped. 53 Bases5. fig. 13) in front of On his right. 414-5) and the bases (below. The inscribed statue bases also preserve important information about the patrons and honorees of the display. and. I present only one possiblereconstruction. in part.but for now the presentevidenceprovidesan window onto sculptural in themiddleempire. the visitor might have observed a statue (base 5) dedicated by its patron to the "motherland. manyother fragmentsclearlybelonging to statuebaseswere discovered in the southwestern duringexcavation. a local elite male. we glean important information regarding the possible dates of sculptural dedication. and the history of Gerasa itself. and pilasterF respectively. wassignedby Antoninuswho alsosignedthe statuebaseof Apolloor a Muse (Donderer2001.53 a nonhave seen the marble togatus (fig. somewhere west of C.e. they are not included in the number published here. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 the bases must be considered together. 429-31). are derived from inscriptions. Although individual visitors no doubt perceived the display differently. 50 All of the statue bases excavatedin the North Hall are limestoneas the other arcarvedof the same pinkish-orange chitecturalelements of the building.53). 430).As it could not be determinedhow manystatuebases these fragmentsrepresented.54 On the at F.is inscribed. she also providedme with the studyand publishthe statuary. very likely a member of the local elite. this visitormight a screen of columns.51 Hall viewing the sculptural display as an elite male Gerasene would have seen it during the course of a regular visit to the baths in the early third century A.whichwouldhaverequiredfootshapedcuttingsinstead. pp.D. imperial portrait.and one largebasewasnoted in the eastern baulk. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the meaning of the sculptural installation. 54 Found on the stylobateof the North Hall between column E and pilasterF.the excavator. revealed important evidence that provides a window onto the sculptural decoration of a single hall in a provincial. the history of the use of the North Hall. 15.85 on Tue. Firmer dates for the installation of the display. visiting in the early third century A. 12. 7. important display 49 For the purposesof the reconstructionof the sculptural AidaNaghawi translations program. as the two groups of evidence are inseparable contextually. (i.204. the pieces were displayed together. 1-23. perhaps displayed far left at C.192.

inside Hall. in front of column E West entrance.2003] ROMAN MARBLE SCULPTURES FROM GERASA Table 3. This visitor might also have noticed that the togatus (fig. in front of column F West entrance. in front of P? Disturbedcontext Evidence Statue base 6 Date Middleempire? Subject Matter Patron Equestrian Honoree Statue base 5 Middleempire? Motherland Statue base 7 Middleempire? Statue base 9 Middleempire? Statue base 8 Middleempire? Togatus (cat. outside Hall. in front of statue base 11 Center of Hall Center of Hall Center of Hall South entrance. in front of column M? South entrance. in front of column O Southernwall. outside Hall. inside Hall. 1) Apollo/Muse (cat. on stylobate Northwestcorner.D. Non-imperial portrait H I1OAIZ Statue base 11 H nOAIZ Statue base 12 H IIOAIE Lowerportion of Togate Man (cat. 2) Statue base 1 Statue base 2 Statue base 3 Statue base 14 Statue base 15 Statue base 16 A. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .A. 5) Satyr(cat. outside Hall. in front of P? Southernwall. 177-188? AD. or I Northernwall. H. 150-200 Lateperiod b/c spoliated? Late period b/c spoliated? Lateperiod b/c spoliated? Hermaphrodite A.D. in front of column M South entrance. 138-192? Non-imperial portrait of equestrian Satyr Apollo or Muse Apollo or Dionysos Ca. in front of pilasterG. Gerasa 427 Location West entrance.85 on Tue. or I North entrance. in front of pilasterG. outside Hall. in front of pilaster Q North entrance. cat. in front of pilaster C West entrance. The visitor certainlywould have noted the This content downloaded from 62. H. or I North entrance. Evidence for Installationof SculpturalDedications in the North Hall of the EastBaths.204. in front of column N? South entrance. in front of column G. 4) Statue base 4 Statue base 10 Mid2ndc. 4.D. inside Hall.A. 211-217 Portrait of Governor Portrait of Caracalla H 11OAIZ H FIOAIZ Governor H nOAIE Caracalla molded bases and concluded that the statues just outside the western entrance (except for that atop the hexagonal base) were dedicated as a group. in front of column D West entrance. west of pilaster C West entrance. H.192.D. inside Hall. 3) Fragment of a thigh Apollo/Dionysos (cat. 4) was from an earlier period than his own.

62all displayedatop relatively similar. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 Fig.consuls. unmolded statue bases (10. paid for (at least in part) by well-to-do individuals of Gerasa.who had connections to Roman cultural and political spheres.85 on Tue.plainly carved. 4. Upon passing through the western entrance of the North Hall. I). 5). 55 Smith 1998. 12. 5.59 Here. the visitormight have seen a togate equestrian (fig. "thevariousnew forms of the late toga can be seen aswaysof definingfurther. Statuebase8. the new toga seems to havebeen worn largelyby senators.192. 5) wasfound nearpilasterH.. 12. The dimensionsof thisbase arein no wayconsistentwiththe otherplainly carvedbasesdisplayedalong this northernside of the hall. 179). cat.204.64. 60 The lowerportion of a togatus (fig.proconsuls. the toga.61and the statue of Apollo or a Muse (fig.D.4) here. cat.428 ELISE A. still signaled elite status and participation in Roman politics.55 third century A. Reconstruction drawingof the North Hall with statue bases.65 m south of Q.It is also possible that the visitormight have encountered the togatus (fig. 61 Found 5. 14). 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . maybe evidencefor such an installation. 3). the visitor would have been drawn to his left by a single statue at Q (base 4)58and by another sculptural display cloaking the inner sides of the short screen wall east of the northwesternentrance.D. 11.5 m south of pilasterH. 59 GandH and Thisdisplay wasinstalledin frontof pilasters columnI. our visitor would have realized that this was a luxuriously decorated room. In fact. cat. (ChrysanthosKanellopoulos) costume of this statue.57 Once inside the hall. 5. 1. 62 Found in the middle of the hall south of and between pilasterH and columnI. then. filled with imported marble statues. each inscribed only with H 58 Though base 4 wasfound 2. This content downloaded from 62. the visitor might glimpse a row of statues screening the inner side of this entrance (base 8). 179). with Caracalla'sgrant of citizenship to all freeborn persons throughout the empire. because dress was used to Even in the early signal social and political identity. ratherthan outside the hall atop base 9. fig. found eastand squarely in front of column E. thisinstallation wasprobablyerected in front of pilasterQ. as opposed to the more common Greek himation and tunic.60the marble satyr (fig.56Before even entering the North Hall. 3. 56While "old-style togascontinued to be worn"in the third centuryA. cat.higherranksor officeswithin the largergroup of possibletoga-wearers" (Smith1999. cat. perhapsdisplayedon base 8.and consulares (Smith1999.

D. because our visitor lived during this emperor's reign. and dedicatoryinscription.204. 133 These three baseswerefound in situ in front of pilasters GandH and columnI. 1.D. Because thisinscription wasdiscovered andpublished after theirwork.69 From these two portraits.192. At three of the fourcornersof thisbase.035m wide. probably addedfor the attachmentof the plinth of a statue. Thisinscribedbase introducesthispreviously unknowngovernorofArabia. the satyrs)as well as cultural and intellectual activities (embodied by both Apollo and the Muses).3) mighthavebeen displayedhere. the next outsidejust south of the hall. N (base2) . the statueof the hermaphroditehere. The visitor might also have noticed that this togatus was from an earlier period than his own.kcu Tiufjq 8V8K8V. The visitor might have read the inscription on the statue base of Gaius Carbonius Statilius Severus Hadrianus (15).for example. perhaps at M. the visitor might have concluded that these statues constituted yet another group. the visitor would have easily recognized the portrait of Caracalla. where the urban masses pursued bodily pleasures (signified by Dionysos and his consorts.neither Sartre(1982) nor Bowersock(1983. The visitorwould again (ratherthan by individuals) have noted the distinctlyRoman dress of the togate portraitof the equestrian(fig. 15). cat. 0.). 177-180. this one dedicated by the city of Gerasa .r\ noAic.63 The visitormight well have observed that the three bases matched more or less in style. 177-188 remainsconjectural. noting thatthe letter formsof the Gerasa inscriptionalsodate the dedicationto the second half of the second centuryA. O lationsarrayed (base3). In fact.bases2 and 1 werefound fallen between columns. 64 instalHere.and the date of A. In addition. the visitor might have seen an Apollo or and a herDionysos (fig. The satyr(fig. cat. and one that looked very different from the molded bases at the western entrance and the plainly carved bases across the hall. the visitor would have recognized that the city erected these sculptures to connect Gerasa to the local Roman presence in Arabia (the governor) and to tie the city and perhaps the bath complex to the emperor himself.D. 14 or 15.12 m long. Thus.one within the hall. 15).85 on Tue. ex-consul. 1.she did not recordwhichof thesebaseswas found in front of which column. square base (16) and dedicated by the city (H nOAIZ).: 'Aya0flT<3Xn Fdiov Kap{36viov STcaeiAiovZsoufjpov 'ASpiavov unaxiKOv. xov eauxfjc. but massive.base 3 wasfound in situin front of column O.5) . the visitor would have encountered two other installations. at the fasciae center of statuebase 3 is a rectangularsocket (0. for the I havechosen to reconstruct purposesof thisreconstruction. then. 2).as is evident from the lewis device socketsleftin theirtops (bases1 and 3) and the partially carved on their backs (base 1) (fig. which can be takento mean consularis. 3) as statuaryappropriatefor a Roman bath. ti6 isnot certain whichof the tworound Thoughtheexcavator bases (14 or 15) wasdiscoveredin front of pilasterP.0325 m on a side).or 12. 68 The inscriptionhas been publishedby Gatier(1996. the visitormayhaveseen a series of installationsalternating. 4 In addition.and greaterthan0. cat.euepyexnv.66 The visitor would have recognized both mythological figures as statuary appropriate for a bath (see below). and even pilasterP (one of the two round bases.2. if one or both of them were not erected in the installationat the northernentranceof the hall. so there is no reasonto associateCarbonius ticularSeverus. euvoiac. 67 These baseshave unfinishedbacks.Some are carvedof reused architrave blocks.Statuebasesmade from reusedarchitectural fragments are common in the laterempire.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 429 IIOA IE. cat. however.67 Finally. however. Turning to the south to cross the hall and proceed through its southern exit into the main bathing block of the East Baths. because they are architrave blocks that were recut to serve as statue bases (fig. 160Statilius Severus Hadrianus. which was erected by the city (H 1TOAIS). at some unknown location in the hall. 161-2).65 maphrodite (base 14).squaresockets(0. 3.and is the only portion of the name remaining for the governormentioned on the Umm eljimal inscripwiththispartion. Severusis a common name. the visitormayhaveseen a rowof sculptural in front of columnsM (base 1) . Gatier identifiesthis governoras the Severusmentioned tentatively on an inscriptionfrom Umm el-Jimal and dated by the mention of imperialreignsto A. 1) and the Apollo or Muse (fig. For example.andgovernor(ibid.the base of theJulian-Theodosius monumentatAphrodisias is madeof "two re-cutcolumnbasesand a reusedshortcylindrical pillar" (Smith 1999.Therefore he might have concluded that these three statues constituted another group. 5) and alsowould have noted that this local individual was important enough to have been honored by the city via this sculptural dedication. 3. perhaps at P.erected atop a plain. 5.therearesmall. This content downloaded from 62. Alternately. He might also have noted that three of the four bases (1. the visitorwould have recognized the satyr (fig. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .D. size.fig.045 m deep) . the visitor would have encountered yet another sculptural display screening the passagewayin the southern wall.wasfound here) . 11. outside and inside the hall respectively. 2.thus not in situ.the excavator believesthatit wasassociated with the displayin the North Hall. cat.64In this display.68a governor of Arabiawho probably held office in the second quarter of the second century A. Gaius on the statuebase as a imcaiKoq. 1) and/or the Apollo or Muse (fig. 3) discussGaiusCarbonius 69 Though this base wasfound at a "higherlevel"than the restof the material. h5 This statuewasfound in the southeasterncorner of the hall among column shaftsand mayhave originallybeen displayedatopbase 1. 51Carbonius Statilius Severus Hadrianus isrecorded 2. Becausethe excavator did not number bases10. and 3) were similar. cat.

Dates for these three installations. 3) was displayed here. and Messages At least three distinct sculptural installations were displayed in the North Hall: group I at the western entrance (displayed on the molded bases). or the subjects. the patrons of the statues. sometime between 211 and 217.D.Based on the common use of spolia for statue bases during the later empire. the honorees. 71Smith 1999. group II screening the low walls just east of the northern entrance (displayed on plain bases). In addition to bases made of spoliated architraves) inscribed four oversized these. 165.D. It is not entirely clear that the three installations correspond to the dates of construction of the North Hall.192.204. which may date stylisticallyto the second half of second century A.D.. 4. pedestals of various were interspersed throughout the room and shapes found in disturbed contexts: the hexagonal base (6) west of pilaster C. 171. which are typical of those of the middle empire (i. It is these variously shaped bases found not in situ and throughout the room that carry the majorityof the inscribed dedications and certainly the most detailed ones. the style of the bases. however.D. or later. The installation at the southern entrance is difficult to date. though we do not know where it was found within the hall. 13.e. though not definitive. with their "strongly projecting moulded plinths above and below the shaft that gave the whole pedestal a tall but stronglywaisted outline. because none of the bases securely associated with this area of the hall have inscriptions and because the one sculpture found here is not datable stylistically. and the massive inscribed base for Caracalla'sstatue (16). The display outside the western entrance may date to the middle of the second century A.. If the Apollo or Muse (fig.. This content downloaded from 62. Arrangement. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 Fig.430 ELISE A. the dates of sculptural elaboration of the North Hall. and group III at the southern entrance (displayed on . which was found at a higher level but is thought to have been displayed somewhere within the hall. Statue base 8. this group may date to the second half of the second century A. cat.71 Finally. the second century A. 4) and the style of the four molded bases. the inscription on its base provides yet more evidence for this date of A. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the inscriptions. based on the stylistic date of the togatus (fig. Patrons."70 The only datable evidence from the installation on the northern wall is the lower portion of the togatus.). nor does it preclude an overall plan for the sculptural installation. this hodge-podge affect does not necessarily mean that the statuarywas dedicated at widely different times. Honorees. a date that matches that of the pilaster 70Smith 1999. one round base (14) near pilaster P. 150-200.D.D. are suggested by the style of the statues. cat. a second round base (15) perhaps found near pilaster P.85 on Tue. an example of a molded base from Group I The Display: Chronology of Dedication. 3. the base with the dedication to Caracalla dates to the early third century A.

of a major public building like the East Baths and the dedication of public statuarylike that found in the North Hall correspond to the increasing urbanization known to have taken place 72 These capitals areclearlyassociated withthe hall.D.D. see Boatwright 74 See Smith 1999. Fig.74 following discussion. 11. This content downloaded from 62.85 on Tue. 160.D.192. it would have required a building with statuaryand statue bases available for denuding. honorees. Second. Construction.D.. Two interpretations of the chronology of the construction and sculptural elaboration of the North Hall are therefore plausible.D. the city of Gerasa paid for all of the dedications erected inside the North Hall for which we have evidence of patronage (bases 10-12 and 14-16).Yegiil 1992. it must be taken into account in any discussion of the sculptural installation. then.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURES FROM GERASA 431 in Roman Arabia following Hadrian's journey through the Near East (which included a stop at Gerasa in A. comes from a disturbed context. during the second century. the statue base of Caracalla. First. and later. however. an example of a plain base from GroupII The bulk of capitals that once elaborated the hall. arrangement. and is more comIn the mon in the fourth century A. Alternately. journey. and renovated in the early third century A. In both the second and third centuries A.. dates to the middle to late second century A.D.D.because scattered theywerediscovered throughoutthe hallon itsfloor. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .204. particularlybecause its date coincides with the architectural embellishment of the building. that the building and sculptural installation were created in the second half of the second century A.D.This scenario seems less probable.72 the evidence for sculptural dedications in the North Hall. or 12. with only one dedication that must be dated to the early third century A. 73This trend was continued well into the Severan period. Although this later dedication. the patronage. 14. by refurbishing the pilaster and column capitals and erecting the dedication to the emperor Caracalla. 15. the North Hall could have been built in the early third century A. Statue base 1. for two reasons. First. The only evidence for privatepatronage comes from two Fig. the practice of reusing statuary does not come into vogue until the middle or late third century A. 322.D. Statuebase 10.D. the North Hall could have been constructed in the second half of the second century A. 129-1 30). and appointed with reused statue bases and statuary. and renovated in the early third century A. and subject matter of the sculptural installation are analyzed within the chronological framework of the more likely of these two options. an example of a base made of a block from GroupIII spoliated architrave 73 On Hadrian's 2000.D.

fromthe middleof the second century Gerasa.378. fig. For the portion of the installation erected during the second century A.D. seems less tied to chronology than to location. this group playsan ancillary of baths. four represent gods or their entourages. 520. 149.379.86 A hermaphrodite is also mentioned standing in a bath in one of the epigrams on baths from Book 9 of the Anthologia Palatina(783).377-8 andnotes).perhapsbecausefewsculptural from assemblages bathsin Egyptor the RomanNear Easthavebeen published. 501. 82 The followinganalysis is basedon the twomost synthetic and recent analysesof sculptural programsin bath buildings (Manderscheid1981.432 ELISE A.D. a number that parallelsManderscheid's conclusion that over half of the sculptures found in bath buildings represent these subjects. though not mentioned as a common subject by Manderscheid. 84Manderscheidl981. the only certain honoree is "the motherland" of one of the patrons (base 5). percentages for the frequencyof appearanceof differentsubjectsin bathbuildings in general. this type of civic patronage was common. The arrangement of the middle to late secondcenturyA. This difference in patronage. the reinstallation duringlaterperiods of buildinguse. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 donations that were discovered on the outside of the hall at the western entrance: one by the equestrian (base 6) and the other by a donor who dedicated his or her monument to the "motherland" (base 5)."76 tions are in Greek. the mythological sculptures found in the North Hall constitute two of the six subjectsmost commonly represented in baths: Dionysos and his retinue (found by Manderscheidto be the most comThe dedication of a satyr mon) and Apollo/Muses..D. however. 86 For the hermaphroditein the Baths of Zeuxippos.192. which has a comparable installation of sculptureson statuebases situatedin front of large The melange of mythologisquare column bases.According to Manderscheid(1981. city councils were "byfar the most active arm of the local authorities in All of the dedicacarryingout bath benefactions. and this dedication is erected outside of the hall.278. then. because of the lack of secure find- of statuary spotsof pieces. for the hermaphroditein the Bathsof Caracalla and the twoin the WestBathsat Cherchel. 85 Marvin1983. 28).see Bassett1996. 76Faran1999. it seemsusefulto considerManderscheid's However. 28. especially since extensive sculptural decoration is expected in a basilicalstructuresuch as the North Hall.75 According to Fagan. then at least a portion of the installation inside the hall must also have honored the Roman administrative presence of the later second century A.Itisimportant to note fromthe outset thatManderscheid's studyencompassesonlybathcomplexes in a portionof the West (Italyand NorthAfrica) .and AsiaMinor. 83 Manderscheid1981. This content downloaded from 62. a trend commensurate with the Greek identity of Gerasa noted above and found throughout its corpus of inscriptions. The fact that the only other honoree preserved.85 on Tue.28. and thevaried/disputedidentifications of roomfunctions.D. and the WestBathsat Cherchel. since "satyrs occur much more often than the god [Dionysos] himself. Greece. suggest that although some members of the local elite sponsored individual sculptural dedications at one of the main entrances to the North Hall.77If in fact the statue of Gaius Carbonius Statilius Severus Hadrianus (base 15) was erected in the second century. 80 Manderscheid1981. 77 Thisinscriptionis unpublished. 79 Marvin1983. the sculptural group outside of the western entrance differs from the two inside the hall. but in its patronage. 12. the emperor Caracalla (base 16). subjects 377 n. 81 discoveredin the North Hall repNone of the sculptures resent the third major categoryof statuaryerected in bath complexes:athletesand other mythologicalgroups.87 75 For the civic organizationand autonomy of the city of A. installationis fairlycommon for a bath building.83 Furthermore.204. critiques Marvin notesthat"thesampleavailable from todayof sculptures bathsis simplynot good enough to permitthe kindsof statisticalmanipulations to whichManderscheid it"(1981. 47.80 cal figures and non-imperialportraits81 dedicated in the North Hall during the second century A. and indeed. Few honorees are preserved.are found in severalbaths including the Zeuxippos Baths in Constantinople.as can be seen in the frigidariumof the baths at Lepcis Magna. not only in the style of its sculpturalbases. especially onward. The inscriptions on the statue bases. Thus. 87Dunbabin 1989.D.see Bowsher1992. debath topoi thatwere installedin major pictstraditional bath buildings throughout the Roman empire.84 in the North Hall is expected.79 The sculptureswere displayedon bases largely arrayedagainst walls and screening passageways. fewsecureconclusions arepossible aboutwhich sculpturaltypeswere displayedin which rooms of the baths. See belowfor discussionand referencesregardingsculptural finds in bathsin the Near East. 12. of the six or seven known subjectsfrom the second-century dedication.82 For example.Marvin1983) and takes into account of Manderscheid Marvin's (seeesp.and thusthe absence rolein the decorative programs of such subjects wouldnot be unusual.78was added to the sculptural program in the early third century suggests that perhaps the focus and main honoree of the sculptural display was altered in this period (see below). 185).see Manderscheid 1981. 521. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the city of Gerasa erected most of the sculptural decoration within the hall itself. cat. the Bathsof Caracalla in Rome. nos."85 Hermaphrodites. 78 Thisinscriptionis unpublished.

the Bathsat Philippopolis(Nielsen1990.88 least two of the six or seven statues were portraits (the two togate statues) and possibly more (if the portraitof the governor is not the same as the togatus (fig.750. a private portrait of one Septimius Severus Stervinus was said to have been recovered there. which the two togate men found in the hall seem most likely to represent.the West BathsatGerasa. as yet.91In addition to private portraits.95 In the baths at Palmyra.96In addition. The dedication of portraits of prominent local citizens. a lower part of a draped statue. and a lower portion Eastdatingfromthe fourthcentury B. as they were in other major public venues like fora and basilicas. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .93 sites preserve comparable assemblages. and the lower portion of a draped female made of bluish marble and reused in the foundations of the basin. since togate figures are rare in this period in the Eastern empire. 92 Manderscheid1981. were occasionally dedicated in bath buildings. havebeen excavatedin the RomanNearEast. the patrons of these two togate portraits were eager to be represented as Roman citizens (signaled by the toga) and in the garment of Roman state government (law required men to don the toga when conducting state business). a large fragment of a Venus. a portrait of their son. such as consuls or proconsuls. if a togate man said to come from the East Baths and now on display in Amman was originally disand if there are other portraits played in this hall. 93 bath complexes few other imperial-type Unfortunately. but none of these are. three complexes in the Roman Near East.see Stone 1994.fewerstillhave and. cat. Though Reevesis carefulnot to claimthat her catalogueis exhaustive.see Reeves 1996. 95Friedland 1997. indicating a notable lack of privateportraiture. Skupinska-L0vset 1999. or the Kom al-Dikka Bathsat Alexandria. For a catalogueof 175 bathsin the RomanNear second. andthe BathsatHammatGader. except one cuirassed figure. 89 Weber 1990. The largest and best-preserved group of statuary from a bath complex in the Near East was found recently at Beth Shean/Scythopolis in the Eastern Bathhouse. n. Philip II.65. 97-9. It is important to place the North Hall's sculptural installation in its regional context by comparing the room's display to those from other major bath In fact. accountedfor less peror or his family. 231.appendixB. mostly around the piscina.D. large numbers of sculptures of white marble dated to the third century A. l0Smith 1998. representations of public personages.94 have been discovered in various halls and strata of the excavations of the Eastern Bathhouse at Beth Shean.C. preserved portionsof theirsculptural hasbeen recovered.D. were found. 171. 35).204. y4Mazor 1999 (for statuesfound in the WestWing of the EasternBaths). 28.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 433 In the second century A.she classifiesonly three as imperial: the WesternBathhouseat Beth Shean/Scythopolis. chiefly in annexes of the baths. 97 Syrie. 352.D. 89.85 on Tue.for comprograms. including a Severan cuirassed statue.toA. Faran 1999.D. 129 (forfragments once the bathbuildingwentout of depositedin the caldarium use). 4) and was erected during this period.Tsafrir and Foerster1997. 278.the Bathsat Hammat Gader.while privateportraits than one fifth of those displayedin the bathssampled. As noted above. including a portrait of Philip the Arab. Bath C at Antioch (Nielsen 1990. Though the group is still in the process of being studied and published. a headless Apollo. 35. To thisgroup BathsatAlexandria(Nielsen maybe added the Komal-Dikka 1990. which is thought to depict one of the emperors of the second half of the second century A. and the EastBathsat Gerasa. This content downloaded from 62. the addition of a portrait of Caracalla by the city of Gerasa in the early third century A. of these plexeswherestatuary publications and havenot consideredthe statues pieces havebeen cursory withintheirarchitectural contextsor asprogrammatic installations. 122. 45). a portrait of his wife Otacilia.D. more than one quarterrepresentedthe emthese portraits.97 At Philippopolis/Shahba.17. In contrast to the group at Gerasa.a phenomenon common in the sculptural corpus of Palestine. the North Hall displayed a relativelylarge number of portraitsin comparison to Manderscheid'sfindings that nearly one At quarter of sculptures in baths were portraits. 96Bounni1971.89 still to be discovered in the unexcavated eastern portion of the hall). its Near Eastern context and 88 Manderscheid of 1981. 91 Forthe lawsregardingrequireddress.There areno significant findsfrom the Westsculptural ern Bathhouseat Beth Shean/Scythopolis. Accordingto Manderscheid. Such statues were erected largely for honorific purposes and did not necessarily indicate any official patronage of the bath buildings or their sculptural decorations. Of the bathsReevescatalogues. it will provide an important comparandum for the North Hall Of the 13 life-size or larger pieces that sculptures.46) ..90Thus.fragments of marble statuarywere discovered.92 THE REGIONAL AND URBAN CONTEXT The sculptural display of common bath topoi in the North Hall is comparable to installations in bath buildings around the empire. 4. no togate figures were discovered in the Eastern Bathhouse at Beth Shean. was a common means of recording and honoring local benefactors in the provinces. it is particularly strikingthat these privateportraitswear the toga rather than the Greek himation and tunic. fully analyzed and published.192. all represent mythological figures.only 34 of the baths in her catalogue overlapwith those published in Nielsen 1990. but two features make it unusual: first.Bath C at Antioch.

n.192. the dedication of a portrait of Caracallain the North Hall is noteworthy in contrast with the absence of imperial portraits in other baths in the Roman Near East.l).tempting to hypothesize that sa). mention of the accompanying of Otaciliaand Philip portraits Minor. 101Yegul 102 Welles 1938. 222. the city of Gerasadeclared Great. 106Kraelinff 1938. Three of these are located in North Africa. 47.100 at Baths North calla himself dedicated the Large one and of his father. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 of a draped woman. and it was in the third century A.109 It seems more fruitful. 55. Aurelius. emperors. Such largess usually came in consort with an imperialvisit. This relatively large number of portraits. nos. however.108 the discovery of the dedication to Caracallain the North Hall adds plausibility to this tenuous argument. cat.see Baity1990. the city could simply have been honoring the current emperor. admittedly. in Caracalla's tutio antoniniana made him particularlyworthy of adulation.and Mar- case. Hadrian.98The group from Philippopolis/Shahba seems to be the only sculpturalgroup in the Near East to preserve the display of multiple imperial portraits including a portrait head of an emperor. suggested. First. 100Manderscheid 1981. fact.107 The city never produced colonial coins. that they advertised firm concus Aurelius.At the Large Baths in Madaurus a statue base preserves a dedication to Caracalla." Another statue. it is unclear whether the two inscriptionsfrom Gerasa refer to colonial status (they are somewhat restored). 108 Millar1990. 204. 107 Millar1990.or adornbathsfor citiesthanit exnihilo. us (Welles1938. 460.D. is not the only honor paid to Caracalla all refer to Caracalcertain that it is not they Though Aurelius to Marcus if other dedications the four la. however. though not always. it is possible that the emperor paid for the constructionor renovationof the North This hypothesis is Hall or the entire East Baths. 591. the home province of the Severan dynasty. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tion that Gerasawas ever elevated to colony status. 1992. SmithII for suggestingthis connection. 152. has some connection to Caracalla. Second.who founded Roman Arabia (honored by seven dedications). (1999. and Four possible MarcusAurelius (honored by five). wasfor them to build these structures 105Welles 1938. nos. 109 Kraelin^1938. a link through Alexander the As noted above. Foran articleon the head of Philipand Syrie. Caracalla's titlesare somewhatambiguousand can. n. Hadrian. a third possible explanation for the city's honor of Caracalla. 155. if not qualified.204.102 the Gerasenes alongside only Trajan. an over life-size head of Caracalla. 57.adopted the name Colonia Antoniniaewhich the carries (one inscription adjective has been interpreted as referring to Gerasa). so that only their reused fmdspots on the site associate these inscriptions with GeraIt is. emperor Caracallahimself. 454.see the index of Welles (1938.renovate. 14. furthermore.that the construction of the East Baths could have been funded by Caracalla. 58. then. Why would Caracallabe featured in a major imperial-typebath complex in the Arabiancity of Gerasa? The North Hall adds a new example to a group of at least four other bath complexes in the Roman provinces that honored Caracallaor were connected to him.Yeiml 1992. in at Gerasa.was found in the CaraForum Baths at Thubursicum Numidarum. who visited the city (honored by six). Antoninus found at Gerasaall do represent the Sevethen Caracallaranks in the eyes of ran emperor. Thus. who. especially with the other evidence for Caracalla'sdedication of his massive baths at Rome and also of a provincialbath complex at Hippo Regius (noted above).103 motivationsfor Gerasa'sdedication of a portraithonoring Caracallacome to mind. 204. in his 1938 voluminous work on the historical topography of the site.105 evidence for the fact that Gerasawas granted colony Antoniniana Aurelia status. to consider a fourth and final possible connection between Gerasa and Caracalla. long before the North Hall was excavated. 590-1). his declarationof the constiand. possibly including Gerasa. 55. Such a conclusion would have pleased Kraeling.referto other suchasAntoninus Marcus andElagabalPius.There is. 98 287. which might have included a stop at Sardis. 230-1.101 Finally. This content downloaded from 62. or even whether they refer to the city of Gerasain particular(the name of the cityis not mentioned in either. cat.104 not entirely implausible.106 to support the noevidence is little there however. The portrait of Caracallafrom the North Hall. pl.D. 171) notes thatitwasfarmore commonfor 104Fagan emperorsto restore. the dedication of the so-called Marble Court in the Bath-GymnasiumComplex at Sardis may be related to Caracalla'sjourney through the East. 154. 318-9. makes the Philippopolis/Shahba group an important comparandum for the North Hall sculptural installations.110 Alexander the Great its founder. 103For the dedicationshonoringTrajan.Caracallahas long been associated with Gerasa based on two inscriptions of the third century A. and therefore must have been granted this status by the As Millar points out. Hippo Regius to the memory scholar has proposed that these baths were a replica of the emperor's larger baths at Rome. 179. found at the These two inscriptions are read by some as site.85 on Tue.434 ELISE A. n. "Manderscheid 1981. Thus each of these locales. 110 1 thankAndrewM. 191.

ed with quarries in Greece (Thasos. 214 by Philippopolis in Thrace depict Caracallaas Alexander in honor of the emperor'svisit to the Pythiangames.204. we see the dedication of statuaryby members of the local elite. CONCLUSION From the perspective of the Roman world. Because the two second-centuryA. and political relationship between local Semitic. in order to compete with earlier Roman emperors (like Trajanand Hadrian) who had won significantcivic attention at Gerasa. the elite of the city represented themselves as distinctively Roman and as viable members of the Roman political realm. social. Greek. and a portrait of a governor of the province. with one dedication to the emperor Caracallasecurely dated to the early third century A. and largess on these provinces.. With the Roman annexation of the region beginning in 64/63 B. as some have suggested. cultural. but it also includes individual dedications interspersed throughout the hall. however. regional. beginning in the sixth century B. Despite its previous insular character.85 on Tue.. This chronology of sculptural dedication seems to suggest new dates for the construction and use of the North Hall and perhaps the East Baths. the ancient Near Eastwas a place on the culturaledge. several portraits of non-imperial individuals. in particular) and in Asia Minor.D.Apollo. and incidentally. The subjects of the second-century installation include typical bath topoi. The imported marble of the North Hall sculptures is associatmCass.Dio£^.D.C. architectural. religion. Thus. a region originally characterizedby Semitic religious and literarytraditionsand. At the same time. and imperial contexts. Dionysos. This content downloaded from 62. (not in the third century as proposed by Kraeling and accepted by others). The North Hall is identified as a basilical hall within the East Baths.192. a hermaphrodite.D. a Muse (perhaps).D. Millar1964. 440-5. culture. Thus the North Hall and perhaps the East Baths were built during a period of heightened urbanization in the Roman Near East. and Roman traditions.during this period parts of the Near East adopted.this region was drawninto the Classical realm. urban.D.and bath buildingsmade clear the new cultural presence. and altered by people from the Greek and Hellenistic worlds.and particularlythe political landscape of the Near East? This study of five marble sculptures discovered in the North Hall of the East Baths at Gerasa has addressed some of these questions by placing the sculptures in their artistic. thus establishing clear connections between the easternmost province of Arabia and both more central and marble-rich provinces of the empire.C. when emperors were lavishing attention. The sculptural installation as it would have appeared in the early third century A. these patrons depicted themselves to the local inhabitants of Gerasa as exceptionally influential and empow112Levick 1969. But. Admittedly. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the construction of colonnaded streets. but then renovated in the early third century. but in the numismatic record as well: coins struck in A. employingmilitarygear and cups thought to have been used by Alexander. social customs. Greek language. and especially following the conquest of Alexander the Great.theaters. with varyingdegrees of intensity.D. erecting portraits of the Hellenistic ruler in Rome. portraitswear the toga as opposed to the much more common local himation and tunic. Caracallatoo professed connections to Alexander: the Severan ruler fancied himself the later embodiment of the greathero.by aniconic art. the sculptures decorated a major social hall within a specifically Roman type of bath building built throughout the empire. In this provincial group. these portraits of private individuals offer an important key to understanding this assemblage within the broader framework of Romanization. Caracallawas indeed imitating Alexander the Great's route through the and if the Gerasene foundation legend held East. When considered in their eastern context. and raisinga Macedonian phalanx. 78.7-9.112 any swaywith the Severan emperor. infiltrated. 215. social. in some areas. and even art and architecture. These sculptures were dedicated primarily in the middle to late second century A. such as a satyr. How did this infiltration of Roman culture occur?Whydid it occur in some areasbut not in others?How did it alter the social. (the date for which we have the latest datable dedication in the hall) revealsimportant information about the sculptural decoration of baths in general and the messages of this installation in particular. perhaps he did visitthe city in order to stayon his hero's course.111 This connection is not only borne out in the literary sources.nymphaea. but more so by the city itself. colonized.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 435 nections with the Macedonian ruler. which are associated with Krencker's small imperial type. The display appears to have been installed in several groups that screened major entrances and exits of the hall. how did Roman rule of this region alter the Semitic and Hellenized sociopolitical terrain?One of the most interesting and long-studied questions of the Roman Near East is the cultural. visits. Current evidence suggests that the North Hall was built in the second century A. If.

. round nipples that point outward. H. the elite of Gerasa engaged in euergetistic acts. 0. with several folds encircling the breast and two lying directly atop it. objets created and used within specific geographic. a position emphasized by the gathered mass of draperyatop it. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .social. therefore.85 on Tue. 1) Found 5. 10. pointing at the nipple. First. The neck is highly modeled with muscles shown as two strong. by the second half of the second century A.the local Gerasenes not only adopted the Roman cultural institution of bathing and its associated monumental architecture. a 113 Firsthand betweencitiesand emperorsare relationships knownto have intensifiedin the RomanNear Eastfrom the Severanperiod to the mid third centuryA.17 m. the city of Gerasacultivated a firm connection with the Roman administrativepresence (the governor) and then with the Roman emperor both for the prestige of their city and of its local aristocracy. parallel drill channels that follow the curve of the torso. as can be seen throughthe frequentpresenceof emperorsin thisregionand the increasein the grantingof colony statusto cities (Millar 1990. Light reddishbrown stains cover majorityof back. they imported marble statuary to their remote eastern city to communicate messages of their participation in the broader political. the appendixof whichpreHabilitationsschrift sentsbriefcatalogueentriesof allthe marblesculpturediscovered inJordan.5 m south of pilaster H within North Hall. glittering crystals.the remaining right shoulder curves forward. may or maynot be related to a special relationship between Gerasaand this Severan ruler.D. youthful breasts topped with knob-like. These sculptures demonstrate. The left clavicle is rendered in greater dimension and on a sharper diagonal than that on the right.. male youth. shows that the local elite who ran the city utilized these sculptures as tools to declare their direct connections to the Roman emperor. 1thankThomasWeberfor of hisrecently withme the galleys published sharing graciously (Weber2002). position. that at least to some degree. there are two short. Damage to left nipple. then down the central axis of the torso. social. full. Broken through neck and mid-torso above navel. Through contextual study of this material. the elite of the originally Greek The sculpturcity of Gerasaaspired to be "Roman. and influence. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 ered. is rendered as a deep depression. a deep depression for the sternum.Finally. chronological. ART DEPARTMENTAND PROGRAMIN CLASSICALSTUDIES ROLLINS COLLEGE 1 OOOHOLT AVENUE.2676 WINTER PARK." the demonstrates installation also al importance of as material d'art of such the study culture. and by their associations with the Roman administration. artistic.D. White marble. The torso of the youth is fully modeled to show a varietyof anatomical details: the central axis of the figure. Towardthe front of this underarm between the torso and now-missingupper arm.architectural. and cultural arenas of the Roman empire. reconstructed scale: life-size to slightly under life-size.204. Gerasa114 1.running diagonallyfrom atop the right shoulder across the right side to below the sternum.alongside the dedication to the governor of Arabiaand the two togate portraitsof privateindividuals.39-40). medium. The addition of the dedication to Caracallain the earlythird centuryA. The right underarm is represented by an expanse of nude flesh with a concave center. where it ends in a narrowpoint above the now-missingnavel. The area between the clavicles. also to the left of the central axis of the torso. W. A narrowgarmentcoversthe right breast. The garment emphasizes the figure's right breast. 0. political. Multiple hairline cracks radiate through piece. This piece preserves the upper torso of a mostly nude. Front of torso pitted and abraded overall. as though it were made of thick. 0. this dedication to the emperor by the city. D.famed for his imitation of Alexander (also the city's legendary founder) .3) (fig. as did other elite in major urban centers throughout the Roman Near East. FLORIDA 32789 EFRIEDLAND@ROLLINS. modern scholars can gain important insights into cultural change in the Roman world.47 m. vertical ridges stretched to the left and the Adam's apple bulging in between. and historicalcontexts. On the left side of the torso.44 m.436 ELISE A. Whatever the impetus for its erection.192. portions of garment atop right shoulder and along central axis of body. 114 The following catalogue is an updated version of that whichappearedin Friedland 2001. The garment is rendered as smooth and flat with wide folds. This content downloaded from 62. Upper torso of a satyr (NEB. Though the piece lacksboth arms.D. weighty material. Second.EDU Appendix: Catalogue of the Sculptures from the North Hall of the EastBaths.which reinforced the social hierarchy of these cities in terms of personal status.and ripples of the muscles above both sides of the rib cage. by their wealth.113 The sculptural program of the North Hall sends three important messages about this Arabian city. by their euergetism.

117Friedland 1997. and the original seems to have been created in part to display the nubile features via the nude torso. 114. youthful.85 on Tue. Maenads. originally created by Praxiteles around 360 B.065 m high x 0. 0. This feature does not seem to be representational or functional. no.89 m.192. It may represent later recarving. The arrangement of the nebris on the right side of the torso alone makes it difficult to discern how the garment was secured to the figure. Lower torso and thighs of Apollo or Dionysos (NEB. 2) Found in the southeastern corner of North Hall among column shafts. which is rendered in higher relief and on a steeper diagonal than that on the right. Date. Alternately. W. 1999.1130. medium.Fiche27.A-11. 50-1. Greece. and the arc in the upper portion of the axis of the torso. it is difficult to identify any comparanda for it or assign a date to it. 146-7.4) (fig. The piece was meant to be seen from the front and sides.116If this piece is a variant of the "Pouring Satyr" type. Because the majority of both arms is missing. 0. oval-shaped area of marble. Based on the nebris and the lack of side-locks commonly worn by Dionysos and Apollo. The left upper arm was held alongside the torso. White marble. or hoofs often depicted on these skins. the piece may be identified as a satyr.C. the modeling and drapery established on the front are continued on the back. Isotopic analysis of marble samples taken from the sculpture show that the marble of this piece was quarried in Cape Vathy/Thasos. Missing genitalia. One short fold arcs straight over the shoulder and disappears beneath three broader folds that flow diagonally across the back from the top of the right shoulder. the left clavicle. 1-21. Surface of pubic region abraded.Gercke 1968. Sculptural Type The almost complete nudity. Though other marble representations of various types of satyrs have been found throughout the Roman Near East. nor does it seem to be part of the original piece. there is a slightly raised. as is indicated by the position of the underarm. Silenoi no. full. The garment worn by this figure is a nebris. Silenos.31 m. Comparanda. 116DAIR. the thick faun-skin worn by Dionysos.41 m. Pit- 115 L/MC8. and to the left side of the lower back.115Though none of the 24 replicas of this type listed by P. the left arm may have been bent at the elbow and resting atop a tree stump. and occasionally satyrs. such as the ears. becoming broader. adjacent to the side of the body until its middle. though the unique arrangement of the nebris may indicate workshop associations. worked flange of marble along the front of the broken arm and the V-shape of the break on the left side of the torso. Corso 1988. as in one version in the Palazzo Doria. the nebris is a common attribute of the satyr and may have been added to a replica of this type occasionally. 212. across the spine at mid-torso. The entire surface of the torso is smoothed and polished. it is difficult to determine what the figure may have held. Gercke in his Satyrn des Praxiteleswear a nebris. that preserves the lower portions of small point-chisel marks (0. as is evident from several anatomical features: the position of the neck muscles and Adam's apple.2003] ROMAN MARBLE SCULPTURES FROM GERASA 437 short. protruding nipples. and WorkshopAssociation Because so little of this piece is preserved. D. and gesture associate this piece with several Praxitelean sculptural types. R£construction The head was turned sharply to the left. 0.204. the heavy texture and broad. The right arm was held up and was rotated so that the elbow faced the front rather than the side. flat folds indicate that this garment is not made of cloth. Modeling indicates the depression of the spine and rounded shoulder blades. that on the right slightly broader and flatter than that on the left. if anything. face. At the top of the spine and on either side of it (though more so on the right) . though its pointed end may have heightened the sexuality of the figure by directing the viewer's attention to the figure's genitalia. none are of this type. reconstructed scale: larger than life-size.117 2. as indicated by the raised. 9-13. but of some denser material such as animal hide. its full gesture may be reconstructed with the left arm bent at the elbow and extended forward to hold a phiale. This content downloaded from 62. perhaps a version of the "Pouring Satyr" type. H. polished surface of the skin and minimal use of the drill found on this piece are commensurate with the technical characteristics of sculptural workshops of northern imperial Greece. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . male breasts with rounded. The narrow garment continues across the back. Though this pelt preserves no evidence of the animal itself. Though the back of the piece is not as fully worked as the front. glittering crystals. The smooth. Broken through middle of torso and thighs.085 m wide).Fuchs 1969. now abraded. arced drill channel separates the torso from the remaining ridge of the left arm.

21 m high x 0. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and two chisel lines delineate the sides of the pubes from the lower abdomen and upper thighs. On the right side. leaving a triangular-shapedbroken surface between the upper thighs. The back of the figure is also highly modeled. the one on the right deeper than that on the left. right leg based on the position of the right leg directly under the central axis of the body. a large. The uppermost portion of the triangular pubic area and a small area along the left side are well preserved and polished with no indication of pubic hair. SculpturalType This figure may be identified as Apollo or Dionysos based on its nudity. somewhat developed musculature. with two depressions on either side of the spine.192. which lay on the right and left inner thighs. whose right side is more three-dimensional and held higher than the left. broken area (0. Light reddish-brownstains cover front. tensed muscles of the right hip and leg are indicated by a concave depression on the right hip and upper buttock. The genitalia are missing. forks at mid-torso into two horizontal ridges that outline the bottom of the ribs. A single. The left leg must have been bent and extended toward the front. On the left side of the figure. This piece preserves the lower torso and upper thighs of a nude. the preserved portion of the left thigh extends forward. the tensed muscles of the right buttock. lower abdomen. a common technique. A narrow drill channel separates the buttocks. a gentle depression indicates the central axis of the body. muscular man. and the bulging muscles at the middle of the inner. The right buttock protrudes more toward the back and is more rounded and compact than the left buttock. the waist is more sharplyindented than on the left. A depression down the middle of the back. area below pelvic girdle on right. the position of the genitalia on the inner side of the right leg. dubbed "sexy This content downloaded from 62.the soft rendering of the groin and lack of pubic hair associate this figure with depictions of youthful males. which is punctuated by the navel. one above and one below. and the position of the support on the outer hip of the free leg. The active. shallow. The legs are held tightly together until just above the middle of the thighs. an elongated. In particular. In contrast to the right. toward the viewer. The torso is heavily modeled. This piece is the only sculpture from the North Hall group that is fully modeled and polished on all sides. possibly crossing the right leg. The torso is finished by a broad. a small ripple indicates the top of the pubes. It may have been displayedwhere it could be viewed from all sides. extending 0. lack of pubic hair. The center of the torso swells to show the muscles beneath the ribs and the upper abdomen.85 on Tue. Surface broken awayon front and sides of both thighs and on back of right thigh above break. Because there are not other breaks on the torso or legs that would indicate attachment points for arms or drapery. modeling indicates the lower portion of the rib cage. On both sides. Reconstruction The figure stood with its weight on a straight. connects the left side of the genitalia to the inner side of the left thigh. The broken areas below this drill hole are remnants of the figure's testicles. The right leg extends down and inward under the body. The thighs and buttocks are also modeled to indicate the bulk of the figure.07 m from the end of the pelvic girdle. roughly-horizontalbridge of marble (0.025 m wide). so that it is almost aligned with the central axis of the figure.12 m wide) runs from the hip down the side of the left buttock and onto the upper thigh. tiny drill hole pierces the center of this broken area. as indicated by the extension of the upper left thigh toward the viewer.it is impossible to reconstruct the figure's gesture. drilled areas. pelvic girdle. perhaps in the center of a room rather than up against a wall or in a niche. Along the middle of the torso. The sides and back of the figure are as fully carved and polished as the front. slightly raised. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 ting on torso on either side of navel. created by two wide. The left buttock is broad and elongated and extends below the right buttock and on a slight diagonal towardthe left. right thigh. A small. dark brown accretions cover upper back and bottom of buttocks. which indicates the spine. In comparison.438 ELISE A. The drill hole at the center of the pubic region was for the insertion of a separatelycarved penis. The drill channel that separates the buttocks continues to divide the legs. rendering of the groin. the left thigh is modeled as broad and flat with an almost square side. and the elongated left buttock. and inner right thigh. From this triangulararea. and the diagonal of the pelvic girdle. A raised broken ridge surrounds the edges of this oval-shaped area. the rounded upper thigh. At the lower point of the pelvic girdle. oval-shaped. Tooth chisel marks were left around this raised ridge and on the flesh surrounding the broken area.204. The lower back is swayed. broken area with an oval-shapedend spills onto the inner side of the right thigh. The back edge of this broken area is flush with the back of the left leg.

the supports attach at points much lower than that common on these Apollo and Dionysos types. Dionysosno.497. 0.436.192. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Date. W. Areas of grayish. often either tree trunks or tripods attached at the hip as on the Gerasa piece.386-7. 122.and the Dioskouroi). Greece. Because little of this sculpture is preserved and there are few iconographic or technical features on its remaining portions. 54. 1999.861-3.the Apollo Lykeios. Comparanda. This piece preservesthe lower portion of a draped figure standing atop a high base (0. 52-4.119 large.129 A colossal Dionysos from Beth Shean. majorityof back of base. 119 theDoryphoros. 581). pls.Hermes.theDioskouroi.Traces of red pigment on top of first row of letters in inscription. 183a-b.379-80.204.and Adonis were all represented as such.17 m high). 9-13.758. 161. 15-6. This area was once an attachment point for a support. PoseiThe don. the Gerasafigure is most likely to have represented a version of the Apollo or Dionysos Lykeios.Whilethe Herakles" is often shown without pubic hair (LIMC "Young 4. Fischer1998. 122 LIMC2.see 263. Ganymede. 131Friedland 1997. marble representations of both Apollo and Dionysos are found throughout the Roman Near East. Paris. 120 LIMC2. oval-shapedbroken area on the outer side of the left hip suggests that this Gerasa piece may be more specifically identified as Apollo or Dionysos. 0. 50-1. cement-like substance overall.126 Sculptural types of Paris feature an entirely different type of support that runs the entire length of the free. and along diagonal line on left side of front of base. the lower edge of the garment is pulled back to reveal the front of an unshod foot. no.three middle toes on left foot. LIMC 4.35 m.Damage to front of rocky base. 1-4. above ankles. on the sculptural types of Eros. 651 and LIMC of Heraklesare depictedwith the majority of representations pubichair.209. Harpokrates Ganymedes4 and 124.211. Heraklesno. On the left side of the piece. pl.435-6.Poseidon. Heraklesno.for a discussionof the renderingof the groin.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 439 boys"in one recent study of these types. south of and between pilaster H and column I. Hermes. The foot. polished surface of the skin and extremely minimal use of the drill found on this piece are commensurate with the technical characteristicsof sculptural workshops of northern imperial Greece. edge of left corner of drapery. Apollon nos. reconstructed scale: life-size.C. though those of Dionysos are more numerous. pl. glittering crystals. 183. Three-dimensional. Dionysosno. which is turned outward toward the left and extends to the edge of the base. There are few sculpturaltypes that feature supports attached to their free legs and at this specific a varietyof othpoint.d. Ganymede. 39. 123 LIMC3. Missing front right corner fold of drapery. 3) Found in middle of North Hall.LIMC 127 See LIMC1. Harpokrates. 126 See LIMC 3. Eros 77. and WorkshopAssociation tions of Apollo include an Apollo from the Precinct of Kore at Samaria-Sebaste now in the Jordan Archaeological Museum128 (although the support is attached to the weight leg) and two Apollo Kitharodes from Beirut. perhaps by Praxiteles. 125 LIMC3. 4. Dionysosno. 124 LIMC3.51 m. 78a. 159-60. n. a sculptural type originallythought to have been created in the middle of the fourth centuryB. White marble.2) (fig. 7. Herakles. 67 and L/MC2. Broken through lower portion of figure. D. 1957. such as the Richelieu Type.130also with the support attached to the weight leg..127 Thus. 100. Isotopic analysis of marble samples taken from the sculpture show that the marble for this piece was quarried at Cape Vathy/Thasos. Apollon no.85 on Tue. Related representa118 Bartman2002. 74. 221. LIMC2. for a discussionof the lack of pubic hair in these types.131 3. 125. Israeli1992.124 and the Terme Type.Whitish-pinkaccretions cover top break. H.118 Dionysos. see 255-6. along left side of inscription area. Apollon/Apollo no.36 m. 200a.. Apollo (occasionally). 121 L/MC2. X.125 all sport supports on their free legs. Apollonno. Zeus. 79b. 128 Crowfootet al. and Harpokratesthat feature supports.122 the Dionysos Lykeios123 and other Dionysos types related to it.Apollon/Apollo no.444-5. 196. it is difficult to associate this piece with a specific sculptural workshop or assign a date to it. Base of statue of Apollo or a Muse with a sculptor's signature (NEB. 5. upper left corner of inscription.193-4. Eros. medium. 222. 0. Alexandras2a. 47. Dark gray accretions cover back break. In contrast.418. however. The smooth. and back right corner. right side of the body. 4. andthe Diadoumenosareallshownwithpubichair.761. in contrastto athletic types (such as the Doryphoros and the Diadoumenos) and depictions of mature or especially masculine deities (such as Zeus. This content downloaded from 62. 129Jidejian 130Foerster and Tsafrir1990. is the only sculptural representation of this deity found in Palestine related to the North Hall piece. no.120 er related Apollo types such as the Apollo Kitharode121 and the combination of the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Kitharode. 211-2.155.

105 m wide x 0. highly polished. the gown cascades onto the top of the base. no.chiseled band along its lower edge. which contains five lines of an inscription whose letters become larger with each succeeding line (letter height: 0.Weber 1990.125 m high). is smoothed and highly polished. frames and emphasizes the inscription.The front of the base is inscribed with five lines of Greek text that read: ANTINEI NOSANTI OSOYAAE ZANAPEYE OAYTOSEnOIEI or "Antoneinos. and its posture. 352. atop a rocky outcrop. a vertical chisel line runs down the preserved portion of the drapery to meet the base approximately0. the flow of the draperypreservesthe narrow. flat folds are delineated with chisel lines on the left face of this inverted V. a thick.892.185 m back from the front of the piece. turned outward. because the complete dimensions of the base are preserved. SEG40 (1990). The exact posture of the figure is more difficult to reconstructbecause of the absence of the right foot and leg. and the edges of the drapery are preserved flush with the back of the piece. irregularly shaped sockets (0. although it is not completely centered.133 nymphs are most often shown with one leg lifted 132Donderer 2001. The fifth line of this area has been extended to the right so that the inscription space is 0. Three broad. Several folds are roughly indicated on the preserved portion of the back. left leg to the side. The preserved portion of the garment is smoothed. not sitting. Toward the front of the right side. The bottom of the base. which cascade down vertically and end in swirlingfolds. 1392. slightly raised inscription area (0. although the letters in the extended band are smaller than those on the main area and not carved perfectly horizontally. not a seat or throne. On the right side of the piece. This content downloaded from 62. the Alexandrian. Therefore. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 whose toes are delineated with drill channels and whose toenails are created by chisel lines. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 178. The inverted V of drapery. the gown is carved unrealistically into a squared corner. The inverted V-shape of the drapery and movement at the curved corners may indicate that the figure was striding forward. 438. a technical feature which coincides with the lesser degree of finish and the square shape of the back of this piece.204. the bottom of the garment falls to the outer edge of the base covering its top entirely. son of Antiochos. It is framed by thick. rounded stones. This piece was meant to be seen from the front. while only one fold is shown on the right. its unshod left foot. so that the right foot is concealed. several interlocking diagonal folds create a wrinkled effect. and the remaining portion of the back are rendered as flat. To the left of center. there are single. its floor-length drapery. The stones on the right are more evenly shaped and arranged than those on the left.03 m wide).15 m wide.0175-0. Overall. the garment fans outward and forward to create an inverted.025 m) .440 ELISE A. and decorated with a narrow. sides. three-dimensional fold runs vertically to the base. also preserves a rectangular shape. 2a. while at the center. no. it is clear that the figure was standing. the underside of the base is not broken. gathered folds. The draperyclings to the foot to indicate its shape. At the back on the left. At the front. Drill channels create deep folds that separate the foot from the garment and the base. Sculptural Type This figure may be identified as a representation of either a Muse or an Apollo based on the rocky outcrop. even surfaces with squared edges.192."132 Reconstruction Although the back of the piece is broken.rectangularshape of the original block of marble from which this piece was carved. there is a rectangular. V-shaped plane with its front corners composed of gathered folds. made [this sculpture] himself. The base is carved with a flat chisel to represent a rocky outcrop composed of multiple. The two sockets on either side may have been meant to facilitate anchoring the statue to the walls of a niche. which are more elongated and amorphous. 133 L/MC8. and in left three-quartersview. which was worked with a point chisel. The figure may have stood with its weight on a concealed right leg and trailed its free. the missing portion can only have represented drapery. The symmetry of the lower portion of the drapery makes it unlikely that one foot was lifted up higher than the other. since it recedes from the center of the inscribed area but sweeps forward on either side of it. In the middle of both the right and left sides of the base.85 on Tue. Though the front of the base is unevenly carved. Centered on the front of the base. While the standing nymph type is often depicted atop a rocky landscape.025 m deep x 0. its top (in front of the drapery). From here. in left profile.

375. 451-2. an integral atedwitha rockyoutcrop (L/MC2.808-9. particularlythat of the alpha.Mousainos. 171a. both wear long chitons that end in swirling folds around their feet. 135 LIMC 7. this inscribed statue broaches interesting questions about the identity. 139Manderscheid 1981. on the basis of its letter forms and the name of the sculptor. rocky ground as in the Gerasa piece. resting on a raised rockyarea.becausein both inscriptions Alexandria takeson the which wasnever adopted by Alexandria epithet of Hadrianus. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Aphrodite nos. 138Frova 1966.Apollon no. L/MC2. signature is unusual145 be some sort of advertisement? Indeed. exposed.D.143 clear that the term "Alexandrian" refers to the sculptor's ethnicity. and training of the While it seems sculptor of this East Baths piece. 175. like the Muse from Miletos.1012. As noted above.particularly ArtemisRospigliositype (LIMC 2. 214-220. again providing a date of the mid to late second century A.D. unshod foot. 182-3.Aphroditenos. polished surface of the skin and minimal use of the drill found on this piece are commensurate with the technical characteristicsof sculptural workshops of northern imperial Greece. 445).it is difficult to associate this piece with a specific sculptural workshop.141 This piece. however. The smooth. 9-13.1045. no. 141Friedland 1997. Despite this iconographic similarity. Both figures stand atop rocky bases.144 does it also refer to his place of artistic training? The addition of "himself to the . the "Nymph" type and the "Aphroditeon a rockyseat. Althoughone Athena/Minervatypeis associno. Two Aphrodite types. who stand with their weight on one concealed foot. are datable to roughly the second half of the second century A. comparable to those on the Gerasa piece. the Gerasa piece may be dated to A.there is some confusion aboutwhetherthe termAlexandrianrefersto the city in Egypt.140The name of the sculptor. 198-9.D.1094. Date. 193 and 194). 219. rather than standing with both feet atop flat. 178. workshop affiliations.have been recorded from this region. The iconographic similarities between the Gerasa Apollo/Muse and the Muse from the Baths of Faustina at Miletus suggest that. pl. leaving the other foot outturned and trailing to the side.85 on Tue. but also the letter forms and content of the inscription. 300f. Even fewer representationsof Muses. 247. 145 Donderer 2001. 43. The shapes of the letters. Greece.142 tells us that he is an Alexandrian. however.203.outturned. but neither one correInstead. Apollon no. 50-1. 137 L/MC7. fig. Occasionally in the vaisdepictedstandingatopa rockyoutcrop. son of Antiochos.135 Though the Gerasapiece may not move so vigorously. 360. 139 The sculptor's signature can be dated from the mid to the late second century A. 646-7.134 the stance of the Gerasafigure is most comparable to several Muse types (especially the Dancing Muse). who strides forward on one foot.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 441 up. (Welles1938. 140 Welles 1938. and WorkshopAssociation This piece is most comparable in iconography and composition to a Dancing Muse standing atop a rocky outcrop from the Baths of Faustina at Milebut the Miletos Muse stands with her weight tos.. both of whicharevictorlists (Welles1938. with only one draped female from the theater at Caesarea Maritimapossibly identified as a muse. and both have only one. 1 thankThomasWeberfor calling my attentionto the inscribedstatuebase in the marketof Jerashand to this publicationof it. The long chitons of these Apollos swirl around their feet in omega-folds. sigma.192. 276). 35h). because not enough of its style and technical features remain. feature of this type is that the figure is seated. adAewptum 144 Donderer 2001. no. because she is hunting. pl. are exceedingly rare in the imBecause Antoninos. the longdebated existence of a so-called Alexandrian school 134 LIMC 2.D. Mousa. 42. while the other foot emerges from the drapery. 31. along with another statue base inscribed by the same sculptor and today built into the central market of Jerash. This content downloaded from 62. based on comparison with the letter forms of other inscriptions from Gerasa that are internally dated. associates this craftsman with the period sometime during or soon after the reign of the Antonine emperors. 142Donderer 2001. rather than Artemis/Minerstandingasin the Gerasa piece. 363. and upsilon. then. 5.it is also comparable to several Apollos. n..137 her left leg and stridesforwardto lean on a slighton ly upraised right leg. 175-200. sponds to the Gerasa piece in posture.could this signature. Antoninos son of Antiochos.only twoothersmentionAlexandrians. relativelyfew sculptural depictions of Apollo have been found in the Roman Near East.92-3. 14. no. epsilon. because sculptor's signatures.136 Comparanda. 143 Of the many inscriptionsrecoveredfrom Gerasa. this Artemistype is alwaysdepicted with her chiton hiked up aboveher knees (ratherthan flowing to the ground as in the Gerasapiece) . zeta.74.D. 136 LIMC 2. 178. 1999. except for those from Aphrodisias. based not only on the sculptural comparanda. Isotopic analysis of marble samples taken from the sculpture show that the marble of this piece was quarried in Cape Vathy/Thasos. 34. 867-8.204. most notably the Apollo Kitharode. however."are associated with rocky outcrops. 135. perial East.138 This piece may be dated to the mid to late second century A. no.nos. are particularlyimportant.

204. or Corinth?From what quarries did these purported Alexandrian sculptors get white marble? Altogether. and his free. his right hip thrust outward.running from the top of the right hip to left shoulder. shoulder blades. from just below the right knee.192. back of left arm. 4. One unbroken fold rises up to frame the right side and back of the neck. and are slung over the left arm and shoulder. gathered folds of the toga curve up over the right shoulder and cascade down along the outside of the right arm. The figure's chiastic pose provides balance.148 ars have argued that stylistic evidence points to Alexandrian sculptors' carving marble statuary for Important questions remain. 4. patrons in Arabia. The balteus is punctuated by a large. D. The back of the piece is not as fully carved as the front and sides. though the posture and gesture of the figure and the patterns of the drapery are decidedly asymmetrical. right side of toga. This content downloaded from 62. The figure holds his right arm along his side. left and right wrists. The folds of the sinus sweep up diagonally. broad. H. 147Lyttelton 148 Donderer 2001.146Moreover. particularly in regard to purported Alexandrian influences on the architecture and relief sculpture at Petra. A wide balteus torso of the figure diagonally. Broken through neck. 125. roughly triangular knot.442 ELISE A. the base of a square strut is preserved (0. Below the bottom of the left wrist (0. the drapery lies flat to emphasize the bent leg. 100.149 however. A square mass of marble. On the right three-quartersof the back. 1.33 m. Atop the left lower thigh and knee. and calves. was left at the nape of the neck (0. the so-called Alexandrian school played in creating the host of marble statues that enlivened the urban centers of the Roman Near East. what technical or stylistic features are unique to these purported Alexandrian sculptors?Were the sculpting traditions of these purported Alexandrian sculptors indigenous or were they trained in any of the other major workshops such as the marble centers at Aphrodisias.. if any. White marble. Furthermore.08 m wide x 0. Heavy. medium to large. The tunic features a V-shaped neckline. For example. 146 For the continued debate about the difficultiesin using Alexandrianartas a viablecategoryof stylein the Hellenistic andRomanperiods. McKenzie1996.85 on Tue. Reddish-brown and dark gray stains on drapery cover front of torso. 149 Weber and Wenning 1997. left leg bent slightly at the knee. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The figure stands with his weight on his right leg.085 m) and parallel to it. Black and yellowish-white accretions cover neck strut. On the front. The neck is carefully modeled to show the depression between the clavicles to the right of the central axis of the figure. extending it awayfrom the torso at the middle of lower arm. Togatus(NEB. 150Goette 1990. glitteringcrystals. Beneath the now-broken left wrist. The majority of the piece is covered by a longsleeved tunic and heavy toga whose folds are highly polished and created by deep drill channels.5) (fig. The left arm is also held against the torso but is bent at a 90° angle so that the forearm extends out toward the viewer and slightly to the left. 0. reconstructed scale: life-size. E. trained in the Graeco-Roman tradition.045 m wide). The left neck muscle and clavicle are rendered in higher dimension than those on the right. This piece preservesa male figure wearing a toga.04 m deep).lbQ navel.Empereur1998. seeBonacasa andDiVita1995J. flat folds. further work remains to be done on the elusive identity of all of the sculptors who carved the marble statues found from Alexandria to Palmyraand what role. heavy folds run diagonally toward the center of the figure. and Blagg 1990. worked only with a chisel. 0.63 m.30 m. which is highly polished. W. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 makes it tempting to take this reference as evidence for regional marble sculptors. arcing slightly to indicate the breast. Ephesos. this connection needs to be studied and documented further where three-dimensional Roman marble statuary is concerned.065 m high x 0. the large umbo at the center of the torso forms a focal point. approx. Damage to edges of folds throughout. the Uthat rests slightly above the figure's shaped umbo. The drapery flows evenly over the left crosses the shoulder with no breaks. Anatomy is revealed only at the base of the neck. drapery on left side of back and buttocks.05 m high x 0. 124. punctuated at its center by a similarlyshaped fold on the center of the chest. Although a recent epigraphic study of Alexandrian sculptors' signatures shows that this signature and the related one in the central market at Jerash are the only two signatures of Alexandrian sculptors several scholknown from the Roman Near East.PaulGetty Museum1996. carved only with a point chisel.g.147 Still. 4) Found between column E and pilaster F on the stylobate in North Hall. flow downward. a rectangular depression is carved between the folds of the toga that flow over both sides of the arm. some scholars emphasize the impact of Alexandria on Arabia. Small fragment of drapery attached at lower right arm. right side of the chest.

converging around the back of the knee. and another found in 1940 in the vicinity of the East Baths. n. 90a. Bb 60. Date. Isotopic analyses suggest that the piece the Augustalesat Ostia (Goette 1990. in three-quartersview. cat. the bottom of which was secured by the square strut carved beneath the now-broken left wrist. manifests the to himation. Sculptural Type viving imperial portraiture discovered in the eastern Mediterranean has shown that togate representations of the emperor or members of the imperial familywere rare in comparison to nude or cuirassed and imperial portraits were fairrepresentations. 154 Rose 1997. 128. 35-6. 160 Weber and Wennins 1997.160Two togate figures were discovered at Palmyra and are now on display in the National Museum in Damascus. the life-size scale ly rare in bath complexes. 133. which arcsjust below the right knee.204. cat. 157Kleiner 1992. pl. On the left quarter of the back.. 3-4. 133.161 Both isotopic analyses and technical features associate this piece with the sculptural workshops of Asia Minor. 352. up and across the chest. Comparable togate statues allow a reconstruction of the now-missing hands and suggest what the figure may have held in each.C. from beneath the right arm. Bb 58) and a draped man displayedin the Vatican (Goette 1990.152Because the piece lacks its head and any associated inscription that might have revealed the identity of the individual represented.D.310.157 diagnostic: first. which are published here. Three togati have been found at Gerasa: two discovered in the East Baths in 1984. the depression between the clavicles is positioned slightly to the right of the central axis of the figure. 134. it is difficult to determine A surveyof the surwhom this portrait portrayed. With his right hand. The lack of breaks in the drapery around the figure's neck suggest that the figure did not pull his toga up over his head (capitevelato) and thus was not meant to communicate pietas. 158 Smith 1998. In particular. 135. In the left hand.the sculpting of the folds of the umbo.7. 1976. The piece is alsocomparable a private fromItaly: works to several togatusfromthe House of The arrangement of the drapery on this statue may be compared to pieces dated to the Hadrianic or early Antonine period (mid second century and A. the Vshaped neck-line of the toga is skewed toward the right. next.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 443 curving toward the right. the figure may have gathered the folds of the sinus and pulled them outward. and WorkshopAssociation This statue is an example of a Roman imperial sculptural type depicting men wearing togas with an arrangement of the toga that U-shaped umbines. broad fold falls straight down. This piece was meant to be viewed from the front. 159 Weber 1990.153 151 Goette 1990. the length of the sinus. is a technique for modeling drapery common to the Antonine period. and over the top of the left shoulder. which are created by contrasting deeply drilled channels with flatter or slightlyridged areas of drapery. appears first in the beginning of the last decades of The chronological developthe first century B. and from both sides.65.5. 112. and arcing around the right leg. the position of the balteus and umbo. 94. Bb 89. in contrast Greek himation and tunic. 153 Rose 1997.155 and the high probabilitythat the figure held a scroll in his left hand make it likely that this piece depicted a non-imperial personage.the block of marble at the nape of the neck is deeper on the right than on the left. From beneath this fold. toga-clad statues are uncommon throughout the imperial east after the first century A. a single. pl. 309. the left neck muscle and clavicle are rendered in higher dimension than those on the right. Comparanda. quantity.94.192. 29. 113-7. 91-2. third. Bb82). This sculpturaltype was used to depict both nonimperial and imperial portraits. and second. Finds of togate figures are unusual in the Roman East. 155Manderscheid 1981. 124-5.85 on Tue. pls. 19. when they are outnumbered by figures in The toga. 113. 152 Rose 1997. Reconstruction The figure must have turned his head slightly towardthe right for four reasons:first.159 other fragmentary togate figure has been found at Petra. cat.154 Also.): three privateportraitsfrom Asia Minor156 the figure on the right (Hadrian?) of the so-called Adoption Scene from the Great Antonine Altar at Two details of the toga are particularly Ephesos.D. which is strikingly comparable to this piece and is now on display in the AnJordan Archaeological Museum in Amman.and depth of the folds of the toga and the position and shape of the umbo. In fact. several arced folds curve under the bent left elbow and flow to the front of the piece. running in a straightdiagonal.and finally. 279. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .151 ment of this type maybe traced through the arrangement. slightly awayfrom the right side of his body. 156Goette 1990.6. 161Colledge This content downloaded from 62. the figure probably held a scroll.158 Roman citizenship.fig.

l) (fig. Lower portion of a togatus (NEB. knees.but frequently pieces Pamphylia alsoon piecesfound in Nicomedia. For the most part. Two gathered folds cut across the figure. 163Inan and Rosenbaum1966.Miletus. crosses the left leg at mid-calf. folds of drapery on right side and below right knee. though here they are carved in lower relief. Ridgway 1984. wereeitherimported pretedas evidencethatthese sculptures The fromAsiaMinoror createdbyitinerantAsiaticsculptors. occurrence of neck strutsoutside Asia Minor on sculptures headsfrom in localstone. 1984. Friedland1999. W. and is pulled up between the left leg and the support. medium. The foot is shod in a simple. 0. Light-brown. Cyrene. 0. flat fold runs straight down the left side of the body and ends atop the support. One fold wraps around the now-missing.Inan and Alfoldi-Rosenbaum 1979. the sinus. Fragments of left-most scroll and portion of folds on back attached separately.075 m wide) and a equestor. 189-95). is a technical feature most commonly associated with the workshops of Asia and Caria. Five scrolls stand upright inside the case. 459-64. Two are visible from the front.162 Moreover.01 m wide).while those on the calf are concentric. especiallyon right half of scroll case. 13. and two from the back. resting its weight on its left leg and leaning against a support adjacent to its left side. right ankle. 16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3.see those listedin the indices under "Neck-struts/Nackenstutze" in Inan and Rosenbaum 1966andInanandAlfoldi-Rosenbaum 1979).192.204. The highly polished drapery and flesh as well as emphatic and plentiful drill work in the draperyare characteristicof workshops of Asia Minor. so that they form interlocking arcs. ornamental element arcs between two knobs.see Mendel 1914.maybe explainedeior as creationsof Asiaticsculptors theras the workof itinerant a technicalfeaturenotedon imported localsculptors imitating from Cyrenethathas a Asiaticworks(for a limestoneportrait neck strut.their neck strutsseem best inter- channels. and ThuburboMaius(Braemer1990.163 5.Pergamon. Only two diagonal or arced folds are carved atop the left thigh above the knee.ending in a zigzag pattern between the legs.42. 1399).for a basaltsculpturefrom Der'ain the Hauranthathas a neck strut.105 m long).32 m wide x 0. (Ridgway duringtransport especially 88. 164Goette 1988.04 m wide) encircles the top of the capsa.08 m high x 0. standing flat atop the plinth. the right leg is covered with multiple arcshaped ridges that cling to the bent leg. right half and back of plinth. a calceus that has a thin sole (0.444 ELISE A.85 on Tue. These five scrolls are banded together by a thin fillet (0. the remainder of the drapery is rendered as relatively flat. 190). Neck strutsappearmore on from andPisidian Antioch. curves up toward the left leg. Severalscholarshave suggested weak thatneck struts weredesignedto protectthe structurally neckfrombreakage.see Rosenbaum1960. Two-thirdsof the left foot emerges from beneath the drapery. and along drill channels between drapery folds. Both borders continue onto the left side of the case. Modern toothchisel markscover fold of draperybetween legs and area beneath right knee. that is. Braemer1990. then flows up the inner side of the left leg. H. glittering crystals. Several smaller folds are carved on the outer side of the right leg. the roughly carvedblock of marble preserved at the base of the neck.Several details of the smoothed case are rendered in low-relief on the front: a border that consists of two narrowbands framing a wider central band (0. the square neck strut. runs across the right knee. upper portion of three scrolls.Epheheadswithneck sos. 9-13. 10.andAphrodisias (forexamplesof portrait strutsfrom some of these cities. Missing right ankle and foot. 609-10. Orangish-brownincrustations on front. Becausethis NorthAfrican to the numerous groupisso smallin comparison examplesfrom AsiaMinor.The most well-known group comes from the NorthAfricansitesof Carthage. 52-7. This piece preserves the lower third of a draped figure standing atop a rectangular plinth (0. creating diagonal axes. 0. no.LepcisMagna. The other diagonal fold.39 m. 87-8. A wide.56 m.28 m deep). broad flap folded across its middle. The figure stands with a bent right leg. and the right calf. Broken horizontally through mid-thighs. along inner side of right leg. curves up between the legs.suchasthe limestoneportrait carved Cyreneor the basaltstatuesfrom Syria.164 Much of the figure is sheathed in a toga.79 m. a key dangles from a string that is looped around a small knob (string and key: 0. the broad folds flow straight downward. In contrast. The occurrence of neck strutson pieces found elsewherein the empire is isolated and rare. three from the left side. fitted shoe. On the left side of the figure and between the legs.Utica. This content downloaded from 62. above the bottom of the case a thin. Left side of scroll case and areas on back of piece eroded. reconstructed scale: life-size. adjacent to the five scrolls.on the front a latch that crosses the width of this band ends in a square lock with a gammashaped key hole. and at the bottom another wide border melds into the plinth. The piece also preserves several technical features that associateit with the sculpturalworkshops of Asia Minor. 5) Found near pilaster H in North Hall. FRIEDLAND [AJA107 was carved of marble from Marmara(Proconnesos) or Denizli. 449-52. cement-like incrustationscover right side of back. no. D. The support is carved to represent a rounded scroll-caseor capsa. On the left side. whose folds are highly polished and delineated by drill 162Friedland 1997. so that it clings to the figure's anatomyto reveal thighs. White marble. The ridges on the right thigh are carved in opposing directions.

16 Apr 2013 03:59:29 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . J. "Eros's Flame:Imagesof SexyBoysin Bartman. a large. 1990. except for the two gathered folds of draperythat cross the figure's legs. The piece was meant to be seen from the front. M. 9 May2001. Decapolis.and "transparency" to a lateClaudian/ ple. The back of the piece is not as completely carved as the front. Association Date. 2002.85 on Tue. and Workshop Comparanda. The drapery of the Gerasapiece also lacks the voluminous and multiple folds of Trajanic and Hadrianic togate figures. Stone for this comparanda. Instead.1thank S. tion:Studiesin ArtisticOriginality and Tradition from the Present to Classical edited by E. pers. quantity.Bbl 11." In Carthage et son territoire dans Actes du TVe Vantiquite.M. though the draperyis completed by fulfolds. From the left profile.1983. three extremelybroad folds flow downward.then curve outwardtowardthe right and around the side of the leg. supports for these togate figknights.A. RomanIdeal Sculpture. 1996.204.W. "Unnouveaupanoramade Palmyre.168 these togate figures. quantity.192.pls.166 and "transparency" of its drapery. Alessandriae il mondoellenisticoromano:1. it becomes clear that the lower half of the back of the case was not fully sculpted. Leiden: NederlandsInstituutvoor het NabiieOosten.165 ures often were sculpted in the form of a capsa filled with scrolls.vanLoon." Braemer..whilethe Gerasa togatusis comparable earlyNeronian example from Thessaloniki(Have-Nikolaus 1998. though the back scrolls stand at the same height as the others. cat.chisel-worked the folds are broad and flat and flow vertically. there is gatifromGreecepublishedbyHave-Nikolaus no examplecomparableto the Gerasa togatusin the arrangeof its drapery. I thank S. 259.4. the Gerasadrapery is carved as "transparent" so that. cat. Stone for this comparanda. provinces. The calceus equestor indicates that this piece was most likely a portraitof an equestrian. 4). comm." 100:491-506. 4. back. 169 Goette 1990. 1971." G. a member of the social class of Roman As here. broad fold is carved in greaterdimension with an elongated zigzagfold running down its center. 166 H. Isotopic analysis of marble samples taken from the sculpture show that the marble for this piece was quarried at Cape Vathy/Thasos. cats.T. Ch. the drapery of the lower portion of a togatus from Gerasa has a sinus that extends to the knee. et al. cat.K. Weiss. 2000. 249Antiquity. M. pl. J. Centenariodel museogreco-romano: Alessan1992: Atti del2. Greece.2003] ROMAN MARBLESCULPTURESFROM GERASA 445 visible on the left side and back of the scrolls. onaleitalo-egiziano.G. Cambridge: vardUniversity Press.39) in the placementof the sinusat the knee and the clingingof the drapery to the lowerlegs to revealthe the togatus fromThessaloniki hasmanymore figure's anatomy. Even the zigzag fold that falls between the legs of this Gerasatogatus may be found on one of the two As noted above. This content downloaded from 62. and there are no close parallelsfor this piece in the published togati from the Eastern Based on the arrangement.23. On the left side of the ly carved. 168 Kleiner 1992. "CivicOrganisationwithin the ARAM 4:265-81. diagonalfoldsin itssinus.R. Reconstruction Because much of the upper portion of this piece is missing.136. but too few technical features survive to associate this piece with any particular sculptural workshop. 292. On the right side. E. N.Gazda." In The Ancient ArtofEmula71.Matthiae. 5-15.R.175-98. SculpturalType Like the togatus discussed above (fig. it is not possible to reconstruct the position of the head and arms. Bb 111. edited by ing thePast. AJoint Tribute manEmpire. The fragmentary nature of this piece makes it difficult to date.however. 165 Goette1988. an attribute that announced the literate status and perhaps even the political position or aspirations of the person depicted. and from both sides. in three-quartersview. Viewed from the left side. Congresso internazidria. the majorityof the lower portion of the toga clings to the legs and reveals the man's anatomy beneath. 167 Goette1990.and lacksthe zigzagfolds of the Gerasaexample.Bbl 10. 1990.C. fig. Hadrian and the Citiesof the RoBonacasa.t."Unportraitde Shahba-Philippopolis et l'iconographiede Philippe l'Arabe. Rome:L'ERMA di Bretschneider. Between the legs. Works Cited Baity. Les relations commercialeset culturellesde Carthage avec1' Orientromaina partirde documents scultees.For examment. Roman Arabia.S. Goette. 1995. Ann Arbor:University of MichiganPress. Custos: Bassett.and H. to Adnan Bounni. Bowsher. 23.Goettefor thisreference. 23-27 novembre Annales archeologiques arabessyriennes 21:11 7-28.muchmore three-dimensional drapery. 1thankH. this statue is an example of a Roman imperial sculptural type depicting men wearing togas with Ushaped umbines. HarBowersock. Bounni. such togate figures grave reliefs. In all of the to(1998).3-4. 136." In ResurrectP. AJA Boatwright. colloqueinternational.164-6. Princeton:PrincetonUniversity Press.449. this "shorthand" carving gives the capsa a gamma-shaped cross-section.169 are rare in the Roman East. as on these three Antonine togati. 1992. "Historiae Sculptureand Tradition in the Bathsof Zeuxippos.this statue may perhaps be compared to pieces dated to the Antonine period: two grave reliefs of couples from Ostia167 and the togate Roman on the LiberaliLike tas relief of the Panels of Marcus Aurelius.

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