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1150-1400) Gothic Art defines much of the late medieval art that grew out of the Byzantine and Romanesque traditions. These were very formal artistic traditions with rigorous religious conventions that limited the personal creativity of the artist. At this time, the quality of an artwork was judged by the richness of the materials used to create it and the skill with which they were applied. Gothic art is distinguished from its predecessors by an increasing naturalism in the shape and posture of the figures, and an expressive use of line, pattern and color, allowing the artist more freedom of interpretation. Gothic art started in 13th century Italy and developed throughout Europe until the 15th century. The term ‘Gothic’, originally related to the barbarity of the Gothic tribes (the Ostrogoths and Visigoths) in their destruction of the art of Ancient Rome. It was first coined by 16th century Italian Renaissance critics as a term of abuse for various developments in medieval art and architecture up to the start of the 14th century. INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC (c.1375-1425) International Gothic is the term used to describe the transition of styles across Northern Europe and Italy during the period between Byzantine Art, Late Gothic Art and Early Renaissance art. International Gothic was an elegant, detailed and decorative style that comprised miniatures, illuminated manuscripts and ornate religious altarpieces. These artworks were populated by more natural and sensual figures than their Byzantine and Gothic counterparts, but were still composed within the flattened pictorial space common to all Gothic art before the development of perspective drawing in the 15th century. THE EARLY RENAISSANCE (c.1300-1450) The Early Renaissance was the period of artistic development in Italy when art broke away from the rigid Byzantine and Gothic traditions to develop a more naturalistic approach to drawing and the organization of figures within a landscape. The roots of these changes lay in the more solid rendering of form and the gestural narratives of Giotto's painting. A more precise way of rendering depth was gradually developed through the creative application of perspective drawing in the work of artists such as Masaccio, Uccello, Fra Angelico and Piero della Francesca. THE HIGH RENAISSANCE (c.1480-1520)

the Flemish artist Rubens.1600-1700) Baroque was a reaction against the artificial stylization of Mannerism. Flanders was the main focus of artistic activity with artists such as Robert Campin. Raphael. Rogier van der Weyden. BAROQUE ART (c. Velazquez from Spain. 1520-1580) Mannerism is a 20th century term that was used to describe several exaggerated or mannered styles of art that evolved towards the end of the High Renaissance.1420-1520) The Northern Renaissance is the term given to the art of north and west Europe during the Italian Renaissance. particularly in the work of Albrecht Dürer which offered a Protestant challenge to the authority of the Catholic Church. The more robust qualities of Mannerism are found in the exaggerated physiques and contorted figures from the late work of Michelangelo. Tintoretto and El Greco. . and an acceptance and appreciation of classical content as the subject matter for art. In the 15th century. Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck. Parmigianino and Jacopo Pontormo. It spread throughout Europe during the 17th century. an anatomical and scientific accuracy in drawing. philosophers and scientists. a sensual and psychological response to color and composition. 15th and early 16th centuries. Mannerist artists valued a personal and idealized response to beauty over the classical ideal of‘truth to nature’. Raphael Sanzio from Umbria. The great artists of the High Renaissance were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti from Florence. and Rembrandt. and Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) and Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) from Venice. Gradually the influence of the Italian Renaissance took hold.a rebirth of the classical ideals from Ancient Rome and Greece. MANNERISM (c. These great masters achieved what artists had aspired to since the Early Renaissance: a revival of the classical ideals of beauty and form. The word 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth' . They painted artworks of unprecedented skill and beauty and were responsible for raising the status of the artist in society from the level of artisan to an intellectual plane on a par with writers. THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE (c. Among the great Baroque masters were the Italian painter Caravaggio and sculptor Bernini. the greatest of all Dutch painters. In the 16th century the Gothic influence had its final say in the art of Hieronymus Bosch and Matthias Grünewald.The High Renaissance marks the pinnacle of artistic development in Italian art of the late 14th. A more refined response to the Mannerist style is seen in the elegant and elongated figures from the paintings of Agnolo Bronzino. art in the north was still linked to the Gothic tradition but rendered with an exquisite naturalistic detail in the new medium of oil paints.

Baroque art is identified by realistic subjects that depict spectacular action and generate powerful emotions. Tiepolo. The style was essentially French but spread throughout Europe. Guardi and Canaletto in Italy. DUTCH ART (c.1700-1775) Rococo is a term that derives from the French word ‘rocaille’ which means rock-work.1765-1850) Neoclassicism was a reaction against the pomposity of Rococo. interiors and genre painting. Jacques Louis David and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres were the outstanding virtuosos of Neoclassical painting. artists tended to specialize more narrowly. Boucher and Fragonard in France. indulgent and pretentious. Neoclassicism had a historical accuracy that earlier classical revivals lacked. For example. portraits. Jacob van Ruisdael landscapes. the greatest of the Dutch masters whose genius is evident through a range media and subjects that capture the essence of the human condition. This was achieved through spectacular painting technique and the choice of emotive and sensual subjects which often commemorated dramatic contemporary and historical events. Dutch artists had to focus on a more limited range of secular subjects to which there were no objections on religious grounds. Artists needed a serious art for serious times and once again they looked back to the art of Antiquity as their model. Notable Rococo artists were Watteau.1765-1850) Romanticism valued the expression of emotion over the control of Classicism. Consequently. and allegorical style. ROCOCO ART (c. mystical and historical subjects. social and cultural revolution were in the air. referring to a style of interior decoration that swirls with arrangements of curves and scrolls. Frans Hals portraits. This was the Age of the Enlightenment and political. Inspired by the archaeological discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii. Religious. In . and Jan Vermeer was the outstanding genre painter. Historical scenes of heroism and virtue were used as patriotic propaganda or allegories on contemporary circumstances. elegant. were brought to life with characters in contemporary clothing. by naturalistic painting of outstanding virtuosity. others judge it as pompous. often in one subject. ROMANTICISM (c.1620-1670) Dutch Art has become famous for its still lifes. While some authorities consider Rococo to be a refined. and to some extent Hogarth in England. With the spread of Protestantism in Holland and the rejection of Catholic Baroque. As Mannerism was a stylistic reaction to Renaissance art. Willem Kalf painted still lifes. which were often propaganda for the Church or State. landscapes. so Rococo was a decorative response to the realism of Baroque. dramatic lighting (chiaroscuro) and bold asymmetric and diagonal compositions. NEOCLASSICISM (c. The exception was Rembrandt.

They drew their subjects from the Bible. Corot. William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.France. The Post . Courbet and Manet reacted against the heightened emotions of Romanticism. Realist artists such as Millet. Among the most important Impressionist painters were Claude Monet. when artists explored the ideal of 'truth to nature'. Instead. Dissatisfied with the art of their own time they rebelled against the 'Grand Manner'. They sought to capture the atmosphere of a particular time of day or the effects of different weather conditions.1848-1854) The Pre-Raphaelites were a brotherhood of young English artists who created artworks that were a blend of Realism and Symbolism. Caspar David Friedrich and in Spain. Realism was also inspired by a new exploration of 'visual reality' that followed the invention of photography around 1840. Modern Art Timeline IMPRESSIONISM (c. POST IMPRESSIONISM (c. They drew inspiration from the Early Renaissance (before Raphael). They often worked outdoors and applied their paint in small brightly colored strokes which meant sacrificing much of the outline and detail of their subject. The Pre-Raphaelites painted all their works from direct observation with meticulous detail and vibrant colors. THE PRE-RAPHAELITES (c. the Impressionists enriched their colors with the idea that a shadow is broken up with dashes of its complementary color. REALISM (c.1840-1880) Realism was a French style of painting that focused on the everyday reality of a subject. Dante. Goya. The founding members of the group were John Everett Millais. Shakespeare and contemporary poetry usually with an idealized medieval theme. Alfred Sisley and Henri de Toulouse Lautrec. The Impressionists searched for a more exact analysis of the effects of color and light in nature. warts and all. Camille Pissarro. in England. it was Turner and Constable. Impressionism abandoned the conventional idea that the shadow of an object was made up from its color with some brown or black added. Pierre Auguste Renoir. Delacroix and Géricault were the pioneers of Romanticism. in Germany.1870-1890) Impressionism is the name given to a colorful style of painting in France at the end of the 19th century. They sought an objective truth that reflected the social realities of the common man in his natural environment.1885-1905 Post Impressionism was not a particular style of painting. It was the collective title given to the works of a few independent artists at the end of the 19th century. the artificial Mannerist tradition that stretched back to Raphael. Edgar Degas.

Semi-Abstraction is where the image still has one foot in representational art. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM (1905-1925) German Expressionism is a style of art that is charged with an emotional or spiritual vision of the world. while Gauguin's symbolic color and Seurat's pointillist technique were an inspiration to 'Les Fauves'. It was developed in France at the beginning of the 20th century by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Vincent Van Gogh and Georges Seurat. In Abstract art that 'something' is one or more of the visual elements of a subject: its line. shape. FAUVISM (1905-1910) in using outrageously bold colors. ABSTRACT ART (c. rather than simply to describe what it looks like.Impressionists rebelled against the limitations of Impressionism to develop a range of personal styles that influenced the development of art in the 20th century. The artists who painted in this style were known as 'Les Fauves' (the wild beasts). The expressive paintings of Vincent Van Gogh and Edvard Munch influenced the German Expressionists. texture. (see Cubism and Futurism). a title that came from a sarcastic remark in a review by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles. develops and refines . tone. It uses a type of stylisation where the artist selects. pattern. or form. Fauvist paintings have two main characteristics: extremely simplified drawing and intensely exaggerated color. Die Brücke (The Bridge) was an artistic community of young artists in Dresden who aimed to overthrow the conservative traditions of German art.1907 onwards) Abstract Art is a generic term that describes two different methods of abstraction: 'semi abstraction' and 'pure abstraction'. Paul Gauguin. Der Blaue Reiter (the Blue Rider) was a group of artists whose publications and exhibitions sought to find a common creative ground between the various Expressionist art forms. Marc and Macke were among its founding members. Kandinsky. Fauvism was a major influence on German Expressionism. The word 'abstract' means to withdraw part of something in order to consider it separately. 'Les Fauves' believed that color should be used at its highest pitch to express the artist's feelings about a subject. Cézanne was an important influence on Picasso and Braque in their development ofCubism. They also drew their inspiration from German Gothic and 'primitive art'. The major artists associated with Post Impressionism were Paul Cézanne. The Expressionists were divided into two factions: Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter. Van Gogh's vigorous and vibrant painting technique was one of the touchstones of both Fauvism and Expressionism. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff were two of its founding members.

Futurism was founded in 1909 by the poet Filippo Tommas Marinetti and embraced the arts in their widest sense. The main figures associated with the movement were the artists. Rayonism. Fernand Leger. Suprematism. Other notable artists associated with Cubism were Juan Gris. Umberto Boccioni.but with a slight twist. Constructivism.g. Futurism. Constructivism and De Stijl. The Futurists adopted the visual vocabulary of Cubism to express their ideas . CUBISM (1907-1915) Cubism was invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. and transport along with the speed. SUPREMATISM (c. technology. The effect of this is that Futurist paintings appear more dynamic than their Cubist counterparts. Giacomo Balla.1915-1925) . Cubist paintings ignore the traditions of perspective drawing and show you many views of a subject at one time. Among other important abstract styles that developed in the 20th century are Orphism. Cubism influenced many other styles of modern art including Expressionism. De Stijl and Minimalism). Vorticism. Louis Marcoussis and Marie Laurencin. the musician Luigi Russolo and the architect Antonio Sant'Elia. Jean Metzinger. Robert Delaunay. Although elements of abstraction are present in earlier artworks. (see Suprematism. The Futurist vision was outlined in a series of manifestos that attacked the long tradition of Italian art in favour of a new avant-garde. Abstract Expressionism. the roots of modern abstract art are to be found in Cubism. There are two distinct phases of the Cubist style: Analytical Cubism (pre 1912) andSynthetic Cubism (post 1912). The Cubists believed that the traditions of Western art had become exhausted and to revitalize their work. Gino Severini.specific visual elements (e. FUTURISM (1909-1914) Futurism was a revolutionary Italian movement that celebrated modernity. color and shape) in order to create a poetic reconstruction or simplified essence of the original subject. they drew on the expressive energy of art from other cultures. particularly African art. In a Cubist painting the artist records selected details of a subject as he moves around it. Albert Gleizes. whereas in a Futurist painting the subject itself seems to move around the artist. noise and energy of urban life. Orphism. Tachisme. They glorified industrialization. line. It was the first abstract style of modern art. and Op Art. Pure Abstraction is where the artist uses visual elements independently as the actual subject of the work itself.

He saw primary colors through the same cosmic tinted spectacles: yellow radiated the sun's energy. DE STIJL (c. Tatlin.J. Vertical lines embodied the direction and energy of the sun's rays. Theo Van Doesburg and Bart van der Leck. in contrast with Constructivism.H. Schoenmaekers. M.Suprematism was developed in 1915 by the Russian artist Kazimir Malevich. . Mondrian's style which he also called 'Neo-Plasticism' was inspired by the Theosophical beliefs of the mathematician and philosopher. Mondrian was the outstanding artist of the group. He saw the elements of line and color as possessing counteracting cosmic forces. These were countered by horizontal lines relating to the earth's movement around it.a Utopian glimpse of a mechanized modernity according to the ideals of the October Revolution. Mondrian gradually refined the elements of his art to a grid of lines and primary colors which he configured in a series of compositions that explored his universal principles of harmony.1913-1930) Constructivism used the same geometric language as Suprematism but abandoned its mystical vision in favour of their 'Socialism of vision' . this was not an art that was easily understood by the proletariat and it was eventually repressed and replaced by Socialist Realism. Malevich rejected any use of representational images. El Lissitzky and Naum Gabo were among the best artists associated with Constructivism. He was a deeply spiritual man who was intent on developing a universal visual language that was free from any hint of the nationalism that led to the Great War. blue receded as infinite space and red materialized where blue and yellow met. believing that the nonrepresentational forms of pure abstraction had a greater spiritual power and an ability to open the mind to ‘the supremacy of pure feeling’. It was a geometric style of abstract painting derived from elements of Cubism and Futurism. However. Rodchenko. the major Russian art movement of the 20th Century. CONSTRUCTIVISM (c. Suprematism was a style of pure abstraction that advocated a mystical approach to art.1917-1931) De Stijl was a Dutch 'style' of pure abstraction developed by Piet Mondrian. whose imagery served the social and political ideology of the state.