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Chapter 8 Developing Effective Interpersonal Skills Initiating conversations: Begin with small talk broad range of topics, but

similar in one respect; superficial, does not involve strong opinions3 categories: environment, personal characteristics, biography Open-ended question = broad in scope, requiring more than a single-word answer like yes or no; draws answers from a person Closed question = requires short answer Maintaining conversations: ask effective questions can draw others into conversation, obtain information, direct conversation toward or away from a specific topic, maintain or end a conversation Tact and courtesy, confidence and assertiveness important in conversations Demonstrate immediacy show the other person that you are interested in what they have to say Practice ethical communication: What is being said in conversation is both true and complete as far as the communicators know One person is not trying to deceive the other about shared information or opinions on the topic Information given in confidence will be considered private and not revealed to others Verbal and nonverbal messages are consistent with the meanings they communicate

Before requesting information, consider: Who has information? What is specific question? Why am I making this request? When do I need the answer? How do I need the information?

Persuasive request: Describe problem unemotionally Suggest a solution Explain the consequences

Effective questioning strategies: Rephrase the message restate in own words what you heard the speaker say, allows him/her to correct misunderstandings Ask for clarification speaker uses different jargon that one is unfamiliar with, ask speaker to explain Ask for more details more information can help one better understand a concept

Confirm through examples verify that you understand with an example that summarizes or illustrates what you have heard

Responding appropriately to requests: Stay objective Assess the situation Use problem-solving style State consequences Dont answer inappropriate questions if necessary

Paraphrase = repeat a message in your own words Etiquette = an established code of behavior or courtesy Protocol = code of etiquette that is written and prescribed by an organization Constructive criticism = negative evaluation done in a way that brings about positive change; helps people improve; different ways to receive: a defensive attitude impedes growth and improvement Descriptive communication = talk that paints a picture of the facts of a situation Evaluative communication = talk that tells how you interpret a behavior and how you feel about a situation Etiquette and protocol in giving criticism: Describe the facts Evaluate the behavior Request change State the consequences of taking a specific action

Etiquette and protocol in receiving criticism: Ask for a description of the facts Paraphrase the criticism If possible, agree with the critics assessment Listen for the desired change Stay focused on the positive consequence of change

4 factors that often affect peoples perceptions and communication: Culture Ethnicity Gender Age