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Chapter 5 Nonverbal communication = a system of symbolic behaviors that includes all forms of communication except words; three categories:

Sounds, including voice and vocalizations that substitute for speech Body language Environmental factors such as time, touch, distance, and objects and artifacts

Two main functions of nonverbal communication: relates to verbal communication and conveys emotional and relationship dimensions of a message Nonverbal communication can: reinforce a verbal message, contradict a verbal message, or act as a substitute for a verbal message Characteristics of nonverbal communication: subconscious, contextual, cultural, ambiguous Ambiguous = open to interpretation and often confusing Nonverbal communication can be used to create a professional image: with confidence, poise, assertiveness, immediacy Poise = stems from understanding of communication situations and strong sense of appropriateness and correctness; in control of communication and situation Assertiveness = suggests a strong sense of purpose; confident of self and opinions and beliefs; conveys logical reasoning and commands respect Immediacy = perceived by others as approachable, friendly, and open Types of nonverbal communication: Voice, body talk, and environmental cues Voice = pitch, range and inflection, volume, quality and tone, duration: rate and tempo, pause and silence, laughter, vocalizations Body talk = dress and grooming, posture, muscular tone and tension, movement and gesture, facial communication, eye communication Environmental cues = space and distance, territory, touch, time, artifacts, color, fragrance and odor

Characteristics of voice = pitch, volume, tone, duration Pitch = highness or lowness of sound on a musical scale; high pitch = associated with external factors like stress, fear, tension, excitement, frustration, uncertainty, fatigue, etc.; medium pitch = used normally in conversations, discussions, presentations, conveys calmness and confidence and emphasizes intellectual

content of a message; low pitch = rich, deep, resonant, wide range of emotions from sadness to uncertainty and from tenderness to concern Range = relates to variations possible for a speaker to reach Inflection = rising and falling of pitch that adds variety to speaking; reveals meaning and feeling underlying his or her message Volume = speakers responsibility to be clearly heard and understood by listeners in conversations, discussions, presentations; being understood depends on clear, articulate sounding of words; listeners tend to be sensitive to volume of messages they receive Tone = specific vocal quality; competent communicators usually want to develop voices that are rich, melodic, resonant, and full Rate = how fast or slowly an individual speaks Tempo = refers to rhythmic quality of a persons speech; results from variations in an individuals rate of speech; variety of tempo is important Pauses punctuate speech by setting off specific units of thought; used deliberately to provoke thought, develop curiosity or suspense, create dramatic effect, or raise questions Laughter = conveys humor, friendliness, acceptance, good feelings; depending on context, can convey cruelty or sarcasm Vocalizations =send messages about a senders feelings; um or ah clutters speech and interrupts a smooth and meaningful transfer of information from sender to receiver Body talk = nonverbal communication that includes several factors: Personal appearance Kinesics movement and gesture facial communication

personal appearance includes dress and grooming of hair and face kinesics = use of body in communication: first thing people think of when they hear the term body language or body talk; depends on posture, muscular tone and tension movement = refers to gait or walking gestures = movement of any part of body that reinforces another message or acts as a substitute for speech facial communication = eye communication is most important

spatial communication: intimate distance: 18 inches personal distance: 18inches to 4 feet social distance: 4 feet to 12 feet public distance: 12 feet to 25 feet or more

DO NOT VIOLATE distance norms or territory Artifacts = articles of adornment used to decorate self or surroundings Nonverbal cues represent about 90% of what one communicates