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Exploring the Communication Process Communication = process that involves components, action, sequence, energy, results Transactional = involves

an exchange Communication is interactive: communication involves complicated, interrelated processes, affects each of the others, becomes interactive as we communicate Communication is symbolic = meaning is communicated through use of symbols, always open to interpretation Communication is personal and cultural = words and gestures are symbols for meaning and feeling, persons culture can add a new or different meaning to a phrase or gesture Communication is irreversible = cannot take back a message, only send additional messages to revise message Communication is impossible to duplicate = each interaction between sender and receiver is unique and happens only once in exactly the same way Communication is circular = involves original message and feedback to those messages. Feedback is necessary to confirm that communication has occurred Communication is purposeful = always a reason behind a message, has a stimulus and a purpose. Communication is unavoidable = even a refusal to communicate is a type of communication Communication is continuous = ongoing; once you have interaction, it is likely to have future communication, influences future interactions and shapes relationships Communication skills are learned behaviors Communication process components: context = provides people, occasion, and task physical environment = influences quality of interaction within physical space climate = influences emotional, attitudinal, and intellectual tone of the communication communicator = creates meaning, feeling, and various kinds of energy from sender-receiver to receiver-sender message = conveys meaning, feeling, and various kinds of energy from sender-receiver to receiversender channel = provides space through which the message must pass; determines methods used to send the message noise = interferes with or disrupts communication barrier = blocks communication feedback = assures sender-receiver than communication has occurred; allows the receiver-sender to adjust or modify a message; provides insight into sender-receivers communication

Sender-receiver = person who sends a message to someone; receives and processes feedback from receiversender at the same time Receiver-sender = person who receives, or believes he or she has received, a message; obtains and provides feedback at the same time Message = information that is exchanged between communicators; purpose is to convey meanings and feelings between senders and receivers Types of messages: intentional = made up of meanings and feelings one person wishes to send to another unintentional = one that the sender-receiver either does not mean to send or is unaware of sending; can lead to communication problems if it contradicts or clouds a receiver-senders interpretation of an intended message actual = the message the receiver-sender receives; misunderstandings occur of actual does not comply with intentional meaning

Components of a message: content = main purpose of interaction is to exchange information specific content communicated between sender-receiver and receiver-sender feeling = express feelings in other ways besides simply stating them; can be conveyed by attitudes or actions relationship = relationship that exists between communicators affects message

Channel = space in which the message is transmitted; provides means of transmitting a message; different channels may yield different results Noise = anything that interferes with a message, usually temporary; has a negative function in communication; two types: internal (within communicator) and external (distraction inherent in channel or physical environment) Barrier = any obstacle that blocks communication; same two types as noise: internal and external; tend to be long-term problems and extremely destructive in the communication process because they run deep in the communicators thinking processes Feedback= one persons observable response to anothers message; has assurance, adjustment, and insight as major components Data = made up of things that catch a communicators attention, such as objects, people, sounds, thoughts, memories, and messages sent by others; taken through senses Sensory perception = complex physical process of taking in data through the five senses Encoding = mental process of assigning meaning and language to data

Transmitting = physical process of sending verbal and nonverbal messages; after encoding information, sender-receivers transmit it to receiver-senders Acquiring = physical process receiver-senders use to take in the senders message Decoding = mental process receiver-senders use to create meaning from language 5 levels of communication: intrapersonal, interpersonal, small group, one-to-group, mass Intrapersonal communication = communication that occurs in your own mind Self-talk = inner speech or mental conversations that we carry on within ourselves; all communication begins on the intrapersonal level Interpersonal communication = communication between two people; can take form of small talk, impromptu conversation, or planned conversation begun for a specific purpose; most commonly use the interpersonal level each day; maintain relationships with others in this manner Small-group communication = communication within formal or informal group or team; include group interactions that result in decision making, problem solving, and discussions within an organization; groups and teams have become increasingly important for making plans and recommendations; solving problems, and managing conflicts One-to-group communication = involves a speaker who seeks to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience; includes the role of a listener as an evaluator of the presenters message; often involve giving reports or speeches to groups or leading group discussions Mass communication = electronic or print transmission of messages to the general public; not conducted face to face; both individuals and groups use mass media to transmit messages Mass media = outlets of communication, such as radio, television, film, and print; designed to reach large audiences more info does not always mean better info Competent communication characteristics: ethical: honest, considerate, truthful, keeps confidence responsible: logical, accountable, informed, reliable accessible: open, pleasant, caring, likeable

ethical strategies: Golden Rule = Would I want to be treated this way by others? Professional Ethic = How would a jury of my peers view this action? Global View = Could our society continue to function if everyone acted like this? Utilitarian Rule = Does this action do the most good for the most people over the longest period of time? TV Test = Would I be comfortable explaining this action on a national TV show?