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Medium: vehicle to transmit a message.

tk k (aspirated sound) stk k t (speaker has possibility of choosing) d

A phoneme is something abstract. / t / (abstract)

[ t u]


[ t >]

Concrete H2O (abstract)




Concrete [ tu ], [ t ], [ t> ] allophones (variations of the phoneme) Phonetics: how the sounds are pronounced. Phonology: how the sounds are organized. Cluster: combination of two phonemes. Phonetics has to do with the concrete level.

Phonetics: studies the physical description of the actual sounds used in human languages (how the sounds are made and perceived). Phonology: way the sounds are organized into patterns and symbols (how the sounds can be combined and how they affect each other). [ t ]: tuck, stuck, cut. - Physical properties are different. - Phonologically, they are the same sound. - Phonetically, they are 3 different sounds. tl at the beginning of the word. - Phonetically possible. - Phonologically impossible in English. [ k ]: key, ski, sick. [ k ], [ ku ], [k ] Two levels of representation: abstract (same sound) concrete (different sounds) / k / phoneme (abstract) [ k ] allophone (concrete) p u t spt stp /p/

[ pu ]


[ p ]