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Consonant sounds can be classified into manner of articulation and the place of articulation. 1.

Is the airstream set in motion by the lungs or by any other organ? Energys from the lungs glottalic and velaric. In English all sounds are pulmonic air stream. 2. Is the airstream forced outwards or sucked inwards? In English, the air is forced outwards. 3. Do the vocal cords vibrate or not? Voiced / voiceless sounds. 4. Is the soft palate raised or lowered? Both. 5. At what point or points or between what organs does closure or narrowing take place? Place of articulation. 6. What is the type of closure or narrowing at the point of articulation? Manner of articulation. Places of articulation: Bilabial: the two lips are the primary articulators. / p / / b / / m /. Labiodental: the inner part of the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth. / f / / v /. Dental: the tip and rims of the tongue articulate with the upper teeth. / / / /. Alveolar: the blade, or tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge. / t / / s / / n / / l / / d / / z /. Post alveolar: the tip of the tongue articulates with the rear part of the alveolar ridge. / r /. Retrofelx: the tip of the tongue is curled back to articulate with the part of the hard palate immediately venid the alveolar ridge (American Pronunciation). / r /. Palato alveolar: the blade, or tip and blade, of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge and there is at the same time a rising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate. / / / / / t / /d /. Palatal: the front of the tongue articulates with the hard palate. / j /. Velar: the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate: / k / / g / / /. Uvular: the back of the tongue articulates with the uvula. (rouge in French). Glottal: an obstruction, or a narrowing causing friction but no vibration between the vocal folds. / h /. Labio velar: the lips and the back tongue participate to make the sound. / w /.