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The Reproductive System

I. Anatomy

of the Male Reproductive System Anatomy
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A. Macroscopic

testis epididymis ductus deferens seminal vesicle ejaculatory duct prostate prostatic urethra

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urogenital diaphragm membranous urethra bulbourethral (cowper's) gland corpus cavernosa corpus spongiosum penile urethra glans penis and prepuce

B. Scrotum •

and Testes (Testicles)

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Suspended in sac-like scrotum Testis is surrounded by two tunics: tunic vaginalis derived from peritoneum (two layers with a cavity) and tunica albuginea (inner tunica) which extends inward dividing testis into lobules Each lobule contains one to four seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production) that converge, forming the tubulus rectus Sperm is brought, via tubulus rectus, into the rete testis (tubular network) then out into efferent ductules that leads to the epididymis. Viable sperm production occurs three degrees below core body temperature, therefore suspended testi outside abdominopelvic cavity Sperm travel via a duct system: epididymis, ductus deferens, and urethra

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Scrotum (scrotal sac)
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Subdivided by a midline septum into two compartments each containing testi Contains two sets of muscles (dartos muscle, smooth muscle and cremaster muscle, skeletal muscle) that control scrotal surface area (thus temperature). Vascular supply: testicular arteries and pampiniform plexus (veins) that absorb heat from arterial blood.

secretes viscous alkaline fluid (60% of semen volume) containing fructose. Scrotal sac structures (encased in spermatic cord):         spermatic cord (external spermatic fascia) cremaster muscle (elevates the testes) internal spermatic fascia autonomic nerve fibers arteries and pampiniform plexus tunic vaginalis tunica albuginea epididymis C. E. smooth muscle expels sperm into ductus deferens. Ductus (vas) deferens • • One and a half feet long.encircles upper part of urethra and is composed of tubuloalveolar glands surrounded by smooth muscle . conveys urine and semen to tip of penis Composed of three regions: (1) prostatic urethra. and (3) spongy urethra. and prostate) • • Seminal vesicle . then downward to form enlarged terminus (ampulla) Sperm is dumped into ejaculatory duct via smooth muscle peristaltic waves. runs upward from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity along bladder posteriorly. and prostaglandins Prostate . ascorbic acid. Urethra • • Serves as urinary and accessory reproductive system. Accessory glands (seminal vesicles. F. sperm mature and become motile During ejaculation. Epididymis • • • • Storage site of non-motile sperm. divided into superior head (receives immature sperm via efferent tubules) and posterolateral body and tail The epididymis contains stereocilia (non-motile microvilli) absorb excess fluid and passes nutrients to sperm Twenty day trip via the body. twenty feet long. D. bulbourethral (cowpers). (2) membranous urethra (urogenital diaphragm).

Physiology of the Male Reproductive System A. causing the arterioles to dilate. Penis • • Consists of root (bulb and crus/crura of penis) and shaft. ending in the glans penis. Sperm and seminal fluid mix in ejaculatory duct of prostate  • Bulbourethral gland . Prostatic secretion is 33% of semen volume and contains enzymes and other chemicals involved in sperm activation.inferior to prostate. G. Erection • • • Arterioles supplying blood to the erectile tissue are usually constricted Sexual excitement causes a parasympathetic reflex that promotes nitrous oxide release locally Nitrous oxide relaxes vascular smooth muscle. which allows the erectile tissue to fill with blood .(2) corpora cavernosa and (1) corpus spongiosum H. Internal structure:   Spongy and external urethral tissue Corpora (erectile tissue) . Semen • • • 2-5ml of semen ejaculated 50-130 million sperm per milliliter Sperm and accessory gland secretions:   Fructose = cellular fuel Prostaglandins = decrease viscosity of mucus of cervix and reverses peristalsis in uterus Relaxin = enhances sperm motility Alkaline chemicals = neutralizes acidic vagina Seminalplasmin = bacteriostatic agent Fibrinogen = clots/coagulates sperm Fibrinolysin = liquifies sperm      II. it produces clear mucus that may neutralize any acidic urine residue.

Ejaculation • • Impulses provoking erection reach a critical level and then a spinal reflex is initiated Sympathetic impulse sent to penis to:    Contract reproductive ducts and accessory glands Constrict bladder muscles Contract bulbospongiouses muscles of the penis.homologous chromosomes separate Telophase I .preparation of Meiosis II      Meiosis II  Same events as mitosis except that chromosomes are not replicated before the process  Spermatogenesis  spermatogonium → (meiosis I) spermatocytes → (meiosis II) spermatids to spermatozoa .cytokinesis occurs. Spermatogenesis • Spermatogonium  Stem cells of basal lamina of seminiferous tubules  Undergo mitosis to produce two daughter cells .one that remains to produce more stem cells and another that undergoes meiosis and produces sperm • Meiosis   Two divisions (Meoisis I and Meiosis II) and four phases Meiosis I   Chromosomes already replicated from interphase Prophase I .• Expansion of the corpora cavernosa compresses their drainage veins. retarding blood outflow and maintaining engorgement B.homologus pairs of chromosomes synapse (forming a tetrad) and crossing over (exchange of genetic material) occurs Metaphase I .tetrads line up Anaphase I . propelling semen 200 inches/sec C. forming two daughter cells that are diploid in amount of DNA but haploid in chromosomal number Interkinesis .

and peri-metrium) uterine tube infundibulum fimbriae fornix cervix cervical os (internal and external) • • • • • • • ovary ovarian ligament vagina clitoris labium (minus and majus) mons pubis vestibular (Bartholin's) gland B.distributes vascular supply . is released and promotes the adenohypophysis to produce and secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) Luteinizing hormone stimulates interstitial cells of testi to produce testosterone which is sent to sustentacular cells to stimulate spermatogenesis Follicle stimulating hormone is sent directly to sustentacular cells and promote spermatogenesis Hormone production and circulation is directly controlled by both the extent of concentration (decrease/increase) of hormones circulation and the production of the hormone inhibin which inhibits FSH and LH production. and estriol) and progesterone Two ovaries flank uterus and held in place by ligaments:      Ovarian . estrone. of the Female Reproductive System IV.III. Macroscopic Anatomy • • • • • • • uterus (endo.produces egg or ova Endocrine organ .myo. Anatomy A.anchors ovary between uterus and pelvis wall Mesosalpinx .anchors ovary medially to uterus Suspensory . Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive Function • • • • Gonadotropic releasing hormone.anchors ovary laterally to pelvis wall Mesovarium . Ovaries • • • Gamete-producing organ .produces estrogens (estradiol. produced in the hypothalamus.anchors uterine and ovary (together) Mesometrium .

and receives.simple columnar layer. cervix Uterine tubes extend from ovary to superiolateral region of uterus Tube structure:     Fimbriae = finger-like projections of infundibulum Infundibulum = opening of oviducts Ampulla = curved structure. cells) Secondary follicle (fluid-filled space appears between granulosa cells --> forms antrum) Vesicular (graafian) follicle (oocyte sits on a stalk of granulosa cells at one side of antrum) Ovulation (of ova) Corpus luteum ( thecal and granulosal cells)     C. cells around oocyte) Primary follicle (outer layer of thecal cells & 1 or more inner layers of cuboidal. • • • • Broad = mesovarium + mesosalpinx + mesometrium Ovary surrounded by tunica albuginea covered by germinal epithelium Blood is supplied via suspensory ligament to mesovarium into ovary 40.middle smooth muscle layer Endometrium . retains.000 ovarian follicles (develop into ova) found in ovaries Follicle development:   Primordial follicle (one layer of squamal. lumen. outermost layer (composed of visceral peritoneum) Myometrium . anterior to rectum. Structures: fundus. body.serous membrane. and nourishes fertilized egg. Uterus and Vagina • • • Uterus is located in pelvic region. distal end Isthmus = narrow constricted region toward uterus • Uterine wall structure:  Perimetrium . isthmus. site of embryo development    Endometrium is composed of two layers (strata): . posterosuperior to the bladder. granulosa. thecal.

forms new stratum functionalis  • Uterine wall vascular supply:   Uterine artery -. Oogenesis • • • • • • • Production of female gametes During fetal period oogonia (stem cells) multiply by mitosis Oogonia transformed into primordial oocytes (marked by one layer of cells surrounding the oocyte) Primary oocyte begin the first meiotic division BUT stop at prophase I Puberty initiates the continuation of oogenesis Meoisis I results in two daughter cells: a large cell called a secondary oocyte and a small cell called a first polar body Meiosis II results in four cells: the secondary oocyte when penetrated by sperm divides into and ovum and a second polar body and the first polar body divides into two more polar bodies B.straight -. Physiology of the Female Reproductive System A. Follicular Phase • Day 1-10 follicle growth . Ovarian Cycle (three phases) i.arcuate -.spiral Spiral undergoes regeneration/degeneration and spasms cause shedding of functionalis layer Also extensive venous network with sinusoidal enlargements  • Vagina is a thin-walled but highly distensible tube 8-10 inches long containing three caots:    Outer adventitia Muscularis Inner mucosa containing ridges or rugae V.radial -.responds to cyclic changes in hormone levels and can be shed during menstruation Stratum basalis . Stratum functionalis .

Menstrual Cycle i. the ovary well at site of ballooning ruptures and expels secondary oocyte Usually one follicle is expelled at a time and all other follicles undergo atresia (cell degradation/reabsorption). Ovulatory • • • Day 11-14 follicle growth and ovulation The antrum swells. forming primary follicle with granulosa cells surrounded by thecal cells Follicle grows in size by granulosa cell division Granulosa and thecal cells cooperate to produce estrogens (thecal. causing bleeding and menstrual flow By day 5 growing ovarian follicles are starting to produce more estrogen ii. Luteal • • • Day 14-28 corpus luteum activity Ruptured follicle collapses and thecal and granulosa cells form corpus luteum (endocrine gland) that secretes progesterone and some estrogen If pregnancy does not occur. Menstrual phase • • • Days 1-5 Uterus sheds stratum functionalis. Proliferative phase . iii. estrogen) Granulosa cells secrete a glycoprotein substance that forms transparent membrane (zona pellucida) around oocyte Liquid accumulates around granulosa cells forming an antrum Primary follicle matures into secondary follicle The antrum expands and granulosa cells around oocyte (cells called corona radiata) become isolated on a stalk .the secondary follicle is now called a vesicular (graafian) follicle. corpus luteum becomes the corpus albicans which starts to degenerate C. ii.• • • • • • • Primordial follicle activated and squamous-like cells become cuboidal cells. androgens and granulosa.

Secretory phase • • Days 15-28 Corpus luteum produces progesterone .• • • • Days 6-14 Estrogen levels rise Stratum functionalis is rebuilt Day 14 LH levels climax and promote ovulation and corpus luteum development iii.