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Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, PP 33-42 (2010)

Kinetic Study of Esterification Reaction
Nada S. Ahmed Zeki Maha H. Al-Hassani Haider A. Al-Jendeel
Department of Chemical Engineering/ College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad (Received 14 September 2009: accepted 7 January 2010)

The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 50-60°C and at a different molar ratio of ethanol to acetic acid [EtOH/Ac]. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of [EtOH/Ac] molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 80% was obtained at 60°C for molar ratio of 10 EtOH/Ac. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. Activity coefficients were calculated using UNIFAC program. Results showed deviation in activation energy in the non-ideal system of about 20% this is due to the polarities of water and ethanol compared to the non-polar ethyl acetate this dissimilarity leading to strong non- ideal behavior. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated form the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium. Keywords: Esterification, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, kinetics, non-ideal systems

1. Introduction
Esters are important classes of chemicals have many applications in a variety of areas such as solvents, plasticizers, pharmaceuticals and intermediate for many industries (Kirk and Othmer 1980, Yadav and Metha, 1994). Esters are compounds of the chemical structure R-COOŔ, where R and Ŕ are either alkyl or aryl groups. The most common method for preparing esters is to heat a carboxylic acid,R-CO-OH, with an alcohol, Ŕ- OH, while removing water that is formed (Hangx et al. 2001).The limiting conversion of the reactants is determined by the equilibrium. The equilibrium constant of esterification reactions have values ~1~10, which implies that considerable amounts of reactants exist in the equilibrium mixture. This problem is in practices surmounted by continuous removal all the product – especially water – from the reaction mixture through distillation. Tang et al. (2003) studied the process which contains sulfuric acid as catalyst (homogenous reaction) using a reactive distillation column with an overhead decanter and stripping column. High pure EtAC product was

obtained and all the outlet streams met product and environmental specification (Majid et al.2008).The reaction rate is enhanced with added catalyst. Homogeneous and heterogeneous acids act catalytically in the esterification, because the limiting step in the reaction mechanism is the protonation of the carboxylic acid (Neil,2004). This reaction is reversible, forming ester in the forward reaction and hydrolysis of ester occurs in the backward reaction. Efficient homogenous catalysts are mineral acids, such as H2SO4, HCl, HI and strong organic acids. The equilibrium composition is a weak function of temperature. A common method of operating equilibrium limited reactions is to use an excess of one reactant in order to increase the conversion of the limiting reactant (Ismail et al. 2001, Maris and Jurgen, 2006). This reaction shows a strong non ideal behavior due to presence of water and ethyl alcohol which is highly polar compared to the non polar methyl acetate. This dissimilarity leads to a strong non ideal behavior. The situation concerning reactions in solutions or in non-perfect gases is much more complicated, here the true equilibrium constant has to be

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activity were used instead of mole fraction.2001.1997. This page was created using To purchase. In this work. at a constant catalyst loading. Calvar el al.. all literatures deal with studying the excess ratio of Ac acid used and taking in account the non. The esterification of Ac with EtOH has been widely studied. C=Water For the above reaction:  rA  C A CB   kC ACB A B t t …(1) Where γA and γB=1 The above mentioned kinetics (for ideal system) has been studied previously by (Ismail et al.) and ignoring all the side reactions.ideality at the liquid mixture.2.volume isothermal . Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal. equation 5 may be written as ( Levenspiel l 1999). (2000) developed rate based model that contains activity coefficients from experimental data for acetic acid esterification with methanol.(6) Assuming that the reaction is only in the liquid phase. C= ethyl acetate and. 1 may be written in terms of XA: 34 Nitro PDF trial software.1996. γA and γB are activity coefficients. The measure of reaction rate of component A (acetic acid) in a constant. The activity coefficients were calculated by UNIFAC equation. go to http://www. The chemical equilibrium constants have been determined experimentally as slight functions of temperature (Neil. Popken et al. ln ln The chemical equilibrium constant is related to standard Gibbs free energy change of and can be further expressed by: Ka  M XA C C 1 X B  ln  ln B A 0  M (1  X A ) C B 0C A 1 X A CB  C A 0 ( M  1) kt MC A  ( xii) ri   ai i i c c ri M≠ 1 . The final result is: ln CC 1 X B M  XA  ln  ln B A 0  1 X A M(1 X A ) CB0CA  ln CB  CA0 (M 1)k A Bt MCA M≠1 …(5)  i 1 And for ideal system.2001) which that did not taken into account the activity coefficient of the compounds in the mixture.Nada S. 2004). PP 33-42 (2010)  rA  C A 0 X A  k (C A 0  C A 0 X A ) (C B 0  C A 0 X A ) A  B t expressed in terms of activities – or alternatively concentrations multiplied by activity coefficients(Denbigh and Turner.. ignoring the backward reaction for a large excess of one reactant (Xu and Chuang.6. No. the esterifications of Ac with EtOH catalyzed homogenously have been investigated. 2  rA  KC A 0 (1  X A )( M  X A ) A  B …(3) By separation and rearranging. XA  o dX A  C A 0 k A B  dt (1  X A )(M  X A ) o t …(4) γA and γB are considered constants for changes in their numeric values are negligible. 2004. The main differences in the different chemical equilibria calculation is the type of physical model assume the models based on Maurer (1986a) treat the vapour phase as an ideal gas whereas most other model include vapour non-ideality terms such as vapour fugacity coefficients. Pö pken et al. Activity coefficients are used in the rate expressions for the system. When reaction system reaches equilibrium the constraint is: rii  0 …(2) Let M  CB 0 C A0 be the initial molar ratio of reactants. covered a large excess of acid used at the different catalyst loaded and at a low conversion. A B  C  D Where A=Acetic acid. Vol. Several experiment have been carried out to analyzed the influence of temperature. Eq. mainly because of its industrial uses (Mazoti et al. initial reactant molar ratio (excess of EtOH used) because there is a limited work in literature about this ratio. B=Ethyl alcohol.1984).2007)all investigated published either covered only a limited temperature range. is calculated as follows: The esterification reaction is first written as. This is said to give a slight improvement on the kinetic model that uses mole fractions. Where.nitropdf. Ismail et al.

This result is in agreement with the work of (Calvar et al.The reaction vessel was kept in stirred constant temperature.6% GCC) and (Schwefelsaure 99%) respectively. therefore the use of excess ethanol (M=30 and 50) decreases the conversion. 3. 2001).4. which gave a straight line as shown in Figures (24).30 and 50 respectively.0812 and 70. Ethyl alcohol preheated to the same temperature was quickly poured into the reactor.2. Since the data points fitted the plot of ln((M-XA)/(M(1-XA)) vs. The volume of the reaction mixture remained constant at (300) ml during all experiments.Nada S. For example. Fig. Effect of Temperature It was found that increasing the temperature of the reaction. the increase in temperature gave an increase in rate constant and conversion from 0. PP 33-42 (2010) 2. while commercial ethyl alcohol 95% was used. Samples were taken every 10 mints by a syringe to measure the pH of solution. By referring to equations 5 and 6. while for non-ideal system the slope will equal to [CAo(M-1)k γA γB]. It is also concluded that the molar ratio of EtOH/Ac has an effect on the rate constant and Fig. increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio of reactants that is due to the esterification reaction is exothermic. shown in Fig. Activity coefficients which are function of mole fractions and temperature are calculated using UNIFAC program. No. therefore the increasing the temperature increase the rate of reaction. The experimental setup is shown in Fig . Experimental Work Materials Acetic acid and sulfuric acid were used of analytical grade (99. when temperature increases up to 60°C.2001) and at different molar ratio of ethanol to acetic acid [10:1].2007 and Ismail et al. This observation is well agreed with investigation reported by (Robert et al. 2001).1997 and Ismail et al.9% at 50oC to 0. Experimental Procedure The experimental assembly consisted of 500 ml volumetric flask which serves as batch rector fitted with along reflex condenser to prevent any loss of products . Effect of EtOH/Ac It was also found that the highest values of conversion were obtained at the lowest studied molar ratio of EtOH/Ac. 5 shows the increase of conversion during reaction at molar ratio of 10 EtOH/Ac. Experiments was carried out at temperature between (50-60)°C. These values are given in Table (1).73 and 3. time well. Vol. This page was created using To purchase.2. time.1.nitropdf. the slope of the line in the aforementioned figures equals to [CAo(M-1)k] in the case of ideal behavior of the system.1.105 and 80% at 60 oC at molar ratio of 10: 1 EtOH/Ac. Results and Discussion Calculation of Rate Constant Investigation of the kinetics of the system is made by plotting ln((M-XA)/(M(1-XA)) vs. go to http://www.6.2 for M equal to 10. this time account for the start of the reaction. the reaction mixture was magnetically stirred . By examining these values it can be seen that the variation in these coefficients during the reaction are quite small. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal. [30:1] and [50:1] and at a constant catalyst loading [ only one drop of sulfuric acid] till the pH of initial sample be 1. 35 Nitro PDF trial software. Acetic acid and catalyst were charge into reaction vessel after desired temperature was reached. Schematic Diagram of the Experimental Setup. and equation 5 & 6 are quite satisfied therefore the reaction is first order with respect to both acetic and ethyl alcohol. Values of the rate constants are listed in Table (2).com/ . the rate of hydrolysis reaction is higher than the esterification reaction (Liu and Tan.5 That is due to the reaction is catalyzed by an acid. therefore these were considered as constants and the average values were calculated to obtain the rate constant for the non-ideal case.

A Plot of ln((M-XA)/(M(1-XA))) vs.5 % and 80% respectively.2 0 0 20 t 40 60 50 °C 1 S eries 55°C S eries 2 S eries 3 60°C L inear (S eries 2) L inear (S eries 1) L inear (S eries 3) Fig.6 0.8 0.2 0 0 10 20 t 30 40 50 50°C S eries 1 55°C S eries 2 60°C S eries 3 Linear (S eries 1) Fig.Nada S.374 at M=30 and 0. Time in 10 EtOH/Ac at Various Temperatures.8 0. Vol.6 .105 at M=10 while conversion was M=10 1. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal. A Plot of ln((M-XA)/(M(1-XA))) vs.4 0. 36 Nitro PDF trial software.2.4 1. This page was created using To purchase. conversion.3. PP 33-42 (2010) 59. therefore an optimization must be made for both cases.2 1 0. Time in 30 EtOH/Ac at Various Temperatures. go to http://www.2.6 1. ln((M-X A)-M(1-X A)) M=30 1 ln((m -X A)/(m (1-X A))) 0.4 0. The rate constant at 60°C was 0. No.6.nitropdf.

139 2.00004 1. Time in 50 EtOH/Ac at Various Temperatures.001 1.123 2.0006 1.002 1.0084 1.0007 1.117 2.162 2.104 2.01 0.059 2. PP 33-42 (2010) ln((m -X A)/(m (1-X A))) 0.135 2.0004 γA 2.0008 1.103 60°C γB 1.015 0.005 0 0 20 t 40 60 S eries 50 °C 1 S eries 55°C 2 60°C S eries 3 Fig.084 2. Ahmed Zeki!!! 0. This page was created using To purchase.137 γB 1.00004 1.139 2.00004 1.114 2.0002 1.129 1.4.0003 1. A Plot of ln((M-XA)/(M(1-XA))) vs.11 2.6.0004 1.163 2.002 1. γA 1.138 2.00004 1.023 2.880 1.0003 1.0108 1.0027 γA 1.081 2.0025 37 Nitro PDF trial software.0004 γB 1.0004 γA 2.0009 1.113 2.0005 1.914 2.01 M=30 55°C γB 1.137 2.Nada S.00004 1.0088 1.0067 1.2.086 2.0049 1.12 2.08 2.001 1.0002 1.14 50°C t min 0 10 20 30 40 Ave.00004 1. γA 2.137 2.163 2.113 2.0005 55°C γB 1. γA 2.875 1.00004 1.113 60°C γB 1.945 50°C t min 0 10 20 30 40 Ave.025 0.0006 1.034 2. No.02 0.00004 1.955 2.145 2.0005 1.00001 1.162 2.00004 1.848 1.nitropdf.0008 γA 1.00004 1.154 2.872 1.03 Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal.138 2.0002 γA 2. Vol.113 2.0007 γA 2.00004 1.00004 1.162 γB .945 2.127 2.0004 1.0008 1.003 60°C γB 1.00004 1.150 2. go to http://www.001 1.00004 1.163 2.00004 1.0003 1.114 2. Values of Activity Coefficients.0045 1. M=10 50°C t min 0 10 20 30 40 Ave.0002 1.174 2.126 M=50 55°C γB 1.085 2.0001 1. Table 1.162 2.0088 1.137 2.

com/ . 2007). PP 33-42 (2010) Table 2.095 0. Temp kreal Conversion% kideal 0 C 50 55 60 M=30 50 55 60 M=50 50 55 60 0.5.0832 0.6 C onvers ion 0.6.4 0.2 0. No.1 0 0 20 t 40 60 M= 10 50 °C 1 S eries 55 °C 2 S eries 60 °C 3 S eries Fig.7 2.5 0.333 0. 38 Nitro PDF trial software.043 0.9 76 80 0.2595 0. Values of the activation energy and the frequency factor at each molar ratio studied are given in Table (3).0055 0.Nada S.Ragaini et al.2007).3 0.052 70.nitropdf. The same behavior was observed in the reaction of lactic acid with ethanol (Patricia et al. go to http://www.121 0.7 0.5 0. Time for Various Temperatures and M=10.012 0.2 2.0092 1. a plot of ln(k) vs. Apparent Activation Measurement Energy The temperature dependency of reactions is determined by calculating activation energy at the temperature level of the reaction.2. In most esterification reactions. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal.105 0. Vol. Values of rate Constant at Various Temperatures and EtOH/AC Ratio.0076 0.0194 0. From Arrhenius' law (k=k0e-E/RT).047 0.374 0.178 46 51 59. Conversion of Acetic Acid vs. the equilibrium constant is a weak function of the temperature because of the small value of heat of reaction.6 0.157 0. Comparison of the values on the assumption of ideal and nonideal behavior of the system is made on the same graph.8 0.0163 0. The high value of activation energy confirms that there is no mass transport limitation (V. (1/T) gives a straight line with slope E (activation energy) and intercept of k0 ( frequency factor as shown in Figures (6-8). This page was created using To purchase.

95 (1/T)*10 3 (K -1) Fig. 2.1 3.5 1 0.95 .5 0 2.1 3. 3 -1 -ln k 1. (1/T) for Ideal and Non –Ideal System at M=30.8. go to http://www.05 (1/T )*103 (K -1) 3.6.15 -ln k 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2.95 M= 50 S eries 1 Ideal nonS eries 2 ideal 3 3. Comparison Plot of ln k vs.2.05 3. Comparison Plot of ln k vs.15 2 1 0 2.6. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal.7. No. PP 33-42 (2010) 4 3 -ln k M=10 S eries 1 Ideal nonS eries 2 ideal 3 3.Nada S.1 3. 39 Nitro PDF trial software. Vol.nitropdf. (1/T) for Ideal and Non –Ideal System at M=50.05 (1/T ) *10 (K ) Fig.15 Fig. (1/T) for Ideal and Non –Ideal System at M=10.5 2 M=30 S eries Ideal 1 nonideal S eries 2 3 3. This page was created using To purchase. Comparison Plot of ln k vs.

com/ . No. Some previous studies like.min.functional group activity.6 Effect of Molar Ratio on the Activation Energy By examining this table (3). The Activation Energy and Frequency Factor. It is concluded that the assumption of ideal behavior of the system is valid. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal. This leads to the esterification reaction is exothermic. The resultant kinetic model fitted the experiment data well. Frequency factor.2. therefore they used lower ratios of EtOH/Ac so as to obtain the required acidic media for the reaction therefore the activation energy in the ideal case was about 6% higher than the highest value in this study. The rate constant and conversion increases with increasing the temperature of the reaction at a certain mole ratio of reactants. Conversion. because the activation energy (Enon-ideal) is found lower than those of ideal system (Eideal) therefore the ideal behavior is a reasonable assumption for a kinetic consideration. EtOH/Ac k0 Eideal E non-ideal %Ea (J/mol) (J/mol) 10 30 50 195 52313 110747 20823 32743 56632 16988 34576 46061 18. A maximum final conversion of 10 EtOH /Ac molar ratio was obtained. (2001) also studied the reaction kinetics for this system on the assumption of ideal behavior and their results fall in the range of this study. The same behavior was observed in the reaction of acetic acid with ethanol catalyzed both heterogeneously by Amberlyst 15 and homogenously by acetic acid. The present investigation also showed that the lowest activation energy was found to be 16988 J. Hangx et al. coefficient. Absolute error = ABS ((Eideal-Enonideal)/Eideal )*100.nitropdf. rate constant lit/mol.(2000). Nomenclature a Ea Ac C E EtOH k ko M -r UNIFAC X Activity. Rate of reaction = mol/lit.4 -5. It was found that there is some deviation of less than 20% for the values calculated on the assumption of non-ideal behavior. therefore the lowest value of activation energy is found at M=10. This page was created using To purchase.6. Table 3. used acetic acid itself as the catalyst. This can be explained by the fact that the acidity of the liquid phase mixture at this molar ratio is higher comparing to the other ratios.Nada S.mol-1 at molar ratio 10 EtOH /Ac for non-ideal system. Activation energy based with UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation for non ideal system matches these of the ideal case with deviation of 20% less. Conclusions The reaction kinetics of esterification of Ac with EtOH catalyzed homogenously has been determined. The use of an excess EtOH decreases the conversion because the reaction is catalyzed by an acid.min UNIversal. using acetic acid an excess reactant combustion (Calvar et al.2007).6 18. it is found that the apparent activation energy decreases with increasing molar ratio. Concentration of acetic acid mol/lit Activation energy.ideal behavior point of view. Values of activation energy in this study agree well with the results obtained by the aforementioned authors. it can be concluded that the activation energy will be lower. 4. Popken et al. They compare the UNIFAC and ASOG methods. Ethyl alcohol. Molar ratio of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid. PP 33-42 (2010) They studied the non. and by referring to the fact that the esterification reaction toward ethyl acetate is preferentially carried out in an acidic media. Comparison of Ideal and Non-Ideal Behavior of the System The values of the activation energy were examined from non. Acetic Acid. Table (3) summarizes the kinetic parameter values. 40 Nitro PDF trial software. Although the rate constants in both cases were found to deviate appreciably but the activation have the same trend. therefore the reaction is first order with respect to both Ac and EtOH.ideal behavior of systems for homogeneous acetic acid catalyzed system. Vol. go to http://www.

[5] Kirk R.. component with the system.D. 2001..Eng. [18] V.Pirola. 1997.John Wiley &Sons. Y. PP 33-42 (2010) and pervaporation studies)”. 39. H.Salmi.1997 “development of kinetic model for the esterification in presence of homogeneous acid catalyst”. Chem. 111-118. Chem.S. Res. mass and heat transfer in reactive distillation”..Journal . C. Neri. “Reaction Kinetics of the esterification acid towards ethyl acetate”.F. “Using activity for reaction kinetics” Chem. [9] Maris Teresa Sanz.. Cambidge University Press.. Eng.C.. Al-Khwarizmi. 46.32.T.Juha.”Kinetic study for esterification of lactic acid with ethanol and hydrolysis of ethyl lactate using an ion exchange resin catalyst”. and Morbidelli.Ragaini.Maria T. Haario.6. chem. 3364. Eng.. 1994. 123. Tech. “reaction kinetics and chemical Equilibrium of homogeneously and heterogeneously catalyzed acetic acid esterification”.Can.. Jamal M.J. Vol. Ind. No 19.”esterification of acetic acid with ethanol catalyzed by an acidic ionexchange resin”.Huang.Chem. 1996.Eng.T. [4] Ismail . ”Heterogeneous catalysis in esterification reaction”. Ind.1997.2003.“Vapor-liquid and chemical equilibrium of formaldehyde and water containing multicomponent mixture”. and Gmehling. [14] Popken T. Chem. Eng. 10-18. Eng... Inc. Encyclopedia of chem. Radhaa. and Processing. M. Journal. Turk J Engin environment sci 25.Vol. Kwant G. M. 1999.L. Eng.262. P 3369-3381.2007. Subscript A B i acetic acid. 5. [10] Maurer G. Heikki H.Vol. [16] Roennback. [20] Yadav. G. Gelosa. go to http://www. and Esko T..chem Eng.” Liquid phase esterification”. Small. 2007. 2004. [8] Majid S.2.1352-1363.nitropdf. [7] Liu W. [17] Tang. and D.Bianchi.H.. Antt V. B.R. and Metha. “Esterification of acetic acid with isopropanol coupled with pervaporation part 1 (Kinetics 41 Nitro PDF trial software... ”Kinetics of liquid-phase esterification catalyzed by acidic resins”. 1980 .2007. No. 74. Chem. No. Eng.Wiley and Sons. 21982208.569-577. 2008.Eng.. Greek γ µ υ Activity coefficient.P. An Introduction.P. 36. 9.52. chemical engineering science vol 52. Chuang. Baris Baykal and Umur Dramur. [2] Denbigh and Turner.. Eng. 36. Chem. References [1] Calver N. Chem. [11] Mazotti.32813286.Lehtonen. 131. Jurgen Gmehling.Ali.Tan.H. Markusse P.33. 2000. In. Maessen H.. New York. [13] Patricia D. 6. [6] Levenspiel O. 932-948.2001..2. “Esterification of acetic with ethanol Reaction kinetics and operation in a packed bed reactive distillation column”. Zaidoon.No. Res. “Development of kinetic model for the esterification in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst”. [3] Hangx G. “Design of a complete EtAC reactive distillation system” . Chem. Eng.S.. Chemical potential. “Kinetic of esterification of diluted acetic acid with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol”.K.Sundqvist. [19] Xu. Kruglov. Chem.1-8.4 .. and Urseanu I.. Gonzales B.1986. Gotze L. D. A.. “Chemical reactor theory”. Dominguez A. Ind.”Hydrodynamics. Stoichiometric coefficient in reaction.. Journal.Z.T. Ahmed Zeki!!! Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal. 40.493. 1317-1323. “kinetics of acetic acid esterification over ion exchange catalyst” .126. 2001. J. P. [12] Neil E.Anna S. Sagrario B. Niran. Othmer. 1984. 2006. [15] Robert Ronnbach Tapio Salmi. Vuori. This page was created using To purchase. Res .. Eng. Ethyl alcohol.5 Engineering Analysis Project.I.E. Khalid A.257.Journal. C..Shakoor. Sci.. “ Chemical reaction engineering” 3rd ed...3rd. 310. Technical report on the European Commission (INTINT) Deliverable 22.L. ALCHE journal . 2601-2611... Japan. Res...Nada S. and Chain .Sukkar..T.

‬ﺗﻢ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻮل‪ .‬اﺟﺮي اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫درﺟﺎت ﺣﺮارة ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﺮاوح ﺑﯿﻦ ‪°٦٠-٥٠‬م ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﻟﯿﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺤﻮل اﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪This page was created using‬‬ ‫‪To purchase.‬ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ان زﯾﺎدة درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﺗﺆدي اﻟﻰ زﯾﺎدة ﺛﺎﺑﺖ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ واﻟﺘﺤﻮل ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﯾﺜﺎﻧﻮل وﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ وھﺬا ﻟﻜﻮن اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻟﻠﺤﺮارة‪ .nitropdf.‬ﻓﻘﺪ وﺟﺪ اﻧﮫ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻜﺤﻮل اﻟﻰ ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد اﻟﺘﺤﻮل وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ان اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺣﺎﻣﻀﻲ وﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻮل ‪ %٨٠‬ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ‪°٦٠‬م وﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻮﻟﯿﺔ ‪ ١٠‬ﻛﺤﻮل اﺛﯿﻠﻲ‪ /‬ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ‪ .(UNIFAC‬اوﺿﺤﺖ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ وﺟﻮد اﻧﺤﺮاف ﻓﻲ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺘﻨﺸﯿﻂ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺮ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ‪ %٢٠‬ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ‪ .%٨٠‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻮﻟﯿﺔ ‪ ١٠‬اﯾﺜﺎﻧﻮل‪ /‬ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ وھﺬا ﺳﺒﺒﮫ ﻛﻮن اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﻜﺤﻮل اﻻﺛﯿﻠﻲ ﻣﻮاد ذات ﻗﻄﺒﯿﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ وھﺬا اﻻﺧﺘﻼف ﯾﺆدي اﻟﻰ اﻟﺴﻠﻮك اﻟﻐﯿﺮ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬ﺗﻤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ زاوﯾﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻐﯿﺮ ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ‪ .‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ اﻟﺨﻮارزﻣﻲ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ ‪ ،6‬اﻟﻌﺪد ‪ ،2‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(2010) 42 -33‬‬ ‫ﻧﺪى ﺳﻌﺪون اﺣﻤﺪ زﻛﻲ‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﯿﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻻﺳﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺪر ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻜﺮﯾﻢ اﻟﺠﻨﺪﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎوﯾﺔ‪ /‬ﻛﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ /‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﻐﺪاد‬ ‫ﻣﮭﺎ ھﺎدي اﻟﺤﺴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺪى ﺳﻌﺪون اﺣﻤﺪ زﻛﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺖ دراﺳﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﯿﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﺳﺘﺮة ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﺨﻠﯿﻚ واﻟﻜﺤﻮل اﻻﺛﯿﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺣﺎﻣﺾ اﻟﻜﺒﺮﯾﺘﯿﻚ ﻛﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻞ ذو اﻟﺪﻓﻌﺎت‪ . go to http://www.‬ﺗﻢ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ )‪ .‬‬ ‫‪42 Nitro PDF trial‬‬ .