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Supplemented mathematics

Lesson two Functions 1 Ordered pairs and Cartesian product 1.1 Ordered pairs

In the generalization, ordered pair is the sign in the pattern (a, b) when a and b are two involved things, a and b are called first element and second respectively. Such as (fish, shark), (boy, man)
In the mathematically, (a, b) is a point on rectangular co- ordinate plane, where a is a number that substitute a point on a horizontal number line and b is a number that substitute a point on a vertical number line. Notice: ordered pairs have to possess pair and order together. Definition 1 let and are ordered pairs will acquire that

That is, 1.2 Cartesian product

Cartesian product is process make the set having all elements are ordered pairs by beginning at set A
In the mathematically, (vertical number line) Definition 2 let A and B are two sets Cartesian product of and is written by where

and set B
(horizontal number line) and

Notice: 1 ordinarily, 2 if A and B implies A B=B A A=B implies A B and B A are infinite sets

3 if A is infinite set and B

4 if A and B are finite sets implies A B and B A are finite sets 5 the number of elements of A B = the number of elements of B A =the product of numbers of elements of A and B=n(A) n(B) Example 1 given that A= , B= find A B and B A

Solution by means of its definition, we have A B= B A= Property of Cartesian products, when A, B and C are sets. 1 A (B C)=(A B) (A C) and (A B) C=(A C) (B C) 2 A (B C)=(A B) (A C) and (A B) C=(A C) (B C) 3 A (B C)=(A B) (A C) and (A B) C=(A C) (B C) 4 A B= [(A= ) (B= )] implies A=B

5 if A C=B C and C

Proof to prove by means of sets theory and its definition 1as (x, y) A (B C) x A y ( B C) x A [(y B) (y C)]

[(x A y B) (x A y C)] [((x, y) A B (x, y) (A C)] (x, y) (A B A C) For the remaining properties are left the proof as exercises. 2 Relations

Mathematically, when a and b are two things involving under one or more than condition or law will be written by ordered pairs (a, b) and the set of all elements are ordered pairs is called the relation.
Definition 3 relation is the set of ordered pairs which is written by Therefore, is relation if and only if, if x e.g. = , B= , C= implies x is ordered pair. , D={ }, E=

From definition, A, B and D are relation but C and E is not. Notice: is relation as if x implies x is ordered pair is to be true.

As Cartesian product of A and B is a set so it has to possess subset with all elements are ordered pairs or empty set which have and are called that relation from A into B Definition 4 1) is relation from A into B if and only if 2) is relation in A if and only if Therefore, = And when (x, y) And if (x, y) or = we may write x y (x has relation with y) A A A B and subsets

we may write x y (x has t relation with y) , B=

Example 2 given that A=

Write sets of the following relation in type of showing elements. 1 2 3 : relation less than from A into B : relation greater than from A into B : relation perfect square from A into B

4 : relation equality from A into B 5 : relation divide exactly from B into B

Solution from designated we have A B= And it follows that = = = = = = = = = =

2.1 Domain and range of relation

As each of relation possesses all elements are ordered pairs so we can make the set of all first elements of all ordered pairs and the set of all second elements of all ordered pairs and assign names domain and range of relation.
Definition 5 1) domain is written by = t t , providing that t t and

2) range is written by

, providing that

= Example 3 let A= = Solution replacing x

find in condition

and we have

={(-3, 8),(-2, 3),(-1, 0),(0, -1),(1, 0),(2, 3),(3, 8)} and make ={-3, -2,...,2, 3}, ={-1, 0, 3, 8}

Notice: if A and B are a set of real number may write as follows. = e.g. =

2.2 finding domain and range of relation

How to look for its domain and range for acquiring the correct answer and furthermore have to be quick and be not wrong. That means that has to practice to solve varied problems as there is no standard method for using to solve all problems. And the following are the method that be often used.
1) By using property and theorem of real number Example 4 Find domain and range of the following relation. = = = = Solution , as 0 0 and 36 and 0 = = = = 0, we have 36 6 and 0 6

And then 0

Therefore, 0

6 and 0 2

That is, -6 x 6 and -3 y 3 It conclude that , as y 0 and =[-6, 6], 0 and 4 0 =[-3, 3] 0 so we have

And make y 0 and (x 2)(x 2) 0 Therefore, y 0 and -2 x 2 It conclude that =[-2, 2], =[0, )

, from designated we have 0 and y 1 0 And implies that (x 2)(x 2) 0 and y 1 Therefore, [(x -2) (x 2)] and y 1 It conclude that =(- , -2] [2, ), =[1, )

, from designated we have = +10 +10 10, y 0, y

We find that Hence,

That is, [(x 10) (x -10)] and y Therefore, =(- , -10] [10, ), =

, from designated do perfect square, regrouping to an equation = And as + + , y

Now, we have That is, 3 6 or

, y 3 y

Therefore, [(x 3) (x -3)] and y It conclude that =(- , -3] [3, ), =

, from designated make new inequality as follows ......... (1) And ......... (2)

From (1) find that for each of real number y there exists real number x satisfying for (1) Similar, from (2) find that for each of real number x there exists Real number y satisfying for (2) Therefore, = , =

, from designated make new inequality as follows ..... (1) And From (1) and (2) since, Now, we have But ( So that ( 0 and 0 and 0 and ( 0 0 0 ...... (2)

)(2x+4) 0 and (y 4)(y+4) 0

It will obtain -2<x<2 and -4<y<4 Therefore, =(-2, 2), =(-4, 4)

, from designated make new inequality as follows ...... (1) And From (1), , ....... (2)

And since that inequality (2) It will obtain Therefore, or =(- , 6)

=(x 6)(x+6)

2) By new rearranging from p(x, y) to y=f(x) and consider real number

replacing x then enable to acquire real number

g for its domain l g y

Similarly from p(x, y) to x=g(y) and consider real number then enable to acquire real number replacing y for its range.
Example 5 given that = = = Work out its domain and its range. Solution , rearrange term from original to y=f(x) as follows.

y(x+2)=x+1 y= =f(x) is to be zero

We see that if replace x by -2 then a denominator of which be cause that t to l m .

Similar, rearrange term from original to x=g(x) as follows.

x(y 1)=1 2y

x=

=g(y) is to be zero .

We see that if replace y by 1 then a denominator of which be cause that Therefore, = =x , t to = l m

, rearrange term from original to y=f(x) as follows. 1 ( ) = y= =f(x)

From example 4 ( ) will obtain that -3<x<3 And from 0 -9 0 x 3 we have 9

or So that y Therefore, or y =(-3, 3), =(- , - ] [ , )

, rearrange term from original to y=f(x) as follows.

y(

9)= ( y=

+1)

We see that if replace x by 3 then its denominator is to be zero which be cause that t to l m .

Similar, rearrange term from original to x=g(x) as follows.

(y+2)=9y 1 = x= From definition of square root we have 0, y (9y 1)(y+2) 0, y : multiply by to both sides.

9y 1 0 or y+2 0 So that y Therefore, or y = 2 , =(- , -2) [ , )

3) Utilize quadratic formula, completing the square, cube and application. Example 6 find domain and range of each of the following. = = =

= Solution , from original is real number when substitute x by

We see that all real numbers

And can rearrange term from original to quadratic equation.

, where a=2, b=4, c= From formula x= So that . we find t 0 t 0

16+8y+8=8y+24 0 y Therefore, = , =[-3, ) we see obviously that is real number when substitute x by all real N. And can rearrange term from original to perfect cube by completing the cube as follows. =( = +2

, from original

We can see when x refer to positive infinite or negative, y are same. Therefore, = , = can rearrange term to perfect

, from designated

square by completing the square as follows.

=( = As Therefore, = , so =[- , )

, from original As So and it follows that

= = And since Therefore, =[1, ), =[ , , so )

4) By seeing its intersected point on the x-axis

If there are intersected points on the x-axis are to be odd can state that Its domain and range are set of real N.
Example 7 find domain and range of the following. 1 2 = =

4 = Solution 1 from a condition its domain is

And by regrouping and extracting, factorize to y=x(x+4)(x It mean that its graph intersect the x-axis is to be 3 points Be (-4, 0), (0, 0) and (2, 0) Therefore, = , = its domain is

2 from a condition

And by regrouping and extracting, factorize to y=x(x Since, Hence, its graph intersect the x-axis is to be 2 points be only (0, 0) and (2, 0) Therefore, = , , its domain is

3 from a condition

And by regrouping and extracting, factorize to y=(x+1) Since, Hence, its graph intersect the x-axis is to be 2 points be only (-1, 0) and (1, 0) Therefore, = ,

4 from a condition

its domain is

And by regrouping and extracting, factorize to y=(x+1) it mean that there are intersected points on the x-axis are to be 3 points be (-1, 0), (0, 0) and (1, 0) Therefore, 2.3 Graphs of relation = , =

When is relation in

then all elements of relation have to be ordered

pairs which written by (x, y), where all ordered pairs (x, y) are solution points lying in the co-ordinate plane and can conclude to write its definition below.
Definition 6 let is relation in The graph of relation concerning two variables x and y is the set of all points in the co-ordinate plane being solution points of a relation ( and )

Notice: the set of all solution points may signify to the locus as the set of all points which satisfies distinct given condition is called locus Example 8 Write a graph of the following relations 1 2 3 Solution 1 as (x, y) if and only if (x, 2)

Hence, p(-3, 2) and q(4, 2) are two solution points of Therefore, a graph of is the line passing through p and q
Y (0, 2)

(-3, 0)

(0, 0)

(4, 0)

2 as (x, y)

if and only if (-3, y)

Hence, p(-3, -4) and q(-3, 3) are two solution points of Therefore, a graph of is the line passing through p and q
Y

(0, 3)

(-3, 0)

(0, 0) (0 -4)

3 as (x, y)

if and only if (x, -2x+2)

Hence, p(-2, 6) and q(2, -2) are two solution points of Therefore, a graph of is the line passing through p and q

(0, 6)

(2, 0) (-2, 0) (0, -6)

Notice: the relation of graph is to be straight line is called linear relation. 2.4 Type of ordinary relation and its graphs 1) Linear relation

The relation of graph is to be straight line is called linear relation.


Definition 7 let be relation in , providing that o is called linear relation Considering, When b And when a Let It will get that (x, y) , (x, k) , when a will get x=- =j, j ,b will get y=and (o, k) =mx+n, m, n m which its graph parallel will get y=- =k, k

the x-axis and intersect the y-axis at (0, k), k is called y-intercept of Similar, (x, y) (j, y) (j, 0) which its graph parallel the y-axis

and intersect the x-axis at (j, 0), j is called x-intercept of Finally, (x, y) (x, mx+n) (0, n) (- , 0)

We see that (0, n) and (- , 0) are intersected points of its graph at the y-axis and the x-axis respectively. From 3 upper cases can conclude that its graph is written by restricting two points being solution points of on co-ordinate plane afterwards draw line to pass through them. Such as example 8 2) Absolute value relation

Absolute value or modulus of x is denoted by Providing that and

Principal type of absolute value relation


Definition 8 let is relation in be defined by

, is called the original type of absolute value relation And from upper definition, we have the following types , Example 9 write graphs of relations , Solution 1 from definition y , and and implies that , its graph is as follows
Y=-x y=x

X Y

2 similar, we have And its graph is as follows.


y x

Y=x

Y=-x

3 similar, we have And its graph is as follows.


y X=y

X=-y

4 similar, we have And its graph is as follows.


X=-y y

X=y

3) Quadratic relation

To begin from the quadratic equation The number zero to g lv l l m of l m m that is to o

If there is one solution

one intersected point on the x-axis is to be ( , ) Similar, two solutions or no solution


Generally, w v l t of ll l m w v

which be called the original quadratic relation and from is capable to make , where

Graphs of

and

are curves that are called parabolas and have

Its characteristic as follows. 1 a graph of when is separated two cases are that it is parabola open upward , a minimum point at (x, y), x=and it is parabola open

downward when 2 a graph of

, a maximum point at (x, y), x=-

is separated two cases are that it is parabola to be concave , a vertex point at (x, y), y=and it is parabola

to the right when

to be concave to the left when For example y 3 , y For an equation y=the square of The following are graphs of ,x and x=-

, a vertex point at (x, y), y=and are capable find by completing and x and respectively.

Y ,

, y

, a<0

, a>0

The sophisticated graphing techniques In the meantime, when using the point- plotting method, we must plot a sufficient number of points to reveal the basic shape of the graph. With too few solution points, we can grossly misrepresent the graph

of a given equation.
4) Circle and Rectangular hyperbola W of l with the center at (0, 0) will get that the circle

is the locus (x, y) of , where For example unit and


y (x, y) r x (0, 0)

is a circle having a radius equal to 1

is called the unit circle. The following is its gross graph

When k

, (0, 0) is the center and equation y=x is the axis will get that the w
y

rectangular hyperbola is the locus (x, y) of The following is its gross graph, k>0 and

(0, 0)

The axis y=x

5) Cubes relation

When k 1

, cube of a is denoted by and 2 such that

, where ,k m and m

Hence, there exist m, n

That is, when x and y are two variables be capable to make two equations are 1 and and 2 that next, we have two relations are

The following are its gross graphs.


y y

x (0, 0) (0, 0)

2.5 Graphs of relation with miscellaneous symbols Let (x, y) instead of conditions of having symbols (x, y) arise from changing symbols 1 Giving and , where and m ol

These conditions can rearrange term from q(x, y) to as follows. g g g g

Its graphs have characters are to be extent that see from its domain.

A graph of A graph of A graph of A graph of

is all extent lying below a graph of is all extent lying below a graph of is all extent lying above a graph of is all extent lying above a graph of and combine too and combine too

Example 10 Draw gross graphs of the follow relations. 1 3 Solution 1 a graph of 4 is all extent lying above a graph of 2

and combine it too. 2 a graph of is all extent lying below a graph of

and combine it too.


y y

3 a graph of

is all extent lying above a graph of

4 a graph of

is all extent lying below a graph of

2 Giving

and

, where

These conditions can rearrange term from q(x, y) to as follows. g g g g

Its graphs have characters are to be extent that see from its domain. A graph of A graph of is all extent lying to be the left of a graph of is all extent lying to be the left of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of A graph of A graph of

is all extent lying to be the right of a graph of is all extent lying to be the right of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of

Example 11 Draw gross graphs of the following. 1 3 Solution 1 a graph of 2 4 is all extent lying to be the left of a graph of

2 a graph of

is all extent lying to be the left of a graph of and combine it too.

3 a graph of

is all extent lying to be the right of a graph of

4 a graph of

is all extent lying to be the right of a graph of and combine it too.

3 Giving

and

, where

These conditions can rearrange term from q(x, y) to as follows.

g g

g g

Its graphs have characters are to be extent that see from its domain. 1) If its graph is interrupted to be branches implies as follows. A graph of A graph of is all extent lying outside of a graph of is all extent lying outside of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of A graph of A graph of

is all extent lying inside of a graph of is all extent lying inside of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of

Example 12 Sketch gross graphs of the following.

Solution 1 a graph of

is all extent lying outside of a graph of

2 a graph of

is all extent lying outside of a graph of and combine it too.

3 a graph of

is all extent lying inside of a graph of

4 a graph of

is all extent lying inside of a graph of

and combine it too.

and

y x

and

2) If its graph is uninterrupted and has distinct perimeter implies as follows. A graph of A graph of is all extent lying inside of a graph of is all extent lying inside of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of A graph of A graph of

is all extent lying outside of a graph of is all extent lying outside of a graph of too. and

Combine a graph of

Example 13 Write gross graphs of the following.

Solution 1 a graph of

is all extent lying inside of a graph of

2 a graph of

is all extent lying inside of a graph of and combine it too.

3 a graph of

is all extent lying outside of a graph of

4 a graph of

is all extent lying outside of a graph of and combine it too.

4 Giving are relations of miscellaneous symbols

, where

A graph of is all extent being intersection of graphs of Notice: 1 domain of 1- 4 are sets of projection of its graphs lying on the x-axis 2 range of 1- 4 are sets of projection of its graphs lying on the y-axis Example 14 Describe gross graphs of the following and state its domain and range.

Solution 1 a graph of

get by intersection of a graph of a graph of (See the figure)

2 a graph of

get by intersection of a graph of and a graph of (See the figure)

3 a graph of

get by intersection of a graph of and a graph of (See the figure)

4 a graph of

get by intersection of a graph of , a graph of and a graph of

(See the figure)

y (

) x

( x

(-1, -1)

From upper figures, we have 1 3 =[


,

and

= ]

2 4

=(

and

=( =(-1, 2]

=[-2, 2] and

=[-1,

=( 1, 1] and

Notice: 1Those domain and range can discover by solving its dual equations. 2 From 1 and 3 although the some pattern seem each other but its G , t l but and since and

2.6 The inverse of relation

Each relation has to possess one distinct relation being to be dual it. Those are made by alternating position of elements in all ordered pairs in relation that are called the inverse relation.
Definition 9 let is relation in The inverse of is denoted by which be defined by

For instance the inverse of

is

From upper definition, we find that (x, y) Mean whenever (x, y) is a solution point on the graph of , (y, x) is also a solution point on the graph of , so we can say that graphs of and .

possess symmetry property with respect to an Notice: 1 2

3 if is relation from A into B implies And 4 a graph of

is relation from B into A

arise from reflecting a graph of along the x-axis,

After, rotate to anti-clockwise In the case, relation is designated in a set pattern by describing or defining in term of the general property of all its elements, we can discover its inverse two methods as follows. Given that variables x and y, will get that , p(x, y) is an expression involving

Or Example 15 given that

1 find inverse of

and its domain and range. on single plane.

2 sketch graphs grossly of all and

Solution we will be showing by upper definition as follows. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ,

7 , 8 , 9 , 10 As Hence, 11 As Hence, , -2] ,

The following are its gross graph from 1 to 11

For graphs of remaining points are left the sketch as exercises. 3 Functions

A function is relation that is supplemented a special condition is that t el m t t two t o to l tt t t o t to l m t lw t to t f l. t

Definition 10 Relation If

is a function if and only if and then

For example

and

are functions but

t f

to .

1 Test for functions

For relations that write in the set be described or defined in term of the general properties of all its elements have how to test whether those are functions or not as follows.

1)If is relation that consist of (x, y) and there is a condition be rewrite from

then

to y in form of x afterwards try and substitute x by

elements in its domain if each of those obtain only one value (y) can conclude that is a function, and if obtain more than one value can conclude that t f to .

Example 16 test whether the following relations are functions or, not 1 2 3 Solution 1as if We find that each of a Hence is a function. 2 as if Considering a Since, Hence t f 3 as if Considering a Since, Hence is a function. and to . implies are to be true. implies and are to be true. m l possess only one , (a, )

2) When have to test whether some relation

that is

a function or, not be capable to do by assuming that Mean and are to be true, and letting implies is a function and if =

If be able to show that Implies t f to

Example 17 test whether the following relations are functions or, not 1 2 3 4 Solution1assume that

, we have

: Thence is a function. 2 assume that

, we have

Hence will get That is, Therefore and t f

or

to .

4 assume that

, we have

Hence will get That is, Therefore and t f

or

to .

A point 3 is left to show as an exercise. 3) By means of testing from its graph

To begin at drawing straight line to parallel the y-axis, if intersect with its graph be one point implies it is a function, and if be two points implies t t a function.

Example 18 test by graphing whether to be functions or, not 1 2 3 4 Solution from in the past, we can say that Notice: t and are functions but t

to

m lt

o l o

2 Agreement about its several symbols

If relation is to be a function and 1 rewrite instead of

then and called that is value of

a function at x or 2 y is called that image of x under a function and 3 x is called that pre-image of y under a function

The progression of functions


Upper agreement has been the modern notation of functions have been derived from the efforts of many seventeenth-and eighteenth-century mathematicians. Of particular note was Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), to whom we are indebted for the function notation he was the father of Graphs theory yet. For example , and will obtain that , and furthermore

In the case, relation is a function will get that domain and range of relation is domain and range of a function.
3 The pattern of functions 1) A function from A into B Given that and Will get that , ,

We find that and

are functions and subset of A

that can write

definition of a function from A into B as follows.


Definition 10 let A and B are sets, if and only if and , is a function from A into B then

is a function is that if and written by

Example 19 given that

and

Which function is a function from A into B 1 3 2 4

Solution we merely show that its domain are equal to A and its range are subset of B since restricted that 1as Thence That is, 2 as Thence That is, 3 as Thence That is, 4 as Thence A A is a function from A into B. , , , and A, t f , t o f om , to . , and , t f , t o f om , to . , and , , and are functions. and

That is, is a function from A into B. 2) The function from A onto B Given that Will get that If A and B then , are functions from A into B

But

extra possess a condition is that

Definition 11 let A and B are sets, If and only if such that and

is a function from A onto B ( , there exists


onto

) and denoted by

Example 20 test whether the following relations are function from onto or, not 1 2 3 4 Solution 1 as And since 1) And then So, 2) is a function from , we choose into such that if is linear relation so then implies 3 and , will obtain

Hence for all elements in its range are used Therefore, from 1) and 2) conclude that
onto

This knowledge along point 1, I am educated by Professor Narong Phannim Since 1978 at Srinakarinvirot Mahasarakham University.
2 as its condition is

= So, And And then From all can conclude that


onto

and if implies

is a function from

into

and

3 from this condition is And And if

, we used to know that

then we have :( , ) and ( , )

: take to the power of 2 both sides

or Hence ( , That is, Therefore t f t f or ( , t o f om t o f om into

: take a square root both sides

. .

onto

4 from its condition y Hence And Thence And if then

will get that

That is, is a function from is a function from

into onto

and

3) The one-to-one function from A into B Let A ,B and given that

We obviously see that each of elements in range of

paired off one of

element in its domain but for , it is not. This is its extra condition.
Definition 12 let is a function from A into B, A and B are sets.

is an one-to-one function from A into B if and only if if And denoted by And t o


1-1

then

-to-one function from A into B if and only if and

such that

Example 21 test whether the following functions are one-to-one functions From 1 2 3 4 Solution1 regrouping of its condition to 1) to see obviously into or, not

2) 3)

is a function along defined and if will get that implies


1-1

Therefore from 1)

2 as its condition

1) To see that its graph intersect t x-axis be 3 points (odd) Hence 2) is a function along defined and implies and -to-one function. is to be true.

3) To see that if extra choose such that Therefore t o

3 as its condition

1) To see that its graph intersect t x-axis be 1 points (odd) Hence 2) 3) is a function along defined and if , it follows that

( But Thence (

That is, Therefore from 1) will get that


1-1

4 as its condition

1) To see that its graph intersect t x-axis be 1 points (odd) Hence 2) is a function along defined and 3) To see that if extra choose such that Therefore t o and -to-one function. implies is to be true.

4) The one-to-one function from A onto B

To see obviously that a one-to-one function from A onto B has to possess extra conditions according to points 2 and 3 sure.
Definition 13 let is a function from A into B, A and B are sets.

is an one-to-one function from A onto B if and only if 1 2 and if


1-1 onto

then

And denoted by

From upper example, we see the following are that 1 all functions are functions from onto and into onto

2 functions f and are one-to-one functions from Therefore f and are one-to-one functions from

Remark: 1 when A and B are finite sets will obtain 1) if there is 2) f 3) if there is
1-1 onto

then n(A)=n(B) t t
1-1

t
1-1

then n(A)<n(B)

2 Functions whose domains and ranges are sets of real numbers are called real valued functions of real variable. 3 The most common type of algebraic function is a polynomial-

function
positive integer

, where the

is the degree of the polynomial function. The numbers the leading coefficient and the const-

are called coefficients, with

ant term of the polynomial function. It is common practice to use subscript notation for coefficients of general polynomial function, but for polynomial functions of low degree we often use the following simpler forms. : zeroth degree (constant function) : first degree (linear function) : second degree (quadratic function) : third degree (cubic function)

Although the graph of a polynomial function can have several turns, eventually the graph will rise or fall without bound as x moves to the right or left. Whether the graph of v t ll o f ll t m t are that f to g o o-

r even) and by the leading coefficient

1 If its degree is even and p to left and up to right 2 If its degree is even and own to left and down to right 3 If its degree is odd and wn to left and up to right 4 If its degree is odd and to left and down to right

implies its graph has characteristic be u-

implies its graph has characteristic be d-

implies its graph has characteristic be do-

implies its graph has characteristic be up

Upper testing is called the leading coefficient test and note that the dashed portions of the graphs indicate that the leading coefficient test determines only the left and right behavior of the graph.
4 Increasing functions and Decreasing functions

Which functions will be called increasing function or decreasing functions can see at its graphs are that if its graph dash continuously upward on subinterval of its domain then it is increasing function and if it is opposite then it is decreasing function.
Definition 14 let 1 is a function from A into B and k

is increasing function on k if and only if if then and

is decreasing function on k if and only if if then

Example 22 find subinterval that make to be increasing function or decre-

asing function. 1 2 3 4 Solution 1 as , , where 1) if then : theorem 3 in appenand , we have

dix A of supplement mathematics 30201 That is 2) That is Therefore is decreasing on , if And then That is Therefore is decreasing on its entre domain. and , by lemma 2 in appeimplies and increasing on and and . , we have and , if then : same above

2 as

: same above

3 as

ndix A of supplement mathematics 30201, we have 1) Hence , if then > , <-

2) Hence Therefore 4 as 1) Hence 2) Hence 3) Hence 4) Hence , if

, if

then

>

<-

is increasing on its entre domain. and , if then by same above, we have > >0

then

>

, if

then

>

>

, if

then

>

From 1)-4) can conclude that is decreasing on its entre domain. (Please extra educate by oneself.)

Caution: please remember if 0lie inward all intervals concerning real numt v to t t two t v l t t v t or

zero lie inside such as [a, b]=[a, 0) [0, b], (a, b)=(a, 0)
(a, 5 Operation of functions ,

The operations t t m o t

are only defined for using to operate of two to o t w t two f to functio-

ns have elements be order g (x, y) and (x, y)

t o

t m

t o

, y can operate as be nu-

mbers but have to define extra condition is that x have to be same.


Definition 15 let of 1 2 3 4 Example 23 given that , , and are functions with domain and range are subsets

will get that , ,

Work out

, , , ,

, , , , , , it follows that , and

Solution from defined, we have And , , 1

and

3 4 ,

, and

5 0 6 7 8 , 9 x , , , ,

,x

and

, ,

,x

Remark: note that ranges of functions arising from operation of functions can be funded but there are any functions have to use several knowledge and excellent experience such as may utilize

from increasing function is that let


1 and 2 ,

, and

2 similar,

will get 1

From 1 and 2 mean to be increasing function on its domain and Its graph dash unbound upward
Therefore its range is [0, 6 Composite Functions

We can combine two functions in yet another way to from what is called a composite function. Please educate from the following instance.
Given that and

We see that

, , and

And as So,

and will obtain that is subset of And is subset of , so And similar, , hence with domain be

which each of its element pair off an element lying in

and will obtain that is subset of range be subset of But then We have , . , , , Called a new function By read g o f a composite function of and , writtenand , by substitutionwith domain be and-

Defined Since, If implies And since,

and so

, where mean that ,

so can find

Therefore can say if That is each of element in By means of and


f

then can pair off an element are the connectives (see a figure) in

A X.

f (x) . g

g(f(x))

Definition 16 let

and

are functions, where and , is written by , where

The composite function of Defined by

Remark: from definition above can write the following definitions 1 if then , where

2 if

then

, where

Example 24 given that 1 2 3 Work out , , , , , , and ,

Solution from defined, we have

, 1

and

= 3

Now it is important to realize that the composite functions of and not be equal to the composite functions of the example above.
7 Even functions and Odd functions

may

and . This is illustrated in-

Som f

to

o to f

to

t o

-to-one function and there issuch function

extra property is that is called the even function.

Some function is one-to-one function and onto which has extra property is that such function is called the odd-

function.
Definition 17 let f is a function with domain and range are subsets of 1 the function 2 the function Hence, we can say that respect to the y-axis and respect to the origin. That is a function is even if replacing x by x yields an equivalent equation and a function is odd if replacing x by x and y by y yields equivalent equation. Remark: Except for such trivial cases as the constant function is even if is odd if is even function if its graph is symmetric withis odd function if its graph is symmetric with

, x-axis-

The g

of f

to

mm t

wt

t to t

because it then would fail the vertical line test for the graph of a function.
Example 25 determine whether the following functions are even or oddor neither. 1 3 2 4

Solution 1 this function is even since.

2 this function is odd since. =

3 this function is neither since.

4 this function is odd since.

8 The inverse functions

When is a function that is defined by or By proceeding according to the inverse of relations, we have or That is [(x, y) Or That is, [(x, y) Therefore Similar if ] [ or ] [ is called the inverse of a function is function such function is called the inverse function of ] ]

When we introduced the notation of composite function, we note that Com o t o t omm t t v . T t and We have So, That is, Therefore and and , , , t t necessarily true that are equal, but from above , ,

Definition 18 A function

is the inverse of the function and ,

if

From definition if no defined

is a function has to show for testing

According to definition of a function from A into B For instance From definition will get that And And , )=

Example 26 Find the inverses of the following functions and test whether to be functions 1 2 3 Solution 1 from defined, we have range of , where and be domain and

So

is the inverse of

By testing from definition of a function from A into B

Therefore

is inverse function from

into

of

2 From defined, we have

Hence

is a function from

into [

and

We see that Therefore,

t f

to

is merely the inverse of a function are and

3 From defined, we have domain and range of

And

Therefore,

is an inverse function from

into

of

In the past the testing that a defined function

possessed whether an-

Inverse function, it was so complicated was that had to find its inversein pattern fo om f to o l t o, afterwards

had to show it was a function but the following theorem merely test it is to be only a function or, not.
Theorem 1 let is a function will get that

possess the inverse function if and only Proof give ( Assume that and

is to be one-to-one

possess the inverse function, we have : from defined : : from defined is a function.

Therefore,

is one-to-one function. is one-to-one function, we have : from defined : is one-to-one : from defined

Assume that

Therefore, From ( and

is a function. conclude that is to be one-to-one

possess the inverse function if and only

Example 27 Determine whether the following functions possess the inverse functions. 1 3 2 4 , ,

Solution From defined, we have And 1 Consider

And then , Hence, Therefore, 2 Consider t o

or and -to-one function. t v f to .

such that

So,

: , if

such that

And then Therefore,

is one-to-one function. has inverse function.

For remaining points are left the solutions as exercises. 9 Techniques of graphing

to

w t

l t g

ow t o g

by means of geometric transformation which consist of translation and reflection


1) Translation consist of vertical shift upward, downward, horizontal-

shift to the right and horizontal shift to the left.


1.1) Vertical shift k units upward Let (x, y) So, if implies and and , it mean that a graph of will get that

arise from vertical shift k units upward.

1.2) Vertical shift k units downward Let (x, y) So, if implies and and , it mean that a graph of will get that

arise from vertical shift k units downward. 1.3) Horizontal shift k units to the right Let (x, y) So, : Substituting by We can explain that a graph of k units of a graph of . 1.4) Horizontal shift k units to the left Let (x, y) So, : Substituting by We can explain that a graph of units of a graph of . 2) Reflection about lines arise from horizontal shift to the left kand and will get that arise from horizontal shift to the right and and will get that

Reflection consists of reflection line and pre-image which will merely say to the reflection with respectively to the x-axis and the y-axis.

2.1) Reflection about the x-axis Assume that can sketch a graph of original function a graph of a function , where then can sketch and

As We see that the x-axis. 2.2) Reflection about the y-axis Assume that can sketch a graph of original function a graph of a function , where then can sketch and possess symmetry property with respectively to

As We see that the y-axis. Example 28 Sketch grossly of each of the following. 1 3 5 2 4 6 and by , we have and possess symmetry property with respectively to

Solution 1from defined, if substitute by will get that a graph of A graph of 2 As

arise from shift

, 2 units downward and 3 units to the right. , if substitute by , we have

will get that a graph of , 1 unit to the right.

arise from shift a graph of

Figure 2 Figure 1

(0, 0) (3,-2)

(0, 0)

(1, 0)

3 As

, if substitute by will get that a graph of

and

y by

, we have

arise from

shift a graph of 4 As graph of the right.

, 3 units to the right and 2 units downward. , similar point 2 will get that a arise from shift a graph of
Figure 3

, 2 units to
Figure 4

(0, 0)

(0, 0) (2, 0) (3, -2)

5 As

, if substitute by

We have

, will get that a graph of arise from shift a graph of , 2 units to the , 2 units to the left

left, 5 units downward and shift a graph of 5 units upward. 6 As And by , we have

, if substitute , will get that a graph of

by arise

from shift a graph of


Figure 5

, 1 unit to the left and 1 unit downward.

(0, 0) Figure 6 (-1, -1)

Comprehensive Exercise 1 Let A and B are finite sets, show that . 2 Prove the remaining properties of Cartesian product. 3 Given that A, B, C and D are all sets, show that

1 If 2 If 3 If 4 If 5 If 6 7 If 8 If

, then , then , then and and , then , then and

, then , then can find set and set such that

5 Let A and B are sets, show that a number of relation from A into B is Equal to 6 Show that , where m and n are a number of elements of A and B is a relation

7 Find domain and range of the following relation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 8 Sketch grossly graph and state domain, range of the following relations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 Find the inverse and sketch grossly of the following relations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 Test whether the following relation are functions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 Show that the following functions are one-to-one function 1 2 3 , , ,

12 Find sets A and B that make the following functions are function from A onto B 1 2 3 4 13 Find subsets of its domain that make the following function are increasing function or decreasing 1

2 3 4 14 Find ions 1 2 15 Given that , , , , , and , , and its domain and range, when define funct-

as follows , and , and , find , and ,

and its domain and range

16 Find the inverse of the following functions and show whether to be function 1

2
3 4 17 Given that 1 2 18 Define 1 2 , , , , , , , and , find and its domain and range and its domain and range , find f(A) when

3 19 Define 1 2 3 20 Define

, A=[0, 2) , find , when

and

are one-to-one function from is one-to-one function

into

Show that

21 Show that the following function is odd

22 Show that the following function is even

23 Show that the product of two even ( or two odd) is even 24 Show that the product of an odd and an even is odd 25 Define 1 2 and and is even and are even are even and odd respectively has an inverse, then is odd, show that

26 Prove that if

27 Prove that if a function has an inverse, then the inverse is unique 28 Prove that if and are one-to-one functions, then

The learner know, the teacher understand, the writing comprehend M t m t t of S